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Table of Contents

1. Getting Started with RMxprt


Creating a Project and Inserting a New RMxprt Design . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening Existing RMxprt Projects and Saving as New . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening RMxprt Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening Recent RMxprt Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saving RMxprt Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saving a New RMxprt Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saving the Active RMxprt Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saving a Copy of an RMxprt Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saving RMxprt Project Data Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recovering RMxprt Project Data in an Auto-Save File . . RMxprt Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saving Project Notes in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The RMxprt Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RMxprt Title Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working with the RMxprt Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working with the RMxprt Shortcut Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shortcut Menu in the Toolbars Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-11 1-11

Shortcut Menus in the Project Manager Window . . . . . . 1-11 Working with the RMxprt Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 Undoing RMxprt Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 Redoing RMxprt Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 Working with the RMxprt Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 Working with the RMxprt Machine Editor Windows . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
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Setting the Window View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14 Printing in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14 Working with the RMxprt Project Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15 Working with the RMxprt Project Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15 Viewing RMxprt Design Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15 Working with the RMxprt Properties Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16 Showing and Hiding the RMxprt Properties Window . . . . 1-16 Working with the RMxprt Progress Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17 Working with the RMxprt Message Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17 Clearing Messages for the RMxprt Project . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17 Clearing Messages for the RMxprt Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17 Copying Messages in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17 Quick Start for RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RMxprt Example Part 1: Create a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . RMxprt Example Part 2: Select a Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RMxprt Example Part 3: Input Design Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RMxprt Example Part 4: Analyze the Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RMxprt Example Part 5: Create Reports and View Output . . . . RMxprt Example Part 6: Output Design Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19 1-19 1-19 1-20 1-28 1-29 1-34

2. Setting Up RMxprt Projects


Setting Up A Machine Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Settings in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting the Material Threshold in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RMxprt Export Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting User Defined Data File for a Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Validating RMxprt Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting General Options in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting RMxprt Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RMxprt Options: General Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 2-3 2-3 2-4 2-4 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-8

RMxprt Options: Solver Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 RMxprt Options: Export Options Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 Setting Machine Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifying the Material Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Model Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifying the Machine Option for Wire Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing Wire Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Export Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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2-10 2-10 2-10 2-10 2-11 2-12

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Edit AC Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enable Winding Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edit Winding Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View Winding Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working with Variables in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding a Project Variable in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding a Design Variable in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Datasets in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modifying Datasets in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining Mathematical Functions in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining an Expression in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Valid Operators for Expressions in RMxprt . . . . . . Using Piecewise Linear Functions in Expressions in

2-14 2-14 2-17 2-19 2-21 2-21 2-22 2-23 2-23 2-23 2-24 2-24

Using Intrinsic Functions in Expressions in RMxprt . . . . 2-25 RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27 Using Dataset Expressions in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27 Assigning Variables in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing a Variable to Optimize in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Including a Variable in a Sensitivity Analysis in RMxprt . . . . . . . Choosing a Variable to Tune in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Including a Variable in a Statistical Analysis in RMxprt . . . . . . . 2-27 2-28 2-28 2-29 2-29

3. Wire Specification Libraries


Configure Wire Specification Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specify the Wire Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edit Wire Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edit Round Wire Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edit Rectangular Wire Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wire Shape Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 3-3 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-7

Recommended Wire Sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7 Wire Sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 Export/Import Wire Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 Save Wire Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8

4. Working with Materials in RMxprt


Material Library Management for RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 Soft-Magnetic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 Adding New Materials to an RMxprt Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
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Relative Permittivity for RMxprt Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 Relative Permeability for an RMxprt Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 Specifying a BH Curve for Nonlinear Relative Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 Bulk Conductivity for an RMxprt Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dielectric Loss Tangent for RMxprt Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Loss Tangent for RMxprt Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Coercivity for an RMxprt Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Core Loss Type for an RMxprt Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculating Properties for Core Loss in RMxprt (BP Curve) . . . Electrical Steel Core Loss from a Single-Frequency Electrical Steel Core Loss from Multi-Frequency Loss Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 Power Ferrite Core Loss from Multi-Frequency Loss Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 Mass Density for RMxprt Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Composition for RMxprt Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permanent Magnet Materials in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonlinear vs. Linear Permanent Magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculating the Properties for a Non-Linear Permanent Magnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculating the Properties for a Linear Permanent Magnet . . . . Using Demagnetization Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hysteresis Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14 4-14 4-15 4-15 4-15 4-16 4-17 4-17 4-6 4-6 4-7 4-7 4-7 4-8

Loss Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9

Demagnetization Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18 Recoil Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19 Recoil Magnetic Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20 Inflection Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21 Curve Fitting of Demagnetization Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21 Three Parameter Curve Fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22 Four Parameter Curve Fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 Conductor Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27 Setting the Material Threshold for RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27 Editing Conductivity Properties in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27

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5. Specifying RMxprt Solution Settings


Generating a Custom Design Sheet for RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Key Words in Output Data for RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating RMxprt Customized Design Sheet Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Template of Microsoft Excel Worksheet in Preferred Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resort to Key Words in Design Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set Boundary for Data Imported into Worksheet for RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 Insert Figures into Template for RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 Use Different Languages for RMxprt Design Sheets . . . . 5-9 Post-process Data for RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10 5-3 5-3 5-5 5-5 5-6

6. Running an RMxprt Simulation


Aborting RMxprt Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 Re-solving an RMxprt Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3

7. Post Processing and Generating Reports in RMxprt


Viewing RMxprt Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Browse Solutions in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifying Output Variables in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding a New Output Variable in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building an Expression Using Existing Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . Deleting Output Variables in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exporting a Maxwell or SIMPLORER Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Create a Maxwell Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Reports in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modifying Reports in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening All Reports in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deleting All Reports in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Display Type in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating 2D Rectangular Plots in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-5 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-9 7-10 7-10 7-10 7-10

Creating 3D Rectangular Plots in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11 Creating Data Tables in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12 Working with Traces in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13 Removing Traces in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
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Replacing Traces in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14 Adding Blank Traces in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14 Sweeping a Variable in a Report in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a Function in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a Parameter, Variable, or Quantity to Plot in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Quick Reports in RMxprt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RMxprt Quick Report Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14 7-15 7-19 7-21 7-21

8. Specifying RMxprt Winding Data


Setting the Winding Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 Winding Types Available for Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 Enable the Winding Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3 Edit Winding Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 Setting the Number of Winding Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 Connecting and Disconnecting Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 Poly-phase Winding Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 Windings Basic Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8 Poly Phase AC Winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9 Whole-coiled Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10 Half-coiled Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10 Single-Layer Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10 Lap-type Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 Concentric-type Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14 Double-Layer Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15 Fractional-Pitch Winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17 Auto-arrangement of AC Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18 Phase Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20 Coil Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20 Coil Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-25 Connection of Double-pole Dual-speed Windings . . . . . . 8-29 DC Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wave Winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frog-leg Winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virtual Slots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipotential Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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8-31 8-32 8-32 8-34 8-34

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Pole Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-35 Limited Space for Wire Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-37 Round Wire Winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-38 Cylinder Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-39 Edgewise Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-40 Pole Winding with Half Turns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-40 Exporting Winding Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-42

9. RMxprt Machine Types


Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 Analysis Approach for Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . 9-2 Defining a Three-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 Defining the General Data for a Three Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 General Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . 9-5 Defining the Stator Data for a Three-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 Stator Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . 9-6 Defining the Stator Slots for a Three-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7 Stator Slot Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . 9-7 Defining the Stator Windings for a Three-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8 Stator Winding Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13 Stator Vent Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16 Defining the Rotor Data for a Three-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16 Rotor Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . 9-17 Defining the Rotor Slots for a Three-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18 Rotor Slot Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18 Defining the Rotor Winding for a Three-Phase
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Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19 Rotor Winding for Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . 9-19 Rotor Vent Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . 9-20 Defining the Shaft Data for a Three-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-21 Shaft Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . 9-21 Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Three-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-21 Solution Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . 9-22 Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-23 Analysis Approach for Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . 9-23 Defining a Single-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-25 Defining the General Data for a Single-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-26 General Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . 9-27 Defining the Stator Data for a Single-Phase Induction Motor . . 9-28 Stator Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . 9-29 Defining the Stator Slots for a Single-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-29 Stator Slot Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . . 9-30 Defining the Stator Windings for a Single-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-31 Stator Winding Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-38 Defining the Rotor Data for a Single-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-41 Rotor Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . 9-42 Defining the Rotor Slots for Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-42 Rotor Slot Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . 9-42 Defining the Rotor Windings for Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-43 Rotor Winding Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-43
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Adding or Removing a Vent from a Single-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-44 Defining the Shaft Data for a Single-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-44 Shaft Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . . . 9-44 Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Single-Phase Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-45 Solution Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors . . . . . . 9-45 Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-47 Analysis Approach Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-47 Stator Winding Connected to a Sinusoidal AC Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-48 Stator Winding Fed by a DC to AC Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . 9-51 Defining an Adjustable-Speed Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . 9-53 Defining the General Data for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-54 General Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-54 Circuit Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-57 Defining the Stator Data for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-57 Defining the Stator Dimensions and Slots . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-58 Stator Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-58 Stator Slot Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-59 Defining the Stator Windings and Conductors for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-59 Stator Winding Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-69 Defining the Rotor Data for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-70 Rotor Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines . . . 9-71
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Defining the Rotor Pole for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-71 Rotor Pole Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-73 Defining the Shaft Data for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-73 Shaft Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines . . . 9-73 Setting Up Analysis Parameters for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-73 Solution Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-74 Permanent-Magnet DC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis Approach for PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining a Permanent-Magnet DC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining the General Data for PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . 9-76 9-76 9-77 9-77

General Data for PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-78 Defining the Stator Data for a PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . 9-78 Stator Data for PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-79 Defining the Stator Pole for a PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . 9-79 Stator Pole Data for PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-80 Defining the Rotor Data for a PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . 9-81 Rotor Data for PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-81 Defining the Rotor Slots for a PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . 9-82 Rotor Slot Data for PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-82 Defining the Rotor Windings and Conductors for a PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-83 Defining Different Size Wires for a PMDC Motor . . . . . . . 9-87 Rotor Winding Data for PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-87 Defining the Commutator and Brush for a PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-89 Commutator and Brush Data for PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-90 Defining the Shaft Data for a PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . 9-91 Shaft Data for PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-91 Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . 9-91 Solution Data for PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-92
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Three-Phase Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-93 Analysis Approach for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-93 Defining a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-96 Defining the General Data for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-97 General Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-97 Defining the Stator for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-97 Stator Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . 9-98 Defining Stator Slots for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-99 Stator Slot Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines . . . . 9-99 Defining Stator Windings and Insulation for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-100 Stator Winding and Insulation for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-108 Stator Vent Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-111 Defining the Rotor for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-112 Rotor, Rotor Pole, and Insulation for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-113 Defining the Rotor Pole for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-114 Defining the Rotor Winding Data for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-115 Rotor Winding Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-117 Defining the Rotor Damper Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-117 Damper Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-117 Defining the Shaft Data for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-118
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Shaft Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-119 Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-119 Solution Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-120 Brushless Permanent-Magnet DC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-121 Analysis Approach for Brushless PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-121 Defining a Brushless Permanent-Magnet DC Motor . . . . . . . . . 9-123 Defining the General Data for a Brushless PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-123 General Data for Brushless PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-124 Defining the Circuit Data for a Brushless PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-125 Circuit Data for Brushless PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-126 Defining the Stator Data for a Brushless PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-127 Stator Data for Brushless PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-127 Defining the Stator Slots for a Brushless PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-128 Stator Slot Data for Brushless PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-128 Defining the Stator Windings and Conductors for a Brushless PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-129 Defining Different Size Wires for a Brushless DC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-138 Stator Winding Data for Brushless PMDC Motors . . . . . . 9-139 Defining the Rotor Data for a Brushless PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-140 Rotor Data for Brushless PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-141 Defining the Rotor Pole for a Brushless PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-141 Rotor Pole Data for Brushless PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . 9-143 Defining the Shaft Data for a Brushless PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-143
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Shaft Data for Brushless PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-143 Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Brushless PMDC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-143 Analysis Offered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-144 Solution Data for Brushless PMDC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . 9-145 Switched Reluctance Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-147 Analysis Approach for Switched Reluctance Motors . . . . . . . . . 9-147 Defining a Switched Reluctance Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-149 Defining the General Data for a Switched Reluctance Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-150 General Data for Switched Reluctance Motors . . . . . . . . 9-151 Defining the Circuit Data for a Switched Reluctance Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-151 Circuit Data for Switched Reluctance Motors . . . . . . . . . 9-153 Defining the Stator Data for a Switched Reluctance Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-153 Stator Data for Switched Reluctance Motors . . . . . . . . . . 9-154 Defining the Stator Winding Data for a Switched Reluctance Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-154 Defining Different Size Wires for a Switched Reluctance Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-156 Stator Winding Data for Switched Reluctance Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-157 Defining the Rotor Data for a Switched Reluctance Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-157 Rotor Data for Switched Reluctance Motors . . . . . . . . . . 9-158 Defining the Shaft Data for a Switched Reluctance Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-158 Shaft Data for Switched Reluctance Motors . . . . . . . . . . 9-159 Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Switched Reluctance Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-159 Solution Data for Switched Reluctance Motors . . . . . . . . 9-159 Line-Start Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-161 Analysis Approach for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-161
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Defining a Line-Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-163 Defining the General Data for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-164 General Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-164 Defining the Stator Data for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-164 Stator Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors . . . . 9-165 Defining the Stator Slots for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-166 Stator Slot Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-166 Defining the Stator Windings and Conductors for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-167 Defining Different Size Wires for a Line-Start Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-170 Stator Winding Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-171 Optional Vent for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor Stator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-173 Defining the Rotor Data for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-173 Rotor Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors . . . . . 9-174 Defining the Rotor Pole for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-174 Rotor Pole Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-175 Optional Rotor Damper for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-175 Defining the Shaft Data for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-176 Shaft Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors . . . . . 9-176
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Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-176 Solution Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-177 Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis Approach for Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining a Universal Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining the General Data for a Universal Motor . . . . . . . 9-179 9-179 9-180 9-181

General Data for Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-181 Defining the Stator Data for a Universal Motor . . . . . . . . 9-182 Stator Data for Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-182 Defining the Stator Pole for a Universal Motor . . . . . . . . 9-183 Stator Pole Data for Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-185 Defining the Stator Windings and Conductors for a Universal Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-185 Defining Different Size Wires for a Universal Motor Stator Winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-187 Stator Winding Data for Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-188 Defining the Rotor Data for a Universal Motor . . . . . . . . . 9-188 Rotor Data for Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-189 Defining the Rotor Slots for Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . 9-190 Rotor Slot Data for Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-190 Defining the Rotor Windings and Conductors for a Universal Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-191 Defining Different Size Wires for a Universal Motor Rotor Winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-195 Rotor Winding Data for Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-195 Defining the Commutator and Brush for a Universal Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-197 Commutator and Brush Data for Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . . 9-198 Defining the Shaft Data for a Universal Motor . . . . . . . . . 9-199 Shaft Data for Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-199 Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Universal Motor . . . . . . . 9-199 Solution Data for Universal Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-200 General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-201
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Analysis Approach for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-201 DC Machine Operating as a Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-202 DC Machine Operating as a Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-203 Defining a General DC Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-204 Defining the General Data for a General DC Machine . . 9-204 General Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-205 Defining the Stator Data for a General DC Machine . . . . 9-205 Stator Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-206 Defining the Stator Pole for a General DC Machine . . . . 9-207 Stator Pole Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . 9-207 Defining the Stator Field Data for a General DC Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-208 Stator Field Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . 9-208 Shunt Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-208 Series Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-209 Compensating Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . 9-210 Commutating Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . 9-211 Winding Data for Commutating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-212 Defining the Rotor Data for a General DC Machine . . . . 9-212 Rotor Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-213 Defining the Rotor Slots for a General DC Machine . . . . 9-214 Rotor Slot Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-214 Defining the Rotor Windings and Conductors for a General DC Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-215 Defining Different Size Wires for a General DC Machine Rotor Winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-219 Rotor Winding Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . 9-219 Vent Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-221 Defining the Commutator and Brush for a General DC Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-222 Commutator and Brush Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-223 Defining the Shaft Data for a General DC Machine . . . . . 9-224
Contents-16

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Shaft Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-224 Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a General DC Machine . . . 9-224 Solution Data for General DC Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-225 Claw-Pole Alternators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-227 Analysis Approach for Claw-Pole Alternators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-227 Rotor Equipped with an Excitation Winding . . . . . . . . . . . 9-228 Rotor Equipped with a Permanent Magnet Only . . . . . . . 9-228 Power and Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-229 Defining a Claw-Pole Alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-230 Defining the General Data for a Claw-Pole Alternator . . . 9-231 General Data for Claw-Pole Alternators . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-231 Defining the Stator Data for a Claw-Pole Alternator . . . . 9-231 Stator Data for Claw-Pole Alternators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-232 Defining the Stator Slot Data for a Claw-Pole Alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-233 Stator Slot Data for Claw-Pole Alternators . . . . . . . . . . . 9-233 Defining the Stator Winding Data for a Claw-Pole Alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-234 Stator Winding Data for Claw-Pole Alternators . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-238 Defining the Rotor Data for a Claw-Pole Alternator . . . . . 9-240 Rotor Data for Claw-Pole Alternators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-241 Defining the Rotor Pole for a Claw-Pole Alternator . . . . . 9-241 Rotor Pole Data for Claw-Pole Alternators . . . . . . . . . . . 9-241 Defining the Shaft Data for a Claw-Pole Alternator . . . . . 9-242 Shaft Data for Claw-Pole Alternators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-242 Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Claw-Pole Alternator . . . 9-242 Solution Data for Claw-Pole Alternators . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-243 Three-Phase Non-Salient Synchronous Machines (NSSM) . . . . . . . . . Analysis Approach for Three-Phase Non-Salient Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining Three-Phase Non-Salient Synchronous Machines . . . Defining the General Data for a Three-Phase NSSM . . . 9-244 9-244 9-248 9-248

Defining the Stator for Three-Phase NSSM . . . . . . . . . . . 9-249 Define NSSM Rotor Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-253 Define NSSM Shaft Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-256
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Analysis Setup for Three-Phase Non-Salient Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-256 Add Solution Setup for NSSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-256 Validate NSSM Solution Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-257 Design Output for Non-Salient Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . 9-257 View Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-257 View Design Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-258 View Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-259 Create Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-263 Transient FEA of the Non-Salient Synchronous Machines . . . . 9-263 Create Maxwell 2D Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-264 Review Maxwell2D Design Setups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-264 Stator Vent Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-272 Rotor Vent Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-273

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1
Getting Started with RMxprt

Rotational Machine Expert (RMxprt) is an interactive software package used for designing and analyzing electrical machines. Using RMxprt, you can simulate and analyze the following types of machines:

Three-phase and single-phase induction motors. Three-phase synchronous motors and generators. Brushless permanent-magnet DC motors. Adjust-speed synchronous motors and generators. Permanent-magnet DC motors. Switched reluctance motors. Line-start permanent-magnet synchronous motors. Universal motors. General DC motors and generators. Claw-pole alternators.

When you start a new model in RMxprt, you first select one of the above motor or generator types. You then enter the parameters associated with that machine type in each RMxprt Properties window. The properties windows are accessed by clicking each of the machine elements (for example, stator, rotor, shaft) under Machine in the project tree. General options are available directly at the Machine level of the project tree. Solution and output options (such as the rated output power) are set when you add a solution setup (by right-clicking Analysis in the project tree). Related Topics: The RMxprt Desktop RMxprt Commands Setting Up A Machine Model Creating a New RMxprt Project
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Specifying RMxprt Machine Data

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Creating a Project and Inserting a New RMxprt Design


To create a new project: 1. Click File>New. A new project is listed in the project tree. It is named Projectn by default, where n is the order in which the project was added to the current session. Project definitions, such as material assignments, are stored under the project name in the project tree. 2. Click Project>Insert RMxprt Design or click the RMxprt icon on the toolbar. The Select Machine Type window appears.

3.

Select the machine type you want, and click OK.

You specify the name of the project when you save it using the File>Save or File>Save As commands.

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Opening Existing RMxprt Projects and Saving as New


You may also create new projects from existing ones, by saving them under new file names. To create a new project from an existing one: 1. 2. If you are already in the existing project, click File>Save As. The Save As window appears. (Otherwise, open the existing project you want to copy first.) Enter a new name for the new project, and click Save.

The new project is now saved, with the same information as the existing project.

Opening RMxprt Projects


Open a previously saved project using the File>Open command. 1. 2. 3. 4. Click File>Open. The Open dialog box appears. Use the file browser to find the RMxprt version 6 project file. By default, files that can be opened or translated by RMxprt are displayed. Select the file you want to open. Click OK. The project information appears in the project tree.

Opening Recent RMxprt Projects


To open a project you recently saved:

Click the name of the project file at the bottom of the File menu.

Saving RMxprt Projects


Use the File>Save As command to do the following:

Save a new project. Save the active project with a different name or in a different location. Save the active project in another file format for use in another program.

Use the File>Save command to save the active project. Related Topics Saving a New Project Saving the Active Project Saving a Copy of a Project

Saving a New RMxprt Project


1. Click File>Save As. The Save As dialog box appears.
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2. 3. 4.

Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. Type the name of the file in the File name box. By default, all files will have the .mxwl extension. Click Save. RMxprt saves the project to the location you specified.

Related Topics Saving the Active Project Saving a Copy of a Project

Saving the Active RMxprt Project Click File>Save.


RMxprt saves the project over the existing one. Warning Be sure to save machine models periodically. Saving frequently helps prevent the loss of your work if a problem occurs. Although RMxprt has an "auto-save" feature, it may not automatically save frequently enough for your needs.

Related Topics Saving a New Project Saving a Copy of a Project

Saving a Copy of an RMxprt Project


To save an existing, active project with a new name, a different file extension, or to a new location: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click File>Save As. Use the file browser to find the directory where you want to save the file. Type the name of the file in the File name box. Click Save. RMxprt saves the project with the new name or file extension to the location you specified. Related Topics Saving a New Project Saving the Active Project

Saving RMxprt Project Data Automatically


RMxprt stores recent actions you performed on the active project in an auto-save file in case a sudden workstation crash or other unexpected problem occurs. The auto-save file is stored in the same directory as the project file and is named Projectn.rmpt.auto by default, where n is the order in which the project was added to the current session. RMxprt automatically saves all data for the project to the auto-save file, except solution data. By default, RMxprt automatically saves project data after every ten edits. An "edit" is any action you perform that changes data in the project or the
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design, including actions associated with project management, model creation, and solution analysis. With auto-save activated, after a problem occurs, you can choose to re-open the original project file (Projectn.rmpt) in an effort to recover the solution data or to open the auto-save file. To modify the auto-save settings: 1. 2. 3. Click Tools>Options>General Options. The Options dialog box appears. Under the Project Options tab, verify that Do Autosave is selected. This option is selected by default. In the Autosave interval box, enter the number of edits that you want to occur between automatic saves. By default, this option is set at 10. Auto-save always increments forward; therefore, even when you undo a command, RMxprt counts it as an edit.

Note 4.

Click OK to apply the specified auto-save settings. Once the specified number of edits is carried out, a "model-only" save occurs. This means that RMxprt does not save solutions data or clear any undo/redo history. When RMxprt auto-saves, an ".auto" extension is appended to the original project file name. For example, Project1.rmpt will automatically be saved as Projectn.rmpt.auto.

Warning

When you close or rename a project, RMxprt deletes the auto-save file. RMxprt assumes that you have saved any desired changes at this point.

Related Topics Recovering Project Data in an Auto-Save File

Recovering RMxprt Project Data in an Auto-Save File


Following a sudden workstation crash or other unexpected problem, you can recover the project data in its auto-save file. Warning When you recover a project's auto-save file you cannot recover any solutions data; recovering an auto-save file means you will lose any solutions data that existed in the original project file.

To recover project data in an auto-save file, if RMxprt has unexpectedly crashed: 1. 2. 3. Launch RMxprt from your desktop. Click File>Open,. Select the original Projectn.rmpt project file for which you want to recover its Projectn.rmpt.auto auto-save file. The Crash Recovery window appears, giving you the option to open the original project file
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or the auto-save file. 4. Select Open project using autosave file to recover project data in the auto-save file, and then click OK. RMxprt replaces the original project file with the data in the auto-save file. RMxprt immediately overwrites the original project file data with the auto-save file data, removing the results directory (solutions data) from the original project file as it overwrites to the auto-save file. Warning If you choose to recover the auto-save file, you cannot recover the original project file that has been overwritten; recovering data in an auto-save file is not reversible.

Related Topics Saving Project Data Automatically

RMxprt Files
When you create any project in the Maxwell desktop, including an RMxprt project, it is given a .mxwl file extension and stored in the directory you specify. Any files related to that project are also stored in that directory. Some common file and folder types are listed below: .mxwl project_name.mxwlresults design_name.results design_name.asol Maxwell or RMxprt project. Folder containing results data for a project. Folder containing results data for a design. This folder is stored in the project_name.mxwlresults folder. Results data for a design. This file's contents may be empty if a solution is unavailable. This file is stored in the project_name.mxwlresults folder.

Saving Project Notes in RMxprt


You can save notes about a project, such as its creation date and a description of the device being modeled. This is useful for keeping a running log on the project. To add notes to a project: 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. Click RMxprt>Edit Notes. The Design Notes dialog box appears. Click in the window and type your notes. Click OK to save the notes with the current project. Double-click the Notes icon in the project tree. The Design Notes window appears, where you can edit the project's notes. Click OK to save any changes, or click Cancel to exit without saving edits.
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To edit existing project notes:

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The RMxprt Desktop


RMxprt is integrated within the Maxwell desktop. Consistent with the Maxwell desktop, the RMxprt interface consists of 9 desktop components: a title bar, a menu bar, toolbars, a status bar, a project manager window, a properties window, a message manager window, a progress window, and a machine editor window. The project manager window, the properties window, the message manager window and the progress window are dockable and resizable. You can open multiple machine editor windows to display different parts at the same time. One can remain fixed on the winding, one on the diagram, and one on the main desktop window. To open a new window, click Window>New Window.

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To move back and forth between windows, select the Windows menu, and select the window you want to view.

RMxprt Title Bar


The title bar is located at the top of the application window. It displays the information of the active design. If a machine editor window is maximized, its title is appended in the title bar within square brackets. The information of the active design includs the desktop name, the project name, the design name and the design type. For an RMxprt design, the design type is Machine.
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Working with the RMxprt Menu Bar


The menu bar enables you to perform all Maxwell, ePhysics, and/or RMxprt tasks, depending on the software you purchased. Such tasks include managing project files, customizing the desktop, drawing objects, and setting and modifying all project parameters. RMxprt contains the following menus, which appear at the top of the desktop: File menu Edit menu Use the File menu commands to manage RMxprt project files and printing options. Use the Edit menu commands to modify properties in the active design, manage designs in one or more projects, delete projects, and undo and redo actions. Use the View menu commands to display or hide desktop components, and change the machine editor window view. Use the Project menu commands to add a Maxwell 3D, Maxwell2D, or RMxprt design to the active project, analyze all designs of the active project, and define project variables and datasets. Use the Machine menu to work with the machine data, such as edit winding layout, edit wire size, and set dimension unit for the active editor window. Use the RMxprt menu commands to validate design input data, analyze designs, set up parameters, add analysis setups, set up Optimetrics, post process solutions, export equivalent circuits, create Maxwell 3D designs, and other design tasks. Use the Tools menu to modify the active project's material library, arrange the material libraries, run and record scripts, update project definitions from libraries, display options, customize the desktop's toolbars, and modify many of the software's default settings. Use the Window menu commands to rearrange the application windows and toolbar icons. Use the Help menu commands to access the online help system and view the current software version information.

View menu Project menu

Machine RMxprt

Tools menu

Window menu Help menu Related Topics Getting Help

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Working with the RMxprt Shortcut Menus


A variety of shortcut menus menus that appear when you right-click a selection are available in the toolbars area of the desktop, in the Machine Editor window, in the Project Manager window, in the Properties window, and in the Message Manager window. In the toolbars area In Machine Editor window In the Project Manager window In Properties window In Message Manager window Note Use the shortcut menu in the toolbars area of the desktop to show or hide windows or toolbars, and customize the toolbars. Use the shortcut menu in the Machine Editor window to edit winding layout, display or hidden coil connection, change the view, and copy to Clipboard. Use the shortcut menus in the Project Manager window (or the project tree) to manage project files and design properties; these commands duplicate menu commands at the top of the screen. Use the shortcut menus in the Properties window to edit (cut, copy, paste or delete) property values. Use the shortcut menus in the Message Manager window to clear, copy message, or see message details.

Most of the commands on the shortcut menus are also available on the menu bar.

Shortcut Menu in the Toolbars Area


Use the shortcut menu in the toolbars area of the desktop to show or hide windows or toolbars, and customize the toolbars. To access the shortcut menu in the toolbars area:

Right-click in the toolbars area at the top of the desktop.

A check box appears next to a command if the item is visible. For example, if a check box appears next to the Project Manager command, then the Project Manager window is currently visible on the desktop. Click Customize to open the Customize dialog box, which enables you to modify the toolbar settings on the desktop.

Shortcut Menus in the Project Manager Window


Each node, or item, in the project tree has a shortcut menu. To access the shortcut menu in the Project Manager window, for a particular node:

Select a node or item. Right-click in the Project Manager window.

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Working with the RMxprt Toolbars


The toolbar buttons and shortcut pull-down lists act as shortcuts for executing various commands. You can rearrange the position of the various toolbars.

To execute a command, click a toolbar button or click a selection on the shortcut pull-down list. To display a brief description of the toolbar button, move the pointer over the button. To relocate a toolbar, click on the left edge of a toolbar and drag it to new location.. Hint To modify the toolbars on the desktop, click Tools>Customize. To display all toolbar buttons, click the Reset All button in the Customize window.

Undoing RMxprt Commands


Use the Undo command on the Edit menu to cancel, or undo, the last action you performed on the active project or design. 1. In the Project Manager window, do one of the following:


Note 2.

To undo the last action you performed on the active project, such as inserting a design, click the project icon. To undo the last action you performed on the active design, click the design icon. You cannot undo an analysis that you have performed on a model, that is, the RMxprt>Analyze command.

Click Edit>Undo. Your last action is now undone.

Note

When you save a project, RMxprt always clears the entire undo/redo history for the project and its designs.

Related Topics Redoing Commands

Redoing RMxprt Commands


Use the Redo command on the Edit menu to reapply, or redo, the last action that was canceled, or undone. You can redo a canceled action related to project management, model creation, and postprocessing. 1. In the Project Manager window, do one of the following:


2.

To redo the last action you canceled on the active project, such as inserting a design or adding project variables, click the project icon. To redo the last action you canceled on the active design, such as drawing an object or deleting a field overlay plot, click the design icon.

Click Edit>Redo.

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Your last canceled action is now reapplied. Note When you save a project, RMxprt always clears the entire undo/redo history for the project and its designs.

Related Topics Undoing Commands

Working with the RMxprt Status Bar


The status bar is located at the bottom of the application window. It displays information about the where mouse is pointed. To display or hide the status bar:

Click View>Status Bar.

A check box appears next to this command if the status bar is visible.

Working with the RMxprt Machine Editor Windows


You can open multiple machine editor windows in RMxprt. One can remain fixed on the Winding Editor, one on the Diagram tab, and one on the Main tab. To open a new window, click Window>New Window. To move back and forth between windows, select the Windows menu, and select the window you want to view. You can cascade all Machine Editor windows, tile them horizontally or vertically. You can maximize, minimize or close a Machine Editor window by clicking the relevant button on the right-top corner of the window. If no Machine Editor window is displayed, you can use RMxprt>Machine Editor to bring one window up. When only one Machine Editor window is maximized, the window title is displayed within square brackets in the Title Bar of the main application window. As you enter appropriate property values, the Machine Editor window dynamically updates the rotor, stator, slots, and windings in the Main, Diagram and Winding Editor tabs. As you provide winding information, the Winding Editor tab displays a table of values. Related Topics Setting the Window View
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Printing in RMxprt

Setting the Window View


To fit the entire diagram in the window:

Click View>Fit All. Click View>Zoom In. Click View>Zoom Out.

To zoom into the diagram in the window: To zoom out of the diagram in the window:

Printing in RMxprt
The printing commands enable you to print the display in the active window. To print the project: 1. 2. 3. Click File>Print. The Print dialog box appears. You can change the print quality (a higher dpi produces a higher quality print but takes more time and printer memory), or you can send the output to a .prn file. Do one of the following:

Click OK to print the project. Click Cancel to dismiss the window without printing. Click Properties to define printer settings.

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Working with the RMxprt Project Manager


The Project Manager window displays the open project's structure, which is referred to as the project tree. The Project Manager window displays details about all projects open in the Maxwell Desktop, regardless of type. To show or hide the Project Manager window, do one of the following:

Click View>Project Manager. A check box appears next to this command if the Project Manager window is visible. Right-click in the toolbars area on the desktop, and then click Project Manager on the shortcut menu. A check box appears next to this command if the Project Manager window is visible.

Related Topics Working with the RMxprt Project Tree Shortcut Menus in the Project Manager Window

Working with the RMxprt Project Tree


The project tree is located in the Project Manager window and contains details about all open projects. The top node listed in the project tree is the project name. It is named Projectn by default, where n is the order in which the project was added to the current session of the Maxwell Desktop. Expand the project icon to view all designs and material definitions belonging to the project. For RMxprt projects, the project tree shows where you can select each portion of the machine to open the corresponding tab sheet in the Properties window. The project tree lists options for the general motor characteristics, the stator, the rotor, and other options such as winding data or commutating data. The specific options depend on the machine type you have selected. Related Topics Viewing RMxprt Design Details Automatically Expand the Project Tree

Setting the RMxprt Project Tree to Expand Automatically


You can set the project tree to automatically expand when an item is added to a project. 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools>Options>General Options. The Options dialog box appears. Click the Project Options tab. Under Additional Options, select Expand Project Tree on Insert. Click OK.

Viewing RMxprt Design Details


Once you insert an RMxprt design into a project, it is listed as the second-level node in the project tree. It is named RMxprtDesignn by default, where n is the order in which the design was added to the project. Expand the design icon in the project tree to view specific data about the model.

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The RMxprtDesignn node contains the following project details: Machine Allows you to specify parameters for various aspects of the machine. A whole or part geometry will be drawn in the Main tab of the Machine Editor window (based on the values you enter). Allows you to assign parameters to solve for. Displays the solution setups for an RMxprt design. A solution setup specifies how RMxprt computes the solution. Displays any Optimetrics setups added to an RMxprt design. Displays any post-processing reports that have been generated. To edit a project's design details:

Parameters Analysis Optimetrics Results Note

In the project tree, double-click the design setup icon that you want to edit.

A dialog box appears with that setup's parameters, which you can then edit.

Working with the RMxprt Properties Window


The Properties window displays the attributes, or properties, of an item selected in the project treeand enables you to edit an item's properties. The properties, and the ability to edit them in the Properties window vary depending on the type of item selected. The tabs available in the Properties window also vary depending the selection. Single clicking on an item in the Machine section of the project tree displays a docked Properties window located under the project tree. A horizontal scroll bar lets you adjust the view of the properties if necessary. Changes to values in the docked properties window apply immediately to the selected object. Double-clicking on an item in the Machine section of the project tree opens a floating Properties window. The floating window can be moved for convenience in viewing the RMxprt Machine Editor window. Some objects have tabs on the window to control the properties displayed. Changes to values in the floating window are not applied until you click the OK button. Related Topics Showing and Hiding the Properties Window Setting the Properties Window to Open Automatically

Showing and Hiding the RMxprt Properties Window


To show or hide the Properties window on the desktop, do one of the following:

Click View>Property Window. A check box appears next to this command if the Properties window is visible. Right-click in the toolbars area at the top of the desktop, and then click Properties on the shortcut menu. A check box appears next to this command if the Properties window is visible.

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Working with the RMxprt Progress Window


The Progress window monitors a simulation while it is running. To display or hide the Progress window on the desktop, do one of the following:

Click View>Progress Window. A check box appears next to this command if the Progress window is visible. Right-click in the toolbars area at the top of the desktop, and then click Progress on the shortcut menu.

A check box appears next to this command if the Progress window is visible.

Working with the RMxprt Message Manager


The Message Manager displays messages associated with a project's development, such as error messages about the design's setup or informational messages about the progress of an analysis. To display or hide the Message Manager window on the desktop, do one of the following:

Click View>Message Manager. Right-click in the toolbars area at the top of the desktop, and then click Message Manager on the shortcut menu.

A check box appears next to this command if the Message Manager is visible. Related Topics Clearing Messages for the RMxprt Project Clearing Messages for the RMxprt Model Copying Messages in RMxprt

Clearing Messages for the RMxprt Project


You can clear all the messages for a particular project. To clear messages: 1. 2. Right-click the project# in the Message Manager. A pop-up appears. Click Clear messages for Project#.

Clearing Messages for the RMxprt Model


You can clear all the messages for a particular model. To clear messages: 1. 2. Right-click the MaxwellModel# in the Message Manager. A pop-up appears. Click Clear messages for RMxprtDesign#.

Copying Messages in RMxprt


You can copy all the messages for a particular project.
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To copy messages: 1. 2. Right-click in the Message Manager. A pop-up appears. Click Copy messages to clipboard.

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Quick Start for RMxprt


This section briefly introduces how to enter the environment of the software RMxprt and quick mastering its main functions by providing a simple example. The basic process flow chart is shown below. Create a new Project

Select the machine type.

Input design data.

Analyze the design. Create Reports and View output characteristics curves.

Create a Maxwell 2D Project for electromagnetic field analyses

Create an electric machine model for Simplorer System Simulation

RMxprt Example Part 1: Create a New Project


To create a new project: 1. 2. Start Maxwell from the desktop. Click File>New from the menu bar. This creates a new project folder in the project window with the default name of Projectn.

RMxprt Example Part 2: Select a Machine


To select a machine to insert into the new project: 1. 2. Click Project>Insert RMxprt Design or click the RMxprt icon in the tool bar. This displays the Select Machine Type window. From the list of machine types, for this example, select Brushless Permanent Magnet DC Motor and click OK.
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This closes the window and inserts the Brushless Permanent Magnet DC Motor design in the project. Continue to Part 3 of the example to Input Design Data.

RMxprt Example Part 3: Input Design Data


In this part of the example, you provide values for the design and for various parts. 1. Click the + symbol by the RMxprt:Designn icon in the project tree to view the design hierarchy. This displays the Machine Icon. 2. Double-click the icon to view the Machine Properties window.

Set the values as indicated below.


Machine Type Number of Poles Rotor Position Frictional Loss Brushless Permanent Magnet DC Motor Set this to 4 Set to Inner Set this to 11 (Frictional and wind loss is typically within the range of 1%~3% of the rated output power, in this example, 2% is estimated.) This value is referred to the given Reference Speed. The frictional loss at the computed rated speed will be modified if the computed rated speed is different from the given rated speed. 0 Set this to 1500 DC Set this to C2. Click the button to display the Select Circuit Type window.

Wind Loss Reference Speed Control Type Circuit Type

Select the C2 button, and OK to close the window. 3. 4. 5. Click OK to close the Machine properties window. Click the + symbol by the Machine icon to view the design hierarchy of the motor. Double-click the Circuit icon to view the Circuit properties window.

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Set the values as indicated below. Lead Angle of Trigger Set this to 0 to obtain the maximum average emf for the following phase in the trig_on period.

Trigger Pulse Width Transistor Drop Diode Drop 6. 7.

Set this to 90 Set this to 2 Set this to 2

Click OK to close the circuit properties window. Double-click the Stator icon to view the Stator properties window. Set the values as shown below. Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Stacking Factor Steel Type Set this to 120. Set this to 75. Set this 65 for the length of the Stator iron core. 0.95 Click on the button to display the Materials window. Select RMxprt library in the Libraries box in the upper right corner of the Materials window: then select M19-24G. Note: If RMxprt is not listed in the libraries box in the upper right corner of the Materials window, quit the Materials window, click Tools>Configure Libraries, add RMxprt (under materials) and click the Save as Default check box. Then click OK.

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Number of Slots Slot Type

Set this to 24. Select 2 as the Slot type. Click the button on the row cell to display the Select Slot Type window.

Skew Width 8.

Click the 2 button and OK to close the window. Set this to 1. (To skew one slot pitch.)

Click OK to close the Stator Properties window. Take a moment to look at the Maxwell Design window. If you click the Main tab, you will see two concentric rings that represent the inner and outer diameters you specified. If you click the Winding Editor tab, you see a table of the coils, with columns for Phase, turns, the in slots, and the out slots. There is also a drawing showing the placement of the 24 slots of the type that you defined here.

9.

Click the + symbol by the Stator icon to view the hierarchy under the stator. Set the values as shown below. Some of the properties will not appear until you disable the Auto Design property in the first row. Auto Design Uncheck the box to disable auto design. Close the properties window and open it again. Then set the given values for the slot shapes. Parallel Tooth Uncheck this box. The Tooth Width property becomes invisible. Tooth Width Hs0 Set to 0.5 Hs1 Set to 1.0 Hs2 Set to 8.2 Bs0 Set to 2.5 Bs1 Set to 5.6 Bs2 Set to 7.6

10. Double-click the slot icon to view the Slot Properties window.

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11. Click OK to close the Slot Properties window. 12. Double-click the stator Winding icon to view the Winding Properties window. Set the values as shown below. Winding Layers Winding Type Set this to 2, "Whole Coiled." Parallel Branches Select 1 for the number of parallel-connected branches, i.e. the coils in all the slots per phase are in series-connected. Conductors per Set this to 60 for the number of conductors per slot, i.e. the Slot number of turns per coil is equal to 30 for double-layer winding. Coil Pitch Set this to 5. For this example, full pitch = 24 slots / 4 poles = 6. This example uses short coil pitch, 5, i.e. a coil spans from slot 1 to slot 6. Number of Strands Select 1 for the number of strands (or number of wires per conductor). Wire Wrap Select 0. This is the total thickness of double side wire insulation. The input value 0 means that RMxprt will automatically check into the wire gauge library for the wrap thickness relevant to the wire gauge. Different manufacturers produce different Wire Wrap Thickness for electromagnetic wire. Typically, Wire Wrap Thickness for electromagnetic wire is 7~10% of Wire Diameter. Wire Size Click on the Properties field to display the Wire Size window and select AUTO for automatic design of wire gauge. Wire Size will be set to 0 in the Wire Size window. This example relies on RMxprt to automatically select the optimum diameter and the gauge code for electromagnetic wire. End/Insulation Input Half-turn Uncheck this box. tab Length Half Turn Length This item is not shown if Input Half Turn Length is unchecked. Winding tab

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End Adjustment

Set this to 0 for the linear overhang of the end part of the coil out of the iron core as shown below. In this example, the coil turns immediately at the slot opening, therefore input 0.

Base Inner Radius 0 Tip Inner Diameter 0 End Clearance 0 Slot Liner Set this to 0.3 for the single side thickness of slot insulation. Wedge Thickness 0 Layer Insulation 0 Limited Fill Factor 0.75 13. Click OK to close the stator Winding Properties window. 14. Click Machine>Wiiding>Connect All Coils. The Winding tab in the main window shows all coils connected. 15. Double-click the Rotor Icon to view the Rotor Properties window. Set the values as shown below. Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Set this to 74.0. This is the Stator inner diameter - 2* AirGap. Input 26 for the inner diameter of the rotor core. This is also the diameter to match the shaft Input 65 for the length of the rotor core. In this example, the lengths of the iron cores of the stator and the rotor are the same.

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Steel Type

Stacking Factor Pole Type

Select M19-24 for the brand of the silicon-steel sheet for the rotor. In this example, the laminations are punched together on the same sheet; therefore, the brands of the silicon-steel sheet and the stacking factors are the same for the stator and the rotor. Input 0.95. Select 1. Click on the button on the Pole Type field to display the Select Pole Type window.

Click the 1 button and OK to close the window. 16. Click OK to close the Rotor Properties window. 17. Click the + symbol by the Rotor icon to open the project hierarchy under the rotor. 18. Double-click the Pole icon to view the Pole Properties window.

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Set the values as shown below.

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Embrace

Input 0.7. Embrace of the rotor represents the ratio of the rotor central angle corresponding to the arc length along the rotor surface of an arched permanent-magnetic piece to the rotor central angle corresponding to a rotor pole. In a four pole machine with Embrace, 1, each arched permanentmagnetic piece covers 90 mechanical degrees along the rotor surface. Similarly, Embrace 0.667 means 60 mechanical degrees of the coverage of the magnet as shown in the figure.

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Offset

Input 0. The arched permanent-magnetic pieces to form the magnets of the rotor might not be concentric with the rotor as shown in the figure. In the electric machines with non-uniform air-gap, there exists an offset between the two centers. RMxprt terms it as Pole Arc Offset. This example uses uniform air-gap; therefore, the offset is set to 0.

Magnet Type

Select XG196/96. This permanent-magnetic steel possesses residual flux density 0.96 Tesla, coercive force 690 kA/m, maximum magnetic energy product 183 kJ/m3, and relative recoil magnetic permeability 1.0. Magnet Thickness Input 3.5 for the thickness of the permanent-magnetic steel.

19. Click OK to close the Pole Properties window. To continue to Part 4 of the example, go to Analyze the Design.

RMxprt Example Part 4: Analyze the Design.


Before analyzing a design project, a few options should be decided by the following procedures: 1. 2. 3. Click Tools>Options>Machine Options. The Machine Options window appears. The Wire setting should be set to American. Click OK to close the window. Click RMxprt>Analysis Setup>Add Setup. This displays the Solution Setup window. Add the following values.

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4.

Close the dialog to save the Setup. Const Power 0.55 kW 220 1500 75c

Load Type Rated Output Power Rated Voltage Rated Speed Operating Temperature 5.

Click RMxprt>Validation Check to ensure that all values have been set. If any items do not pass validation, use the diagnostic information in the Message Window to resolve any issues.

6.

When the design has been validated, click RMxprt>Analyze All. The progress of the analysis is shown in the Progress window.

To continue to Part 5 of the example, go to Create Reports and View Output.

RMxprt Example Part 5: Create Reports and View Output


After you have run an analysis, you can view the solution data. 1. Click RMxprt>Results>Solution Data. This opens the Solutions window with the Solutions tab selected, and the Full Load Operation Data displayed. The Solutions window contains tabs for the following:

Solution Data - the Data field in the Solutions window is a drop down menu from which you can select the following:


2.

Full Load Operation Material Consumption No Load Operation Permanent Magnet Rotor Data Stator Slot Stator Winding Steady State Parameters

Parameter Design Sheet Curves - Selecting the Curves tab lets you view pre-defined graphs.

With the Solution tab selected, select Stator Winding as the Data selected. Except for a few data corresponding to the wire gauge, this part of data should be the same as the data input in the Stator Winding Properties window. Since automatic design function for
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the wire gauge is selected in the input, RMxprt calculates the following data: Wire Diameter (mm): 0.8118 for the diameter of the electromagnetic wire.

Wire Wrap 0 for the insulation thickness of the electromagnetic wire. Because input Thickness (mm): wire wrap is 0, RMxprt picks it up from the selected wire library (American wire), but it still 0 based on the wire wrap data in the library. Stator Slot Fill Factor (%): 61.4557.

The electromagnetic wire with Wire Diameter of 0.8118 is equivalent to AWG 20. Stator Slot Fill Factor represents the percentage of occupation of the slot area, i.e. the ratio of the total square sectional area of wires (including Wire Wrap Thickness) in a slot to the total slot area less the slot insulation. a. b. c. d. e. Now that Wire Diameter of the electromagnetic wire is calculated by RMxprt, you can open the Winding Properties window and specify the value. For Wire Size, open the Wire Size selection window, select 0.8118 for the electromagnetic wire diameter, which corresponds to 20 for the wire gauge. In the slot Wire Wrap field, input 0.08 for the insulation thickness of the electromagnetic wire. Click OK to close the properties window. Click RMxprt>Analyze All.

After the second analysis is completed, click RMxprt>Results>Solution Data to view the effect of Wire Wrap Thickness of the electromagnetic wire on Stator Slot Fill Factor. Wire Diameter (mm): 0.8118.

Wire Wrap 0.08. Thickness (mm): Stator Slot Fill Factor (%): 3. 74.165.

In the Solutions window, change the Data selection to Rotor Data. The Rotor data is displayed. Here most of the data is the same as input in the Rotor Pole properties window. The only difference is that the Pole Arc radius replaces Pole Arc Offset and, in addition to Mechanical Pole Embrace which is input based on the physical geometry, Electrical Pole Embrace is also given. Electrical Pole Embrace is calculated by the ratio of the average magnetic flux density to the maximum magnetic flux density according to the magnetic flux density distribution along the air-gap.

4.

In the Solutions window, change the Data selection to Permanent Magnet.

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This part displays the characteristic data of the permanent magnets as well as the Demagnetization Flux density, the Recoil Residual Flux density and Recoil Coercive Force of the recoil line based on the demagnetization flux density, which are used for finite element analysis when a linear PM characteristics must be specified. 5. In the Solutions window, change the Data selection to Steady State Parameters. This part displays the stator winding factor, direct- and the quadratic-axis inductances, the leakage inductance, the resistance of the phase winding, the direct- and the quadratic-axis time constants, the ideal torque constant KT and the ideal back emf constant KE. 6. In the Solutions window, change the Data selection to No-Load Operation. This part displays the magnetic flux densities in the teeth and the yoke of the stator, and the yoke of the rotor. The maximum value among the three magnetic flux densities is 1.52 Tesla, which locates at the knee part of the B-H curve, below the saturation situation. The mmfs of the teeth and the yoke of the stator, the air-gap, the yoke and the permanent magnet of the rotor are given respectively for half magnetic reluctance path. The armature reaction mmf due to the armature current is referred to the demagnetization mmf. The magnetic flux leakage coefficient takes into account the part of the magnetic flux in the rotor not linking with the stator. The correction factors for the yoke lengths of the stator and the rotor to calculate the yoke mmfs of the stator and the rotor are also given here. The no-load revolution speed of this machine is equal to 2001 rpm. 7. In the Solutions window, change the Data selection to Full Load Operation. At Rated Output Power (kW): 0.550, the following characteristic parameters of the machine are calculated as: Parameters Average Input Current (of input current waveform in one voltage period) RMS Armature Current (of phase current waveform in one voltage period) Armature Thermal Load (product of Specific Electric Loading and Armature Current Density Specific Electric Load (stator current distribution per circumferential length along air-gap) Armature Current Density (through cross-sectional area of stator wire) 4.73 A/mm2 14.97 70.88 A2/mm3 ) A/mm 2.45 A Calculated Values 2.93 Units A

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Frictional and Wind Loss (at computed Rated Speed) Iron-Core Loss (due to loss curves of stator and rotor iron-core materials) Armature Copper Loss (stator winding ohmic loss) Transistor Loss (transistor switching loss) Diode Loss (diode power consumption) Total Loss (sum of above losses) Output Power (the rated operating point is derived based on Output Power) Input Power (product of Rated Voltage and Average Input Current) Efficiency (ratio of Output Power to Input Power) Rated Speed (at Rated Output Power) Rated Torque (at Rated Output Power) Locked-Rotor Torque (starting torque at zero revolution speed) Locked-Rotor Current (starting current at zero revolution speed) 8.

11.46 20.24

W W

53.87 9.32 0.69 95.6 550

W W W W W

645.6

85.2 1562 3.36 32.3 47.6

% rpm Nm Nm A

In the Solutions window, select the Design Sheet tab, and scroll down to Winding Arrangement. This is the layout and the arrangement of the whole two-phase winding of phases A and B, and the short coil pitch factor 5 is taken into account.

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The 2-phase, 2-layer winding can be arranged in 6 slots as below: AAABBB 9. In the Solutions window with the Design Sheet table selected, scroll down to Transient FEA Angle per slot (elec. degrees): Phase-A axis (elec. degrees): First slot center (elec. degrees): 30 105 0

Input Data. (This is at the very bottom.) The following data of the armature winding corresponds to one phase armature winding. Number of Turns (total number of turns viewed into output terminals) Parallel Branches Terminal Resistance (stator winding dc resistance under given operating temperature, 75oC) End Leakage Inductance (of stator winding) The following data is the equivalent values used to 2D electromagnetic field analyses. Equivalent Model Depth Equivalent Stator Stacking Factor Equivalent Rotor Stacking Factor Equivalent Hc (coercive force) 65 0.95 0.95 Tesla kA/m 690 mm 1.7 mH 1 4.5 Ohm 360

Equivalent Br (residual flux density) 0.87

Estimated Rotor Moment of Inertia 0.0015 kg.m2 10. In the Solutions window, click the Curves tab. This displays the Input DC Current Versus Speed graph. If the text is too small to read, you can resize the window. You can view other predefined graphs by selecting from the drop down menu in the Name field. Selecting the Curves tab lets you view pre-defined graphs for the following relations:

Inut DC Current Versus Speed Efficiency Versus Speed Output Power Versus Speed Output Torque Versus Speed
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Cogging Torque in Two Teeth Induced Coil Voltages at Rated Speed Air-Gap Flux Density Induced Winding Phase Voltage at Rated Speed Winding Currents Under Load Phase Voltage Under Load

You can also create additional plots with multiple curves. 11. For example, click RMxprt>Results>Create Report. This displays the Create Report dialog box. Click OK to display the Traces window. 12. In the Traces window, select Input DC Current and Efficiency vs Speed, and click the Add Trace button. Then select Output Torque. 13. These traces appear in the Traces field. Click Done to close the Traces window and display the combined graph. To continue to part Six of the example, go to Output Design Data.

RMxprt Example Part 6: Output Design Data


To export the model for Maxwell 2D Analysis: 1. Click RMxprt>Set Export Options. This opens the Export Options window. Periodic According to the geometric symmetry, the structure of electric machine can be divided into several periods. The four pole electric machine in this example has a whole slot number per pole per phase, therefore, it can be divided into four periods. Choose the smaller period to shorten the runtime for 2D Maxwell analyses. The angular displacement from the rotor to the stator in electric degrees. The air-gap is divided uniformly along the circumference. Band Arc is the central angle corresponding to each division. The effective range of its value is between 1o to 5o, the default value is 3o. In 2D electromagnetic field analysis to the torque with 2D Maxwell, the value of Band Arc is sensitive. The lower the value, the finer the air-gap meshes, the more accurate the torque calculation, but longer the computation time in order. If you select this box, the central lines of the rotor teeth or the rotor magnet poles coincide with the periodic dividing lines, otherwise, the central lines of the rotor slots or the interpole lines of the rotor magnet poles coincide with the periodic dividing line. Nevertheless, the central lines of the stator teeth always coincide with the periodic dividing lines. This lets you specify an Excel Spreadsheet template for a customized design sheet.

Difference Band Arc

Teeth to Teeth

Design Sheet

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Click RMxprt>Analysis Setup>Export>Maxwell 2D. This displays the Export Maxwell 2D window. Specify a ProjectName. Click OK. The Progress window shows activity. To export a Simplorer model, click RMxprt>Analysis Setup>Export>Simplorer Model. This displays the Export Simplorer window. Provide a project name and a location. Click OK.

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2
Setting Up RMxprt Projects

An RMxprt project is a folder that includes one or more models, or designs. Each design ultimately includes a geometric model, material assignments, and field solution and post-processing information. A new project called Projectn is automatically created when the software is launched, where n is a number. You can also open a new project by clicking File>New. In general, use the File menu commands to manage projects. If you move or change the names of files without using these commands, the software may not be able to find information necessary to solve the model.

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Setting Up A Machine Model


To set up an RMxprt model, follow this general procedure: 1. 2. Insert an RMxprt design. (Click Project>Insert RMxprt Design., and specify the machine type from the Select Machine Type window.) Use the Tools menu commands to specify general options (such as post-processing and autosave settings), solver options (such as the default process priority), and specific RMxprt options. Also specify the Machine options (such as the units and the wire setting such as the wire shape and gauge). Double-click the Machine items in the project tree, to specify the settings for the various parts of the selected machine parameters. Under Definitions in the project tree, assign any Materials to the machine parts, setting values such as:

3. 4.


5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Permanent magnet definition, including the coercivity, energy density, and relative recovery permeability. BH-curve parameters.

Use the Setup commands (either on the RMxprt menu or on the Analysis or Optimetrics submenus via the project tree) to specify variable, parametric, and optimization settings. Use the Validate command to validate the design. Use the Analyze commands to generate a solution, run a parametric analysis, or run an optimization. Use the Results post-processing commands to display the lamination and plot the solutions. Use the Analysis Setup>Export command to export the model as an .sm2 or .sm3 file that can be read into Maxwell 2D or Maxwell 3D for more complex analyses. Once the exported file is created, you can then create a new Maxwell project from the exported file.

Related Topics: Specifying RMxprt Winding Data Quick Start for RMxprt

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Design Settings in RMxprt


The Design Settings dialog allows you to specify how the simulator will deal with some aspects of the design.


1. 2. 3.

Set the Material Threshold for treating materials as conductors/insulators. Set Export Options . Specify User Defined Data. Click RMxprt>Design Settings. The Design Settings dialog box appears with the Set Material Threshold tab selected. Type a value in the Conductivity Threshold text box (Default=10,000). Type a value in the Permeability text box (Default=100). RMxprt will treat materials with conductivity greater than 10,000 as conductors, and materials with Permeability greater than 100 as steels.

Setting the Material Threshold in RMxprt

Note 4.

If you want these values to be the default, change the values by clicking the Tools>Options>RMxprt Options menu and setting the material thresholds in the RMxprt Options dialog. Click OK.

5.

Related Topics Setting RMxprt Options

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RMxprt Export Options


To set the Export options for RMxprt: 1. Choose which options to use when exporting a design from RMxprt to Maxwell3D: According to the geometric symmetry, the structure of electric machine can be divided into several periods. The four pole electric machine in this example has a whole slot number per pole per phase, therefore, it can be divided into four periods. Choose the smaller period to shorten the run-time for 2D Maxwell analyses. The angular displacement from the rotor to the stator in electric degrees. The air-gap is divided uniformly along the circumference. Band Arc is the central angle corresponding to each division. The effective range of its value is between 1o to 5o, the default value is 3o. In 2D electromagnetic field analysis to the torque with 2D Maxwell, The value of Band Arc is sensitive. Less the value, finer the air-gap meshes, more accurate the torque calculation, but longer the computation time in order. If select this box, the central lines of the rotor teeth or the rotor magnet poles coincide with the periodic dividing lines, otherwise, the central lines of the rotor slots or the interpole lines of the rotor magnet poles coincide with the periodic dividing line. Nevertheless, the central lines of the stator teeth always coincide with the periodic dividing lines. Periodic

Difference Band Arc

Teeth to Teeth

Segmented Arc Note These options may also be set on the Export Options tab of the RMxprt Options dialog box. Using the Tools>Options>RMxprt Options command changes the default for the current design and all future designs.

You may also set the default Design Sheet for use with RMxprt by entering the path and filename or by browsing to the Excel file using the ellipsis button. Related Topics Generating a Custom Design Sheet for RMxprt

Setting User Defined Data File for a Design


RMxprt allows a user to define some design data in a text file which can be created by a text editor, instead of by RMxprt UI, for the following special circumstances:

Some special requests from a user which are not necessary to be added to RMxprt UI; Some common requests from users which have been implemented in RMxprt solver, but have not been added in RMxprt UI.

When a user's requests have been implemented in an RMxprt solver but have not been added in RMxprt UI, the updated solver and the required file format for user defined data will be sent to the user. To use the feature of user defined data, the user must first edit the data file using a text editor
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according to the format provided. Then, select RMxprt>Design Settings to display the Design Settings dialog. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Select the User Defined Data tab. Click the Enable checkbox to enable the use of User Defined Data. User Defined Data may be entered directly into the text box. Click in the box and enter the data entries desired. Alternatively, click Import File to import user defined data from an external file. Browse to the directory containing the file. Select the user defined data file which will be displayed in File name box. Click Open to confirm the selection. The file contents will be imported into the text box. Click OK to complete the setup.

User Defined Data is save in the design file. Changes to User Defined Data will cause existing solutions to become invalid.

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Validating RMxprt Projects


Before you run an analysis on a model, it is very important that you first perform a validation check on the project. When you perform a validation check on a project, RMxprt runs a check on all setup details of the active project to verify that the necessary steps have been completed and their parameters are reasonable. To perform a validation check on the active project: 1. 2. Click RMxprt>Validation Check. RMxprt checks the project setup, and then the Validation Check window appears. View the results of the validation check in the Validation Check window. The following icons can appear next to an item: Indicates the step is complete. Indicates the step is incomplete. Indicates the step may require your attention. 3. 4. 5. 6. View any messages in the Message Manager window. If the validation check indicates that a step in your project is incomplete or incorrect, carefully review the setup details for that particular step and revise them as necessary. Click RMxprt>Validation Check to run a validation check after you have revised any setup details for an incomplete or incorrect project step. Click Close.

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Setting General Options in RMxprt


Default settings for many of the options in RMxprt may be set through the Tools>Options menu. To set general options for RMxprt: 1. Click Tools>Options>General Options. The General Options window appears, displaying six available tabs:


2. 3.

Project Options Miscellaneous Options Default Units Analysis Options WebUpdate Options

Click each tab, and make the desired selections. Click OK.

Related Topics: Setting RMxprt Options

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Setting RMxprt Options


To specify default settings for RMxprt options: 1. Click Tools>Options>RMxprt Options. The RMxprt Options window appears, displaying three available tabs:


2. 3.

General Options Solver Export Options

Click each tab, and make the desired selections. Click OK.

RMxprt Options: General Options Tab


These options are set on the General Options tab of the RMxprt Options dialog box. 1. To change the default machine type when you initially insert a project, select one of the following from the Default machine type pull-down list:


2.

Three Phase Induction Motor Single Phase Induction Motor Three Phase Synchronous Machine Brushless Permanent-Magnet DC Motor Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine Permanent-Magnet DC Motor Switched Reluctance Motor Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor Universal Motor DC Machine Claw-Pole Synchronous Machine Three Phase Non-Salient Synchronous Machine

In the Material Threshold Options section, enter the Default conductivity and Default permeability values in siemens/m. Setting the material thresholds under Tools>Options impacts the default setting for the current and all future projects/designs. To change the material threshold for the current design only, use the RMxprt>Design Settings command and change the material thresholds on the Set Material Thresholds tab.

Note

3.

Select or clear the following check boxes:

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Note

Save before solving When you enable the Save before solving setting, the project is only saved if it has been modified since its last save. Apply variation deletions immediately

Related Topics: Setting the Material Threshold

RMxprt Options: Solver Tab


These options are set on the Solver tab of the RMxprt Options dialog box. To set the solver options for RMxprt: 1. Select one of the following from the Default Process Priority pull-down list:

Critical (highest) Priority (Not recommended) Above Normal Priority (Not recommended) Normal Priority Below Normal Priority Idle (lowest) Priority

RMxprt Options: Export Options Tab


These options are set on the Export Options tab of the RMxprt Options dialog box. To set the Export options for RMxprt: 1. Choose which options to use when exporting a design from RMxprt to Maxwell3D:

Periodic Difference Band Arc Teeth-Teeth Segmented Arc

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Setting Machine Options


In RMxprt, you can set the following project options:

Material threshold Model units Wire setting Export options

Some of these and other options are available via the Tools>Options>Machine Options command.

Specifying the Material Threshold


The material threshold classifies the material type. For example, if the Conductivity threshold is set to be 106, then for any material with conductivity greater than or equal to 106 is treated as a conductor. Otherwise, the material is treated as a non-conductor. To set the material threshold for the model: 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. Click RMxprt>Set Material Threshold. The Set Material Threshold dialog box appears. Type a value in the Conductivity Threshold box. Type a value in the Permeability box. Click OK. Click Machine>Units. The Set Model Units dialog box appears. Select the desired units from the pull-down list. Select or clear the Rescale to new units check box. Click OK.

Setting Model Units

Specifying the Machine Option for Wire Setting


Before you input data for your electric machine design project, please select the data file for wire gauge. RMxprt has numerous wire gauge specifications according to the various national Standards for bare copper wire gauges (including both round and rectangular wires). Nevertheless, there exist no national standards for thickness for insulation, therefore different manufacturers produce electromagnetic wire with different thickness of insulation.The data file American.wir does not provide the data for thickness of insulation; the data file Chinese.wir does provide the data for thickness of insulation, but only for the purpose of reference to users. All wire files are stored in the file folder syslib. To specify the wire setting: 1. Click Tools>Options>Machine Options.

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The Machine Editor Options dialog box appears. 2. 3. Select American or Chinese from the Wire Setting pull-down list. Click OK. The corresponding data for wire gauge appear automatically in the pop-up window for Machine>Wire. Related Topic Editing Wire Data

Editing Wire Data


Users must create their own data files for wire gauges according to the data for wire gauge and thickness of insulation provided by manufacturers. There are no national standards for thickness for insulation, therefore different manufacturers produce electromagnetic wire with different thickness of insulation.The data file American.wir does not provide the data for thickness of insulation; the data file Chinese.wir does provide the data for thickness of insulation, but only for the purpose of reference to users. These files are stored in the file folder syslib. To define or edit wire data: 1. 2. Click Machine>Wire The Edit Wire Data dialog box appears. Select the units from the Unit System pull-down list. English Unit System stands for British unit system, Metric Unit System stands for the metric unit system. When changing the unit system, the message box Note pops up to inform changing in unit system is only for specifying input data unit, but not for transferring data between two unit systems 3. Click the Round or Rectangle tab for the wire shape you want to edit. For Round: Specify the desired values for Gauge No., Diameter, and/or Wrap. Gauge No. Diameter Wrap For Rectangle: a. wire gauge index number. diameter of bare copper wire, in mm or inch. thickness of insulation wrap, in mm or inch.

Specify the desired values to limit ratios of the two sides.


the minimum ratio between the wide and the narrow sides.

Wire Shape Limit (B/A) max the maximum ratio between the wide and the narrow sides. Wire Shape Limit (B/A) min b.

Use the radio buttons specify whether to consider priority factors. All Size for No Consideration of Priority Factors Select the radio button All Size on the right to Type of Wire-Data Table and then click the command button Calculate in the window Wire Data, all the sectional areas of wire
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gauge with the ratio B/A between the wide and the narrow sides satisfying the condition (B/A) max > B / A > (B/A) min appear in the table Rectangular Wire Data. Skip One for Consideration of Priority Factors Select the radio button Skip One on the right to Type of Wire-Data Table and then click the command button Calculate in the window Wire Data, all the sectional areas of wire gauge with the ratio B/A between the wide and the narrow sides satisfying the condition (B/A) max > B / A > (B/A) min appear in three different modes in the table Rectangular Wire Data.

At the cross of the odd columns and the odd rows, the sectional areas appear in black numbers (recommended to use). At the cross of the odd columns and the even rows or the even columns and the odd rows, the sectional areas appear in blue numbers (rarely used). At the cross of the even columns and the even rows, the sectional areas do not show (generally not used).

This is convenient for users to use recommended wire gauge according to R20 Priority Number Series. 4. 5. 6. 7. Optionally, to add new rows or columns for the wire, click Add Row or Add Column. Optionally, click Import to import wire data from a file. Optionally, click Export to export the data you entered to a file. When you are finished, click Save to save the data, and click Close to close the window.

Related Topic Specifying the Machine Option for Wire Setting

Setting Export Options


To set export options for the project: 1. Click RMxprt>Set Export Options.

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The Export Options dialog box appears. 2. Select or clear the following Field check boxes: According to the geometric symmetry, the structure of electric machine can be divided into several periods. The four pole electric machine in this example has a whole slot number per pole per phase, therefore, it can be divided into four periods. Choose the smaller period to shorten the run-time for 2D Maxwell analyses. The angular displacement from the rotor to the stator in electric degrees. The air-gap is divided uniformly along the circumference. Band Arc is the central angle corresponding to each division. The effective range of its value is between 1o to 5o, the default value is 3o. In 2D electromagnetic field analysis to the torque with 2D Maxwell, The value of Band Arc is sensitive. Less the value, finer the air-gap meshes, more accurate the torque calculation, but longer the computation time in order. If select this box, the central lines of the rotor teeth or the rotor magnet poles coincide with the periodic dividing lines, otherwise, the central lines of the rotor slots or the interpole lines of the rotor magnet poles coincide with the periodic dividing line. Nevertheless, the central lines of the stator teeth always coincide with the periodic dividing lines. Periodic

Difference Band Arc

Teeth to Teeth

For Geometry Creation 3. 4. 5. For the selected field, enter values in any enabled text boxes. For the Design Sheet, type a file name in the Excel Template text box.

You can also click the ... button to find and select a file.

Click OK.

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Edit AC Windings
RMxprt can automatically arrange almost all commonly used single- or double-layer poly-phase ac windings provided all coils have the same number of turns. Users do not need to define coils one by one. For a double-layer winding, RMxprt can also handle the coils with half turns which are arranged in the order of even, odd, even, odd, , as long as it is physically possible. RMxprt also provides a very flexible tool Winding Editor in order for the users to design a variety of special winding types according to their own needs, such as compound single- and double-layer winding, big- and small-phase-spread variable-pole multiple-speed winding, sine-wave three-phase winding, and so forth. The Winding Editor is available to the following types of electric machines: 1.Three-phase induction motors 2.Single-phase induction motors 3.Three-phase synchronous motors and generators 4.Line-start permanent-magnet synchronous motors 5.Claw-pole alternators 6.Adjustable-speed permanent-magnet synchronous motors and generators 7.Brushless permanent-magnet DC motors When you edit the AC winding of a new design for the first time, RMxprt creates a default winding arrangement based on the basic winding specifications: Number of Phases, Number of Poles, Number of Slots, Winding Layers, Conductors per Slot, and Coil Pitch. Then you can edit the winding configuration based on the default arrangement.

Enable Winding Editor


Setting the Winding Type property to Editor enables the command Machine>Edit Layout on the menu bar. To display the dialog box Winding Editor: 1. Select Winding in the Project Tree. In the Properties window, set the Winding Type Value to Editor. To do this, click on the button Winding Type Value to display the Winding Type

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selection window, as shown:

2.

Select Editor as the Winding Type and click OK. This closes the Winding Type selection window and sets the Winding Type Value to Editor. It also enables the command Machine>Winding>Edit Layout on the menu bar. Now the

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Machine Editor window displays the default winding arrangement, as shown:

3.

Click Machine>Winding>Edit Layout. This displays the Winding Editor dialog as shown. The Winding Editor dialog box includes functions that do not appear in the Winding Editor tab sheet in the RMxprt Machine Editor window. In addition, right-clicking in the data table section of the Winding Editor tab in the Machine

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Editor displays a shortcut menu where you may also select Edit Layout.

Edit Winding Configuration


Each row of the winding data table in the Winding Editor dialog box is identified with the coil index in the column Coil. This information is displayed in the tab sheet Winding Editor in the RMxprt Machine Editor window as well, but it is editable in the dialog box Winding Editor. The winding data table contains four columns: Phase is for the phase to which the coil belongs.

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Turns In Slots

is for the number of turns of the coil. is for the slot number with the coil side current flowing in ('flow-in-side' for short). If 2 Layers are specified in the Winding Properties window, the slot number ends with a "T" to show the top layer. is for the slot number with the coil side current flowing out ("flow-outside" for short). If 2 Layers are specified in the Winding Properties window, the slot number ends with a "B" to show the bottom layer.

Out Slots

By changing the properties in the columns of the table, it is possible to arrange the distribution of coils of single and double layer winding of any type required. The Winding Editor also includes three check boxes: Periodic Multiplier indicates the possibility to select the number of unit machines for editing the winding arrangement. It has a pull-down list box to show the possible numbers for the periodic multiplier. When checked, the pull-down list box to the right displays the numbers of unit machines for selection. Selecting 1 means the whole slots are considered as one unit machine, and all the coils is listed in the table of the edit window. Selecting 2 lists half of the total coils in the table, and the whole slots are divided into two unit machines, etc. When the check box Periodic Multiplier: is unchecked, the pull-down list box to the right is grayed (disabled); all the coils are listed in the table. Checking the check box (multiple choices) Constant Turns indicates that the number of turns keeps constant and the column Turns in the table is grayed (disabled). If the check box Constant Turns is unchecked, the column Turns in the table is brightened allowing for editing and modifying the number of turns. Checking this box grays the column Out Slots to the values cannot be edited. It means that the coil pitch is constant. For the two-layer windings, all the flow-in-side slots are defined as top layer, and all the flow-out-side slots as bottom layer. The flow-out-side slot number is automatically computed based on the input in the edit box Coil Pitch in the tab sheet Winding in the project tree in the RMxprt Machine Editor window, and the column Out Slot is disabled. When the check box Constant Pitch is unchecked, the column Out Slot is enabled to allow arbitrarily changing the slot pitch for each coil.

Constant Turns

Constant Pitch

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The dialog box Winding Editor includes three command buttons. Default Reset all the data in the table resumes to the situation of data from the automatic arrangement by RMxprt. all the data in the table resumes to the situation of data when the dialog box Winding Editor was first opened, or resumes to the data that you have saved. to accept the current values and close the dialog box Winding Editor.

OK

View Winding Connections


When you have specified the winding data, you can execute the following commands to display or hide the winding connections. 1. Click the menu command Machine>Winding>Connect All Coils. Upon executing, the graphical display in the Machine Editor window shows the connections

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as shown:

2. 3.

To remove the connections in the graphical display in the Machine Editor window, select Machine>Winding>Disconnect All Coils. Winding connections may also be viewed by shortcut menu. Right-click on the winding layout section of the Machine Editor window, a shortcut menu pops up. Select Connect All Coils or Disconnect All Coils to toggle the coils display on or off. If you right click on a slot layer, commands related to that slot layer will be enabled, and you will be able to view or hide only one coil or one phase connection related to the slot layer. You may copy the connection drawing to clipboard from the shortcut menu as well.

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Working with Variables in RMxprt


A variable is a numerical value, mathematical expression, or mathematical function that can be assigned to a design parameter in RMxprt. Variables are useful in the following situations:

When you expect to change a parameter often. When you expect to use the same parameter value often. When you intend to run a parametric analysis in which you specify a series of variable values within a range to solve. When you intend to optimize a parameter value by running an optimization analysis.

There are two types of variables in RMxprt: Project Variables A project variable can be assigned to any parameter value in the project in which it was created. RMxprt differentiates project variables from other types of variables by prefixing the variable name with the $ symbol. You can manually include the $ symbol in the project variable's name, or RMxprt can automatically append the $ after you define the variable. Design Variables A design variable can be assigned to any parameter value in the RMxprt design in which it was created. Related Topics Setting up an Optimetrics Analysis

Adding a Project Variable in RMxprt


A project variable can be assigned to a parameter value in the RMxprt project in which it was created. RMxprt differentiates project variables from other types of variables by prefixing the variable name with the following symbol: $. You can manually include the symbol $ in the project variable's name when you create it, or RMxprt will automatically append the project variable's name with the symbol after you define the variable. 1. Click Project>Project Variables.

Alternatively, right-click the project name in the project tree, and then click Project Variables on the shortcut menu.

The Properties dialog box appears. 2. 3. Under the Project Variables tab, click Add. The Add Property dialog box appears. In the Name box, type the name of the variable. Project variable names must start with the symbol $ followed by a letter. Variable names may include alphanumeric characters and underscores ( _ ). The names of intrinsic functions and the pre-defined constant pi () cannot be used as variable names. 4. In the Value box, type the quantity that the variable represents. Optionally, include the units of

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measurement. Warning If you include the variable's units in its definition (in the Value box), do not include the variable's units when you enter the variable name for a parameter value.

The quantity can be a numerical value, a mathematical expression, or a mathematical function. The quantity entered will be the current, or default, value for the variable. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Click OK. You return to the Properties dialog box. The new variable and its value are listed in the table. Optionally, type a description of the variable in the Description box. Optionally, select Read-Only. The variable's name, value, unit, and description cannot be modified when Read-only is selected. Optionally, select Hidden. If you clear the Show Hidden option, the hidden variable will not appear in the Properties dialog box. Click OK.

The new variable can now be assigned to a parameter value in the project in which it was created.

Adding a Design Variable in RMxprt


A design variable is associated with an RMxprt design. A design variable can be assigned to a parameter value in the RMxprt design in which it was created. 1. Click RMxprt>Design Properties.

Alternatively, right-click the design name in the project tree, and then click Design Properties on the shortcut menu.

The Properties dialog box appears. 2. 3. Under the Local Variables tab, click Add. The Add Property dialog box appears. In the Name box, type the name of the variable. Variable names must start with a letter, and may include alphanumeric characters and underscores ( _ ). The names of intrinsic functions and the pre-defined constant pi () cannot be used as variable names. 4. In the Value box, type the quantity that the variable represents. Optionally, include the units of measurement. If you include the variable's units in its definition (in the Value box), do not include the variable's units when you enter the variable name for a parameter value.

Note

The quantity can be a numerical value, a mathematical expression, or a mathematical function. The quantity entered will be the current or default value for the variable. 5. Click OK. You return to the Properties dialog box. The new variable and its value are listed in the table.
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6. 7.

Optionally, type a description of the variable in the Description box. Click OK.

The new variable can now be assigned to a parameter value in the design in which it was created.

Adding Datasets in RMxprt


Datasets are collections of points which are connected together into a continuous plot using linear interpolation. Each plot consists of straight line segments whose vertices represent their end points. This data is then used in a piecewise linear intrinsic function such as: pwl, pwlx or pwl_periodic. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Project>Datasets. The Datasets dialog box appears. Click Add. The Add Dataset dialog box appears. Optionally, type a name other than the default for the dataset in the Name box. Type the X and Y-coordinates for the first data point in the row labeled 1. Type the X and Y-coordinates for the remaining data points in the dataset using the same method. After you type a point's coordinates and move to the next row, the point is added to the plot, and the view is adjusted with each newly entered point. 6. 7. When you are finished entering the data point coordinates, click OK. Click Done in the Datasets dialog box.

The dataset plot is extrapolated into an expression that can be used in parametric analyses or assigned to a material property value.

Modifying Datasets in RMxprt


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click Project>Datasets. The Datasets dialog box appears. Click the dataset name you want to modify, and then click Edit. The Edit Dataset dialog box appears. Optionally, type a name other than the default for the dataset in the Name box. Type new values for the data points as desired. The plot is adjusted to reflect the revised data points. When you are finished entering the data point coordinates, click OK. Click Done.

Defining Mathematical Functions in RMxprt


A mathematical function is an expression that references another defined variable. A function's definition can include both expressions and variables.

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The following mathematical functions may be used to define expressions: Basic functions Intrinsic functions Trigonometric expressions /, +, -, *, mod (modulus), ** (exponentiation), - (Unary minus), == (equals), ! (not), != (not equals), > (greater than), < (less than), >= (greater than equals), <= (less than equals), && (logical and), || (logical or) if, sqn, abs, exp, pow, ln (natural log), sqrt sin, cos, tan, asin, acos, atan, sinh, cosh, tanh

The predefined variables X, Y, Z, Phi, Theta, and R must be entered as such. X, Y, and Z are the rectangular coordinates. Phi, Theta, and R are the spherical coordinates. All trigonometric expressions expect their arguments to be in radians, and the inverse trigonometric functions' return values are in radians (although the user interface often converts them to degrees automatically). These function names are reserved and may not be used as variable names.

Defining an Expression in RMxprt


Expressions are mathematical descriptions that typically contain intrinsic functions, such as sin(x), and arithmetic operators, such as +, -, *, and /, as well as defined variables. For example, you could define: x_size = 1mm, y_size = x_size + sin(x_size). The symbol, pi ( ), is the only available pre-defined constant. It may not be reassigned a new value. Numerical values may be entered in Ansoft's shorthand for scientific notation. For example, 5x107 could be entered as 5e7.

Using Valid Operators for Expressions in RMxprt


The operators that can be used to define an expression or function have a sequence in which they are performed. The following list shows both the valid operators and the sequence in which they are accepted (listed in decreasing precedence): () ! parenthesis not (If you use "**" for exponentiation, as in previous software versions, it is automatically changed to "^".) * / unary minus multiplication division 4 5 5 1 2 3

^ (or **) exponentiation

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+ == != > < >= <= && ||

addition subtraction equals not equals greater than less than greater than or equal to less than or equal to logic and logic or

6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8

Using Intrinsic Functions in Expressions in RMxprt


RMxprt recognizes a set of intrinsic trigonometric and mathematical functions that can be used to define expressions. Intrinsic function names are reserved and may not be used as variable names. The following intrinsic functions may be used to define expressions: Function abs sin cos tan asin acos atan atan2 asinh atanh sinh cosh tanh Sine Cosine Tangent Arcsine Arccosine Description Absolute value (|x|) abs(x) sin(x) cos(x) tan(x) asin(x) acos(x) Syntax

Arctangent (in range atan(x) of -/4 to /4 degrees) Arctangent (in range atan2(y,x) of -/2 to /2 degrees) Hyperbolic Arcsine Hyperbolic Sine Hyperbolic Cosine Hyperbolic Tangent asinh(x) sinh(x) cosh(x) tanh(x) Hyperbolic Arctangent atanh(x)

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even

Returns 1 if integer part of the number is even; returns 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if integer part of the number is odd; returns 0 otherwise. Sign extraction Exponential (e ) Raise to power (xy) If
x

even(x)

odd

odd(x)

sgn exp pow if pwl

sgn(x) exp(x) pow(x,y) if(cond_exp,true_exp, false_exp)

Piecewise Linear with pwl(dataset_exp, variable) linear extrapolation on x Piecewise Linear x with linear extrapolation on x pwlx(dataset_exp, variable)

pwlx

pwl_periodic Piecewise Linear with pwl_periodic(dataset_exp, variable) periodic extrapolation on x sqrt ln Square Root Natural Logarithm (The "log" function has been discontinued. If you use "log(x)" in an expression, the software automatically changes it to "ln(x)".) log10 int nint max Logarithm base 10 Truncated integer function Nearest integer log10(x) int(x) nint(x) sqrt(x) ln(x)

Maximum value of two max(x,y) parameters

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min mod rem

Minimum value of two min(x,y) parameters Modulus Fractional part (remainder) mod(x,y) rem(x.y)

Note

If you do not specify units, all trigonometric functions interpret their arguments as radians. Likewise, inverse trigonometric functions' return values are in given in radians. When the argument to a trigonometric expression is a variable, the units are assumed to be radians. If you want values interpreted in degrees, supply the argument with the unit name deg.

Using Piecewise Linear Functions in Expressions in RMxprt


The following piecewise linear intrinsic functions are accepted in expressions: pwl (dataset_expression, variable) pwlx (dataset_expression, variable) pwl_periodic (dataset_expression, variable) The pwl and pwlx functions interpolate along the x-axis and returns a corresponding y value. The pwl_periodic function also interpolates along the x-axis but periodically.

Using Dataset Expressions in RMxprt


Dataset expressions take the following form: dset((x0,y0), ..., (xn,yn)) These expressions may be used as the first parameter to piecewise linear (pwl, pwlx and pwl_periodic) functions, and may also be assigned to variables, in which case the variable may be used as the second parameter to pwl, pwlx and pwl_periodic functions. Dataset expressions are derived from a series of points in a plot created in the Datasets dialog box. Each plot consists of straight line segments whose vertices represent their end points. A curve is fitted to the segments of the plot, and an expression is derived from the curve that best fits the segmented plot. The created expression is then used in the piecewise linear intrinsic functions.

Assigning Variables in RMxprt


To assign a variable to a parameter in RMxprt:

Type the variable name or mathematical expression in place of a parameter value in a Value box. If you typed a variable name that has not been defined, the Add Variable dialog box appears, enabling you to define the design variable. If you typed a variable name that included the $ prefix, but that has not been defined, the Add Variable dialog box appears, enabling you to define the project variable. You can assign a variable to nearly any design parameter assigned a numeric value in RMxprt.
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Choosing a Variable to Optimize in RMxprt


Before a variable can be optimized, you must specify that you intend for it to be used during an optimization analysis in the Properties dialog box. 1. If the variable is a design variable, click RMxprt>Design Properties. If the variable is a project variable, click Project>Project Variables. The Properties dialog box appears. 2. 3. Click the tab that lists the variable you want to optimize. Click the row containing the variable you want to optimize. Dependent variables cannot be optimized.

Note 4. 5.

Select the Optimization option. For the variable you want to optimize, select Include. The selected variable is now available for optimization in an optimetrics setup defined in the current design or project.

6.

Optionally, override the default minimum and maximum values that Optimetrics will use for the variable in every optimization analysis. During optimization, the optimizer does not consider variable values that lie outside of this range. Click OK.

7.

Related Topics Setting up an Optimization Analysis

Including a Variable in a Sensitivity Analysis in RMxprt


Before a variable can be included in a sensitivity analysis, you must specify that you intend for it to be used during a sensitivity analysis in the Properties dialog box. 1. If the variable is a design variable, click RMxprt>Design Properties. If the variable is a project variable, click Project>Project Variables. The Properties dialog box appears. 2. 3. Click the tab that lists the variable you want to include in the sensitivity analysis. Click the row containing the variable you want to include in the sensitivity analysis. Dependent variables cannot be included in a sensitivity analysis.

Note 4. 5.

Select the Sensitivity option. For the variable you want to include in the sensitivity analysis, select Include. The selected variable is now available for sensitivity analysis in a sensitivity setup defined in the current design or project.

6.

Optionally, override the default minimum and maximum values that Optimetrics will use for the variable in every sensitivity analysis. During sensitivity analysis, Optimetrics will not con-

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sider variable values that lie outside of this range. 7. Optionally, override the default initial displacement value that Optimetrics will use for the variable in every sensitivity analysis. During sensitivity analysis, Optimetrics will not consider a variable value for the first design variation that is greater than this step size away from the starting variable value. Click OK.

8.

Related Topics Setting up a Sensitivity Analysis

Choosing a Variable to Tune in RMxprt


Before a variable can be tuned, you must specify that you intend for it to be tuned in the Properties dialog box. 1. If the variable is a design variable, click RMxprt>Design Properties. If the variable is a project variable, click Project>Project Variables. The Properties dialog box appears. 2. 3. Click the tab that lists the variable you want to tune. Click the row containing the variable you want to tune. Dependent variables cannot be tuned.

Note 4. 5. 6.

Select the Tuning option. For the variable you want to tune, select Include. Click OK. The selected variable is now available for tuning in the Tune dialog box.

Related Topics Tuning a Variable

Including a Variable in a Statistical Analysis in RMxprt


Before a variable can be included in a statistical analysis, you must specify that you intend for it to be used during a statistical analysis in the Properties dialog box. 1. If the variable is a design variable, click RMxprt>Design Properties. If the variable is a project variable, click Project>Project Variables. The Properties dialog box appears. 2. 3. Click the tab that lists the variable you want to include in the statistical analysis. Click the row containing the variable you want to include in the statistical analysis. Dependent variables cannot be included in a statistical analysis.

Note 4.

Select the Statistics option.


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5.

For the variable you want to include in the statistical analysis, select Include. The selected variable is now available for statistical analysis in a statistical setup defined in the current design or project.

6. 7.

Optionally, override the distribution criteria that Optimetrics will use for the variable in every statistical analysis. Click OK.

Related Topics Setting up a Statistical Analysis

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3
Wire Specification Libraries

RMxprt contains a library of standard wire sizes for use in machine designs. These wire gauge specifications are based on widely used standards currently available in industry.

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Configure Wire Specification Library


In order to be able to select wire size for your design specifications, your need to configure wire specification library before you insert a new design in your project. RMxprt provides following wire gauge specifications based on the current widely used standards for bare copper wire gauges (including both round and rectangular wires):

American.wir ANSI_SingleFilm.wir ANSI_HeavyFilm.wir ANSI_TripleFilm.wir ANSI_QuadFilm.wir AWG_Int_SingleFilm.wir AWG_Int_HeavyFilm.wir AWG_Int_TripleFilm.wir AWG_Int_QuadFilm.wir Chinese.wir IEC_R20Grade1.wir IEC_R20Grade2.wir IEC_R20Grade3.wir IEC_R40Grade1.wir IEC_R40Grade2.wir IEC_R40Grade3.wir

File American.wir provides dimensions for all ANSI bare wires. Files ANSI*.wir provide dimensions for bare and film insulated copper wires with single, heavy, triple and quad builds of integer and half AWG numbers.

Files AWG_Int*.wir provide dimensions of integer AWG numbers.

Files IEC_R20*.wir provide dimensions of enameled copper wires with Grade-1, 2, and 3 insulations of R20 series. Files IEC_R40*.wir provide dimensions of R40 series. In files IEC*.wir, the gauge numbers are equivalent to the AWG numbers according to the nominal diameters.

These files are stored in the file folder <Library Directory>/syslib, where <Library Directory> is set via Tools>Options>General Options>Project Options.

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Specify the Wire Setting


To specify the wire setting: 1. Click Tools>Options>Machine Options. The Machine Editor Options dialog box appears, as shown.

2.

Select one of the following library locations:

System Libraries - libraries installed with Maxwell, located at <Library Directory>/syslib User Libraries - user created public libraries, located at <Library Directory>/userlib Personal Libraries - user created private libraries, located at <Project Directory>/PersonalLib where <Library Directory> and <Project Directory> are set via Tools>Options>General Options>Project Options.

3. 4.

Select one specification library from the pull-down list in Wire Setting area. Click OK to close the dialog box. The new wire setting does not affect all existing designs, but affects all designs inserted later. Wire specification library is saved with each design.

Note

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Hint

To modify the wire specification library saved in an existing design, double click the design to active its Machine Editor window, click Machine>Wire, modify wire data or Import a wire specification library file, and Save wire data to the design.

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Edit Wire Data


Users can modify wire data for the active design and export to create their own data files for the wire gauges according to the data for the wire gauge and thickness of insulation provided by the manufacturers. To define or edit wire data: 1. Click Machine>Wire. The dialog box Edit Wire Data appears, as shown.

2.

Select the units from the pull-down list Unit System:.


Note

in: English Unit System stands for British unit system. mm: Metric Unit System stands for the metric unit system. Changing the unit system is only for specifying input data unit, not for transferring data between two unit systems.

There are two tabs Round and Rectangle in the dialog box Edit Wire Data for editing two wire shapes.
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Edit Round Wire Data


Click the tab Round for editing the round wire shape. In the Round tab sheet, you specify the desired values for Gauge No., Diameter, and/or Wrap.

Gauge No.: wire gauge index number. Diameter: diameter of bare copper wire, in mm or inch. Wrap: thickness of insulation wrap, in mm or inch as shown.

You can edit the wire data in the spreadsheet by doing the following: 1. 2. 3. Directly modify the wire data. Add new rows for the wire by clicking Add Row. Delete rows for the wire by clicking Delete Row.

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Edit Rectangular Wire Data


Click the tab Rectangle for editing the rectangular wire shape. In the Rectangle tab sheet, as shown below, specify the desired values for Wire Shape Limit, Table Type, and Sides.

Wire Shape Limit


Specify the desired values to limit ratios of the two sides.

Wire Shape Limit (B/A) max: the maximum ratio between the wide and the narrow sides. Wire Shape Limit (B/A) min: the minimum ratio between the wide and the narrow sides.

Recommended Wire Sides


Use the radio buttons to specify whether to consider priority factors.

All Size: For No Consideration of Priority Factors. Click the command button Calculate in the dialog box Edit Wire Data, all the sectional areas of wire gauge with the ratio B/A between the wide and the narrow sides satisfying the condition (B/A)max > B / A > (B/A) min appear in the spread sheet table. Skip One:
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For Consideration of Priority Factors. Click the command button Calculate in the dialog box Edit Wire Data, all the sectional areas of wire gauge with the ratio B/A between the wide and the narrow sides satisfying the condition (B/A) max > B / A > (B/A) min appear in three different modes in the spread sheet. 1. 2. 3. At the cross of the odd columns and the odd rows, the sectional areas appear in black numbers (recommended to use). At the cross of the odd columns and the even rows or the even columns and the odd rows, the sectional areas appear in blue numbers (rarely used). At the cross of the even columns and the even rows, the sectional areas do not show (generally not used).

This is convenient for users to use recommended wire gauge according to R20 Priority Number Series.

Wire Sides
You can edit the wire data in the spread sheet: 1. 2. 3. Directly modify the wire data. Add new rows or columns for the wire, click Add Row or Add Column. Delete rows or columns for the wire, click Delete Row or Delete Column.

Export/Import Wire Data


After editing, you can export the wire data to a file: 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. Click Export, the Export File dialog box appears. The default directory for an exported wire data file is userlib. Provide the file name to export in the File name: edit box and use the default file type Wire Size File (*.wir). Click OK to return to the Edit Wire Data dialog box. Click Import, the Import File dialog box appears. Provide the file name to import in the File name: edit box (or by browsing) and use the default file type Wire Size File (*.wir). Click OK to return to the Edit Wire Data dialog box. During editing, you can save the wire data you entered by clicking Save. When you finish editing, click Close to close the Edit Wire Data dialog box.

Before editing, you can import the wire data from a file:

Save Wire Data

Note

Save wire data only updates the wire data in the active design.

3-8 Wire Specification Libraries

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4
Working with Materials in RMxprt

RMxprt shares many common functions related to materials and material handling with Maxwell3D and Maxwell2D. For general topics such as, Assigning Materials, Searching for Materials, Adding New Materials, and Viewing and Modifying Material Attributes, see the topics in Maxwell help under Assigning Materials. RMxprt includes a material library containing common materials used in motor design. However, this library needs to be configured so that it is automatically loaded for any new RMxprt design. Once the library is configured, you can add, remove, and edit RMxprt materials in two main ways:

Using the Tools>Edit Configured Libraries>Materials menu command. Right-clicking Materials in the project tree and selecting Edit All Libraries.

Editing definitions from the project window does not modify the configured libraries for any particular design. To consider the current design, use the Tools>Edit Configured Libraries option. Doing so ensures that new libraries are added to the configured list for the current design. If you edit materials from this command for the current and then export them, they will also be available to assign to objects in other designs. Related Topics: Configuring Design Libraries Material Library Management for RMxprt

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Material Library Management for RMxprt


The three most crucial electromagnetic materials in the electric machine are soft-magnetic material (silicon steel sheet), hard-magnetic material (permanent magnet) and electromagnetic wire. It is convenient to create a data file library for them for quick selection while inputting design data.

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Soft-Magnetic Materials
The stator and the rotor iron cores in the electric machine are generally laminated with punched sheets of nonlinear soft-magnetic silicon steel. Some special types of electric machines, such as moment motor, turbo-generator etc., use integrated solid rotor iron core of soft-magnetic material. For magnetic field analysis and core loss analysis of the electric machine, the magnetization characteristics (B-H Curve) and the loss characteristics (B-P Curve) of the iron-core material must be defined. The dialogue boxes to do so are accessed from the View/Edit Material window, which, in turn is accessed from the Edit Libraries window. Access to the window for editing the B-H curve is enabled when you set the Magnetic Permeability value to nonlinear (rather than simple or Anisotropic). When you set the value to nonlinear, the value field changes to a B-H Curve button. Click the B-H curve button to open the window. For the loss characteristics (B-P Curve), you first set the Core Loss Type of the material to Electrical Steel (rather than None or Power Ferrite) as a material property in the View/Edit Material window. When you do so, this enables the Calculate Properties selection for drop down at the bottom of the window. Select Core Loss Coefficient from the drop down menu to open the B-P Curve window. Related Topics: Adding New Materials to an RMxprt Project Setting the Material Threshold for RMxprt Assigning Materials Removing Materials Validating Materials Sorting Materials Viewing and Modifying Material Attributes Copying Materials Exporting Materials to a Library Calculating Properties for Core Loss in RMxprt (BP Curve)

Adding New Materials to an RMxprt Project


You can add a new material to a project or to the global user-defined material library. To make the new project material available to all projects, you must export the material to a global user-defined material library. To assign a material to an object: 1. Click Tools>Edit Configured Libraries>Materials.

2.

In the project tree, you can also right-click Materials, and select Edit All Libraries.

The Edit Libraries dialog box appears. Click Add Material.


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The View/Edit Material dialog box appears. 3. 4. Type a name for the new material in the Material Name text box. In the View/Edit Material for section, select whether this material should be available for the Active Design only, for This Product only or for All Products. The selection makes a difference in the properties displayed. When you select certain Type or Value options, additional parameters appear beneath some properties in the same way that Magnitude appears beneath Magnetic Coercivity. As necessary, specify values for any additional parameters that appear.

Note

5.

In the Properties of the Material table, specify the Type and the Value for the following material properties, displayed when Active Design is selected:


6. 7.

Relative Permeability. Bulk Conductivity Magnetic Coercivity (including the Magnitude of the vector) Core Loss Type - type selections for this property may enable access to coefficient calculation windows, and enable additional properties. Mass Density Relative Permittivity Dielectric Loss Tangent Magnetic Loss Tangent Composition

If you select This Product, additional fields are displayed.

Optionally, change the Units for any of the properties. Click Validate Material to verify the settings you have specified are valid for the existing properties. If the material setup is valid, a green check mark appears below the Validate Material button. Click OK to save the new material. The Edit Libraries dialog box reappears, with the new material added to the list of materials. Click OK to close the Edit Libraries dialog box.

8. 9.

Relative Permittivity for RMxprt Material


Specify the following for Relative Permittivity. and specify the units. Type Simple Anisotropic Value Type a value for the Relative Permittivity. The following two parameters appear:


4-4 Working with Materials in RMxprt

T(1,1) T(2,2)

Type a simple value for each.

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Note

This property is not used in RMxprt design analysis, but it will be transferred to Maxwell 3D Design automatically when the design is created by RMxprt.

Relative Permeability for an RMxprt Material


Select one the following for relative permeability and specify the units: Type Simple Anisotropic Value Type a value for the Relative Permeability. The following two parameters appear:

T(1,1) T(2,2)

You can also selection a Simple or Nonlinear type for each of these parameters. Nonlinear Click BH Curve, and specify the coordinates for the BH-curve in the B-H Window.

Note

The Anisotropic type is not used in RMxprt design.

Specifying a BH Curve for Nonlinear Relative Permeability


When you define a new material or edit an existing material in the View /Edit Materials window with a nonlinear relative permeability, you need to specify the magnetization characteristics (B-H Curve). 1. Open the View / Edit Materials dialog from the Edit Materials window either by:


2. 3. 4.

Select an existing material that you need to edit, and click View / Edit Material. Click Add Material.

Either of these actions open the View/ Edit Materials window. Under the Relative Permeability property, select nonlinear as the value. This opens the B H Curve window. Set the Units for H and the Units for B by selecting from the drop down menus. Do the following in the BH Curve window:

Note

Enter B and H values in each row of the Coordinates table. The value of B must increase along the curve. Also notice that placing the cursor in the field in the coordinates table enables the Add Row and Delete Row buttons.

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As you enter values, the graph is updated.

To Add or Edit rows, you can click the following buttons:

Add Row Above Add Row Below Append Rows (and specify the number of rows to append to the table in the dialog box that appears) Delete Rows

Optionally, click Import from file to import B-H curve from a file, and if they are in the wrong columns, click Swap X-Y Data to switch the B values and H values in the graphics display. 5. Click OK to close the window. The BH curve you have defined is associated with the Relative Permeability property of the material.

Bulk Conductivity for an RMxprt Material


Specify the following for bulk conductivity and specify the units: Type Simple Anisotropic Value Type a value for the Bulk Conductivity. The following two parameters appear:

T(1,1) T(2,2)

You can specify a Simple or Nonlinear type for each of these parameters.

Note

The Anisotropic type is not used in RMxprt design.

Dielectric Loss Tangent for RMxprt Material


Specify the following for dielectric loss tangent. Type Simple Anisotropic Value Type a value for the Bulk Conductivity. The following two parameters appear:

T(1,1) T(2,2)

Type a simple value for each.

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Note

This property is not used in RMxprt design analysis, but it will be transferred to Maxwell 3D Design automatically when the design is created by RMxprt.

Magnetic Loss Tangent for RMxprt Material


Type Simple Anisotropic Value Type a value for the Bulk Conductivity. The following two parameters appear:

T(1,1) T(2,2)

Type a simple value for each.

Note

This property is not used in RMxprt design analysis, but it will be transferred to Maxwell 3D Design automatically when the design is created by RMxprt.

Magnetic Coercivity for an RMxprt Material


Specify the following for magnetic coercivity and specify the units: Type Vector Value Appears by default. You also need to type a Value for the Magnitude.

Core Loss Type for an RMxprt Material


Specify the following for core loss type and specify the units: Name Value

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None Electrical Steel

No core loss is to be calculated for this material. The following parameters appear:

Kh: Hysteresis Kc: Classical Eddy Ke: Excess

Selecting Electrical Steel also enables the Calculate Properties for Core Loss Coefficient the pull-down list at the bottom of the dialog box. Selecting the Core Loss Coefficient opens the BP Curve window. Power Ferrite The following parameters appear:

Cm X Y

Selecting Power Ferrite also enables the Calculate Properties for Core Loss versus Frequency pull-down list at the bottom of the dialog box. Selecting the Core Loss versus Frequency opens the BP Curve window.

Calculating Properties for Core Loss in RMxprt (BP Curve)


To be able to extract parameters from the loss characteristics (B-P Curve), you first set the Core Loss Type of the material to Electrical Steel (rather than None or Power Ferrite) as a material property in the View / Edit Material window. To calculate core loss properties for an electrical steel material: 1. Click Tools>Edit Configured Libraries>Materials.

2. 3.

Or in the project tree, you can also right-click Materials, and select Edit All Libraries.

The Edit Libraries window appears. Click Add Material. The View/Edit Material window appears. In the Core Loss Type row, select Electrical Steel from the Value pull-down list. This enables the Calculate Properties for pull-down menu at the bottom of the dialogue box with the following two choices:

Calculate Properties for: Core Loss at One Frequency Calculate Properties for: Core Loss versus Frequency

It also displays parameters associated with Electrical Steel materials.

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Electrical Steel Core Loss from a Single-Frequency Loss Curve


With the Core Loss Type set to Electrical Steel: 1. 2. Select Core Loss at One Frequency from the Calculate Properties for: pull-down menu. The BP Curve window appears. Do one of the following to specify a BP curve:


Note

Import the curve from a saved file. Enter the coordinates manually. The accuracy in inputting the data for B-P Curve for the electrical steel material has significant effect on the correctness of the analyses to the electromagnetic characteristics of the electric machine. You should input the data for B-P Curve according to the accurate data provided by the manufacturers of materials.

3. 4.

Select the units in which the B-P curve is measured from the Core Loss Unit pull-down list. Type values and select units for the following:


5.

Mass Density Frequency Thickness Conductivity

The following parameters are dynamically updated with both the specified unit and the standard unit (w/m^3) as the input data changes. Kh -Hysteresis Kc - Classical Eddy Ke - Excess

Click OK. The View/Edit Material dialog box reappears. The property values fro Kh, Kc, and Ke are updated as new default values.

Computation of Core Loss from a Single-Frequency Loss Curve


The principles of the computation algorithm are summarized as follows. The iron-core loss is expressed as:

pv = ph + pc + pe = K1 Bm + K2 Bm
2 1.5

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where the eddy-current loss is

p c = k c ( fB m )
the hysteresis loss is

2 p h = k n fB m
and the excessive loss is

p e = k e ( fB m )
Therefore

1.5

K1 = kh f + Kc f K2 = ke f 1.5

The classical eddy-current loss coefficient is calculated directly as

2 2 d k c = ----
where is the conductivity and d is the thickness of one lamination sheets. Minimize the quadratic form to obtain K1 and K2.

2 1.5 err ( K 1, K 2 ) = p vi K 1 B mi + K 2 B mi i

= min

where Pvi , Bmi the i-th point of the data on the loss characteristics curve. The other two loss coefficients are obtained as

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2 K1 kc f 0 k h = -------------------------f 0 K2 k e = ----------1.5 f 0
where f0 is the testing frequency for B-H Curve. Related Topics: Calculating Properties for Core Loss (BP Curve) for Maxwell Core Loss Coefficients for Electrical Steel Core Loss Coefficient Extraction Core Loss Type for a Maxwell Material

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Electrical Steel Core Loss from Multi-Frequency Loss Curves


With the Core Loss Type set to Electrical Steel: 1. Select Core Loss versus Frequency from the Calculate Properties for: pull-down menu. The Core Loss versus Frequency window appears as shown:

2. 3. 4.

Using the Edit area, Add frequency points at which a dataset is available for the Core Loss. For each Dataset added, click the Edit Dataset button to launch the Edit Dataset dialog. Add Dataset information for the frequency by manually entering the data or importing the data from a table. Click OK to accept the dataset and return to the Core Loss versus Frequency dialog. Continue adding dataset information until all frequencies have datasets defined. Click OK when all frequencies have valid data to complete the core loss calculation and return to the View/Edit Material dialog.

5.

Computation of Core Loss from Multi-Frequency Loss Curves


The principles of the computation algorithm are summarized as follows. The iron-core loss is expressed as:

pv = ph + pc + pe

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2 2 1.5 = k h fB m + k c ( fB m ) + k e ( fB m )
Minimize the quadratic form to obtain kh , kc and ke directly.

ni

err ( k h, k c, k e ) =

i = 1j = 1

2 2 2 2 1.5 1.5 p vij k h f i B mij + k c f i B mij + k e f i B mij = min

where m - the number of loss curves, ni - the number of points of the i-th loss curve, and Pvij = f(fi , Bmij) - two dimensional lookup table for multi-frequency loss curves.

Power Ferrite Core Loss from Multi-Frequency Loss Curves


With the Core Loss Type set to Power Ferrite: 1. Select Core Loss versus Frequency from the Calculate Properties for: pull-down menu. The Core Loss versus Frequency window appears as shown:

2. 3. 4.

Using the Edit area, Add frequency points at which a dataset is available for the Core Loss. For each Dataset added, click the Edit Dataset button to launch the Edit Dataset dialog. Add Dataset information for the frequency by manually entering the data or importing the data from a table. Click OK to accept the dataset and return to the Core Loss versus Frequency
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dialog. Continue adding dataset information until all frequencies have datasets defined. 5. Click OK when all frequencies have valid data to complete the core loss calculation and return to the View/Edit Material dialog.

Computation of Power Ferrite Core Loss from Loss Curves


The principles of the computation algorithm are summarized as follows. The iron-core loss is expressed as:

x y p v = Cm f B m
or

log ( p v ) = c + x log ( f ) + y log ( B m )


where

c = log ( C m )
Minimize the quadratic form to obtain c, x and y.

m err ( c, x, y ) =

ni

i = 1j = 1

[ log ( p vij ) ( c + x log ( f i ) + y log ( B mij ) ) ] = min

where m - the number of loss curves, ni - the number of points of the i-th loss curve, and Pvij = f(fi , Bmij) - two dimensional lookup table for multi-frequency loss curves. Then Cm is calculated from the equation above.

Mass Density for RMxprt Material


Provide a simple value for Mass density in kg/m^3.

Composition for RMxprt Material


Specify whether the composition is Solid or Lamination. If Lamination, specify the:

Stacking Factor - takes a simple value Stacking Direction - a drop down menu lets you select V(1), V(2), or V(3).

Note

This property is not used in RMxprt design analysis, but it will be transferred to Maxwell 3D Design automatically when the design is created by RMxprt.

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Permanent Magnet Materials in RMxprt


A permanent magnet is defined as a material that generates a magnetic flux due to permanent magnetic dipoles in that material.

Nonlinear vs. Linear Permanent Magnets


In general, permanent magnets are nonlinear and should be modeled via a B-H curve as shown below. The magnetic coercivity, Hc, is defined as the B-H curve's H-axis intercept, and the magnetic remanence, Br, as its B-axis intercept.
B

Linear Permanent Magnet

Nonlinear Permanent Magnet

Br

Hc

In many applications, however, the permanent magnet's behavior can be approximated using a linear relationship between B and H. In these cases, there is no need to create a nonlinear material. Simply enter the appropriate values of Br or Hc for the material when defining its properties.

Calculating the Properties for a Non-Linear Permanent Magnet


Non-Linear permanent magnet properties may be specified in one of two ways. First, a demagnetization curve may be input directly as follows: 1. 2. 3. Click the View/Edit Materials button in the Edit Libraries dialog box. The View/Edit Material dialog box appears. The nonlinear demagnetization curve is defined by setting the Relative Permeability property to Nonlinear. Input the demagnetization curve via B-H Curve button in the property Value column. The operations to input the nonlinear demagnetization curve are the same as entering a BH curve for Steel material. When a BH curve goes through the second quadrant, the curve is treated as a demagnetization curve.

In addition, a non-linear demagnetization curve can be modeled by the following four parameters:

residual flux density Br


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coercive field force Hc maximum energy product (BH)max relative recoil permeability r

Maxwell provides a tool to create a nonlinear demagnetization curve directly from these four parameters. 1. 2. Selecting Nonlinear for Relative Permeability enables the pull-down list Calculate Properties for: Nonlinear Permanent Magnet at the bottom of the dialog box. Selecting Nonlinear Permanent Magnet opens the dialog box Properties for Nonlinear Permanent Magnet as shown:

3.

Input the specified four parameters and click OK. Maxwell will create a lookup table based on the Four-Parameter Curve Fitting algorithm, and update the coordinates of the BH curve automatically as long as the input data of four parameters pass the validation check.

Related Topics: Four-Parameter Curve Fitting

Calculating the Properties for a Linear Permanent Magnet


Edit a linear demagnetization curve is simple. From the View/Edit Materials window: 1. Set the Relative Permeability to Simple. This enables the Calculate Properties for Permanent Magnet drop down menu at the bottom of the window. 2. Click Permanent Magnet from the drop down menu. This displays the Properties for Permanent Magnet window. This contains the following

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fields. Mu (enabled by default) Hc (enabled by default) Provide a value. Coercive field force Hc in the units specified. Provide a value and select units from the drop down menu.

Br/Mp (disabled by default) Checking this enables the radio buttons that let you specify either Br or Mp. Br Residual flux density Br, in Tesla. If enabled, provide a value and select units from the drop down menu. Mp If enabled, provide a value and select units form the drop down menu.

3.

Click OK to close the dialogue and return to the View/Edit Materials window.

The values for Relative Permeability and Magnitude under Magnetic Coercivity are updated as new default values. Note The accuracy in inputting the characteristic parameters for the permanent-magnetic material has significant effect on the correctness of the analyses to the electromagnetic characteristics of the electric machine. It is suggested that users should input the characteristic parameters of the permanent-magnetic material according to the accurate data provided by the manufacturers of materials. RMxprt provides a few characteristic parameters of permanent-magnetic materials for reference.

Using Demagnetization Curves


Many permanent magnet manufactures directly provide demagnetization curves for their products, but in most cases, manufactures provide some main parameters, such as residual flux density Br, coercive field force Hc and maximum magnetic energy product (BH)max, and relative recoil magnetic permeability r. This section and the next section describe the basic parameters for the demagnetization curve of permanent magnets and the curve fitting based on these parameters.

Hysteresis Loop
The permanent-magnetic material belongs to hard-magnetic material. It is characterized with "fat" hysteresis loop, which encloses large area as shown in the figure. When magnetized, it keeps high magnetic property with the external magnetic field removed, therefore is used in the permanentmagnet electric machine to produce magnetic field. The characteristics of the permanent-magnetic material are represented with its main parameters: residual flux density Br, coercive field force Hc and maximum magnetic energy product (BH)max.

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Demagnetization Curve
The part of the maximum hysteresis loop of the permanent-magnetic material in the second quadrant is called the demagnetization curve as shown in the next figure. It is the basic characteristics curve of the permanent-magnetic material. On the demagnetization curve, the magnetic flux density has positive values, but the magnetic field intensity has negative values. It means that the permanent-magnetic material is applied with demagnetization magnetic field intensity. Since Hm and Bm are in opposite directions, when the magnetic flux goes through the permanent-magnetic material, the magnetic potential difference along the direction of the magnetic flux does not drop, but

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rises. Therefore, the permanent-magnetic material is a magnetic source, similar to the electric source in the electric circuit.

The two extreme positions on the demagnetization curve are the two significant parameters to represent the magnetic characteristics of the permanent-magnetic material. On the demagnetization curve, the value of the magnetic flux density corresponding to zero magnetic field intensity H is termed residual flux density Br, on the other hand, the value of the magnetic field intensity corresponding to zero magnetic flux density B is termed coercive field force Hc. The produce of the magnetic flux density and the magnetic field intensity at any point on the demagnetization curve is termed magnetic energy product (BH), which is proportional to the magnetic energy density possessed by the permanent magnet at the given operating situation. At the two extreme positions (B = Br, H = 0) and (B = 0, H = Hc), the magnetic energy product is equal to zero. Somewhere at an intermediate position, the magnetic energy reaches its maximum value and is termed maximum magnetic energy product (BH)max, which is another significant parameter to represent the magnetic characteristics of the permanent-magnetic material. To some permanent-magnetic materials with linear demagnetization curve, it is obvious that at (B = Br / 2, H = Hc / 2), the magnetic energy product reaches its maximum value, i.e. (BH)max = Br Hc / 4.

Recoil Lines
The relationship between the magnetic flux density and the magnetic field intensity represented by the demagnetization curve only exists when the magnetic field intensity varies in the same direction. In fact, when the permanent magnet electric machine is working, the demagnetization field intensity varies repeatedly in both directions. When demagnetization field is applied to the magne-

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tized permanent magnet, the magnetic flux density decreases along the curly segment BrP on the demagnetization curve as shown in the figure

. If the external demagnetization field intensity Hp is removed when the magnetic flux density reaches the point P, the magnetic flux density will increase not along the original demagnetization curve, but along another curve PVR. If the external demagnetization field intensity is reapplied, the magnetic flux density will decrease along the new curve RUP. By repeatedly applying the demagnetization field intensity, a localized loop is formed and is termed local hysteresis loop. On the local hysteresis loop, the rising segment and the dropping segment are quite close to each other, therefore can be approximated by the straight line PR, which is termed recoil line with P as the starting point. If demagnetization field with intensity Hq not exceeding the original value Hp is applied thereafter, the magnetic flux density will vary reversibly along the recoil line PR. If Hq > Hp, the magnetic flux density drops to a new starting point Q. It will vary along the new recoil line QS, but not the previous one PR. This sort of irreversible variation in magnetic flux density causes instability in the characteristics of electric machines and complicates the design computation of permanent magnet electric machines, therefore should be avoided as possible.

Recoil Magnetic Permeability


The ratio of the average slope of the recoil line to the magnetic permeability in vacuum 0 (0= 4 x 10-7 H/m) is termed relative recoil magnetic permeability or recoil magnetic permeability for short, r:

r =

1 B 0 H

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If the demagnetization curve is curly, the value of r depends on the location of the starting point and is a variable, but typically varies within a small range. Therefore, it is approximated as a constant and is taken as the slop of the tangent to the point (Br, 0) on the demagnetization curve. In other words, the recoil lines at different starting points are approximated as a family of parallel lines, which are all parallel to the tangent to the point (Br, 0) on the demagnetization curve.

Inflection Point
Some permanent-magnetic materials, such as some ferrite permanent-magnetic materials, show straight upper segment on the demagnetization curve. When the demagnetization field intensity drops to a given value, the demagnetization curve turns to decrease rapidly. The turning point is termed inflection point. If the demagnetization field intensity does not exceed the inflection point k, the recoil line coincides with the straight segment on the demagnetization curve. If the demagnetization field intensity exceeds the inflection point k, the new recoil line RP no longer coincides with the straight segment on the demagnetization curve.

Some permanent-magnetic materials, such as most of the rare-earth permanent-magnetic materials, show straight demagnetization curve in the whole range. In those cases, the recoil line coincides with the demagnetization curve. This makes the magnetic property keep stable while the permanent-magnet electric machine is working. This is the best ideal demagnetization curve for electric machine applications.

Curve Fitting of Demagnetization Curves


RMxprt fits the demagnetization curve according to the given characteristic parameters Br, Hc, (BH)max and r.

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Three Parameter Curve Fitting


Given the three characteristic parameters Br, Hc and (BH)max, the principles of the three-parameter curve fitting algorithm are summarized as follows.Using the following figure as a reference:

Hc H a = -----a
and

Br B a = ----a
where a<1. Any magnetic flux density B in the interval

0 B Br
corresponds to the magnetic field intensity H:

Ha Hc Hc ( 1 a ) Br B H = H c + -------------------- B = H c + ----------------------- B = H c -----------------Ba B B r aB B r aB

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The tangent at any point is given by:

B 2 1 a ----- Br Br 1 dB dH ------ = ------ - = ---------------------------- ----- dB dH 1a Hc


The magnetic flux density Bm and the magnetic field intensity Hm corresponding to the maximum magnetic energy product satisfy the following relationship:

dB -----dH

B = Bm

Br = -----Hc

Solving yields:

Br B m = -----------------------1+ 1a

and

Hc H m = -----------------------1+ 1a

Let the magnetic energy product at the point equal to (BH)max be:

Br Hc B m H m = -------------------------------- = ( BH ) max 2 (1 + 1 a)
Solving yields:

a = 2

Br Hc Br Hc --------------------------------------------( BH ) max ( BH ) max

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The relative recoil magnetic permeability r is calculated as:

Br 1 dB - r = ----- -----= ( 1 a ) ------------ 0 dH 0 Hc B = Br


Four Parameter Curve Fitting
The three-parameter curve fitting technique fits the demagnetization curve well. For the nonlinear permanent-magnetic material, the real operating point lies often not on the demagnetization curve, but on the recoil line. The relative recoil magnetic permeability calculated with the three-parameter curve fitting technique will cause deviation, therefore RMxprt employs a more accurate fitting technique: four-parameter curve fitting technique, as introduced below. Given the four characteristic parameters Br, Hc, (BH)max and r, the principles of the four-parameter curve fitting algorithm are summarized as follows: 1. Draw a line through the point (0, Br) with the slope equal to -ro as shown in the Figure. The segment of this line in the second quadrant is termed the ideal recoil line.

2. 3. 4.

Find the virtual magnetic flux density Br0. With Br0, Hc, and (BH)max, draw the demagnetization curve with the three-parameter curve fitting technique. The curve should touch the ideal recoil line at the tangent point (Ht, Bt). Any magnetic flux density B in the interval

0 B Br
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corresponds to the magnetic field intensity H:

B r0 B ------------------------ Hc B a B r0 o H = B Bt H t + ------------- r o
1.

B Bt B Bt

The virtual magnetic flux density Br0 is found by iteration: Start from the initial guess for the lower and the upper bounds for the virtual magnetic flux density Br0:

( BH ) max B 0 = max r o H c, ----------------------- Hc B1 = Br


2. Let:

B0 + B1 B r0 = ------------------2
3. With Br0, Hc, and (BH)max, draw the demagnetization curve with the three-parameter curve fitting technique.

a0 = 2

B r0 H c B r0 H c ----------------------- ----------------------( BH ) max ( BH ) max

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4.

The curve should touch a line parallel to the ideal recoil line at the tangent point (Ht, Bt).

B r0 a0 = 0 B t = B r0 r 0 H c ( 1 a 0 )B r0 a0 > 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------------a0
and

B r0 B t H t = H c -------------------------B r0 a 0 B t
5. For any magnetic flux density B in the interval

0 B Br
the corresponding magnetic field intensity H will be calculated by:

B r0 B ------------------------ Hc B a B r0 o H = B Bt H t + -------------r o
6.

B Bt B Bt

Calculate the value of Hr corresponding to Br using:

Br Bt H r = H t + ----------------r 0
7. If Hr>0, the assumed virtual Br0 is too small, the lower bound of the interval needs to be increased, so let B0=Br0. If, however, Hr<0, the assumed Br0 is too big, the upper bound of the interval needs to be decreased, so let B1=Br0. Repeat steps (2) through (7) until Hr converges to 0 within satisfactory precision.

8.

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Conductor Data
When a material is assigned to a machine part, RMxprt checks that the material is appropriate for the machine part based upon whether it is a conductor or other material type. RMxprt distinguishes conductors based on material threshold settings. RMxprts treatment of conductors may be set by the used by adjusting the Material Threshold.

Setting the Material Threshold for RMxprt


1. 2. 3. Click RMxprt>Design Settings. The Design Settings dialog box appears with the Set Material Threshold tab selected. Type a value in the Conductivity Threshold text box (Default=10,000). Type a value in the Permeability text box (Default=100). RMxprt will treat materials with conductivity greater than 10,000 as conductors, and materials with Permeability greater than 100 as steels.

Note 4.

If you want these values to be the default, change the values by clicking the Tools>Options>RMxprt Options menu and setting the material thresholds in the RMxprt Options dialog. Click OK.

5.

Editing Conductivity Properties in RMxprt


In the View/Edit Materials dialog: 1. Bulk Conductivity has two property types from the pull-down list Type.

Simple: For this type, you must type a simple value for the property value. Anisotropic: For this type, you must specify material properties for three principal directions: a. b. c. T(1,1) T(2,2) T(3,3)

Note 2.

The Anisotropic type is not used in RMxprt design analysis, but it will be transferred to Maxwell 3D Design automatically when the design is created by RMxprt.

Mass Density is a Simple parameter.

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5
Specifying RMxprt Solution Settings

Specify how RMxprt computes a solution by adding a solution setup to the design. You can define more than one solution setup per design. To add a solution setup to a design: 1. 2. Select a design in the project tree. Click RMxprt>Analysis Setup>Add Solution Setup.

Alternatively, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and then click Add Solution Setup on the shortcut menu. Includes general solution settings, including rated output power, speed, operating temperature, etc.

The Solution Setup dialog box appears. It is divided among the following tabs: General

<machine type> Included settings specific to the selected machine type. 3. 4. Click the General tab. If available for the machine you are using, select an Operation Type from the pull-down list. This may be Motor or Generator. When you OK the selection, this makes a difference in the Load Type available. 5. Select a Load Type from the pull-down list. For Motor operation, this comes from the following:

Const Speed Const Power Const Torque Linear Torque Fan Load

If the model has an Operation Type, and you select Generator, the Load Type options are the
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following: Infinite Bus or Independent Generator. 6. 7. 8. 9. Type the Rated Output Power, and select the units. Type the Rated Voltage, and select the units. Type the Rated Speed, and select the units. Type the Operating Temperature, and select the units. The options vary depending on the machine. For example, the 3 Phase Induction Motor includes options for:

10. Click the <machine type> tab (if any for this machine).

Frequency and Units Winding Connection (Wye or Delta). Rated Power Factor Winding Connection (Wye or Delta) Exciter Efficiency Input Exciting current and units

The 3 Phase Synchronous Machine includes options for:

The Brushless DC Motor does not use the <machine type> tab. 11. Specify the desired settings, based on the machine type you have selected. 12. Click OK. Note To edit a setup after it has been created, right-click the specific setup (for example, Setup1), under Analysis in the project tree, and then click Properties on the shortcut menu.

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Generating a Custom Design Sheet for RMxprt


RMxprt allows to import all the data items of Design Output into worksheet of Microsoft Excel in order for users to design Design Sheet of their own styles according to their own requirements with resort to functions of Microsoft Excel. Before you can specify a design sheet, you first need to customize a template in Microsoft Excel and set the export options. To set the export options: 1. 2. 3. Click RMxprt>Design Settings. The Design Settings dialog box appears. Select the Export Options tab. In the Design Sheet section, specify an Excel Template by clicking the ... button, selecting the template you want to use, and clicking Save. Click OK.

To create a design sheet based on a previously-customized template after the design has been analyzed: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click RMxprt>Analysis Setup>Export. The Export dialog box appears. Select Customized Design Sheet from the Type pull-down menu. Choose the Solution Setup from the pull-down menu. In the Path field, enter the location to export the files to, or use the ellipsis (...) button to browse to the desired location. Click OK.

RMxprt will connect to Microsoft Excel according to the set path and automatically import the relevant data from Design Output into a copy of the customized Design Sheet Template. Specific data not available in Design Output is shown as N/A, for instance, RS in Slot Sizes is N/A (mm) when stop type is 1. The post-processing of data is automatically performed, for instance, Winding Weight is 0.947 (kg). Note Several Design Sheet examples are shipped with RMxprt in the examples subdirectory of your installation.

Related Topics: Exporting a Maxwell or Simplorer Model

Key Words in Output Data for RMxprt


In Design Output of RMxprt, the literal expressions for various parameters are termed key words of output data. For example, the Design Output for Line-start Permanent-magnet Synchronous Motor (lssm) is shown below.

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In the Design Output, "Rated Output Power", "Rated Voltage", "Number of Poles", "Frequency", "Frictional Loss", etc. are all key words of output data. To resort to those key words into Microsoft Excel worksheet, the corresponding data in the Design Output should be import into the worksheet.

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Creating RMxprt Customized Design Sheet Template


As a sample example, the Line-start Permanent-magnet Synchronous Motor (lssm) is taken to demonstrate the process to create a Customized Design Sheet template. Start Microsoft Excel, rename the blank worksheet file as "lssm" and save it under the path ansoft\rmxprt5 as shown below.

Design Template of Microsoft Excel Worksheet in Preferred Styles


According to special requirements and preferences, select relevant parameters, arrange the page formats of worksheet. Taking as example a part of the parameters of the Design Sheet of the Linestart Permanent-magnet Synchronous Motor (lssm), the designed worksheet template is shown below.

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In the template, the yellow-colored areas are reserved for importing data.

Resort to Key Words in Design Output


In the spaces for importing data in the template (as shown with yellow color), key in = "xxxxx". Within the double quotation marks, xxxxx stands for the relevant key words as shown below.

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Set Boundary for Data Imported into Worksheet for RMxprt


Rmxprt will automatically search for matching key words while importing data into Microsoft Excel worksheet. To reduce the searching space, and therefore the searching time, it is possible to set searching boundary. RMxprt defines = "" as identification of boundary. In Figure 6.5, for instance, the cells in the green-colored area are all keyed in with = "" to form boundary. While importing data, RMxprt will not search below or right to the boundary for matching key words.

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Insert Figures into Template for RMxprt


With resort to function Paste, it is possible to insert desired figures into the worksheet template. In the following example, for instance, four figures of slot types are inserted.

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Use Different Languages for RMxprt Design Sheets


According to the different languages provided by Microsoft Excel, it is possible to use preferred language other than English in the worksheet template. In the following example, for instance, Simplified Chinese is used.

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Note

Key words are not allowed to be expressed in other languages.

Post-process Data for RMxprt


With resort to the relevant functions of Microsoft Excel, it is possible to post-process data in the worksheet template. For instance, to calculate the weight of winding by formula:

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winding weight = number of slots number of conductors per slot number of parallel wires length of half turns of coil sectional area of wire specific weight of wire
In the following figure, the formula is entered into the relevant cell as: =H7*D30*D31*D36*3.14*D32*D32*0.0078/4

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6
Running an RMxprt Simulation

After you specify how RMxprt will compute the solution, begin the solution process. 1. 2. Select a solution setup in the project tree. Click RMxprt>Analyze.

To run more than one analysis at a time, follow the same procedure while a simulation is running. The next solution setup will be solved when the previous solution is complete. To solve every solution setup in a design: 1. 2. In the project tree, under the design you want to solve, select Analysis. Click RMxprt>Analyze All. Each solution setup is solved in the order it appears in the project tree.

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Aborting RMxprt Analyses


To end the solution process before it is complete:

Right-click in the Progress window, and select Abort from the shortcut menu. The analysis stops immediately.

If you aborted the solution in the middle of an adaptive pass, the data for that pass or current frequency point is deleted. Any solutions that were completed prior to the one that was aborted are still available.

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Re-solving an RMxprt Problem


If you modify a design after generating a solution, the solution in memory will no longer match the design. The solution setup with the invalid solution is marked with an X in the project tree and in the Results window. To generate a new solution after modifying a design, follow the procedure for running a simulation: 1. 2. Select a solution setup in the project tree. Click RMxprt>Analyze.

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Post Processing and Generating Reports in RMxprt

When RMxprt has completed a solution, you can display and analyze the results in the following ways:

View solution data. Specify output variables. Export a model to be used in Maxwell2D, Maxwell 3D, or SIMPLORER. Create a Customized Design Sheet

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Viewing RMxprt Solution Data


To access the Solutions dialog box, do one of the following:

Click RMxprt>Results>Solution Data. Right-click Results in the project tree, and then click Solution Data on the shortcut menu. Right-click Setup1 in the Project tree, and then click Solution Data on the shortcut menu. Click the Solution Data button on the toolbar. Solution Data - this contains a Data field with a drop-down menu that allows you to view many different data tables, which vary with the machine type.

The Solutions dialog contains four tabs:

Full Load Operation Material Consumption No Load Operation Permanent Magnet Rotor Data Stator Slot Stator Winding Steady State Parameters

Parameters - if you have defined parameters for the project, this tab displays them, and shows their calculated values. Design Sheet - this displays the contexts of the .res file for the current setup. The file contains tables with information for such things as (depending on the machine type):


1. 2.

General Data Stator Data Rotor Data Permanent Magnet Data Material Consumption Steady State Parameters No Load Magnetic Data Full Load Data Winding Arrangement Transient FEA Input Data Right-click the design sheet. The shortcut menu appears. Select Print from the shortcut menu.

To print the design sheet:

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The Print dialog box appears. 3. Select the printer, and click OK to print.

Curves - this displays the plots that were automatically generated by the solver. You can select these from a drop down menu (the menu contents vary with the machine type):


1. 2. 3.

Input DC Current vs Speed Efficiency vs Speed Output Power vs Speed Output Torque vs Speed Cogging Torque in Two Teeth Induced Coil Voltage at Rated Speed Air Gap Flux Density Induced Winding Phase Voltage at Rated Speed Winding Currents Under Load Phase Voltage Under Load Right click on the designed plot to display the pop-up menu. Click Print on the menu to display the Print dialog. Select the printer, and click OK to print.

To print plots from the Curve tab.:

To open the Solution Data dialog box directly on the Curves tab, click the Curves toolbar button.

Browse Solutions in RMxprt


If you have run different solutions on a design, you can use the RMxprt>Results>Browse Solutions to look through and manage them. 1. Click RMxprt>Results>Browse Solutions This displays the Solutions dialog with the Browse tab selected. From here you can select a design, and view the Setup, Solution and State tables. 2. Click the Properties button to view the Solution Browser properties dialog. This contains radio buttons for you to select the tree view. It can be organized as:


3.

Variation / Setup / Solution Setup / Solution / Variation Setup /Variation / Solution

Click OK to accept your selection and close the dialog. From the Solution dialog, you can select and delete solutions.

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Specifying Output Variables in RMxprt


The parameters defined in Parameters in the Project tree cannot be directly used in Optimetrics Analysis. In order to display solution data in Optimetrics Analysis, you must define Output Variables. The Output Variables window contains three sections:

Output Variables section, where you can specify the name and expression for a new output variable. Calculation section, where you can insert quantities together with the associated function into the Expression area of the Output Variables section. Function section, where you can insert a function into the Expression area of the Output Variables section.

Adding a New Output Variable in RMxprt


To add an output variable: 1. Click RMxprt>Results>Output Variables or, in the Project tree, right-click on Results and select Output Variables from the short-cut menu. The Output Variables window appears. Variables defined using the RMxprt>Results>Output Variables command appear in the list at the top of the window. 2. 3. 4. In the Output Variables section, enter a name for the new variable in the Name box. Click in the Expression area. To enter an expression, do one or both of the following: a. b. 5. 6. 7. Type part or all of the expression directly in the Expression area. Insert part or all of the expression using the options in the Calculation and Function sections.

Click Add to add the new variable to the list. Repeat steps 2 through 5 to add additional variables. When you are finished adding output variables, click Done to close the Output Variables window.

Building an Expression Using Existing Quantities


When you are entering an expression for a new output variable, you can insert part or all of the expression using the options in the Calculation and Function sections of the Output Variables window. To add an input variable by inserting part or all of the expression: 1. Click RMxprt>Results>Output Variables or, in the Project Tree, right-click on Results and select Output Variables from the short-cut menu. The Output Variables window appears. 2. In the Output Variables section, enter a name for the new variable in the Name box.

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3. 4.

Click in the Expression area. To insert a quantity: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. From the Design pull-down list, select the design from which you want to select the quantity. From the Report Type pull-down list, select the type of report from which you want to select the quantity. From the Solution pull-down list, select the solution from which you want to select the quantity. From the Category list, select the type of quantity you want to enter. From the Quantity list, select the quantity. From the Function list, select a ready-made function (this option is the same as inserting the function from the Function section). If applicable, from the Domain list, select the solution domain. Click Insert Quantity Into Expression. The selected quantity is entered into the Expression area of the Output Variables section.

5.

To insert a function: a. b. In the Function section, select a ready-made function from the pull-down list. Click Insert Function. The function appears in the Expression area of the Output Variables section.

6. 7. 8.

When you are finished defining the variable in the Expression area, click Add to add the new variable to the list. Repeat steps 2 through 6 to add additional variables. When you are finished adding output variables, click Done to close the Output Variables window.

Note

Remember the evaluated value of an expression is always interpreted as in SI units. However, when a quantity is plotted in a report, you have the option to plot values in units other than SI.

Deleting Output Variables in RMxprt


To delete output variables: 1. 2. 3. 4. Remove all references to the output variable in the project. Save the project to erase the command history. Click RMxprt>Results>Output Variables or, in the Project Tree, right-click on Results and select Output Variables from the short-cut menu to open the Output Variables dialog. Select the variable and click the Delete button.
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5.

Click OK to close the dialog.

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Exporting a Maxwell or SIMPLORER Model


To export the model to a Maxwell 2D Project, Maxwell 3D Design, or SIMPLORER model, or Customized Design sheet: 1. 2. Click RMxprt>Analysis Setup>Export. A submenu appears. Select one of the following from the submenu:


3. 4. 5. 6.

Maxwell 2D V11 Project Simplorer Model Customized Design Sheet

Select the setup you want to export from the Solution Setup pull-down list. Optionally, click the Variation ellipsis (... ) button to specify a Design Variation to use during project export. Specify the Path to store the project files in by clicking the Path ellipsis (...) button and browsing to the desired directory. Click OK.

You can now open the model in the product to which you exported it, and perform other kinds of analyses. Related Topics:

Generating a Custom Design Sheet for RMxprt

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Create a Maxwell Design


To export the model to a Maxwell 2D Design or Maxwell 3D Design: 1. 2. Click RMxprt>Analysis Setup>Create Maxwell Design The Create Maxwell Design submenu appears. Select one of the following from the submenu:


3. 4. 5.

Maxwell 2D Design Maxwell 3D Design

Select the setup you want to export from the Solution Setup pull-down list. Optionally, click the ... button to specify a Variation. For Maxwell 2D Design export:


6.

Select the Auto Setup radio button to have the complete design including boundaries and excitations automatically created in the current project. Unselect the Auto Setup radio button to create only the model in the Maxwell Design.

Click OK.

You can now work with the model in the Maxwell2D or Maxwell3D design, add boundaries and excitations, and perform analyses, and analyze results.

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Creating Reports in RMxprt


After RMxprt has generated a solution, all of the results for that solution are available for analysis. One of the ways you can analyze your solution data is to create a report, or graphical representation, that displays the relationship between a design's values and the corresponding analysis results. Reports are created using the Traces dialog box. The available options in the Traces dialog box depend on the report type you create and the available solution data. Following is the general procedure for creating a report: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Click RMxprt>Results>Create Report. The Create Report dialog box appears. In the Target Design pull-down list, click the design containing the solution data you want to plot. In the Report Type pull-down list, click RMxprt. In the Display Type pull-down list, select the type of report you want to create. Click OK. The Traces dialog box appears. In the Solution pull-down list, click the solution containing the data you want to plot. To create a new mathematical expression to plot, do the following: a. b. 8. 9. Click Output Variables. The Output Variables dialog box appears. Add the expression you want to plot, and then click Done. Add one or more traces to include in the report. Click Done. The report appears in the view window and is listed in the project tree. Once you have created a report, addition options become available on the Results submenu.

Modifying Reports in RMxprt


To modify the data that is plotted in a report: 1. 2. 3. 4. In the project tree, right-click the report you want to modify. A shortcut menu appears Select Modify Report from the shortcut menu. The Traces dialog box appears. Modify the selections in the Traces dialog box as needed. Click Done when you are finished modifying the report. The updated report appears in the view window. To update all modified reports: Click RMxprt>Results>Update Reports.
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Opening All Reports in RMxprt


To open all reports for a project: Click RMxprt>Results>Open All Reports. This opens all reports. To simplify viewing and comparisons, it may be helpful to use Window>Cascade or Window>Tile Horizontally or Window>Tile Vertically commands. To close all open reports: Click Window>Close All.

Deleting All Reports in RMxprt


To delete all reports for a project: Click RMxprt>Results>Delete All Reports. This deletes all reports for the project.

Selecting the Display Type in RMxprt


The information in a report can be displayed in several formats. Select from the following Display Type formats in the Create Report dialog box: Rectangular Plot Data Table A 2D rectangular (x-y) graph. A spreadsheet with rows and columns that displays, in numeric form, selected quantities against a swept variable or another quantity.

3D Rectangular Plot A 3D rectangular (x-y-z) graph.

Creating 2D Rectangular Plots in RMxprt


A rectangular plot is a 2D, x-y graph of results. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click RMxprt>Results>Create Report. The Create Report window appears. In the Target Design list, click the design containing the solution data you want to plot. In the Report Type list, click the data type you want to plot. In the Display Type list, click Rectangular Plot. Click OK. The Traces dialog box appears. The Y tab is selected by default. Under the Y tab, specify the information to plot along the y-axis: a. b. c. 7. In the Category list, click the type of information to plot. In the Quantity list, click the value to plot. In the Function list, click the mathematical function of the quantity to plot. Select Use Primary Sweep.

Under the X tab, specify the quantity to plot along the x-axis in one of the following ways:

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The first (primary) sweep variable listed under the Sweeps tab will be plotted along the xaxis.

8. 9.

Clear the Use Primary Sweep option, and then select the Category, Quantity, and Function of the quantity to plot on the x-axis. The quantity will be plotted against the primary sweep variable listed under the Sweeps tab.

Under the Sweeps tab, confirm or modify the sweep variables that will be plotted. Click Add Trace. A trace represents one or more lines connecting data points on the graph. The trace is added to the traces list at the top of the Traces dialog box. Each column lists an axis on the report and the information that will be plotted on that axis.

10. Optionally, add another trace by following the procedure above. 11. Click Done. The function of the selected quantity is plotted against the swept variable values or quantities you specified on an x-y graph. The plot is listed under Results in the project tree. Related Topics

Sweeping a Variable Working with Traces

Creating 3D Rectangular Plots in RMxprt


A rectangular plot is a 3D, x-y-z graph of results. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click RMxprt>Results>Create Report. The Create Report window appears. In the Target Design list, click the design containing the solution data you want to plot. In the Report Type list, click the data type you want to plot. In the Display Type list, click 3D Rectangular Plot. Click OK. The Traces dialog box appears. The Z tab is selected by default. Under the Z tab, specify the information to plot along the z-axis: a. b. c. 7. In the Category list, click the type of information to plot. In the Quantity list, click the value to plot. In the Function list, click the mathematical function of the quantity to plot. Select Use Secondary Sweep. The second (secondary) sweep variable listed under the Sweeps tab will be plotted along the y-axis.

Under the Y tab, specify the information to plot along the y-axis in one of the following ways:

Clear the Use Secondary Sweep option, and then select the Category, Quantity, and Function of the quantity to plot on the y-axis. The quantity you select will be plotted against the secondary sweep variable listed under the Sweeps tab.
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8.

Under the X tab, specify the information to plot along the x-axis in one of the following ways:


9.

Select Use Primary Sweep. The first (primary) sweep variable listed under the Sweeps tab will be plotted along the xaxis. Clear the Use Primary Sweep option, and then select the Category, Quantity, and Function of the quantity to plot on the x-axis. The quantity you select will be plotted against the primary sweep variable listed under the Sweeps tab.

Under the Sweeps tab, confirm or modify the swept variables that will be plotted. A trace represents one or more lines connecting data points on the graph. The trace is added to the traces list at the top of the Traces dialog box. Each column lists an axis on the report and the information that will be plotted on that axis.

10. Click Add Trace.

11. Optionally, add another trace by following the procedure above. 12. Click Done. The function of the selected quantity or quantities is plotted against the values you specified on an x-y-z graph. The plot is listed under Results in the project tree. Related Topics

Sweeping a Variable Working with Traces

Creating Data Tables in RMxprt


A data table is a spreadsheet with rows and columns that displays, in numeric form, selected quantities against a swept variable or other quantities. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click RMxprt>Results>Create Report. The Create Report window appears. In the Target Design list, click the design containing the solution data you want to plot. In the Report Type list, click the data type you want to plot. In the Display Type list, click Data Table. Click OK. The Traces dialog box appears. The Y tab is selected by default. Under the Y tab, select the quantity you are interested in and its associated function: a. b. c. 7. In the Category list, click the type of information to display. In the Quantity list, click the value to display. In the Function list, click the mathematical function to use for the quantity.

Under the X tab, select the values you want to plot the quantity against in one of the following ways:

Select Use Primary Sweep.

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The quantity you selected in step 5 will be displayed against the first (primary) sweep variable listed under the Sweeps tab.

8. 9.

Clear the Use Primary Sweep option, and then select the Category, Quantity, and Function of the quantity to plot against the quantity you selected in step 5. This quantity will be plotted against the primary swept variable listed under the Sweeps tab.

Under the Sweeps tab, confirm or modify the swept variables that will be plotted. Click Add Trace. In the context of a data table, a trace represents a quantity's value at another quantity's value or at selected swept variable values. The trace is added to the traces list at the top of the Traces dialog box.

10. Optionally, add another trace by following the procedure above. 11. Click Done. The quantity you selected in step 5 is listed at each variable value or additional quantity value you specified. The data table is listed under Results in the project tree. Related Topics

Sweeping a Variable Working with Traces

Working with Traces in RMxprt


A trace in a 2D or 3D report defines one or more curves on a graph. A trace in a data table defines part of the displayed matrix of text values. The values used for a plot's axes can be variables in the design or functions and expressions based on the design's solutions. If you have solved one or more variables at several values, you can "sweep" over some or all of those values, resulting in a curve in 2D or 3D space. A report can include any number of traces and, for rectangular graphs, up to four independent yaxes. In general, to add a trace to a report: 1. 2. In the Traces dialog box, specify the information you want to plot along the appropriate axes. Click Add Trace. A trace is added to the traces list at the top of the Traces dialog box. The trace represents the function of the quantity you selected and will be plotted against other quantities or swept variable values. Each column lists an axis on the report and the information that will be plotted on that axis. You can modify the information to be plotted by typing the name of the quantity or sweep variable to plot along an axis directly in the boxes. The trace will be visible in the report when you click Done. Note The Traces dialog box can be accessed via the Create Report dialog box.

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Removing Traces in RMxprt


You can traces from the traces list in the following ways: To remove one trace from the report:

Select the trace you want to remove from the traces list, and then click Remove Trace. Click Remove All Traces.

To remove all traces from the report: Related Topics

Working with Traces

Replacing Traces in RMxprt


To replace a trace in the traces list with a different trace definition: 1. 2. 3. Select the trace you want to remove from the traces list. In the Traces dialog box, specify the information you want to plot along the appropriate axes. Click Replace Trace. The trace you selected is removed, and the new trace information you specified replaces it in the traces list. 4. Click Done. Related Topics

Working with Traces

Adding Blank Traces in RMxprt


To add a blank trace to the traces list:

Click Add Blank Trace.

You can now type the quantities to plot in the appropriate axes boxes. Related Topics

Working with Traces

Sweeping a Variable in a Report in RMxprt


In RMxprt, a swept variable is an intrinsic, project, or design variable that typically has more than one value. From the Traces dialog box, you can plot any calculated or derived quantity against one or more of the swept variable's values. When you click the Sweeps tab in the Traces dialog box, the first sweep variable listed is the "primary sweep". If you are creating a 3D report, the second sweep variable listed is the "secondary sweep". Any additional sweep variables are represented as additional curves on the graph. To modify which variable is the primary sweep variable:

Click the Name box for the primary sweep variable, and then click the variable name you want to be the primary sweep variable.

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To modify the secondary sweep variable or any additional sweep variable, follow the same procedure. To modify the values that will be plotted for a variable: 1. 2. Click a variable in the table. To the right, all of the possible values for the selected variable are listed. Select All Values. All of the selected variable's values are plotted.

Alternatively, clear All Values and select the specific values to plot against the selected quantity.

Selecting a Function in RMxprt


The value of a quantity being plotted depends upon its mathematical function, which you select from the Function list in the Report dialog box. The available, valid functions depend on the type of quantity (real or complex) that is being plotted. The function is applied to the quantity which is implicitly defined by all the swept and current variables. These functions can also be applied to previously specified Quantities and Functions as Range Functions when using the Set Range Function dialog. Some of these functions can operate along an entire curve. These are: deriv, min, max, integ, avg, rms, pk2pk, cang_deg and cang_rad. These functions have syntax as follows:

deriv(quantity) implicitly implies derivative over the primary sweep deriv(quantity, SweepVariable) explicitly means derivative over the sweep variable specified in the second argument (such as "Freq"). Absolute value Arc cosine Hyperbolic arc cosine Angle (phase) of a complex number, cut at +/-180 Angle in radians Arc sine Hyperbolic arc sine Arc tangent Hyperbolic arc tangent Average of first parameter over the second parameter Absolute value of average.

You can select from the following functions in the Function list: abs acos acosh ang_deg ang_rad asin asinh atan atanh avg avgabs

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cang_deg

Cumulative angle (phase) of the first parameter (a complex number) in degrees, along the second parameter (typically sweep variable). Returns a double precision value cut at +/-180. Cumulative angle of the first parameter in radians along a second parameter (typically a sweep variable) Returns a double precision value. Conjugate of the complex number. Cosine Hyperbolic cosine Peak/RMS (root mean square) for the selected simulation quantity 20*log10(|x|) 10*log10(|x|) +30 10*log10(|x|) Derivative of first parameter over second parameter. Returns 1 if integer part of the number is even; returns 0 otherwise Exponential function (the natural anti-logarithm) Returns root mean square RMS/Mean Absolute Value for the selected simulation quantity. Returns the integral of the absolute deviation of the selected quantity from a target value that is entered via the additional argument. To use this function, you need to open the Add Trace Characteristics dialog and select the
Error category.

cang_rad conjg cos cosh crestfactor dB(x) dBm(x) dBW(x) deriv even exp formfactor iae

im int integ integabs ise

Imaginary part of the complex number Truncated integer function Integral of the selected quantity. Uses trapezoidal area.. Absolute value of integral. Returns the integral of the squared deviation of the selected quantity from a target value that is entered via an additional argument. To use this function, you need to open the Add Trace Characteristics dialog and select the
Error category.

itae

Returns the time-weighted absolute deviation of the selected quantity from a target value that is entered via an additional argument.To use this function, you need to open the Add Trace Characteristics dialog and select the
Error category.

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itse

Returns the time-weighted squared deviation of the selected qty from a target value that is entered via an additional argument.To use this function, you need to open the Add Trace Characteristics dialog and select the Error
category.

j0 j1 ln log10 lsidelobex lsidelobey mag max max_swp min min_swp nint normalize odd overshoot per pk2pk

Bessel function of the first kind (0th order) Bessel function of the first kind (1st order) Natural logarithm Logarithm base 10 The x value for the left side lobe: the next highest value to the left of the max value. The y value for the left side lobe: the next highest value to the left of the max value. Magnitude of the complex number Maximum of magnitudes. Maximum value of a sweep. Minimum magnititude. Minimum value of a sweep. Nearest integer Divides each value within a trace by the maximum value of the trace. ex. normalize(mag(x)) Returns 1 if integer part of the number is odd; returns 0 otherwise Obtains the peak overshoot over a point (double argument) Calculates period. Peak to peak. Difference between max and min of the first parameter over the second parameter. Returns the peak-to-peak value for the selected simulation quantity. Returns the ratio of the peak to peak-to-average for the selected quantity. Period max. Period minimum Period Root Mean Square. Pulse fall time of the selected simulation quantity according to the 90%10% estimate.

pkavg pmax pmin prms pulsefall9010

pulsefront9010 Pulse front time of the selected simulation quantity according to the 10%90% estimate.
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pulsefront3090 Pulse front time of the selected simulation quantity according to the 30%90% estimate. pulsemax pulsemaxtime pulsemin pulsemintime pulsetail50 Pulse maximum from the front and tail estimates for the selected simulation quantity. Time at which the maximum pulse value of the selected simulation quantity is reached. Pulse minimum from the front and tail estimates for the selected simulation quantity. Tiime at which the minimum pulse value of the selected simulation quantity is reached. Pulse tail time of the selected simulation quantity from the virtual peak to 50%.

pulsewidth5050 Pulse width of the selected simulation quantity as measured from the 50% points on the pulse front and pulse tail. PulseWidth Functions pw_plus pw_plus_max pw_plus_min pw_plus_avg pw_plus_rms Pulse width of first positive pulse Max. Pulse width of input stream Min. Pulse width of input stream Average of the positive pulse width input stream RMS of the positive pulse width input stream

pw_minus_max Max. Pulse width of input stream pw_minus_min Min. Pulse width of input stream pw_minus_avg Average of the negative pulse width input stream pw_minus_rms RMS of the negative pulse width input stream polar re rect rem ripple rms rmsAC Converts the complex number in rectangular to polar Real part of the complex number Converts the complex number in polar to rectangular Fractional part Returns the ripple factor (AC RMS/Mean) for the selected quantity. Returns total root mean square of the selected quantity. Returns the AC RMS for the selected quantity.

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rsidelobex rsidelobey sgn sin sinh sqrt tan tanh Undershoot XAtYMax XAtYMin XAtYVal

The x value for the right side lobe: the next highest value to the right of the max value. The y value for the right side lobe: the next highest value to the right of the max value. Sign extraction Sine Hyperbolic sine Square root Tangent Hyperbolic tangent Obtains the peak undershoot over a point (double argument). Threshold crossing time: report first time (x value) at which an output quantity crosses YMax. Threshold crossing time: report first time (x value) at which an output quantity crosses a user definable threshold (YMin). Returns the X value at the first occurance of Y value.

xdb10beamdwi Width between left and right occurrences of values x db10 from max. Takes 'x' dth as argument (3.0 default). To use this function, you need to open the Add Trace Characteristics dialog and select the Radiation category. xdb20beamwidt Width between left and right occurrences of values x db20 from max. Takes 'x' as argument (3.0 default) To use this function, you need to open the Add Trace h Characteristics dialog and select the Radiation category. y0 y1 YAtXMax YAtXMin YatXVal Bessel function of the second kind (0th order) Bessel function of the second kind (1st order) Threshold crossing time: report first time (y value) at which an output quantity crosses XMax. Threshold crossing time: report first time (y value) at which an output quantity crosses a user definable threshold (XMin). Returns the Y value at the first occurance of X value.

Selecting a Parameter, Variable, or Quantity to Plot in RMxprt


Each trace in a report includes a quantity that is plotted along an axis. The quantity being plotted can be a value that was calculated by RMxprt, such as L11, a value from a calculated expression.

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To select a parameter, variable, or quantity to plot: 1. In the Traces dialog box, select one of the following categories: Variables User-defined project or design variables.

Output Variables Derived quantities RMxprt project or design variables, parameters or solution curves. 2. Select a quantity to plot from the Quantity list. The available quantities depend on the selected category and the setup of the design.

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Creating Quick Reports in RMxprt


Following is the procedure for creating a quick report. 1. 2. 3. On the Project tree, select a setup or sweep icon of interest. Right-click to display the shortcut menu and select Quick Report. The Quick Report dialog appears. Select the one or more categories for the report from the list and click OK. A rectangular plot for each selected category displays. The new plot or plots appear in the Project tree under the Results icon. Related Topics

Creating Reports Modifying Reports RMxprt Quick Report Categories

RMxprt Quick Report Categories


When using the Quick Reports function for Solutions, the following report categories may be available depending upon the solution parameters requested, solution type, etc:

Category Coil Voltage Current Flux Density Induced Voltage Misc.

Description Report voltages in the machine coil. Report currents for each line or phase of the machine, source current, line current, armature current. Report flux density in the machine air gap, flux linkages. Report Induced Line and Phase voltages. Report miscellaneous quantities specific to the machine type such as power factor, torque to current ratio. Report machine efficiency. Report air gap power, output power. Report cogging torque, output torque, magnet generated torque, induction torque. Report Line and Phase voltage.

Percentage Power Torque Voltage

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Angle Inductance

Reports power factor angle. Reports air gap permeance.

Angular Speed Reports angular speed.

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8
Specifying RMxprt Winding Data

To define the winding data for an RMxprt machine 1. In the project tree, under Machine, open the folder that requires a winding, and double-click Winding.


2. 3.

For some machine types this would be Machine>Rotor>Winding, for others, Machine>Stator>Winding. You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.

Specify the desired settings. Click OK to close the Properties window.

The specific properties available depend on the specific machine. The following machine types have winding data available:

Three-Phase Induction Motors (stator winding) and (rotor winding) Three-Phase Synchronous Machines (stator winding) and (rotor winding) Brushless PMDC Motors (stator winding) Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines (stator winding) PMDC Motors (rotor winding) Switched Reluctance Motors (stator winding) Line-Start Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors (stator winding) Universal Motors (stator winding) and (rotor winding) General DC Machines (rotor winding) Claw-Pole Alternators (stator winding)

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Setting the Winding Type


RMxprt can automatically arrange almost all commonly used single- or double-layer poly-phase ac windings provided all coils have the same number of turns. Users do not need to define coils one by one. For a double-layer winding, RMxprt can also handle the coils with half turns which are arranged in the order of even, odd, even, odd, , as long as it is physically possible. RMxprt also provides a very flexible tool Winding Editor in order for the users to design a variety of special winding types according to their own needs, such as compound single- and doublelayer winding, big- and small-phase-spread variable-pole multiple-speed winding, sine-wave threephase winding, and so forth. The Winding Editor is available to the following types of electric machines: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Three-phase induction motors Single-phase induction motors Three-phase synchronous motors and generators Line-start permanent-magnet synchronous motors Claw-pole alternators Adjustable-speed permanent-magnet synchronous motors and generators Brushless permanent-magnet DC motors

When you edit the AC winding of a new design for the first time, RMxprt creates a default winding arrangement based on the basic winding specifications: Number of Phases, Number of Poles, Number of Slots, Winding Layers, Conductors per Slot, and Coil Pitch. Then you can edit the winding configuration based on the default arrangement.

Winding Types Available for Machines


Use the Winding Type dialog to set the Winding type. 1. To display the Winding Type dialog double-click on the Winding property button. Passing the cursor over the buttons for the Winding types changes the graphic to show the available windings for the motor in the design. Choices differ depending on the motor. A Winding Editor selection does not have a graphic. Selections for the Three Phase Induction Motor (stator winding) and (rotor winding), ThreePhase Synchronous Machine (stator winding) and (rotor winding), Brushless Permanent Magnet DC Motor (stator winding), Adjust Speed Synchronous Machine (stator winding), Line Start PM Synchronous Motor (stator winding), and Claw Pole alternator (stator winding) include:

Editor - enable the Winding Editor Whole Coiled Half Coiled

Selections for the DC Permanent Magnet Motor (rotor winding) and Universal Motor include (stator winding) and (rotor winding): Lap

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2.

Wave Lap Wave Frogleg Editor - enable the Winding Editor Lap - 90 deg phase belt 2-layer coil for both single and double layer Sin_1 - first class sinusoidal coil four double layer only Sin_2 - second class sinusoidal coil four double layer only

Selection for the General DC Machines (rotor winding) include:

Selections for single-phase induction motor include:

The Switched Reluctance motor does not involve winding selections. Select the Winding Type and click OK. This closes the window and sets the Winding Type property. If you select the Editor type, It also enables the Machine>Edit Layout command on the menu bar.

Enable the Winding Editor


Setting the Winding Type property to Editor enables the command Machine>Edit Layout on the menu bar. To display the dialog box Winding Editor: 1. Open the Winding Properties window and set the Winding Type value to Editor. To do this, double-click on the button Winding Type value to display the Winding Type selection window.

2.

Select Editor as the Winding Type and click OK. This closes the Winding Type selection window and sets the Winding Type Value to Editor. It also enables the command Machine>Winding>Edit Layout on the menu bar. Now the Machine Editor window displays the default

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winding arrangement.

3.

Click Machine>Winding>Edit Layout. This displays the dialog box Winding Editor as shown. The dialog box Winding Editor includes functions that do not appear in the tab sheet Winding Editor in the RMxprt Machine Editor window.

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4.

Edit Winding Configuration


Each row of the winding data table in the dialog box Winding Editor in Figure 3.13 is identified with the coil index in the column Coil. This information is displayed in the tab sheet Winding Editor in the RMxprt Machine Editor window as well, but it is editable in the dialog box Winding Editor. The winding data table contains four columns: Phase Turns In Slots is for the phase to which the coil belongs. is for the number of turns of the coil. is for the slot number with the coil side current flowing in ('flow-inside' for short). If 2 Layers are specified in the Winding Properties window, the slot number ends with a "T" to show the top layer. is for the slot number with the coil side current flowing out ("flow-outside" for short). If 2 Layers are specified in the Winding Properties window, the slot number ends with a "B" to show the bottom layer.

Out Slots

Setting the Number of Winding Layers


To set the number of winding layers: 1. 2. Open the Winding Properties window by double-clicking on the Winding icon in the properties window. Use the drop-down menu in the Winding Layers field to set the number as 1 or 2. This sets the winding layers used in the winding. The number of layers selected makes a difference in the display of data in the Winding Editor.

Connecting and Disconnecting Windings


When you have specified the winding data, you can execute the following commands to automatically connect or disconnect the windings.

Machine>Winding>Connect All Coils Upon executing, the graphical display in the main window shows the connections. Machine>Winding>Disconnect All Coils Upon executing, the graphical display in the main window updates to remove the connection.

Related Topics

View Winding Connections

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Poly-phase Winding Editor


RMxprt provides a Winding Editor in order for users to design variety of special winding types according to their own needs, such as compound single- and double-layer winding, big- and smallphase-spread variable-pole multiple-speed winding, sine-wave three-phase winding, and so forth. The Winding Editor is available to the following types of electric machines:

Three-phase Induction Motor Three-phase Synchronous Motor Three-phase Synchronous Generator Permanent-magnet Synchronous Generator Line-start Permanent-magnet Synchronous Motor Adjustable-speed Permanent-magnet Synchronous Motor Brushless Permanent-magnet DC Motor Claw-pole Alternator

You input data for Number of Poles in the Machine Properties window and data for the Number of Slots and Slot Type in the Stator Properties window. You set the Number of Slots in the Winding Properties window. RMxprt automatically arranges the winding layout and display the relevant information that has been specified in the Winding Editor tab of the RMxprt main window. As long as the edited winding data have been saved, the Winding Editor tab will display the last saved winding data whenever Winding Editor dialog is launched. The left top part of the Winding Editor tab shows the winding data, as does the Winding Editor dialog. In this area, the total number of rows equals half the number of slots. Enabling the Winding Editor Dialog Setting the Winding Type property to Editor enables the Machine>Edit Layout command on the menu bar. To display the Winding Editor dialog: 1. Open the Winding Properties window and set the Winding property to Editor. To do this, double-click on the Winding property button to display the Winding Type selection window. 2. Select Editor as the Winding Type and click OK. This closes the Winding Type window and sets the Winding Type property to Editor. It also enables the Machine>Edit Layout command on the menu bar. 3. Click Machine>Edit Layout. This displays the Winding Editor dialog. The Winding Editor dialog box includes functions that do not appear in the RMxprt main window Winding Editor tab. You can also invoke the Winding Editor dialog by: a. b. c. Right-click on the data table section of the Winding Editor tab of the main window. This displays an Edit Layout button. Click the Edit Layout button to display the Winding Editor dialog.

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You can also display the Winding Editor dialog by: a. b. Right click in the Winding Editor tab main window display. This displays a shortcut menu. Click Edit Layout from the shortcut menu. Each row of the winding data is identified with coil index in the Coil column. This information is displayed in the Winding Editor tab in the RMxprt Main window, and it editable in the Winding Editor dialog.

Column Phase is for the phase to which the coil belongs. Column Turns is for the number of turns of coil. Column In Slots is for the slot number with the coil side current flowing in ('flow-in-side' for short). If 2 Layers are specified in the Winding Properties window, the slot number ends with a "T" to show the top layer. Column Out Slots is for the slot number with the coil side current flowing out ('flow-out-side' for short). If 2 Layers are specified in the Winding Properties window, the slot number ends with a "B" to show the bottom layer.

By changing the belonging phase in column Phase, the number of turns in column Turns, the flowin-side slot number in column In Slot, the flow-out-side slot number in column Out Slot for each coil, it is possible to arrange the distribution of coils of single and double layer winding of any type required. The Winding Editor dialog also includes three check boxes:

Periodic Multiplier: indicates the possibility to select the number of unit machines for editing winding arrangement. It has a drop-down menu to show the possible numbers for the periodic multiplier. When checked, the pull-down list box to the right displays the numbers of unit machines for selection. Selecting 1 means whole slots are considered as one unit machine, and all coils is listed in the table of the edit window. Selecting 2 lists half of the total coils in the table, and whole slots are divided into two unit machines, etc. When the check box Periodic Multiplier: is unchecked, the pull-down list box to the right is grayed (enabled); all the coils are listed in the table.

Constant Turns. Checking the check box (multiple choices) Constant Turns indicates that the number of turns keeps constant and the column Turns in the table is grayed (disabled). If the check box Constant Turns is unchecked, the column Turns in the table is brightened allowing for editing and modifying the number of turns.

Constant Pitch Checking this box grays the Out Slots column to the values cannot be edited. It means that the coil pitch is constant. For two-layer windings, all flow-in-side slots are defined as top layer, and all flow-out-side slots as bottom layer. The flow-out-side slot number is automatically computed based on the input in the edit box Coil Pitch in Stator2 page in RMxprt window, and Out Slot column is disabled.
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When the check box Constant Pitch is unchecked, the column Out Slot is enabled to allow arbitrarily changing slot pitch for each coil. The Winding Editor dialog includes three command buttons.

Click the command button Default in the window Winding Editor, all the data in the table resumes to the situation of data from automatic arrangement by RMxprt. Click the command button Reset in the window Winding Editor, all the data in the table resumes to the situation of data when the window Winding Editor was first opened, or resumes to the data that you have saved. Click OK to accept the current values and close the Winding Editor dialog.

Windings Basic Terminology


Conductor A conductor refers to a half turn of a coil. A conductor may be formed with one insulated wire, or with several strands of insulated wires. Strands A conductor may consist of several wires of same or different sizes stranded together. The number of strands is also called number of wires per conductor. The conductor current may not uniformly distribute among all wires, but the current density is uniformly distributed. Coil A coil is wound with several turns, each turn consisting of two conductors. Coils are generally wound with insulation-wrapped electromagnetic wire continuously on a winding mould. However, coils with single-turn for heavy current are often formed with two separate thick conductors. A thick conductor is hammered onto the winding mould to form a half-coil. The linear part of a conductor imbedded into a slot of iron core is termed effective side. Coil Pitch The number of slots of the armature iron core spanned by the two effective sides of a coil is termed coil pitch, denoted by y. For instance, if the side of a coil in the 1-st slot spans 8 slots and is connected to the side of the coil in the 9-th slot, the coil pitch of the coil is y = 8. Full coil pitch: Short coil pitch: Long coil pitch: Pole pitch: coil pitch = pole pitch coil pitch < pole pitch coil pitch > pole pitch, usually used in variable-pole multiple-speed machines distance between two contiguous poles measured in number of slots.

totalnumberofslots polepitch = -------------------------------------------------numberofpoles


Coil Set The coils belonging to the same phase under one pole are connected in series as a coil set.
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Winding The coils or coil sets of a phase are connected according to certain rules to form a phase winding. A phase may consist of several branches connected in parallel. Every branch must produce exactly the same back emf and must have the same resistance. As a result, the phase winding current is uniformly distributed among all branches. In summary, a winding may be connected with several branches in parallel; each branch consists of one or more coil sets connected in series; a coil set may have several series coils; a coil is wound with a number of turns; a turn is formed by two conductors; a conductor may be stranded by one or more same- or different-size wires.

Poly Phase AC Winding


The common armature winding of poly-phase ac machines is catalogued and classified as shown in the following table. Polyphase AC Winding Double layer Variable-pole multiple speed type Fractional slot number type Wave-type Concentric type Lap Type Single Layer Crossed Concentric type (whole coiled or half coiled) Crossed Chain-type (whole coiled or half coiled) Concentric type (whole coiled or half coiled) Lap-type (whole coiled or half coiled) Chain-type (whole coiled or half coiled) Compound layer

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Whole-coiled Windings
When the coils of an AC winding are connected so that there are as many coil sets per phase as there are poles, the winding is called "whole-coiled." Whole Coiled Single Layer Whole Coiled Double Layer

Half-coiled Windings
When the coils are connected so that there is only one coil set per phase per pair of poles, the winding is called "half-coiled." Half Coiled Single Layer Half Coiled Double Layer

Single-Layer Windings
All the conductors in one slot are connected in series with all the conductors in another slot to form a single-layer coil. You set the number of winding layers in the Winding properties window, Winding tab. Comparing to double-layer type, this type is characterized by

Number of coils halved; No need for insulation between layers, therefore higher slot filling factor; Coil pitch depends on the connection, and is not adjustable;

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Being widely used in small capacity electric machines.

According to different layouts of the end winding, single-layer windings are classified as chain-, lap-, concentric- and crossed-types. Chain-type Windings The name single-layer chain-type is from the linked chain-like developed winding diagram. For a chain-type winding, every coil set has only one coil. Half-coiled Chain-type Winding An example of three-phase 6-pole 18-slot single-layer half-coiled chain-type winding is shown in the following figure.

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Whole-coiled Chain-type Winding An example of three-phase 4-pole 24-slot single-layer whole-coiled chain-type winding is shown in the following figure.

Lap-type Windings
The name single-layer lap-type is from the lapped layout of end connection. In a lap-type winding, at least one coil set has 2 or more coils which are overlapped each other. If some coil sets have only one coil, this winding type is also called "crossed lap-type".

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Half-coiled Lap-type Winding An example of three-phase 4-pole 24-slot single-layer half-coiled lap-type winding is shown in the figure on the left, and an example of three-phase 8-pole 36-slot single-layer half-coiled crossed laptype windings is shown in the following figure on the right.

Whole-coiled Lap-type Winding An example of three-phase 4-pole 48-slot single-layer whole-coiled lap-type winding is shown on the left, and an example of three-phase 4-pole 36-slot single-layer whole-coiled crossed lap-type winding is shown on the right1

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Concentric-type Windings
In a concentric-type winding, at least one coil set has 2 or more coils and non coils are overlapped each other. If some coil sets have only one coil, this winding type is also called "crossed concentrictype". The single-layer concentric-type is formed of coils with different coil pitch, but with the same central line and of concentric-circle-like, therefore is named concentric-type. Its end connection can be arranged in layers, and therefore is convenient to imbed into slots. Nevertheless, the end magnetic leakage is a bit bigger. Half-coiled Concentric-type Winding An example of three-phase 4-pole 24-slot single-layer half-coiled concentric-type winding is shown on the left, and an example of three-phase 8-pole 36-slot single-layer half-coiled crossed concentric-type winding is shown on the right.

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Whole-coiled Concentric-type Winding An example of three-phase 4-pole 48-slot single-layer whole-coiled concentric-type winding is shown on the left, and an example of three-phase 4-pole 36-slot single-layer whole-coiled crossed concentric-type winding is shown on the right.

Double-Layer Windings
In this type, the conductors in a slot are arranged in upper and lower layers. One side of each coil is imbedded in the upper layer in one slot and the other side is imbedded in the lower layer in another slot. You set the number of winding layers in the Winding properties window, Winding tab. Comparing to single-layer-type, this type is characterized by:

Number of coils doubled; Need for insulation between layers, therefore lower slot filling factor, and danger in electric breakdown between phases; Adjustable coil pitch, therefore possible weakening of harmonic emfs with proper short pitch factor to improve electromagnetic properties of electric machines; Being widely used in electric machines with capacity over 10 kW.

For the single speed electric machine, the double-layer winding typically adopts whole-coiled type. For the double speed electric machine with doubling number of poles, the double-layer winding is whole-coiled in high speed, half-coiled in low speed. According to different coil shapes, double-layer windings are classified as lap-, concentric- and wave-types.

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Double-layer Lap-type Winding An example of three-phase 4-pole 24-slot whole-coiled double-layer lap-type windings (short pitch y = 5) is shown below.

Double-layer Concentric-type Winding An example of three-phase 4-pole 24-slot whole-coiled double-layer concentric-type windings (short pitch y = 5) is shown below.

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Double-layer Wave-type Winding The name double-layer wave-type is from the wave-like developed winding diagram as shown below.

Compared to lap-type:

The winding of each phase connects the coils under different poles in series in one round, and returns to the left to the first coil, then winds the next round, and so on so forth until all the coils belonging to this phase are connected. This type is usually used in single-turn preformed hard coil for low voltage high current electric machines. This type needs less connection wire between poles.

Fractional-Pitch Winding
First, introduce a number q, called number of slots per pole per phase, which is defined as

q=

total number of slots number of poles number of phases

A fractional-pitch winding has a fractional number

q = b

c d

An example of three-phase 6-pole 45-slot fractional-pitch double-layer winding

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q=2

2 , short pitch y = 7, pole pitch

=7

1 2 ) is shown here.

Auto-arrangement of AC Windings
RMxprt can arrange these windings automatically if all coils have the same number of turns. This section describes the process to automatically arrange the coil distribution.For winding layout display in RMxprt, the lap-type is default if windings are automatically arranged. If a concentric-type layout display is desired, the winding can be defined by winding editor, as described in the next section. The wave-type winding is effective to a lap-type winding, and is also displayed as a lap-type winding. Star Vector Diagram The conductors (or coils) in slots produce emf (or mmf), which can be expressed with unit vector. When the electric machine has number of pole p, and number of slots Z, the angular phase difference in electric degrees between two contiguous slots is

p 180 Z

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Drawing the vectors of emfs (or mmfs) in all the slots according to their phase angles forms the star vector diagram of the winding. The figure below shows an example of the star vector diagram of 4pole 24-slot winding.

If there exists the greatest common factor t between the number of slots Z and the number of pole pairs pp (= p/2), the star vector diagram repeats t times, i.e. the winding has t periods. Let Z Z0 = t , and

p0 =

p t ,

then Z0 and p0 construct a complete star vector diagram and form a unit electric machine. For the whole-pitch winding electric machine (q, as shown later, is an integer), t = p/2. For the fractionalpitch winding electric machine, Z c q= =b+ mp d where m is the number of phases. If t > 1, the angular phase difference between two contiguous vectors is 360 = Z0 and the difference between the ordinal numbers of the slots of two contiguous vectors is m(bd + c )G 1 y0 = d where G is a minimum integer to make y0 equal to an integer (y0 should take into account the possible reverse connection of coils under the contiguous pole).

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Phase Spread
In the star vector diagram of a unit electric machine, the range occupied by the vectors of each phase under one pole is termed phase spread, expressed in electric degrees or number of slots. For a single-layer winding, the phase spread is 180/m (m the number of phases). The phase spread of a double-layer half-coiled winding is 360/m, and the phase spread of a double-layer full-coiled winding is 180/m. The phase spread of a 2-phase winding is always 90 (= 180/m). Therefore, a 2-phase winding cannot take the double-layer half-coiled winding type. The windings for single-phase induction motor are also considered as 2-phase windings. When the number of phases is an even number of greater than or equal to 4, the phase spread is always 360/m. Therefore, a winding with even number of phases (4, 6, ) can take only the double-layer half-coiled winding type. When the number of phases is an odd number of greater than or equal to 3, the phase spread can be either 360/m or 180/m. Therefore, a winding with odd number of phases (3, 5, ) can take any winding types.

Coil Arrangement
Coil arrangement is completed by the following processes. First, draw the star vector diagram based on number of slots and number of poles. Then divide the whole region (360 electric degrees) to several phase spreads, which is derived from the number of phases and the winding type. Finally, assign all phase spreads to each phase in such a way that the axis of each succeeded phase lags by 360/m electric degrees (90 electric degrees for 2 phases).
Double-layer Windings

Take a three-phase winding as an example. The width of phase spread of half-coiled winding is 360o / 3 = 120o, the sequence of the phase spread is A, B, C. For whole-coiled winding, the width of phase spread is 180o / 3 = 60o, the sequence of phase spread is A, C, B, A, C, B, where the phase spread with negative sign is termed negative phase spread.

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The winding types can be set in the Winding Type panel for a machine that includes these options (in this case, a brushless permanent magnetic DC motor), for double-layer whole-coiled windings as shown in on the left and double-layer half-coiled windings as shown on the right.

The star vector diagram of a three-phase whole-coiled (60o-phase-spread) winding is shown below on the left, and that of a half-coiled (120o phase spread) winding is shown below on the right.

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Single-layer Windings

The winding layers can be set in the properties window for the winding, for single-layer wholecoiled windings as shown on the left and single-layer half-coiled windings as shown on the right.

The phase spread of a three-phase single-layer whole-coiled or half-coiled winding is 60o, and the star vector diagram is the same as the double-layer whole-coiled winding.
Fractional-pitch Windings

The number of slots per pole per phase of fractional-pitch winding is a mixed number. c d In the unit electric machine, the numbers of slots occupied by phase spread are not all the same, but repeat with the radix d. In each d poles, there are c poles with the slot number of phase spread equal to b + 1 (big phase spread), d c poles with the slot number of phase spread equal to b (small phase spread). q=b Take as an example a three-phase 10-pole 36-slot fractional-pitch winding with phase spread of 60. The number of slots per pole per phase of fractional-pitch winding is q= 36 1 =1 3 10 5

8-22 Specifying RMxprt Winding Data

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the greatest common factor between the number of slots 36 and the number of pole pairs 5 is t = 1, the angular phase difference between two contiguous vectors in the star vector diagram is 360 o = 10 o 36 the difference between the ordinal numbers of the slots of two contiguous vectors is (G = 2)

3(1 5 + 1) 2 1 =7 5 the repetition radix d = 5. In each 5 pole region, each phase has big phase spread of 1 + 1 = 2 slots under 1 pole, and small phase spread of 1 slot under 4 poles. The repeating format is 2 1 1 1 1 for phase A. The repetition of phase spread distribution for all phases is shown in the following table. y0 =

Slot number Phase spread Slot number Phase spread

1~2 A 19~20 A

3 C 21 C

4 B 22 B

5 A 23 A

6 C 24 C

7~8 B 25 B

9 A 27 A

10 C 28 C

11 B 29 B

12 A 30 A

13~14 C 31 C

15 B 33 B

16 A 34 A

17 C 35 C

18 B 36 B

The star vector diagram of winding is shown below.

Asymmetric Windings

Whole-pitch windings (q is integer) are always symmetric. Fractional-pitch windings with c q=b d

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becomes asymmetric if the denominator d is a multiple of the number of phases m. In general, it is avoid using asymmetric windings as possible. Nevertheless, it is sometime possible to design polyphase windings with little asymmetry in order to use existing punching tools. If d is a multiple of the number of phases m, but the total number of slots Z can be divided by m, it is possible to construct poly-phase winding with little asymmetry. RMxprt can perform automatic arrangement for this sort of windings and obtain the phase-spread in electric degrees for each phase. Take as an example a three-phase 6-pole 66-slot fractional-pitch winding electric machine. Since
66 2 =3 36 3 d = m = 3, the winding is asymmetric. The output in the window Design Output is shown below. q=

The information for WINDING ARRANGEMENT is displayed as follows: The distribution of coil slots to phases: The 3-phase, 2-layer winding can be arranged in 66 slots as below: AAAAZZZZBBBXXXXCCCCYYYAAAZZZZBBBBXXXCCCCYYYYAAAAZZZBBBBXXXXCCCYYYY X, Y and Z stands for A, -B and C, respectively. For asymmetric windings, additional information is output, as shown below. The winding factors of each phase are: Phase A Phase B Phase C 0.954119 0.954119 0.949042

The angles between two-phase winding axes are: Phase A & B Phase B & C Phase C & A 119.082 120.459 120.459

If a sinusoidal rotating field links the winding, the fundamental induced-voltage components will be: Positive-sequence component Negative-sequence component Zero-sequence component 100% 0.286577% 0.639823%

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Coil Connections
Connection of Double-layer Lap Windings

Every vector represents the top-layer effective side of a coil. The bottom effective side of the coil is determined based on the coil pitch, and is not displayed in the diagrams. Therefore, every vector in the diagrams can also stand for a coil. Connect all coils in phase spread of A in positive direction, and all coils in phase spread of A in negative direction to form the phase A winding. In this way, phase B and C windings can also be connected. The winding connection layouts for the vector diagrams are shown below.

Connection of Single-layer Half-coiled Windings

Every vector in A, B and C phase spread represents "go" effective side of a coil, the "return" effective side of the coil is located in A, B and C phase spread. For the lap type connection, all coils

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are with full coil pitch. The connection layouts of the lap type and the concentric type, with respect to the same vector drawing are shown below.

Connection of Single-layer Whole-coiled Windings

In the previous example, for the concentric type (lower right in the diagram), if coil 1 is not connected from slot 1 to slot 8 (long coil pitch: coil pitch = 7 > pole pitch = 6), but connected from slot 1 to slot 20, and slot 8 to slot 13, all coils of phase A winding have coil pitch of 5. In this way, the winding becomes single-layer whole-coiled type with the same star vector diagram and phase spread, and has much shorter average coil pitch. Therefore, single-layer whole-coiled windings consume less electromagnetic wire than single-layer half-coiled windings. RMxprt can optimize connections to minimize the average coil pitch to form a single-layer whole-coiled winding.

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An example of three-phase 4-pole 36-slot single-layer whole-coiled crossed lap-type winding (q = 3, 60o phase-spread) is shown below.

An example of three-phase 4-pole 36-slot single-layer whole-coiled crossed concentric-type winding (q = 3, 60o phase-spread) is shown below.

A star vector diagram with fractional coil pitch can also be connected with single-layer wholecoiled type. When the number of slots per pole per phase q <2, as shown in the following vector diagram, the number of coil sets per phase may not equal to the number of poles (6 coils vs 10

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poles), but the algorithm to connect coils is the same (minimize the average coil pitch), and therefore, it is still referred as whole coiled windings.

The winding connection layout for the previous vector diagram is shown below.

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Another example is an asymmetric three-phase winding. The connection layout is shown below.

Connection of Double-pole Dual-speed Windings


Commonly used for coils of double-layer windings are lap- and concentric-types. Single-speed double-layer winding electric machine is usually connected as whole-coiled winding. Double-pole dual-speed electric machine is connected as double-layer whole-coiled winding at high speed and as double-layer half-coiled winding at low speed. Take as an example a three-phase dual-speed 2/4-pole 24-slot double-layer winding. The arrangement of coils is shown in the Table and in the following figure.

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Slot number Two poles Four poles

1 A A

2 A A

3 A A

4 A A

5 C C

6 C C

7 C C

8 C C

9 B B

10 B B

11 B B

12 B B

Slot number Two poles Four poles

13 A A

14 A A

15 A A

16 A A

17 C C

18 C C

19 C C

20 C C

21 B B

22 B B

23 B B

24 B B

The connection for variation of number of poles is shown in the next figure. On the top-left is the 2pole 2Y-connection at high speed, on the top-right is the 4-pole -connection at low speed.

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DC Windings
Lap Winding

The winding layout of a lap-type winding for dc machines is as shown below.

A lap-type winding has the following relationships: Coil pitch


y1 = Z m = integer p

Commutator pitch Number of branches in parallel where


Z p m

yk = m a = mp

number of slots number of poles number of multiplex

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Wave Winding
The winding layout of a wave-type winding for dc machines is as shown below.

A wave-type winding has the following relationships: Coil pitch


y1 = Z m = integer p K mm = integer p/2

Commutator pitch
yK =

Number of a=m branches in parallel

Frog-leg Winding
A frog-leg winding consists of a lap winding and a wave winding. Assume the lap winding has m multiplex number. In order to connect the wave winding in parallel with the lap winding, the wave winding should have the same branch bake emf as the lap winding. Therefore, the number of branches in parallel of the wave winding has to be the same as that of the lap winding, or the multi-

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plex number of the wave winding must be mp/2. The winding layout of a frog-leg-type winding with m=1 for dc machines is as shown below.

A frog-leg-type winding has the following relationships:


Coil pitch

y1a + y1b =
Commutator pitch

2K = integer p 2K = integer p

y Ka + y Kb = yKa = m y Kb =

2K mm p

Number of a = pm branch in parallel

where
m

number of multiplex (of the lap winding)

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Virtual Slots
Windings of the dc machine are usually double-layer type. In many cases, often a number of coil sides are imbedded into one slot for simplification of structure. Therefore, the number of slots Z is less than the number of coils S. There exists the relationship S Z=

where is the number of coil sides in each layer in one slot and is termed virtual slot factor. Therefore, the number of conductors per slots is equal to multiple of 2.

Equipotential Connectors
The points ideally possessing the same electric potential in armature winding are often wholly or partly connected by short copper wire, which is termed equipotential connector.
Equipotential Connector Class A of Simplex-lap Winding

Asymmetry in magnetic circuit, such as eccentric air-gap, causes circulating current in lap winding, increases losses and affects commutation in order. The equipotential connector Class A on the commutator of simplex-lap winding can solve this problem. The connection pitch of equipotential connector Class A of simplex-lap winding yp is equal to the number of commutator segments per pole pair. K K yp = = = integer p a Winding with yp = integer is termed symmetric winding. Only symmetric winding can have equipotential connector Class A.
No need for Equipotential Connector for Simplex-wave Winding

Simplex-wave winding does not possess electrically equipotential points, therefore, can not have equipotential connector. On the other hand, simplex-wave winding does not need equipotential connector.
Equipotential Connector Class B of Multiplex-wave Winding

There are electric equipotential points among different sets of simplex-wave windings of multiplex-wave winding. They can be connected to eliminate the nonuniform distribution of electric potential on commutator segments due to inequality of brush resistances. This is termed equipotential connector Class B. The connection pitch of equipotential connector Class B of multiplex-wave winding yp is equal to the number of commutator segments per branch pair in parallel.

yp =

K = integer a

Equipotential Connector of Multiplex-lap Winding

For multiplex-lap winding, equipotential connector Class A is needed for each set of simplex-lap windings, equipotential connector Class B is needed among different sets of simplex-lap windings. There exist no electrically equipotential points among different sets of simplex-lap windings on the

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commutator side of armature, however, there exist electrically equipotential points among different sets of simplex-lap windings on different sides of armature as points A and B in the figure below.

Those points can be connected by conductors passing through inside armature.


No Need for Equipotential Connector for Frog-leg Winding

For frog-leg winding, each pair of electrically equipotential points on commutator is connected by a lap coil and a wave coil in series. The connection acts as equipotential connector Class A for lap winding and as equipotential connector Class B for wave winding. Therefore there is no need for extra equipotential connectors.

Pole Windings
The following two types of electric machines possess similar pole winding structure:

DC machine (motor and generator) Three-phase synchronous machine (motor and generator)

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RMxprt adopts the same arrangement procedure for pole windings of the two types of electric machines. There are three types of structure as shown in the figure below: Round Wire

pole winding with round wire.

Cylinder Coil

pole winding with rectangular wire wound in standing way.

Edgewise Coil

pole winding with rectangular wire wound in flatting way.

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Limited Space for Wire Arrangement


Before completing a winding arrangement, RMxprt needs to determine the limited space sizes for the winding. The limited sizes include: limited Overall Height, limited Overall Width and Winding Clearance (the clearance between two adjacent pole windings), as shown below.

Winding Clearance Overall Height

Overall Width

Overall Height, Overall Width and Winding Clearance can be input from RMxprt panel. If either Overall Height or Overall Width is set to 0, RMxprt perform automatic space optimization to obtain the maximum space for pole winding arrangement in the condition to guarantee the clearance between pole windings.

If the space from input or determined by space optimization is not sufficient to arrange for the input number of turns per pole, a message of "The rotor/shunt/series/commutating winding control dimension is not big enough." is displayed in Design Output window.

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Round Wire Winding


The arrangement of pole winding with round wire is shown below.

With auto-arrangement of pole windings, RMxprt calculates maximum number of layers, minimum number of layers, maximum number of turns per layer, minimum number of turns per layer, and the maximum number of turns per pole that is available from the limited space, and so forth.

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Cylinder Coil
The arrangement of magnetic-pole winding with rectangular wire wound in standing way by RMxprt is shown below.

The cylinder coil is wound with half-turn over lapped layer by layer. Layers with the same number of turns constitute a section. The output window Design Output displays the number of layers and the number of turns per layer of each section, and the maximum number of turns per pole that is available from the limited space.

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Edgewise Coil
The arrangement of magnetic-pole winding with rectangular wire wound in flatting way by RMxprt is shown below.

To guarantee the clearance between two adjacent pole windings, the wire width of the lower parts is decreased, while the wire thickness is increased to keep the sectional area of wire invariant as possible. The turns with the same wire gauge constitute a section (maximum three sections are allowed). The output window Design Output displays the number of turns of each section and the sizes of wire gauge, and the maximum number of turns per pole that is available from the limited space.

Pole Winding with Half Turns


For some large machines, a half turn may be included due to too few turns per pole. When the number of turns per pole is an integer number, the number of conductors per pole is an even number

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with equal conductor number at both pole sides. Therefore, the two terminal leads of one pole coil are at the same axial side (or at different pole sides), as shown below.

When the number of turns per pole includes a half turn, the number of conductors per pole is an odd number. In this case, one pole side has one more conductor than the other pole side, and the two terminal leads of one pole coil are at different axial sides (or at the same pole side), as shown below.

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Exporting Winding Data


Winding data may be export to a table: 1. Select the Machine>Winding>Export Layout command from the menu. You may also rightclick in the Winding Editor window and select Export Layout from the shortcut menu. 2. Browse to the location to save the file and enter a filename. 3. Click Save to export the winding data to a file and dismiss the dialog. The winding must be editable for the Export Layout command to be available. If you are using a standard winding, you can switch to the Winding Editor by: 1. 2. 3. Click on the winding in the Project Tree window. In the Properties Window, click on the button next to Winding Type. The Winding Type dialog is displayed. Select Editor as the winding type and click OK.

Note

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9
RMxprt Machine Types

Using RMxprt, you can simulate and analyze the following eleven machine types:

Three-Phase Induction Motors Single-Phase Induction Motors Three-Phase Synchronous motors and generators Brushless Permanent-Magnet DC Motors Adjust-Speed Synchronous motors and generators Permanent-Magnet DC Motors Switched Reluctance Motors Line-Start Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors Universal Motors General DC motors and generators Claw-Pole Alternators Three-Phase Non-Salient Synchronous Machine

RMxprt Machine Types 9-1

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Three-Phase Induction Motors


After you have selected Three-Phase Induction Motors as your model type, you must define the following:

General data, such as the voltage, speed, and materials. Stator data, such as the slot types, diameter, and wire dimensions. Rotor data, such as the slot dimensions, skew, and ventage holes. Solution data, such as rated output voltage and frequency.

By option, you can add vents to and remove an existing vent from the stator and rotor.

Analysis Approach for Three-Phase Induction Motors


For a three-phase induction motor, the stator winding (with a sinusoidal spatial distribution and p pairs of poles) is connected to a three-phase symmetric voltage power supply. The resulting currents in the stator produce a rotating magnetic field. The rotor winding is often a squirrel cage type with the number of poles dictated by the number of poles in the stator. Currents are induced in the rotor bars and produce, in turn, a second rotating magnetic field. The two rotating fields produce a resultant rotating magnetic field in the air gap of the machine. The interaction of this field in the air gap with the rotor bar currents produces an electromagnetic torque, which acts on the rotor in the direction of the rotation of the field in the air gap. A torque of equal value acts upon the stator in the opposite direction. The stator winding, which is connected to a phase of the supply system, has p coils, each with a symmetric spatial distribution and an opening of D/2p, where D is the diameter of the winding. In this case, the magnetic field in the air gap has p periods, and the winding has p pairs of poles. The performance of three-phase induction motors (IndM3) is analyzed based on the equivalent circuit of one phase in the frequency domain as shown in Figure 1. In the figure, R1 is the stator resistance, X1 is stator leakage reactance, which consists of stator slot leakage reactance, end-winding leakage reactance, and differential leakage reactance. X2 and R2 are rotor leakage reactance and rotor resistance, respectively. X2 includes rotor slot leakage reactance, end-ring leakage reactance, differential leakage reactance, and skewing leakage reactance. Due to the saturation of the leakage field, X1 and X2 are nonlinear. The parameters in the equivalent circuit are dependent on the stator and rotor currents. Due to the skin effects, X2 and R2 are the equivalent values from a distributed-parameter circuit, as shown in Figure 2.

9-2 RMxprt Machine Types

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They vary with the rotor slip s. All rotor parameters have been referred to the stator side.

Figure 1

Figure 2

In the exciting branch, Xm is the magnetizing reactance, and RFe is the resistance corresponding to iron-core losses. Xm is a linearized nonlinear parameter that varies with the saturation of the main field. After a phase voltage U1 is applied to the phase terminals, stator phase current I1 and rotor current I2, which has been referred to the stator, can be easily computed by the circuit analysis. The electromagnetic power Pm, or air-gap power, is computed by the following:
Pm = 3 * I2^2 * R2/s

The electromagnetic torque Tm is:


Tm = Pm/ where w is the synchronous speed in rad/s.

The output mechanical shaft torque T2 is:


T2 = Tm - Tfw

where Tfw is the frictional and wind torque. The output power is:
P2 = T2 * 2

where 2 = * (1 - s) and is rotor speed in rad/s. The input power is:


P1 = P2 + Pfw + Pcu2 + PFe + Pcu1 + Ps

where Pfw, Pcu2, PFe, Pcu1, and Ps are frictional and wind loss, rotor copper loss, iron-core loss, stator copper loss, and stray loss, respectively. The power factor is derived from:
PF = P1/(m * U1 * I1)

The efficiency is computed by:


eff = P2/P1 * 100%

RMxprt Machine Types 9-3

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Defining a Three-Phase Induction Motor


The general procedure for defining a three-phase induction motor is as follows: 1. Insert a three-phase induction motor into an existing or new project. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Double-click the Machine entry in the project tree to define the general data, such as the number of poles and machine losses. Double-click the Machine-Stator entry in the project tree to define the stator geometry. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree to define the stator slot dimensions. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree to define the stator windings and conductors. Double-click the Machine-Rotor entry in the project tree to define the rotor geometry. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree to define the rotor slot dimensions. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree to define the rotor conductor, ventage hole dimensions, and skew. Double-click the Machine-Shaft entry in the project tree to define the magnetism of the shaft.

10. Right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup to define the solution data. 11. Choose File>Save to save the project. 12. Choose RMxprt>Analyze to analyze the design.
Note

When you place the cursor over an entry field in the data windows, a brief description of that field appears in the status bar at the bottom of the RMxprt window.

Once the design is analyzed, the model can be viewed in the Maxwell 2D Modeler, or it can be used to create a new Maxwell 2D project, and a new Maxwell 3D design. Please refer to the Three-Phase Induction Motor Problem application note, on the technical support page of the Ansoft web site, for a specific example of a three-phase induction motor problem.

Defining the General Data for a Three Phase Induction Motor


Use the General Data Properties window to define the basic parameters of the induction motor, such as the number of poles, and frictional loss. To define the general data: 1. To open the General Data Properties window, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the number of poles for the machine in the Number of Poles field. This value is the total number of poles in the stator (or the number of pole pairs multiplied by two). 3. Enter the stray loss factor in the Stray Loss Factor field. The stray load loss consists of the losses arising from non-uniform current distribution in the copper and additional core losses
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produced in the iron by distortion of the magnetic flux by the load current. The IEEE Standard provides different assumed stray load loss values for AC motors rated less than 2500 hp, as follows:


4. 5. 6. 7.

1) 1-125 HP = 1.8% of rated output power 2) 126-500 HP = 1.5% 3) 501-2499 HP = 1.2%

Enter the energy loss due to friction at the given speed in the Frictional Loss field. Enter the wind loss due to air resistance measured at the reference speed in the Wind Loss field. Enter the given speed in the Reference Speed field. Click OK to close the Properties window.

General Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors


To access the general data, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree. The General Data Properties window for a three-phase induction motor contains the following fields: The machine type you selected when inserting a new RMxprt design (Three Phase Induction Motor). Number of Poles The number of poles the machine contains. Stray Loss Factor The stray loss factor: the ratio of stray loss to rated output power. Frictional Loss The frictional energy loss (due to friction) measured at the reference speed. Wind Loss The wind loss (due to air resistance) measured at the reference speed. Reference Speed The given speed of reference.
Machine Type

Defining the Stator Data for a Three-Phase Induction Motor


The stator is the outer lamination stack where the three-phase windings reside. In the project tree, double-click Machine>Stator, Machine-Stator-Slot, and Machine-Stator-Winding to define the physical dimensions, slot data, wires, and conductors for the stator. TTo define general stator data: 1. To open the Stator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Enter the Outer Diameter of the stator. Enter the Inner Diameter of the stator. Enter the length of the stator core in the Length field. Enter the stacking factor for the stator core in the Stacking Factor field. Select a Steel Type for the stator core:
RMxprt Machine Types 9-5

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a. b. c. 7. 8.

Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

Enter the Number of Slots in the stator. Select the Slot Type: a. b. Click the button for the Slot Type. The Select Slot Type window appears. Select a slot type (available types include 1 through 4). When you place the mouse cursor over the slot type, a schematic of the selected type appears, displaying the slot dimension variables. Click OK to close the Select Slot Type window and return to the Properties window.

Note

c. 9.

Enter the number of sectors in the Lamination Sectors field.

10. Enter the thickness of the magnetic end pressboard in the Pressboard Thickness field. Enter 0 for a non-magnetic end pressboard. 11. Enter the skew width, measured in slot number, in the Skew Width field. 12. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors


To access the general stator data, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree. The Stator Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Stacking Factor Steel Type Number of Slots Slot Type Lamination Sectors Pressboard Thickness Skew Width

The outer diameter of the stator core. The inner diameter of the stator core. The length of the stator core. The stacking factor of the stator core. The steel type of the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The number of slots the stator core contains. The type of slots in the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Slot Type window. The number of lamination sectors. The magnetic press board thickness (0 for a non-magnetic press board). The skew width measured in slot number.

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Defining the Stator Slots for a Three-Phase Induction Motor


To define the stator slots: 1. To open the Stator Slot Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Optionally, to automatically design the dimensions of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2, select the Auto Design check box. 3. 4. Optionally, to design dimensions of slots Bs1 and Bs2 based on the stator tooth width, select the Parallel Tooth check box, and enter a value in the Tooth Width field. Enter the available slot dimensions.
Hs0 Hs2 Bs0 Bs1

Bs2

Rs

Always available. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. Always available. Available only when Auto Design and Parallel Tooth are both cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Available only when Auto Design and Parallel Tooth are both cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

5.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Slot Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors


To access the stator slot data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree. The Stator Slot Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Auto Design Select or clear this to enable or disable auto-design of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2. When this check box is selected, only two other fields appear in the window: Hs0 and Bs0. Parallel Select this to design Bs1 and Bs2 based on the tooth width. When this check box is selected, the Bs1 and Bs2 fields are removed, and the Tooth Tooth Width field is added. Tooth Width The tooth width for the parallel tooth, on which Bs1 and Bs2 are designed. Hs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Hs2 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected).
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Bs0 Bs1 Bs2 Rs

A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). A slot dimension. (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

Defining the Stator Windings for a Three-Phase Induction Motor


Define the wires, conductors, insulation, and windings of the stator. To define the wires and windings: 1. To open the Stator Slot Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-StatorWinding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Click the Winding tab. 3. 4. Enter the number of layers in the stator winding in the Winding Layers field. Select a Winding Type: a. b. Click the button for Winding Type. The Winding Type window appears. Select from one of the following three types of winding:

Whole Coiled Half Coiled Editor

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When you place the mouse cursor over a winding button, an outline of the selected winding appears. The following table describes the six types of windings that are possible (three for one-layer and three for two-layer): Type Description One A user-defined one-layer winding arrangement. You need to set up the winding arrangement layer for each slot. winding Editor A one-layer whole-coiled winding:

Whole Coiled

Slot 123

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A one-layer concentric half-coiled winding:

Half Coiled

Slot 123

Two A user-defined two-layer winding arrangement. When you select for winding layers the you Layer can specify a different winding arrangement for each slot in the Winding Editor. Winding Editor A two-layer whole coiled winding:

Whole Coiled

Slot 123

The phase belt for this winding configuration is equal to 360/2m, where m is the phase number.

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A two-layer half-coiled winding:

Half Coiled

Slot 1 2 3

There is only one coil per phase per pair of poles.


Note

For a two-layer winding, if you check Constant Pitch in the Winding Editor, only the top layer needs to be defined; the bottom layer will be determined according to the coil pitch. Once you have clicked a button to select a winding, click OK to close the Winding Type window and return to the Properties window.

c. 5. 6. 7.

Select or enter the number of parallel branches in one phase of the winding in the Parallel Branches field. Enter the total number of conductors in each stator slot in the Conductors per Slot field. This value is the number of turns per coil multiplied by the number of layers. Enter the coil pitch, measured in number of slots, in the Coil Pitch field. The coil pitch is the number of slots separating one winding. For example, if a coil starts in slot 1 and ends in slot 6, it has a coil pitch of 5. Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design this value. Enter the thickness of the double-sided wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Enter 0 to automat-

8. 9.

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ically obtain this value from the wire library.

Insulation Conductor y Wire Wrap = 2*y

10. Select the Wire Size: a. b. c. Click the button for Wire Size. The Wire Size window appears. Select a value from the Wire Diameter pull-down list. Select a wire gauge from the Gauge pull-down menu. You can select from the following options:

You can select a specific gauge number. When you select a gauge number, the <number> Wire Diameter field is automatically updated. This option allows you to manually enter the Wire Diameter. This is useful when USER you want to enter a diameter that does not correspond to a particular wire gauge. This option sets the Wire Diameter to zero, and RMxprt automatically calculates AUTO the optimal value. The diameter information is then written to the output file when you analyze the design. This option allows you to define a conductor that is made of different size wires. MIXED For example, a single conductor may consist of 5 wires, 3 wires with a diameter of 0.21mm and 2 with a diameter of 0.13mm. The gauge number is based on AWG settings. You can create your own wire table using Machine>Wire, and then you can select this wire table using the Tools>Options>Machine Options command. d. When you are done setting the wire size, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the Properties window.

11. Click the End/Insulation tab. 12. Select or clear the Input Half-turn Length check box. 13. Do one of the following:

If you selected Input Half-turn Length, then enter the half-turn length of the armature winding in the Half Turn Length field.

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If you cleared Input Half-turn Length, then enter the end length adjustment of the stator coils in the End Adjustment field. The end adjustment is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator.

End Adjustment

End of Stator

Stator Coil
14. Enter the inner radius of the base corner in the Base Inner Radius field. 15. Enter the inner diameter of the coil tip in the Tip Inner Diameter field. 16. Enter the distance between two stator coils in the End Clearance field. 17. Enter the thickness of the slot liner insulation in the Slot Liner field. 18. Enter the thickness of the wedge insulation in the Wedge Thickness field. 19. Enter the thickness of the insulation layer in the Layer Insulation field. 20. Enter the limited slot fill factor for the wire design in the Limited Fill Factor field. 21. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Winding Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors


To access the stator winding data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree. The Stator Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Winding tabWinding Layers The number of winding layers. Winding Type The type of stator winding. Click the button to open the Winding Type window and choose from Whole Coiled, Half Coiled, and Editor. Parallel Branches The number of parallel branches in the stator winding. Conductors per The number of conductors per stator slot (0 for auto-design). Slot
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End/ Insulation tab

The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library). Wire Size The diameter of the wire (0 for auto-design). Click the button to open the Wire Size window where you can specify units, wire type, diameter, and gauge. Input Half-turn Select or clear this check box to specify whether or not you want to enter the half-turn length. When this check box is selected, the Length Half Turn Length field appears the next time you open the Properties window. When this check box is selected, the End Adjustment field appears instead. Half Turn Length The half-turn length of the armature winding. End Adjustment The end length adjustment of the stator coils, which is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator. Base Inner The inner radius of the base corner. Radius Tip Inner The inner diameter of the coil tip. Diameter End Clearance The end clearance between two adjacent coils. Slot Liner The thickness of the slot liner insulation. Wedge Thickness The thickness of the wedge insulation. Layer Insulation The thickness of the insulation layer. Limited Fill The limited slot fill factor for the wire design. Factor

Coil Pitch Number of Strands Wire Wrap

The coil pitch measured in number of slots. The number of wires per conductor (0 for auto-design).

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Winding Editor for a Three-Phase Induction Motor


For a three-phase induction motor, you may want to specify a different number of conductors for each stator slot. The Winding Editor makes this possible by enabling you to specify the number of turns for each coil. To enable the Winding Editor, you must have set the Winding Property for the Winding Type to Editor. To specify the number of turns for each coil: 1. Click Machine>Winding>Edit Layout. The Winding Editor window appears. 2. 3. 4. In the table in the upper left, set which phase you want for each coil and which slot is the in and out slot for the current in each coil. If you are working on a quarter or half model, you may want to specify a multiplier by clicking the Periodic Multiplier check box and specifying a value. Select or deselect the Constant Turns or Constant Pitch check boxes, depending on whether you want to be able to change these setting in the table above. When these options are selected, you cannot change the turns or pitch. When you are satisfied with the coil settings, click OK to close the Winding Editor window.

5.

Defining Different Size Wires for a Three-Phase Induction Motor


Use the Gauge option if you have a conductor that is made up different size wires. To define different size wires: 1. In the Wire Size window, select MIXED from the Gauge pull-down menu. 2. 3. Select either Round or Rectangular as the Wire Type. Enter the appropriate wire data in the table:

For a round wire:


4. 5.

Enter the Diameter in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this diameter. Enter the Width of the wire in the table. Enter the Thickness of the wire in the table. Enter the Fillet value in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this data.

For a rectangular wire:

Choose Add to add the new wire data. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each size wire you want to add.

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6.

When you are finished defining the wires, click OK to close the Wire Size window. For example, if one conductor is made up of 5 wires, and 3 of those wires have a diameter of 0.21mm, and the other 2 have a diameter of 0.13mm, then the mixed wire size table will have two lines. The first line will list Diameter = 0.21 and Number = 3. The second line will list Diameter = 0.13 and Number = 2. An equivalent wire diameter is displayed as Wire Size value in the Winding tab in the Properties window.

Note

Stator Vent Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors


By option, you can add a vent to a three-phase induction motor. To add a vent to stator in a threephase induction motor. 1. 2. Select the stator icon in the project tree. Right-click to display the pop-up menu and select Insert Vent.

The vent icon appears in the project tree under the stator. To remove a vent to stator in a three-phase induction motor. 1. Select the stator icon in the project tree. 2. Right-click to display the pop-up menu and select Remove Vent. The vent icon disappears in the project tree under the stator. The Vent data for the stator includes the following fields.
Vent Ducts Duct Width

Number of radial vent ducts Width of radial vent ducts

Magnetic Spacer Width Width of magnetic spacer which holds vent ducts. 0 for non magnetic spacer Duct Pitch

Center-to-Center distance between two adjacent Vent ducts

Defining the Rotor Data for a Three-Phase Induction Motor


The rotor consists of copper bars in which current is induced by the magnetic fields produced by the stator windings. In the project tree, double-click Machine-Rotor, Machine-Rotor-Slot, and Machine-Rotor-Winding to define the rotor slots and vents. To define general stator data: 1. To open the Rotor Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the stacking factor for the rotor core in the Stacking Factor field. 3. 4. Enter the Number of Slots in the rotor. Select the Slot Type: a. Click the button for the Slot Type.

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b.
Note

The Select Slot Type window appears. Select a slot type (available types include 1 through 4). When you place the mouse cursor over the slot type, a schematic of the selected type appears, displaying the slot dimension variables. Click OK to close the Select Slot Type window and return to the Properties window.

c. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Enter the outer diameter of the rotor in the Outer Diameter field. Enter the inner diameter of the rotor in the Inner Diameter field. Enter the length of the rotor core in the Length field. Select a Steel Type for the rotor core: a. b. c. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

Enter the Skew Width, measured in rotor slot pitch. This value defines by how much the rotor bars are skewed. 10. Optionally, select Cast Rotor to allow the conductor to fill all the space available in the slot. Otherwise, RMxprt assumes the slot wedge that fixes the bars is filled with insulator material in a 2D/3D geometry model. 11. Optionally, select Half Slot to draw only half of the rotor slots. 12. Optionally, select Double Cage to specify the winding as a double-squirrel-cage winding. If you select Double Cage, another line appears in the properties to let you specify the Bottom Slot type. a. Click on the Custom button on the Double Cage row. This displays the Select Slot Type window. The Select Slot Type window appears. b. Select a slot type (available types include 1 through 4).
Note

9.

When you place the mouse cursor over the slot type, a schematic of the selected type appears, displaying the slot dimension variables.

13. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors


To access the general rotor data, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree.

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The Rotor Data Properties window contains the following fields:


Stacking Factor Number of Slots Slot Type Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Steel Type Skew Width Cast Rotor Half Slot Double Cage

The stacking factor of the rotor core. The number of slots the rotor core contains. The type of slots in the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Slot Type window. The outer diameter of the rotor core. The inner diameter of the rotor core. The length of the rotor core. The steel type of the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The skew width measured in slot number. Select or clear this to specify whether the rotor squirrel-cage winding is cast or not. Select this to specify a half-shaped unsymmetrical slot. Select this to specify the winding as double-squirrel-cage.

Defining the Rotor Slots for a Three-Phase Induction Motor


To define the type and dimensions of the rotors slots: 1. To open the Rotor Data Slot Properties window, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the slot dimensions in the following fields: Hs0, Hs01, Hs2, Bs0, Bs1, Bs2, Rs. 3. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Slot Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors


To access the rotor slot data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree. The Rotor Slot Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Hs0 Hs01 Hs2 Bs0

A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected).

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Bs1 Bs2 Rs

A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension. (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

Defining the Rotor Winding for a Three-Phase Induction Motor


To define the rotor winding data: 1. To open the Rotor Data Slot Properties window, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Select a Bar Conductor Type for the rotor winding bar: a. b. c. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click the button for Bar Conductor Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a conductor type from the list, or define a new conductor type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

2.

Enter the length of the gap between the end ring and the iron core in the End Length field. This field specifies the value for only one end of the gap, not both. Enter the end ring dimension in the axial direction in the End-Ring Width field. The end ring connects the bars of the rotor to one another. Enter the end ring dimension in the radius direction in the End-Ring Height field. The end rings height covers at least the cross section of the rotor conductor. Select an End Ring Conductor Type for the rotor winding end ring: a. b. c. Click the button for End Ring Conductor Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a conductor type from the list, or define a new conductor type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

7.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Winding for Three-Phase Induction Motors


To access the rotor winding data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree.

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The Rotor Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields: The type of bar conductor used in the winding. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The length of the single-side end of the extended bar. The width of one side of the end rings in the axial direction. The end ring connects the bars of the rotor to one another. End Ring Height The height of the end rings in the radian direction. The end ring connects the bars of the rotor to one another. End Ring The type of end ring conductor used in the winding. Click the button to Conductor Type open the Select Definition window.
Bar Conductor Type End Length End Ring Width

Rotor Vent Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors


By option, you can add a vent to a rotor in a three-phase induction motor. To add a vent to rotor: 1. Select the rotor icon in the project tree. 2. Right-click to display the pop-up menu and select Insert Vent. The vent icon appears in the project tree under the rotor. To remove a vent to stator in a three-phase induction motor. 1. Select the rotor icon in the project tree. 2. Right-click to display the pop-up menu and select Remove Vent. The vent icon disappears in the project tree under the stator. The Vent data for the rotor includes the following fields.
Vent Ducts Duct Width

Number of radial vent ducts Width of radial vent ducts

Magnetic Spacer Width Width of magnetic spacer which holds vent ducts. 0 for non magnetic spacer Duct Pitch Holes per row Inner hole diameter Outer hole diameter Inner hole location Outer hole location

Center to center distance between vent ducts Number of axial vent holes per row. Diameter of vent holes in inner row. Diameter of vent holes in outer row. Center to center diameter of inner hole vents Center to center diameter of outer hole vents.

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Defining the Shaft Data for a Three-Phase Induction Motor


To define the shaft: 1. To open the Shaft Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Select or clear the Magnetic Shaft check box to specify whether or not the shaft is to be made of magnetic material. 3. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Shaft Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors


To access the shaft data, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree. The Shaft Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Magnetic Shaft

Select or clear this check box to indicate whether or not the shaft is made of magnetic material.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Three-Phase Induction Motor


To define the solution data: 1. To open the Solution Setup window, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. 2. Click the General tab. The Operation Type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. 3. Select the Load Type used in the motor from the following options: The speed remains constant in the motor. The output power remains constant in the motor. The torque remains constant regardless of the speed. In this case, Tload = Trated, given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. Linear Torque The torque increases linearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated) where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. Fan Load The load varies nonlinearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated)2 where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed.
Const Speed Const Power Const Torque

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Enter the output power developed at the shaft of the motor in the Rated Output Power field. Enter the RMS line-to-line voltage in the Rated Voltage field. Enter the desired output speed of the motor at the load point in the Rated Speed field. Enter the temperature at which the system functions in the Operating Temperature field. Click the Three-Phase Induction Motor tab.
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6. 7.

Enter the electrical line frequency in the Frequency field, and select the units. Select the Winding Connection from the following options:


8.

Wye (Y) Delta

Click OK to close the Solution Setup window.

Related Topics:

Solution Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors

Solution Data for Three-Phase Induction Motors


To access the solution data, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. The Solution Setup window contains the following fields:
Operation Type Load Type Rated Output Power Rated Voltage Rated Speed Operating Temperature Frequency Winding Connection Related Topics:

On the General tab. The operation type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. On the General tab. Select from Const Speed, Const Power, Const Torque, Linear Torque, and Fan Load. The default is Const Power. On the General tab. Type a value for the rated output voltage, and select the units. On the General tab. Type a value for the rated voltage, and select the units. On the General tab. Type a value for the rated speed, and select the units. On the General tab. Type a value for the operating temperature, and select the units. On the Three-Phase Induction Motor tab. Type a value for the frequency, and select the units. On the Three-Phase Induction Motor tab. Select from Wye or Delta.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Three-Phase Induction Motor

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Single-Phase Induction Motors


After you have selected Single-Phase Induction Motors as your model type, you must define the following:

General data, such as the voltage, speed, and materials used in the motor. Stator data, such as the slot types, diameter, and wire dimensions. Rotor data, such as the slot dimensions, skew width, and ventage holes. Solution data, such as rated output voltage and frequency.

By option, you can add a vent or remove a vent from the rotor.

Analysis Approach for Single-Phase Induction Motors


The construction of a single-phase induction motor is structurally similar to the poly-phase squirrel-cage induction motors. The primary difference is that the stator windings, which consist of a main winding and an auxiliary winding, have axes of these that are displaced 90 electrical degrees in space. To produce a starting torque, the currents in the two windings must be out of phase. Usually a capacitor is connected in series with the auxiliary winding so that the auxiliary winding current is forced to lead the main winding current by about 90 electrical degrees. Two parallel capacitors can also be used: one for starting, and one for running, so that both a starting and running performance are obtained. An algorithm called symmetric component method is applied to analyze single-phase induction motors (IndM1). Both voltages and currents of the main-phase and auxiliary-phase windings are decomposed to positive- and negative-sequence components. The equivalent circuits for mainphase positive-sequence components, auxiliary-phase positive-sequence components, main-phase

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negative-sequence components, and auxiliary-phase negative-sequence components are shown in (a), (b), (c), and (d) of Figure 3, respectively.

Figure 3
In the figures, R1m, X1m, R1a, X1a, R2, X2, and Xm are main-phase stator resistance, main-phase stator leakage reactance, auxiliary-phase stator resistance, auxiliary-phase stator leakage reactance, rotor resistance, rotor leakage reactance, and magnetizing reactance, respectively. XC is the reactance of the capacitor connected in series with the auxiliary winding, and the coefficient k is the ratio of effective turns of the auxiliary winding to that of the main winding. R2, X2, and Xm have been referred to the main winding. The equivalent impedance of the four circuits is Zm1, Za1, Zm2, and Za2, as shown in the figures. According to the symmetric component method, the positive and negative components of auxiliaryphase currents can be expressed in the form of a phasor as the following:
Ia1 = (j / k)Im1 Ia2 = ((j / k)Im2 Because the main winding and the auxiliary winding have the same applied terminal voltage U1, the voltage equations for both windings become the following: U1 = Um1 + Um2 = Im1Zm1 + Im2Zm2 U1 = Ua1 + Ua2 = Ia1Za1 + Ia2Za2 = (j / k)(Im1Za1 - Im2Za2)

The positive and negative components of main-phase current are calculated by the following:
Im1 = U1(Za2 - jkZm2) / (Zm1Za2 + Zm2Za1) Im2 = U1(Za1 + jkZm1) / (Zm1Za2 + Zm2Za1) The total input current is: I1 = Im + Ia = (Im1 + Im2) + (Ia1 + Ia2)
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Based on these two components of main-phase current, all current components shown in Figure 3 can be obtained by simple computation. Then the total input current is:
I1 = Im + Ia = (Im1 + Im2) + (Ia1 + Ia2) The positive- and negative-sequence air-gap power can be computed in the following way: Pm1 = 2 * Irm1^2 * R2 / s Pm2 = 2 * Irm2^2 * R2 / (2 - s)

The total air-gap power is:


Pm = Pm1 - Pm2

Tm, T2, P2, P1, and eff are computed in the same way as for three-phase induction motors. The power factor is derived from:
PF = P1 / (U1 * I1)

Defining a Single-Phase Induction Motor


The general procedure for structurally defining a single-phase induction motor is as follows: 1. Insert a single-phase induction motor design in an existing or newly created project. 2. Double-click the Machine entry in the project tree to define the general data. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Double-click the Machine-Stator entry in the project tree to define the stator geometry. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree to define the stator slot dimensions. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree to define the stator windings and conductors. Double-click the Machine-Rotor entry in the project tree to define the rotor geometry. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree to define the rotor slot dimensions. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree to define the rotor conductor, ventage hole dimensions, and skew. Double-click the Machine-Shaft entry in the project tree to define the magnetism of the shaft.

10. Right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup to define the solution data. 11. Choose File>Save to save the project. 12. Choose RMxprt>Analyze to analyze the design.
Note

When you place the cursor over an entry field in the data windows, a brief description of that field appears in the status bar at the bottom of the RMxprt window.

Once the design is analyzed, the model can be imported into the Maxwell 2D Modeler, or can be used to create a new Maxwell 2D project, and a new Maxwell 3D design.
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Please refer to the A Capacitor-Run Single-Phase Induction Motor Problem application note, on the technical support page of the Ansoft web site, for a specific example of a single-phase induction motor problem.

Defining the General Data for a Single-Phase Induction Motor


Use the General Data Properties window to define the basic parameters of the induction motor, such as the number of poles, frictional loss, and operation mode. To define the general data: 1. To open the General Data Properties window, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Enter the number of poles for the machine in the Number of Poles field. This value is the total number of poles in the stator (or the number of pole pairs multiplied by two). Select one of the following for the Rotor Position:

2. 3.


4. 5. 6. 7.

Inner Rotor Outer Rotor

Enter the energy loss due to friction at the given speed in the Frictional Loss field. Enter the wind loss due to air resistance measured at the reference speed in the Wind Loss field. Enter the given speed in the Reference Speed field. Select the Operation Mode: a. b. Click the button. The Select Operation Mode window appears. Select from one of the following:

C-Run Capacitance-run mode. The capacitor is in series with the auxiliary winding. In the Capacitor run mode, the capacitor will be designed (if the auto-design mode is selected) to minimize the backward magnetomotive force. C-Start Capacitance-start mode. The auxiliary winding is in series with the capacitor and is disconnected when the rotor reaches the switching speed. C-R&S Capacitance-run and start mode. Two capacitors are in series with the auxiliary winding; one for starting, one for running. R-Start Resistor-start mode. The auxiliary winding is disconnected when the rotor reaches the switching speed.

c. 8.

Click OK to close the Select Operation Mode window and return to the Properties window.

Enter values in the following capacitance, resistance, and switching speed fields:
Run Capacitance Available for C-Run, C-R&S Run Resistance Available for C-Run, C-R&S

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Start Capacitance Available for C-Start, C-R&S Start Resistance Available for C-Start, C-R&S Switching Speed Available for C-Start, C-R&S, R-Start

9.

If the start winding needs to be optimized, select the Objective Type from the following three options:


Note

(Tst/Ist)max. Accept the defaults. This is the ratio of the maximum starting torque to the starting current ratio. (Tst)max. Enter the given start current ratio. This is the maximum starting torque (Ist)min (minimum starting current). Enter the given start torque ratio.

The start-winding optimization goal is disabled for the C-Run operation mode. In capacitor-run mode, the capacitor is designed to minimize the backward magnetomotive force. For other modes, if the auto-design function is active, the capacitor and the resistance are designed according to the start goal, selected from the following:

The maximum value of (Starting Torque/Starting Current). The maximum starting torque. The minimum starting current.

10. Click OK to close the Properties window.

General Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors


To access the general data, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree. The General Data Properties window for a three-phase induction motor contains the following fields:
Machine Type Number of Poles Rotor Position Frictional Loss Wind Loss Reference Speed Operation Mode Run Capacitance Run Resistance

The machine type you selected when inserting a new RMxprt design (Single Phase Induction Motor). The number of poles the machine contains. Select whether the rotor is an Inner Rotor or Outer Rotor. The frictional energy loss (due to friction) measured at the reference speed. The wind loss (due to air resistance) measured at the reference speed. The given speed of reference. Click the button to select from the following four modes: C-Run, C-Start, C-R&S, and R-Start. The capacitance of the run capacitor. Available for C-Run and C-R&S operation modes. The resistance of the run capacitor. Available for C-Run and C-R&S operation modes. See Note below.

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Start Capacitance The resistance of the start capacitor. Available for C-Start and C-R&S operation modes. Start Resistance The resistance of the start capacitor. Available for C-Start and C-R&S operation modes. Switching Speed The switching speed of the capacitor or resistor. Available for C-Start, CR&S, and R-Start operation modes. Objective Type If the start winding needs to be optimized, select from the following three objective types: (Tst/Ist)max, (Tst)max, or (Ist)min.

For (Tst/Ist) max, accept the defaults. This is the ratio of the maximum starting torque to the starting current ratio. For (Tst) max, enter the Given Start Current Ratio. This is the maximum starting torque. For (Ist) min (minimum starting current), enter the Given Start Torque Ratio.

The start-winding optimization goal is disabled for the C-Run operation mode.

Note

When exporting the RMxprt model to Maxwell:

If the value of the Run Resistance is zero in RMxprt, the value of the Run Resistance will be autocomputed in Maxwell to a value of 1% of the capacitor reactance. To neglect the Run Resistance in Maxwell, set the value to a small non-zero number in RMxprt.

Defining the Stator Data for a Single-Phase Induction Motor


The stator is the outer lamination stack where the three-phase windings reside. In the project tree, double-click Machine-Stator, Machine-Stator-Slot, and Machine-Stator-Winding to define the physical dimensions, slot data, wires, and conductors for the stator. To define general stator data: 1. To open the Stator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the Outer Diameter of the stator. 3. 4. 5. 6. Enter the Inner Diameter of the stator. Enter the length of the stator core in the Length field. Enter the stacking factor for the stator core in the Stacking Factor field. Select a Steel Type for the stator core: a. Click the button for Steel Type.

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b. c. 7. 8.

The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

Enter the Number of Slots in the stator. Select the Slot Type: a. b. Click the button for the Slot Type. The Select Slot Type window appears. Select a slot type (available types include 1 through 4). When you place the mouse cursor over the slot type, a schematic of the selected type appears, displaying the slot dimension variables. Click OK to close the Select Slot Type window and return to the Properties window.

Note

c. 9.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors


To access the general stator data, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree. The Stator Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Stacking Factor Steel Type Number of Slots Slot Type

The outer diameter of the stator core. The inner diameter of the stator core. The length of the stator core. The stacking factor of the stator core. The steel type of the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The number of slots the stator core contains. The type of slots in the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Slot Type window.

Defining the Stator Slots for a Single-Phase Induction Motor


Use the Stator1 window to define the physical dimensions of the stator slots. To define the stator slots: 1. To open the Stator Slot Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Optionally, to automatically design the dimensions of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2, select the Auto Design check box. 3. Optionally, to design dimensions of slots Bs1 and Bs2 based on the stator tooth width, select the Parallel Tooth check box, and enter a value in the Tooth Width field.
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4.

Enter the available slot dimensions.


Hs0 Hs1 Hs2 Bs0 Bs1

Bs2

Rs

Always available. Always available. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. Always available. Available only when Auto Design and Parallel Tooth are both cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Available only when Auto Design and Parallel Tooth are both cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

5.

Click OK to close the Properties window.


Parallel Branches The number of parallel branches in the series winding. Number of The number of wires per conductor in the series winding (0 for auto-design). Strands Wire Wrap The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 for auto-pickup from the wire library). Wire Size The wire diameter (0 for auto-design).

Stator Slot Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors


To access the stator slot data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree. The Stator Slot Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Auto Design Select or clear this to enable or disable auto-design of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2. When this check box is selected, only two other fields appear in the window: Hs0 and Bs0. Parallel Select this to design Bs1 and Bs2 based on the tooth width. When this check box is selected, the Bs1 and Bs2 fields are removed, and the Tooth Tooth Width field is added. Tooth Width The tooth width for the parallel tooth, on which Bs1 and Bs2 are designed. Hs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Hs1 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Hs2 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected).
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Bs0 Bs1 Bs2 Rs

A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). A slot dimension. (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

Defining the Stator Windings for a Single-Phase Induction Motor


Define the wires, conductors, insulation, and windings of the stator. To define the wires and windings: 1. To open the Stator Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Click the Winding tab. 3. Enter the thickness of the slot liner in the Slot Liner field.

Slot Insulation

4. 5. 6.

Enter the thickness of the wedge insulation in the Wedge Thickness field. Enter the limited slot fill factor for the wire design in the Limited Fill Factor field. Select or clear the Include Series Winding check box. This option sets whether or not to include the series winding in the speed adjustment. When this option is selected, a third tab, Series (C), appears in the Properties window. Enter the number of layers in the Winding Layers field. Enter the number of slots in the Coil Pitch field.
RMxprt Machine Types 9-31

7. 8.

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9.

Select a Winding Type: a. Click the button for Winding Type. The Winding Type window appears. b. Select from one of the following three types of winding:

Whole Coiled Half Coiled Editor

When you place the mouse cursor over a winding button, an outline of the selected winding appears. The following table describes the six types of windings that are possible (three for one-layer and three for two-layer): Type Description A user-defined one-layer winding arrangement. You need to set up the winding One-Layer Winding arrangement for each slot. Editor A one-layer whole-coiled winding:

Whole Coiled

Slot 123

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A one-layer concentric half-coiled winding:

Half Coiled

Slot 123

A user-defined two-layer winding arrangement. When you select 2 Winding layers, the Winding Winding Editor is enabled, where you can specify a different winding arrangement for Editor each slot. A two-layer wave winding:

Whole Coiled

Slot 123

The phase belt for this winding configuration is equal to 360/2m, where m is the phase number.

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A two-layer half-coiled winding:

Half Coiled

Slot 1 2 3

There is only one coil per phase per pair of poles.


Note

For a two-layer winding, if you check Constant Pitch in the Winding Editor, only the top layer needs to be defined; the bottom layer will be determined according to the coil pitch.

The following winding types are available: A single-layer coil:

Slot 123

A 90-degree phase-belt two-layer coil.

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A first-class sinusoidal coil. The Conductors per Layer field defines the maximum number of conductors in the slot. The software will determine the winding distribution in the slots to get the sinusoidal current distribution: A second-class sinusoidal coil. The Conductors per Layer field defines the maximum number of conductors in the slot. The software will determine the winding distribution in the slots to get the sinusoidal current distribution. A first-class concentric coil:

Slot 123

You must define the distribution of conductors per slot. A second-class concentric coil:

Slot 123

You must define the distribution of conductors per slot. The available winding types vary with the slot type that is selected. c. Once you have clicked a button to select a winding, click OK to close the Winding Type
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window and return to the Properties window. 10. Click the Main (A) tab. 11. Enter the end length adjustment of the main stator coil in the End Adjustment field. The end adjustment is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator.

End Adjustment

End of Stator

Stator Coil
12. Enter the number of conductors per layer of main winding in the Conductors per Layer field. 13. Enter the number of parallel branches in the main stator winding in the Parallel Branches field. 14. Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design the value. 15. Enter the thickness of the double-sided wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Enter 0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library.

Insulation Conductor y Wire Wrap = 2*y

16. Select the Wire Size:


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a. b. c.

Click the button for Wire Size. The Wire Size window appears. Select a value from the Wire Diameter pull-down list. Select a wire gauge from the Gauge pull-down menu. You can select from the following options:

You can select a specific gauge number. When you select a gauge number, the <number> Wire Diameter field is automatically updated. This option allows you to manually enter the Wire Diameter. This is useful when USER you want to enter a diameter that does not correspond to a particular wire gauge. This option sets the Wire Diameter to zero, and RMxprt automatically calculates AUTO the optimal value. The diameter information is then written to the output file when you analyze the design. This option allows you to define a conductor that is made of different size wires. MIXED For example, a single conductor may consist of 5 wires, 3 wires with a diameter of 0.21mm and 2 with a diameter of 0.13mm. The gauge number is based on AWG settings. You can create your own wire table using Machine>Wire, and then you can select this wire table using the Tools>Options>Machine Options command. d. When you are done setting the wire size, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the Properties window.

17. Click the Aux (B) tab. 18. Enter the end length adjustment of the auxiliary stator coil in the End Adjustment field. 19. Enter the number of conductors per layer of auxiliary winding in the Conductors per Layer field. 20. Enter the number of parallel branches in the auxiliary stator winding in the Parallel Branches field. 21. Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design the value. 22. WIRE WRAP 23. WIRE SIZE 24. Click the Series (C) tab. (This tab only appears when Include Series Winding is selected on the Winding tab.) 25. Enter the end length adjustment of the series winding in the End Adjustment field. 26. Enter the number of parallel branches in the series stator winding in the Parallel Branches field. 27. Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design the value.

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28. Enter the thickness of the double-sided wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Enter 0 to automat-

Insulation Conductor y Wire Wrap = 2*y

ically obtain this value from the wire library. 29. Select the Wire Size: a. b. c. Click the button for Wire Size. The Wire Size window appears. Select a value from the Wire Diameter pull-down list. Select a wire gauge from the Gauge pull-down menu. You can select from the following options:

You can select a specific gauge number. When you select a gauge number, the <number> Wire Diameter field is automatically updated. This option allows you to manually enter the Wire Diameter. This is useful when USER you want to enter a diameter that does not correspond to a particular wire gauge. This option sets the Wire Diameter to zero, and RMxprt automatically calculates AUTO the optimal value. The diameter information is then written to the output file when you analyze the design. This option allows you to define a conductor that is made of different size wires. MIXED For example, a single conductor may consist of 5 wires, 3 wires with a diameter of 0.21mm and 2 with a diameter of 0.13mm. The gauge number is based on AWG settings. You can create your own wire table using Machine>Wire, and then you can select this wire table using the Tools>Options>Machine Options command. d. When you are done setting the wire size, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the Properties window.

30. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Winding Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors


To access the stator winding data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree.
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The Stator Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Winding tabSlot Liner The thickness of the slot liner. Wedge Thickness The thickness of the wedge insulation Limited Fill The limited slot fill factor for the wire design. Factor Include Series Select or clear to specify whether or not to include the series winding in the speed adjustment. When this option is selected, a Winding third tab, Series (C), appears in the Properties window. Winding Layers The number of winding layers. Coil Pitch The coil pitch measured in number of slots. Winding Type The type of stator winding for the main phase. Click the button to open the Winding Type window and choose from Whole Coiled, Half Coiled, and Editor. Main (A) End Adjustment The end length adjustment of the stator coils. Conductors per The number of conductors per layer in the main winding. Layer Parallel Branches The number of parallel branches in the main stator winding. Number of The number of wires per conductor (0 for auto-design). Strands Wire Wrap The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 for auto-pickup from the wire library). Wire Size The wire diameter (0 for auto-design). End Adjustment The end length adjustment of the auxiliary winding. Conductors per The number of conductors per layer in the auxiliary winding. Layer Parallel Branches The number of parallel branches in the auxiliary stator winding. Number of The number of wires per conductor in the auxiliary winding (0 for auto-design). Strands Wire Wrap The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 for auto-pickup from the wire library). Wire Size The wire diameter (0 for auto-design). This tab appears when Include Series Winding is selected on the Winding tab. End Adjustment The end length adjustment of the series winding. Parallel Branches The number of parallel branches in the series winding.

Aux (B)

Series (C)

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Number of Strands Wire Wrap Wire Size

The number of wires per conductor in the series winding (0 for auto-design). The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 for auto-pickup from the wire library). The wire diameter (0 for auto-design).

Winding Editor for a SIngle-Phase Induction Motor


For a single-phase induction motor, you may want to specify a different number of conductors for each stator slot. The Winding Editor makes this possible by enabling you to specify the number of turns for each coil. To specify the number of turns for each coil: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Machine>Winding>Edit Layout. The Winding Editor window appears. In the table in the upper left, set which phase you want for each coil and which slot is the in and out slot for the current in each coil. If you are working on a quarter or half model, you may want to specify a multiplier by clicking the Periodic Multiplier check box and specifying a value. Select or deselect the Constant Turns or Constant Pitch check boxes, depending on whether you want to be able to change these setting in the table above. When these options are selected, you cannot change the turns or pitch. When you are satisfied with the coil settings, click OK to close the Winding Editor window.

5.

Defining Different Size Wires for a Single-Phase Induction Motor


Use the Gauge option if you have a conductor that is made up different size wires. To define different size wires: 1. 2. 3. In the Wire Size window, select MIXED from the Gauge pull-down menu. Select either Round or Rectangular as the Wire Type. Enter the appropriate wire data in the table:

For a round wire:


9-40 RMxprt Machine Types

Enter the Diameter in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this diameter. Enter the Width of the wire in the table. Enter the Thickness of the wire in the table. Enter the Fillet value in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this data.

For a rectangular wire:

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4. 5. 6.

Choose Add to add the new wire data. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each size wire you want to add. When you are finished defining the wires, click OK to close the Wire Size window. For example, if one conductor is made up of 5 wires, and 3 of those wires have a diameter of 0.21mm, and the other 2 have a diameter of 0.13mm, then the mixed wire size table will have two lines. The first line will list Diameter = 0.21 and Number = 3. The second line will list Diameter = 0.13 and Number = 2. An equivalent wire diameter is displayed as Wire Size value in the Winding tab in the Properties window.

Note

Defining the Rotor Data for a Single-Phase Induction Motor


The rotor consists of copper bars in which current is induced from the stator windings. The rotor rotates at a slightly slower speed than the stator electromagnetic field. In the project tree, doubleclick Machine>Rotor, Machine-Rotor-Slot, and Machine-Rotor-Winding to define the physical dimensions, slot data, wires, and conductors for the rotor. To define the general rotor data: 1. To open the Rotor Properties window, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the stacking factor for the rotor core in the Stacking Factor field. 3. 4. Enter the Number of Slots in the rotor. Select the Slot Type: a. b.
Note

Click the button for the Slot Type. The Select Slot Type window appears. Select a slot type (available types include 1 through 4). When you place the mouse cursor over the slot type, a schematic of the selected type appears, displaying the slot dimension variables. Click OK to close the Select Slot Type window and return to the Properties window.

c. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Enter the outer diameter of the rotor in the Outer Diameter field. Enter the inner diameter of the rotor in the Inner Diameter field. Enter the length of the rotor core in the Length field. Select a Steel Type for the rotor core: a. b. c. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

9.

Enter the Skew Width, measured in rotor slot pitch. This value defines by how much the rotor bars are skewed.
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10. Optionally, select Cast Rotor to allow the conductor to fill all the space available in the slot. Otherwise, RMxprt assumes the slot wedge that fixes the bars is filled with insulator material in a 3D/3D geometry model. 11. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors


To access the general rotor data, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree. The Rotor Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Stacking Factor Number of Slots Slot Type Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Steel Type Skew Width Cast Rotor

The stacking factor of the rotor core. The number of slots the rotor core contains. The type of slots in the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Slot Type window. The outer diameter of the rotor core. The inner diameter of the rotor core. The length of the rotor core. The steel type of the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The skew width measured in slot number. Select or clear this to specify whether the rotor squirrel-cage winding is cast or not.

Defining the Rotor Slots for Single-Phase Induction Motors


To define the rotors slots: 1. To open the Rotor Slot Properties window, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the slot dimensions in the following fields: Hs0, Hs01, Hs2, Bs0, Bs1, Bs2, Rs. 3. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Slot Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors


To access the rotor slot data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree. The Rotor Slot Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Hs0 Hs01 Hs1 Hs2

A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected).

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Bs0 Bs1 Bs2 Rs

A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension. (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

Defining the Rotor Windings for Single-Phase Induction Motors


To define the rotor windings: 1. To open the Rotor Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Select a Bar Conductor Type for the rotor winding bar: a. b. c. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click the button for Bar Conductor Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a conductor type from the list, or define a new conductor type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

2.

Enter the length of the gap between the end ring and the iron core in the End Length field. This field specifies the value for only one end of the gap, not both. Enter the end ring dimension in the axial direction in the End-Ring Width field. The end ring connects the bars of the rotor to one another. Enter the end ring dimension in the radius direction in the End-Ring Height field. The end rings height covers at least the cross section of the rotor conductor. Select an End Ring Conductor Type for the rotor winding end ring: a. b. c. Click the button for End Ring Conductor Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a conductor type from the list, or define a new conductor type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

7.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Winding Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors


To access the rotor winding data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree.

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The Rotor Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Bar Conductor Type End Length End Ring Width End Ring Height End Ring Conductor Type

The type of bar conductor used in the winding. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The length of the single-side end of the extended bar. The width of one side of the end rings in the axial direction. The height of the end rings in the radian direction. The type of end ring conductor used in the winding. Click the button to open the Select Definition window.

Adding or Removing a Vent from a Single-Phase Induction Motor


By option, you can add a vent to a single-phase induction motor. To add a vent:. 1. 2. Select the rotor icon in the project tree. Right-click to display the pop-up menu and select Insert Vent.

The vent icon appears in the project tree under the rotor. To remove a vent from a rotor in a three-phase induction motor. 1. Select the rotor icon in the project tree. 2. Right-click to display the pop-up menu and select Remove Vent. The vent icon disappears in the project tree under the rotor. The Vent data for the stator includes the following fields.
Holes per row Inner hole diameter Outer hole diameter Inner hole location Outer hole location

Number of axial vent holes per row. Diameter of vent holes in inner row. Diameter of vent holes in outer row. Center to center diameter of inner hole vents Center to center diameter of outer hole vents.

Defining the Shaft Data for a Single-Phase Induction Motor


To define the shaft: 1. To open the Shaft Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Select or clear the Magnetic Shaft check box to specify whether or not the shaft is to be made of magnetic material. 3. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Shaft Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors


To access the shaft data, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree.
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The Shaft Data Properties window contains the following fields:


Magnetic Shaft

Select or clear this check box to indicate whether or not the shaft is made of magnetic material.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Single-Phase Induction Motor


To define the solution data: 1. 2. 3. To open the Solution Setup window, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. Click the General tab. The Operation Type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. Select the Load Type used in the motor from the following options:
Const Speed Const Power Const Torque Linear Torque

Fan Load

The speed remains constant in the motor. The output power remains constant in the motor. The torque remains constant regardless of the speed. In this case, Tload = Trated, given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The torque increases linearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated) where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The load varies nonlinearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated)2 where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Enter the output power developed at the shaft of the motor in the Rated Output Power field. Enter the RMS line-to-line voltage in the Rated Voltage field. Enter the desired output speed of the motor at the load point in the Rated Speed field. Enter the temperature at which the system functions in the Operating Temperature field. Click the Single-Phase Induction Motor tab. Enter the electrical line frequency in the Frequency field, and select the units. Click OK to close the Solution Setup window.

Related Topics:

Solution Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors

Solution Data for Single-Phase Induction Motors


To access the solution data, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup.

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The Solution Setup window contains the following fields:


Operation Type Load Type Rated Output Power Rated Voltage Rated Speed Operating Temperature Frequency Related Topics:

On the General tab. The operation type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. On the General tab. Select from Const Speed, Const Power, Const Torque, Linear Torque, and Fan Load. The default is Const Power. On the General tab. Type a value for the rated output voltage, and select the units. On the General tab. Type a value for the rated voltage, and select the units. On the General tab. Type a value for the rated speed, and select the units. On the General tab. Type a value for the operating temperature, and select the units. On the Single-Phase Induction Motor tab. Type a value for the frequency, and select the units.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Single-Phase Induction Motor

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Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines


After you have selected Adjustable-Speed Synchronous Machines as your model type, you need to define the following:

General data, such as the voltage, speed, and circuit type of the model. Circuit data, such as lead trigger angle, transistor drop, and control circuit information. Stator data, such as the diameter, slot dimensions, and skew width of the stator. Stator Winding Rotor pole data, such as the associated permanent-magnet dimensions, air gap, and stacking factor. Solution data, such as rated output voltage and frequency.

Analysis Approach Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines


In adjustable-speed permanent-magnet synchronous machines, the rotor speed is controlled by adjusting the frequency of the input voltage. Unlike standard brushless permanent-magnet DC motors, this type of machines does not utilize position sensors. Permanent magnets are mounted on the rotor of a permanent-magnet synchronous machine, which could be either inner or outer rotor type. The poly-phase armature winding is imbedded in the stator, whose number of poles is the same as that of the rotor. The machine can operate as a generator or as a motor. When the machine operates as a motor, the stator poly-phase winding can be fed either by a sinusoidal AC source or by a DC source via a DC to AC inverter. When the machine operates as a generator, the stator poly-phase winding supplies an AC source for electric loads.

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Stator Winding Connected to a Sinusoidal AC Source


In this case, the performance of the machine can be analyzed in the frequency domain based on the phasor diagrams, as shown in Figure 6.1 for the generators and Figure 6.2 for the motors.
M
E0 jI Xaq jI d Xad jI q Xaq jI X1 IR1 U

Iq

Id

Figure 6.1 The phasor diagram for generators

jI X1 jI Xaq U IR1 jI q Xaq E0

M
jI d Xad

Id

Iq

O
Figure 6.2 The phasor diagram for motors

In the figures, R1 and X1 are the resistance and the leakage reactance of the armature winding, Xad and Xaq are the d-axis armature reactance and the q-axis armature reactance, respectively. In the

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phasor diagram, Xad is a linearized nonlinear parameter, and Xaq is a linear parameter. The d-axis synchronous reactance Xd and q-axis synchronous reactance Xaq are calculated directly from

X d = X 1 + X ad X q = X 1 + X aq
Let ? denote the power angle for a generator (the angle that U lags E0), or the torque angle for a motor (the angle that E0 lags U), then we have

I d X d + I q R 1 = ( U cos E 0 ) I d R 1 + I q X q = U sin
where the plus sign + is for the motor and the minus sign - is for the generator. Solving for Id and Iq yields

X q ( U cos E 0 ) R 1 U sin I d = -------------------------------------------------------------------------2 R 1 + Xd Xq R 1 ( U cos E 0 ) X d U sin I q = -------------------------------------------------------------------------2 R 1 + Xd Xq


where the plus sign + is for the motor and the minus sign - is for the generator. Let the angle that I lags E0 be , we have

1 Id --- = tan Iq =

The power factor angle (the angle that I lags U) is

where the plus sign + is for the motor and the minus sign - is for the generator.
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For the motor operation, the input electric power is

P 1 = 3UI cos
The output mechanical power is

P 2 = P 1 ( P fw + P Cua + P Fe )
where Pfw, PCua, and PFe denote the frictional and wind, the armature copper and the iron-core losses, respectively. The output mechanical torque is

P2 T 2 = -----

where denotes the synchronous speed in rad/s. The efficiency of the motor is

P2 = ------ 100 % P1 P 2 = 3UI cos

For the generator operation, the output electric power is

The input mechanical power is

P 1 = P 2 + P fw + P Cua + P Fe
where Pfw, PCua, and PFe denote the frictional and wind, the armature copper and the iron-core losses, respectively. The input mechanical torque is

P1 T 1 = -----
where denotes the synchronous speed in mechanical rad/s. The efficiency of the generator is

P2 ------ 100 = P1

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Stator Winding Fed by a DC to AC Inverter


In this case, this adjustable-speed synchronous machine (ASSM) operates as a motor, and the analysis approach is similar to that of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor. The stator poly-phase armature winding is connected to a DC power supply through a DC to AC inverter to produce the rotational magnetic field in the air-gap. The main difference between ASSM and BLDC motor is: in BLDC motor, trigger time exactly depends on the rotor position; but in ASSM, the trigger time is independent of the rotor position. If the mechanical load of a BLDC motor increases, the rotor speed and the induced voltage decreases, causing the armature current and torque increase to balance the increased mechanical load. However, for an ASSM, if the mechanical load increases, the rotor speed decreases temporarily, which causes the torque angle (the same as lead angle of trigger for a BLDC motor) increase and then torque increase to retain the synchronous speed. Therefore, the speed of a BLDC motor varies with input voltage and mechanical load, while the speed of an ASSM does not. The speed of an ASSM can be changed by adjusting the frequency of the controlling signal, which explains why it is called Adjustable-Speed Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine. Using the time-domain mathematical model to analyze the characteristics of the electric machine, Park's voltage equation in the matrix form is as follows

R1 + Ld Lq e 0 id vq eq = Ld e R1 + Lq 0 iq v0 e0 0 0 R1 + L0 i0 vd ed
where R1 is the armature winding resistance, Ld, Lq and L0 are the d-, the q- and the 0-axis inductances respectively, e is the revolution speed in electric radians per second, the differential operator is

d dt

The coordinate transformation equations for the terminal voltage, the induced emf and the armature winding current are

vd vq = C v0

va vb
M

ed eq = C e0

ea eb
M

ia

id

ib = C iq M i0

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The transformation matrices for the two-, the three- and the four-phase systems are C2, C3 and C4, respectively, as follows

C2 =

cos sin 0 sin cos 0 sin

C3 =

1 -----2 2 1 -- cos ( ) sin ( ) -----3 2 1 cos ( 2 ) sin ( 2 ) -----2 cos cos C 4 = sin cos sin sin cos sin cos 0 0 0 0

where

2 = -- 3
The input electric power is obtained from the voltage and the current as:

T 1 p 1 = -- ( v d i d + v q i q + v 0 i 0 ) dt T 0
The output mechanical power is:

P 2 = P 1 ( P fw + P Cua + P Fe )

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where Pfw, PCua, Pt and PFe denote the frictional and wind, the armature copper, the switching and the iron-core losses, respectively. The output mechanical torque is

P2 T 2 = -----
where denotes the revolution speed in mechanical radians per second. The efficiency of the electric machine is

P2 = ------ 100 % P1

Defining an Adjustable-Speed Synchronous Motor


The general procedure for defining a adjust-speed synchronous machine is as follows: 1. Insert the adjust-speed synchronous machine into a new or existing project. 2. Double-click the Machine entry in the project tree to define the general data. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Double-click the Machine>Circuit entry in the project tree to define the control circuit. Double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree to define the stator geometry. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree to define the stator slot dimensions. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree to define the stator windings and conductors. Double-click the Machine-Rotor entry in the project tree to define the rotor geometry. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Pole entry in the project tree to define the pole, embrace, offset, and air gap data for the rotor pole. Double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree to define the magnetism of the shaft.

10. Right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup to define the solution data. 11. Choose File>Save to save the project. 12. Choose RMxprt>Analyze to analyze the design.
Note

When you place the cursor over an entry field in the data windows, a brief description of that field appears in the status bar at the bottom of the RMxprt window.

Once analyzed, the model can be viewed in the Maxwell 2D Modeler, or it can be used to create a new Maxwell 2D project, and a new Maxwell 3D design.

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Defining the General Data for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine


Use the General window to define the basic parameters of the motor, such as the motors rated output power, rated voltage, losses, and circuit types. To define the general data: 1. To open the General Data Properties window, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Enter the number of poles for the machine in the Number of Poles field. This value is the total number of poles in the stator (or the number of pole pairs multiplied by two). Enter the energy loss due to friction at the given speed in the Frictional Loss field. Enter the wind loss due to air resistance measured at the reference speed in the Wind Loss field. Enter the given speed in the Reference Speed field. Select one of the following from the Control Type pull-down list:

DC: Switched DC voltage at the given input frequency. PWM: Pulse width modulation. When you select this source type, you must enter the following values in the Circuit Data Properties window: Modulation Index (the ratio of the sine wave amplitude to the triangular amplitude) and Carrier Frequency Times (the ratio of the triangular frequency to the sine wave frequency). AC: An AC excitation.

7.

Select a Circuit Type from the following types: Y3 Y-connected, three-phase. L3 Loop-type, three-phase. S3 Star-type, three-phase. C2 Cross-type, two-phase. L4 Loop-type, four-phase. S4 Star-type, four-phase. The circuit types are based on industry standards. By default, type Y3, a three-phase, six-status circuit, is selected as the circuit type.

Note

When you place the mouse cursor over a circuit type, an outline schematic of the circuit appears.

8.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

General Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines


To access the general data, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree.

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The General Data Properties window for a three-phase induction motor contains the following fields: The machine type you selected when inserting a new RMxprt design (Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine). Number of Poles The number of poles the machine contains. Rotor Position Select whether the rotor is an Inner Rotor or Outer Rotor. Frictional Loss The frictional energy loss (due to friction) measured at the reference speed. Wind Loss The wind loss (due to air resistance) measured at the reference speed. Reference Speed The given speed of reference. Control Type The way the circuit is controlled. Select from DC, PWM (pulse-width modulation), or AC. Circuit Type The drive circuit type. Click the button to open the Circuit Type window and select from the following six types:
Machine Type

Y3: Y-Type, 3-Phase L3: Loop-Type, 3-Phase S3: Star-Type, 3-Phase C2: Cross-Type, 2-Phase L4: Loop-Type, 4-Phase S4: Star-Type, 4-Phase

Defining the Circuit Data for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine


Use the Circuit Data Properties window to specify the rated output power, voltage values, circuit type, and speed of the brushless DC motor. To define the general data: 1. To open the Circuit Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Circuit entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the triggers lead angle in electrical degrees in the Lead Angle of Trigger field. The triggers lead angle is shown in the following plot of the open circuit induced voltage versus

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position. An angle of 0 means that the induced voltage in the triggered phase is at a maximum:

Note

A positive value represents a lead angle, and a negative value represents a lag angle.

3. 4. 5.

Enter the period from on-status to off-status of a transistor, in electrical degrees, in the Trigger Pulse Width field. Enter the voltage drop across one transistor when the transistor is turned on in the Transistor Drop field. Refer to the figures of the different circuit types in step 2. Enter the voltage drop of one diode in the discharge loop in the Diode Drop field. If you selected a star-type circuit (S3 or S4) as the Circuit Type, enter the total discharge voltage in this field. If you selected PWM as the Control Type, then enter values in the following two fields:

6.


7.

Modulation Index: The ratio of the sine-wave amplitude to the triangular amplitude. For PWM circuits. Carrier Frequency Times: The ratio of the triangular frequency to the sine-wave frequency. For PWM circuits.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

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Circuit Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines


To access the Circuit Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Circuit entry in the project tree. When AC is selected at the Control Type, now circuit data properties exist.
Lead Angle of The triggers lead angle, in electrical degrees. Trigger Trigger Pulse The period from on-status to off-status for a transistor, in electrical degrees. Width Transistor Drop The voltage drop across one transistor when the transistor is turned on. Diode Drop The voltage drop across one diode in the discharge loop. Modulation Index The ratio of the sine-wave amplitude to the triangular amplitude. For PWM circuits. Carrier The ratio of the triangular frequency to the sine-wave frequency. For PWM Frequency Times circuits.

Defining the Stator Data for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine


Use the Stator Properties windows to define the stator dimensions, slots, windings, and conductors. The stator is the outer lamination stack where the polyphase voltage windings reside. To define the general stator data: 1. To open the Stator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the Outer Diameter of the stator. 3. 4. 5. 6. Enter the Inner Diameter of the stator. Enter the length of the stator core in the Length field. Enter the stacking factor for the stator core in the Stacking Factor field. Select a Steel Type for the stator core: a. b. c. 7. 8. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

Enter the Number of Slots in the stator. Select the Slot Type: a. Click the button for the Slot Type. The Select Slot Type window appears.

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b.
Note

Select a slot type (available types include 1 through 4).. When you place the mouse cursor over the slot type, a schematic of the selected type appears, displaying the slot dimension variables. Click OK to close the Select Slot Type window and return to the Properties window.

c. 9.

Enter the skew width, measured in slot number, in the Skew Width field.

10. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Defining the Stator Dimensions and Slots


To define the stator slots: 1. To open the Stator Slot Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Optionally, to automatically design the dimensions of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2, select the Auto Design check box. Optionally, to design dimensions of slots Bs1 and Bs2 based on the stator tooth width, select the Parallel Tooth check box, and enter a value in the Tooth Width field. Enter the available slot dimensions.
Hs0 Hs2 Bs0 Bs1

2. 3. 4.

Bs2

Rs

Always available. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. Always available. Available only when Auto Design and Parallel Tooth are both cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Available only when Auto Design and Parallel Tooth are both cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

5.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines


To access the general stator data, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree. The Stator Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length
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The outer diameter of the stator core. The inner diameter of the stator core. The length of the stator core.

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Stacking Factor Steel Type Number of Slots Slot Type Skew Width

The stacking factor of the stator core. The steel type of the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The number of slots the stator core contains. The type of slots in the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Slot Type window. The skew width measured in slot number.

Stator Slot Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines


To access the stator slot data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree. The Stator Slot Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Auto Design Select or clear this to enable or disable auto-design of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2. When this check box is selected, only two other fields appear in the window: Hs0 and Bs0. Parallel Select this to design Bs1 and Bs2 based on the tooth width. When this check box is selected, the Bs1 and Bs2 fields are removed, and the Tooth Tooth Width field is added. Tooth Width The tooth width for the parallel tooth, on which Bs1 and Bs2 are designed. Hs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Hs1 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Hs2 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Bs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Bs1 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Bs2 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs A slot dimension. (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

Defining the Stator Windings and Conductors for an Adjust-Speed

Synchronous Machine

To define the stator windings and conductors: 1. To open the Stator Slot Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-StatorWinding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties

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2. 3. 4.

section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Click the Winding tab. Enter the number of layers in the stator winding in the Winding Layers field. Select a Winding Type: a. b. Click the button for Winding Type. The Winding Type window appears. Select from one of the following three types of winding:

Whole Coiled Half Coiled Editor

When you place the mouse cursor over a winding button, an outline of the selected winding appears. The following table describes the six types of windings that are possible (three for one-layer and three for two-layer): Type Description One A user-defined one-layer winding arrangement. You need to set up the winding Layer arrangement for each slot. Winding Editor A one-layer whole-coiled winding:

Whole Coiled

Slot 123

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A one-layer concentric half-coiled winding:

Half Coiled

Slot 123

A user-defined two-layer winding arrangement. When you select 20, the Winding Editor Editor opens, where you can specify a different winding arrangement for each slot. A two-layer wave winding:

Whole Coiled

Slot 123

The phase belt for this winding configuration is equal to 360/2m, where m is the phase number.

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A two-layer half-coiled winding:

Half Coiled

Slot 1 2 3

There is only one coil per phase per pair of poles.


Note

For a two-layer winding, if you check Constant Pitch in the Winding Editor, only the top layer needs to be defined; the bottom layer will be determined according to the coil pitch. Once you have clicked a button to select a winding, click OK to close the Winding Type window and return to the Properties window.

c. 5.

Select the Winding Type for the stator. When you place the mouse cursor over the winding type, a schematic of the selected winding appears.

Note

Winding types 10 and 20 are user-defined. If you select either of these, a window appears, asking you to define the name of the winding arrangement. The window closes when the user-

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defined winding is entered. Select from the following winding types: One- A user-defined single-layer winding arrangement. When you select this type, enter the Layer winding arrangement, and choose OK. Winding Editor A one-layer whole-coiled winding: 11

Slot 123

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12

A one-layer concentric half-coiled winding:

Slot 123

20 21

A user-defined winding arrangement. When you select this type, enter the winding arrangement, and choose OK. A two-layer wave winding:

Slot 123

The phase belt for this winding configuration is equal to 360/2m, where m is the phase number.

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22

A two-layer winding:

Slot 1 2 3

6. 7.

Select or enter the number of parallel branches in one phase of the winding in the Parallel Branches field.

Enter the total number of conductors in each stator slot in the Conductors per Slot field. This value is the number of turns per coil multiplied by the number of layers. 8. Enter the coil pitch, measured in number of slots, in the Coil Pitch field. The coil pitch is the number of slots separating one winding. For example, if a coil starts in slot 1 and ends in slot 6, it has a coil pitch of 5. 9. Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design this value. 10. Enter the thickness of the double-sided wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Enter 0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library.

Insulation Conductor y Wire Wrap = 2*y

11. Select the Wire Size: a. Click the button for Wire Size. The Wire Size window appears.
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b. c.

Select a value from the Wire Diameter pull-down list. Select a wire gauge from the Gauge pull-down menu. You can select from the following options:

You can select a specific gauge number. When you select a gauge number, the <number> Wire Diameter field is automatically updated. This option allows you to manually enter the Wire Diameter. This is useful when USER you want to enter a diameter that does not correspond to a particular wire gauge. This option sets the Wire Diameter to zero, and RMxprt automatically calculates AUTO the optimal value. The diameter information is then written to the output file when you analyze the design. This option allows you to define a conductor that is made of different size wires. MIXED For example, a single conductor may consist of 5 wires, 3 wires with a diameter of 0.21mm and 2 with a diameter of 0.13mm. The gauge number is based on AWG settings. You can create your own wire table using Machine>Wire, and then you can select this wire table using the Tools>Options>Machine Options command. d. When you are done setting the wire size, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the Properties window.

12. Click the End/Insulation tab. 13. Select or clear the Input Half-turn Length check box. 14. Do one of the following:

If you selected Input Half-turn Length, then enter the half-turn length of the armature winding in the Half Turn Length field. If you cleared Input Half-turn Length, then enter the end length adjustment of the stator coils in the End Adjustment field. The end adjustment is the distance one end of the con-

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ductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator.

End Adjustment

End of Stator

Stator Coil
15. Enter the inner radius of the base corner in the Base Inner Radius field. 16. Enter the inner diameter of the coil tip in the Tip Inner Diameter field. 17. Enter the distance between two stator coils in the End Clearance field. 18. Enter the thickness of the slot liner insulation in the Slot Liner field.

Slot Insulation

19. Enter the thickness of the wedge insulation in the Wedge Thickness field. 20. Enter the thickness of the insulation layer in the Layer Insulation field. 21. Enter the limited slot fill factor for the wire design in the Limited Fill Factor field. 22. Click OK to close the Properties window.
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Winding Editor for an Adjustable-Speed Synchronous Machine


For a adjustable-speed synchronous machine, you may want to specify a different number of conductors for each stator slot. The Winding Editor makes this possible by enabling you to specify the number of turns for each coil. To specify the number of turns for each coil: 1. Click Machine>Winding>Edit Layout. The Winding Editor window appears. 2. 3. 4. In the table in the upper left, set which phase you want for each coil and which slot is the in and out slot for the current in each coil. If you are working on a quarter or half model, you may want to specify a multiplier by clicking the Periodic Multiplier check box and specifying a value. Select or deselect the Constant Turns or Constant Pitch check boxes, depending on whether you want to be able to change these setting in the table above. When these options are selected, you cannot change the turns or pitch. When you are satisfied with the coil settings, click OK to close the Winding Editor window.

5.

Defining Different Size Wires for an Adjustable Speed Synchronous Machine


Use the Gauge option in the Wire Size dialog if you have a conductor that is made up different size wires. To define different size wires: 1. In the Wire Size window, select MIXED from the Gauge pull-down menu. 2. 3. Select either Round or Rectangular as the Wire Type. Enter the appropriate wire data in the table:

For a round wire:


4. 5. 6.

Enter the Diameter in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this diameter. Enter the Width of the wire in the table. Enter the Thickness of the wire in the table. Enter the Fillet value in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this data.

For a rectangular wire:

Click Add to add the new wire data. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each size wire you want to add. When you are finished defining the wires, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return

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to the RMxprt Properties window.


Note

For example, if one conductor is made up of 5 wires, and 3 of those wires have a diameter of 0.21mm, and the other 2 have a diameter of 0.13mm, then the mixed wire size table will have two lines. The first line will list Diameter = 0.21 and Number = 3. The second line will list Diameter = 0.13 and Number = 2. An equivalent wire diameter is displayed as Wire Size value in the Winding tab in the Properties window.

Stator Winding Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines


To access the stator winding data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree. The Stator Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Winding tabWinding Layers The number of winding layers. Winding Type The type of stator winding. Click the button to open the Winding Type window and choose from Whole Coiled, Half Coiled, and Editor. Parallel Branches The number of parallel branches in the stator winding. Conductors per The number of conductors per stator slot (0 for auto-design). Slot Coil Pitch The coil pitch measured in number of slots. Number of The number of wires per conductor (0 for auto-design). Strands Wire Wrap The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library). Wire Size The diameter of the wire (0 for auto-design). Click the button to open the Wire Size window where you can specify units, wire type, diameter, and gauge. End/ Input Half-turn Select or clear this check box to specify whether or not you want to enter the half-turn length. When this check box is selected, the Insulation Length tab Half Turn Length field appears the next time you open the Properties window. When this check box is selected, the End Adjustment field appears instead. Half Turn Length The half-turn length of the armature winding. End Adjustment The end length adjustment of the stator coils, which is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator. Base Inner The inner radius of the base corner. Radius Tip Inner The inner diameter of the coil tip. Diameter End Clearance The end clearance between two adjacent coils.
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Slot Liner The thickness of the slot liner insulation. Wedge Thickness The thickness of the wedge insulation. Layer Insulation The thickness of the insulation layer. Limited Fill The limited slot fill factor for the wire design. Factor

Defining the Rotor Data for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine


The rotor consists of copper bars in which current is induced by the magnetic fields produced by the stator windings. In the project tree, double-click Machine>Rotor and Machine-Rotor-Pole to define the rotor and the pole. To define general stator data: 1. To open the Rotor Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the outer diameter of the rotor in the Outer Diameter field. 3. 4. 5. Enter the inner diameter of the rotor in the Inner Diameter field. Enter the length of the rotor core in the Length field. Select a Steel Type for the rotor core: a. b. c. 6. 7. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

Enter the stacking factor for the rotor core in the Stacking Factor field. Select a Pole Type:

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a. b.
Note

Click the button. The Select Pole Type window appears. Click a button to select the desired pole type (1, 2, 3, 4, or 5). TIP: When you run the mouse over each option, the diagram changes to show that pole type. When you place the mouse cursor over a rotor type, an outline of the selected circuit type appears. Click OK to close the Select Pole Type window and return to the Properties window.

c. 8.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines


To access the general rotor data, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree. The Rotor Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Steel Type Stacking Factor Pole Type

The outer diameter of the rotor core. The inner diameter of the rotor core. The length of the rotor core. The steel type of the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The stacking factor of the rotor core. The pole type for the rotor. Click this button to open the Select Pole Type window and select from the following types: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Defining the Rotor Pole for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine


The rotor pole drives the electromagnetic field which is coupled with the stator windings. Use the Rotor Pole Data Properties window to define the rotor pole.
Note

Some of the fields in the Rotor Pole window change, or are inactive, depending on the Rotor Type you select.

To define the rotor pole: 1. To open the Rotor Pole Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Pole entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. For all pole types except type 4, enter the ratio of the actual arc distance in relation to the max-

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imum possible arc distance in the Embrace field. This value is between 0 and 1.

Pole Embrace = 0.7


3. 4.

Pole Embrace = 1.0

For pole type 4, enter the shaft diameter of the rotor in the Shaft Diameter field. For pole types 1, 2, and 3, enter the distance from the center of the rotor to the polar arc center in the Offset field. Enter 0 for a uniform air gap.

Magnet Radius Rotor OD Radius

Offset
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. For pole type 5, enter the thickness of the bridge across the two poles in the Bridge field. For pole type 5, enter the width of the rib supporting the bridge in the Rib field. Select the type of magnet to use in the rotor pole from the Magnet Type pull-down menu. For pole types 4 and 5, enter the width of the magnet in the Magnet Width field. Enter the maximum radial thickness of the magnet in the Magnet Thickness field.

10. Click OK to close the Properties window.


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Rotor Pole Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines


To access the pole rotor data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Pole entry in the project tree. The Rotor Pole Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Embrace Shaft Diameter Offset Bridge Rib Magnet Type Magnet Width Magnet Thickness

The pole embrace. For pole types 1, 2, 3, and 5. The shaft diameter of the rotor. For pole type 4. The pole-arc center offset from the rotor center (0 for a uniform air gap). For pole types 1, 2, and 3. The thickness of the bridge across two adjacent poles. For pole type 5. The width of the rib at the center of two adjacent poles that support the bridge. For pole type 5. The type of magnet. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. For all pole types. The maximum width of the magnet. For pole types 4 and 5. The maximum thickness of the magnet. For all pole types.

Defining the Shaft Data for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine


To define the shaft: 1. To open the Shaft Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Select or clear the Magnetic Shaft check box to specify whether or not the shaft is to be made of magnetic material. 3. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Shaft Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines


To access the shaft data, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree. The Shaft Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Magnetic Shaft

Select or clear this check box to indicate whether or not the shaft is made of magnetic material.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine


To define the solution data: 1. To open the Solution Setup window, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add
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Solution Setup.

2. 3.

Click the General tab. The Operation Type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. Select the Load Type used in the motor from the following options:
Const Speed Const Power Const Torque Linear Torque

The speed remains constant in the motor. The output power remains constant in the motor. The torque remains constant regardless of the speed. In this case, Tload = Trated, given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The torque increases linearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated) where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The load varies nonlinearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated)2 where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed.

Fan Load

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Enter the output power developed at the shaft of the motor in the Rated Output Power field. Enter the RMS line-to-line voltage in the Rated Voltage field. Enter the desired output speed of the motor at the load point in the Rated Speed field. Enter the temperature at which the system functions in the Operating Temperature field. Click OK to close the Solution Setup window.

Related Topics:

Solution Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines

Solution Data for Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machines


To access the solution data, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. For this machine type, there is only one tab, the General tab. The Solution Setup window contains the following fields:
Operation Type Load Type Rated Output Power Rated Voltage Rated Speed Operating Temperature Related Topics:
27-74 RMxprt Machine Types

The operation type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. Select from Const Speed, Const Power, Const Torque, Linear Torque, and Fan Load. The default is Const Power. Type a value for the rated output voltage, and select the units. Type a value for the rated voltage, and select the units. Type a value for the rated speed, and select the units. Type a value for the operating temperature, and select the units.

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Setting Up Analysis Parameters for an Adjust-Speed Synchronous Machine

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Permanent-Magnet DC Motors
After you have selected Permanent-Magnet DC Motors as your model type, you need to define the following:

General data, such as the voltage, speed, and circuit type of the model. Stator data, such as the diameter, slot dimensions, and skew width of the stator. Stator pole data, such as its associated pole dimensions, type of steel, and pole magnet specifications. Rotor data, such as the slot types and dimensions, slot data, and windings. Commutator and brush data, such as the commutator dimensions and brush length. Shaft data Solution data, such as rated output voltage and frequency.

Analysis Approach for PMDC Motors


For a permanent-magnet DC motor, the stator is equipped with P pairs of permanent magnets, creating P pairs of alternating north and south poles. The distribution of the magnetic field produced by the permanent magnets field flux is fixed with respect to the stator. The rotor is equipped with a distributed winding connected to a commutator that revolves together with the rotor. A system of brushes is kept in permanent electrical contact with the commutator. When DC current is applied to the rotor winding (via the brushes and commutator), a torque is produced by the interaction of the rotor (armature) currents and the field produced by the permanent magnets. The commutator causes the armature to create a magnetic flux distribution that is fixed in space and whose axis is perpendicular to the axis of the field flux produced by the permanent magnets. For these motors, the commutator acts as a mechanical rectifier. The performance of a permanent-magnet DC (PMDC) motor is computed by DC analysis only. The voltage equation of a PMDC motor is:

U = Ub + R1 * I + E
where Ub is the voltage drop of one-pair brushes, R1 is the armature resistance, E = Ke * is the back emf with Ke the back-emf constant in Vs/rad, and is the speed in rad/s. For a given speed , armature current can be computed based on the applied voltage U, as shown below:

I = (U - Ub - Ke * )/R1
The shaft torque T2 is computed by:

T2 = Kt * I - Tfw where Kt is the torque constant in Nm/A, which is numerically the same as Ke, and Tfw is the frictional torque. The output power (mechanical power) is:

P2 = T2 *
The input power (electrical power) is:
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P1 = P2 + Pfw + Pcua + Pb + PFe where Pfw, Pcua, Pb, and PFe are frictional and wind loss, armature copper loss, brush drop loss,
and iron-core loss, respectively. The efficiency is:

eff = P2/P1 * 100%

Defining a Permanent-Magnet DC Motor


The general procedure for defining a permanent-magnet DC motor is as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Insert the permanent-magnet DC motor into a new or existing project. Double-click the Machine entry in the project tree to define the general data. Double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree to define the stator geometry. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Pole entry in the project tree to define the stator pole dimensions. Double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree to define the rotor geometry. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree to define the rotor slot dimensions. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree to define the rotor windings and conductors. Double-click the Machine>Commutator entry in the project tree to define the commutator and brush data. Double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree to define the magnetism of the shaft.

10. Right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup to define the solution data. 11. Choose File>Save to save the project. 12. Choose RMxprt>Analyze to analyze the design.
Note

When you place the cursor over an entry field in the data windows, a brief description of that field appears in the status bar at the bottom of the RMxprt window.

Once analyzed, the model can be viewed in the Maxwell 2D Modeler, or it can be used to create a new Maxwell 2D project, and a new Maxwell 3D project. Refer to the Permanent-Magnet DC Motor Problem application note, on the technical support page of the Ansoft web site, for a specific example of a permanent-magnet DC motor problem.

Defining the General Data for PMDC Motors


Use the General window to specify the rated output power, voltage values, circuit type, and speed of the DC motor. To define the general data: 1. To open the General Data Properties window, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without
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2. 3.

opening a separate window.) Enter the number of poles for the machine in the Number of Poles field. This value is the total number of poles in the stator (or the number of pole pairs multiplied by two). Enter the energy loss due to friction at the given speed in the Frictional Loss field. To use the Brush Press and Frictional Coefficient fields when you define the commutator and brush later in the Commutator/Brush Data window, enter 0 here for the Friction Loss.

Note

4. 5. 6.

Enter the wind loss due to air resistance measured at the reference speed in the Wind Loss field. Enter the given speed in the Reference Speed field. Click OK to close the Properties window.

General Data for PMDC Motors


To access the general data, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree. The General Data Properties window for a three-phase induction motor contains the following fields: The machine type you selected when inserting a new RMxprt design (DC Permanent Magnet Motor). Number of Poles The number of poles the machine contains. Rotor Position Select whether the rotor is an Inner Rotor or Outer Rotor. Frictional Loss The frictional energy loss (due to friction) measured at the reference speed. Wind Loss The wind loss (due to air resistance) measured at the reference speed. Reference Speed The given speed of reference.
Machine Type

Defining the Stator Data for a PMDC Motor


The stator is the outer lamination stack where the polyphase voltage windings reside. To define the general stator data: 1. To open the Stator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the Outer Diameter of the stator. 3. 4. 5. Enter the Inner Diameter of the stator. Enter the length of the stator core in the Length field. Enter the stacking factor for the stator core in the Stacking Factor field. This value is a ratio of the effective magnetic length of the core, and ranges from 0 to 1. It is defined as the total length minus the total insulation from the laminations, divided by the total length. A value of 1 indicates that the stator is not laminated.

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6.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Data for PMDC Motors


To access the general stator data, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree. The Stator Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Stacking Factor

The outer diameter of the stator core. The inner diameter of the stator core. The length of the stator core. The stacking factor of the stator core.

Defining the Stator Pole for a PMDC Motor


The rotor pole drives the electromagnetic field which is coupled with the stator windings. Use the s Stator Pole Data Properties window to define the stator pole. To define the rotor pole: 1. To open the Stator Pole Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Stator-Pole entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.)
Note

For a two-pole machine, a pole embrace of 0.75 yields a magnet with a span of 135 degrees (based on 0.75*180 degrees).

2.

Enter the ratio of the actual arc distance in relation to the maximum possible arc distance in the

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Embrace field. This value is between 0 and 1.

3. 4.

Enter the distance from the center of the stator to the magnet arc center in the Offset field. Enter 0 for a uniform air gap. To select the type of magnet to use in the rotor pole: a. Click the Magnet Type button. The Select Definition window appears. b. Select or define a material for the magnet type. c. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window. Enter the length of the magnet in the axial direction in the Magnet Length field. Enter the maximum radial thickness of the magnet at the center of the pole in the Magnet Thickness field. To control the flux, the magnets thickness may vary. Click OK to close the Properties window.

5. 6. 7.

Stator Pole Data for PMDC Motors


To access the stator pole data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Pole entry in the project tree. The Stator Pole Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Embrace The pole embrace. Offset The pole-arc center offset from the stator center (0 for a uniform air gap). Magnet Type The type of magnet. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. Magnet Length The maximum length of the magnet. Magnet Thickness The maximum thickness of the magnet.
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Defining the Rotor Data for a PMDC Motor


The rotor is equipped with slots containing copper conductors that are connected to the commutator. The commutator acts as a mechanical rectifier in the motor. Use the Rotor Data Properties, Rotor Slot Data Properties, and Rotor Winding Data Properties windows to define the rotor slots, windings, and dimensions. To define general rotor data: 1. To open the Rotor Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. 3. 4. Enter the stacking factor for the rotor core in the Stacking Factor field. Enter the Number of Slots in the rotor. Select the Slot Type: a. b.
Note

Click the button for the Slot Type. The Select Slot Type window appears. Select a slot type (available types include 1 through 4).. When you place the mouse cursor over the slot type, a schematic outline of the slot appears.

c. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Click OK to close the Select Slot Type window and return to the Properties window. Enter the outer diameter of the rotor in the Outer Diameter field.

Enter the inner diameter of the rotor in the Inner Diameter field. Enter the length of the rotor core in the Length field. Select a Steel Type for the rotor core: a. b. c. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

9.

Enter the skew width, measured in slot number, in the Skew Width field.

10. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Data for PMDC Motors


To access the general rotor data, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree.

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The Rotor Data Properties window contains the following fields:


Stacking Factor Number of Slots Slot Type Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Steel Type Skew Width

The stacking factor of the rotor core. The number of slots the rotor core contains. The type of slots in the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Slot Type window. The outer diameter of the rotor core. The inner diameter of the rotor core. The length of the rotor core. The steel type of the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The skew width measured in slot number.

Defining the Rotor Slots for a PMDC Motor


To define the physical dimensions of the rotor slots: 1. To open the Rotor Slot Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Optionally, to automatically design the dimensions of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2, select the Auto Design check box. 3. Enter the available slot dimensions.
Hs0 Hs2 Bs0 Bs1

Bs2

Rs

Always available. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. Always available. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

4.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Slot Data for PMDC Motors


To access the stator slot data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree.

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The Rotor Slot Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Auto Design Select or clear this to enable or disable auto-design of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2. When this check box is selected, only two other fields appear in the window: Hs0 and Bs0. Hs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). Hs2 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). Bs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). Bs1 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). Bs2 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). Rs A slot dimension. (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4. Rs A slot dimension. (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

Defining the Rotor Windings and Conductors for a PMDC Motor


To define the rotor windings, wires, and conductors: 1. To open the Rotor Slot Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-RotorWinding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Click the Winding tab. 3. Select a Winding Type: a. b. Click the button for Winding Type. The Winding Type window appears. Select from one of the following three types of winding:


4.

Lap Wave Frog Leg

Enter the number of windings in the Multiplex Number field (1 for a single winding, 2 for double windings, 3 for triple windings). For a lap winding, the multiplex number is the number of commutators between the start and end of one winding, and the number of parallel branches is equal to the number of poles multiplied by the multiplex number. For a wave winding, the

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number of parallel branches equals the multiplex number multiplied by two.

5.

Enter the number of virtual slots per each real slot in the Virtual Slots field. The rotor is assumed to have two layers of conductors, an upper and a lower layer. Each layer of conductors can have a number of windings, which are referred to as virtual slots. For example, the upper and lower layer can have two windings each, which would yield a virtual slot number of two; for a 12 slot machine, this would yield 24 commutation segments.

Note

6.

7.

8. 9.

Enter the total number of conductors in each rotor slot in the Conductors per Slot field. This value is the number of turns per coil multiplied by the number of layers. This value is the total number of conductors in one real full rotor slot. Enter the coil pitch, measured in number of slots, in the Coil Pitch field. The coil pitch is the number of slots separating one winding. For example, if a coil starts in slot 1 and ends in slot 6, it has a coil pitch of 5. Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design this value. Enter the thickness of the double-sided wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Enter 0 to automat-

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ically obtain this value from the wire library.

Insulation Conductor y Wire Wrap = 2*y

10. Select the Wire Size: a. b. c. Click the button for Wire Size. The Wire Size window appears. Select a value from the Wire Diameter pull-down list. Select a wire gauge from the Gauge pull-down menu. You can select from the following options:

You can select a specific gauge number. When you select a gauge number, the <number> Wire Diameter field is automatically updated. This option allows you to manually enter the Wire Diameter. This is useful when USER you want to enter a diameter that does not correspond to a particular wire gauge. This option sets the Wire Diameter to zero, and RMxprt automatically calculates AUTO the optimal value. The diameter information is then written to the output file when you analyze the design. This option allows you to define a conductor that is made of different size wires. MIXED For example, a single conductor may consist of 5 wires, 3 wires with a diameter of 0.21mm and 2 with a diameter of 0.13mm. The gauge number is based on AWG settings. You can create your own wire table using Machine>Wire, and then you can select this wire table using the Tools>Options>Machine Options command. d. When you are done setting the wire size, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the Properties window.

11. Click the End/Insulation tab. 12. Select or clear the Input Half-turn Length check box. 13. Do one of the following:

If you selected Input Half-turn Length, then enter the half-turn length of the armature winding in the Half Turn Length field.
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If you cleared Input Half-turn Length, then enter the end length adjustment of the stator coils in the End Adjustment field. The end adjustment is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator.

End Adjustment

End of Stator

Stator Coil
14. Enter the inner radius of the base corner in the Base Inner Radius field. 15. Enter the inner diameter of the coil tip in the Tip Inner Diameter field. 16. Enter the distance between two rotor coils in the End Clearance field. 17. Enter the thickness of the slot liner insulation in the Slot Liner field.

Slot Insulation

18. Enter the thickness of the wedge insulation in the Wedge Thickness field. 19. Enter the thickness of the insulation layer in the Layer Insulation field.
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20. Enter the limited slot fill factor for the wire design in the Limited Fill Factor field. 21. Select the type of equalizer connection from the Equalizer Connection pull-down menu. Select from None, Half, or Full. 22. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Defining Different Size Wires for a PMDC Motor


Use the Gauge option if you have a conductor that is made up different size wires. To define different size wires: 1. In the Wire Size window, select MIXED from the Gauge pull-down menu. 2. 3. Select either Round or Rectangular as the Wire Type. Enter the appropriate wire data in the table:

For a round wire:


4. 5. 6.

Enter the Diameter in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this diameter. Enter the Width of the wire in the table. Enter the Thickness of the wire in the table. Enter the Fillet value in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this data.

For a rectangular wire:

Click Add to add the new wire data. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each size wire you want to add. When you are finished defining the wires, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the RMxprt Properties window. For example, if one conductor is made up of 5 wires, and 3 of those wires have a diameter of 0.21mm, and the other 2 have a diameter of 0.13mm, then the mixed wire size table will have two lines. The first line will list Diameter = 0.21 and Number = 3. The second line will list Diameter = 0.13 and Number = 2. An equivalent wire diameter is displayed as Wire Size value in the Winding tab in the Properties window.

Note

Rotor Winding Data for PMDC Motors


To access the stator winding data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree.

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The Rotor Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Winding tabWinding Type

The type of rotor winding. Click the button to open the Winding Type window and choose from Lap, Wave, and Frog Leg.

End/ Insulation tab

Multiplex Number Single, double, or triple windings (1, 2, or 3). Virtual Slots The number of virtual slots per real slot. Conductors per The number of conductors per rotor slot (0 for auto-design). Slot Coil Pitch The coil pitch measured in number of slots. Number of The number of wires per conductor (0 for auto-design). Strands Wire Wrap The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library). Wire Size The diameter of the wire (0 for auto-design). Click the button to open the Wire Size window where you can specify units, wire type, diameter, and gauge. Input Half-turn Select or clear this check box to specify whether or not you want to enter the half-turn length. When this check box is selected, the Length Half Turn Length field appears the next time you open the Properties window. When this check box is selected, the End Adjustment field appears instead. Half Turn Length The half-turn length of the armature winding. Base Inner Radius The inner radius of the base corner. Tip Inner The inner diameter of the coil tip. Diameter End Clearance The end clearance between two adjacent coils. Slot Liner The thickness of the slot liner insulation. Wedge Thickness The thickness of the wedge insulation. Layer Insulation The thickness of the insulation layer.

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Limited Fill FactorThe limited slot fill factor for the wire design. Equalizer The connection type of the equalizer. Select from None, Half, or Connection Full.

Defining the Commutator and Brush for a PMDC Motor


The commutator allows current transfer between DC terminals or brushes and the rotor coils, providing the current to the system as a function of rotation. Due to the action of the commutator, the corresponding magnetic field has a fixed distribution with respect to the stator. To define the commutator and brush pairs: 1. To open the Commutator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Commutator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. 3. Click the Commutator tab. Select Cylinder or Pancake Type as the Commutator Type. When you place the mouse cursor over the commutator type, an outline of the commutator appears.

Note

4.

For Cylinder commutators, do the following: a. b. Enter the Commutator Diameter. Enter the Commutator Length. Enter the Outer Diameter. Enter the Inner Diameter.

5.

For Pancake commutators, do the following: a. b.

6.

Enter the thickness of the insulation between two consecutive commutator segments in the Commutator Insulation field.
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7. 8. 9.

Click the Brush tab. Enter the Brush Width. Enter the Brush Length.

10. Enter the number of brush pairs when using a wave armature winding in the Brush Pairs field. 11. Enter the angle of displacement from the neutral axis, in mechanical degrees, in the Brush Displacement field.
Note

The brush displacement is positive for the counter-clockwise direction. For example, if the rotor turns clockwise and the brush displacement is also clockwise, then the angle is negative; if the rotor turns clockwise but the brush displacement is counter-clockwise, then the angle is positive.

12. Enter the voltage drop across one brush pair in the Brush Drop field. 13. Enter the mechanical pressure of the brushes as they press against the commutator in the Brush Press field. 14. Enter the Frictional Coefficient of the brush.
Note

If the Friction Loss field is used in the General window, the Brush Press and Frictional Coefficient fields will be hidden in the Commutator/Brush window. These fields are shown only when the Friction Loss field in the General window is set to zero.

15. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Commutator and Brush Data for PMDC Motors


To access the commutator and brush data, double-click the Machine>Commutator entry in the project tree. The Commutator Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Commutator Commutator Type The type of commutator. Click the button to open the Select tab Commutator Type window and select from Cylinder or Pancake. Commutator Diameter Commutator Length Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Commutator Insulation
27-90 RMxprt Machine Types

For a Cylinder commutator type, the diameter of the commutator. For a Cylinder commutator type, the length of the commutator. For a Pancake commutator type, the outer diameter of the commutator. For a Pancake commutator type, the inner diameter of the commutator. The thickness of the insulation between the two commutator bars.

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Brush tab

Brush Width Brush Length Brush Pairs Brush Displacement Brush Drop Brush Press Frictional Coefficient

The width of the brush. The length of the brush. The number of brush pairs. The displacement of the brush from the neutral position, in mechanical degrees (positive for anti-rotating direction). The voltage drop across a one-pair brush. The brush press per unit area. (Available only when Frictional Loss is set to zero for the machine.) The frictional coefficient of the brush. (Available only when Frictional Loss is set to zero for the machine.)

Defining the Shaft Data for a PMDC Motor


To define the shaft: 1. To open the Shaft Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Select or clear the Magnetic Shaft check box to specify whether or not the shaft is to be made of magnetic material. Click OK to close the Properties window.

2. 3.

Shaft Data for PMDC Motors


To access the shaft data, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree. The Shaft Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Magnetic Shaft

Select or clear this check box to indicate whether or not the shaft is made of magnetic material.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a PMDC Motor


To define the solution data: 1. To open the Solution Setup window, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. 2. Click the General tab. The Operation Type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. 3. Select the Load Type used in the motor from the following options:
Const Speed Const Power

The speed remains constant in the motor. The output power remains constant in the motor.

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Const Torque Linear Torque

Fan Load

The torque remains constant regardless of the speed. In this case, Tload = Trated, given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The torque increases linearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated) where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The load varies nonlinearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated)2 where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Enter the output power developed at the shaft of the motor in the Rated Output Power field. Enter the RMS line-to-line voltage in the Rated Voltage field. Enter the desired output speed of the motor at the load point in the Rated Speed field. Enter the temperature at which the system functions in the Operating Temperature field. Click OK to close the Solution Setup window.

Related Topics:

Solution Data for PMDC Motors

Solution Data for PMDC Motors


To access the solution data, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. For this machine type, there is only one tab, the General tab. The Solution Setup window contains the following fields:
Operation Type Load Type Rated Output Power Rated Voltage Rated Speed Operating Temperature Related Topics:

The operation type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. Select from Const Speed, Const Power, Const Torque, Linear Torque, and Fan Load. The default is Const Power. Type a value for the rated output voltage, and select the units. Type a value for the rated voltage, and select the units. Type a value for the rated speed, and select the units. Type a value for the operating temperature, and select the units.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a PMDC Motor

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Three-Phase Synchronous Machines


After you have selected Three-Phase Synchronous Machines as your model type, you need to define the following:

General data, such as the unit system, power, and voltage. Stator data, such as the slot types and dimensions, stator diameter, skew width, and laminations. Optional stator Vent data. Winding data, such as the parallel branches, conductors, and wire dimensions. Rotor pole data, such as its associated pole-body dimensions and air gaps. Optional Rotor damper data, such as the damper dimensions, rings, and material properties. Rotor winding data and the winding control parameters. Shaft Data

Solution data, such as specifying motor or generator application, and rated output voltage and frequency. Also see the Analysis Approach for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines.

Analysis Approach for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines


The three-phase salient-pole synchronous electric machine has two types: the generator and the motor. Their basic structures are the same. Three-phase synchronous generators are the main source of electrical energy for industrial, commercial, and private use. They receive mechanical energy at the shaft and transform it into electrical energy. The rotor is equipped with a multi-pole winding excited by a DC source. The stator is equipped with a three-phase winding that has a sinusoidal spatial distribution. The spinning rotor produces a rotating magnetic field in the air gap of the machine. The frequency of the voltage induced in the stator is given by f=pv, where p is the number of pairs of poles, and v is the velocity of the rotor. The machine is capable of producing both active and reactive power as required by the load connected at the stator phasor. The three-phase salient-pole synchronous electric machine has two types: the generator and the motor. Their basic structures are the same. Usually the frequency-domain phasor diagram is

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adopted to analyze the characteristics. The phasor diagram for a generator is shown on the left and and that for a motor is shown on the right.

jI X1 jI Xaq U IR1 jI q Xaq E0

M
jI d Xad

Id

Iq

O
Generator Motor In the figure, R1, X1, Xad, and Xaq are armature resistance, armature leakage reactance, d-axis armature reactance, and q-axis armature reactance, respectively. Xad is nonlinear, while a linearized value is used in the phasor diagram. Taking the input voltage U as the reference phasor, for a given current:

I = I
where is the power factor angle, a phasor represented by OM can be derived by: U + I(R1 + jX1 + jXaq) The direction of E0 can, therefore, be obtained. Taking the power angle, the angle that U legs E0, as , then the angle that I legs E0 is:

= +
The d- and q-axis currents are then represented by the following:

Id = I * sin( ) Iq = I * cos( )
The phasor length ON represents the d-axis back EMF from d-axis resultant flux linkage and is used to determine the d-axis field saturation. Then a frozen method is applied to derive E0, Xad, and exciting current If. The output power (electric power) is directly computed from voltage and current as:
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P2 = 3*U*I*cos( )
The input power (mechanical power) is defined as:

P1 = P2 + Pfw + Pcua + PFe + Padd + Pcuf + Pex


where Pfw, Pcua, PFe, Padd, Pcuf and Pex are frictional and wind loss, armature copper loss, ironcore loss, additional loss, field winding copper loss, and exciter loss, respectively. The input mechanical shaft torque is:

T1 = P1/
where SYMBOL is synchronous speed in rad/s. The efficiency is computed by:

eff = P2/P1 * 100%


Main Features

Adapted to both Synchronous Motor and Generator The structures of the salient-pole synchronous motor and the generator are basically the same, but their phasor relationships and the computation methods are slightly different, their output characteristics data are also different. This is specified in the solution setup.

Auto Arrangement of Three-phase Windings Almost all commonly used three-phase single- and double-layer, half- and whole-type ac windings (including fractional-pitch windings) can be automatically arranged. Users do not need to define coils one by one. RMxprt also supports a double-layer winding with half-turn coils which are auto-arranged in the order of even, odd, even, odd, , and even, odd, as long as it is physically possible. When a designer adopts single-layer whole-coiled windings, RMxprt will perform winding arrangement optimization to minimize the average coil pitch. When asymmetric three-phase windings are used, winding arrangement is optimized in such a way that minimum negativesequence and zero-sequence components are achieved. Winding Editor Supporting Any Single- and Double-Layer Windings Besides taking advantage of the winding auto-arrangement function in RMxprt, users can also specify any special winding by using of the Winding Editor function. In Winding Editor, through modification of phase belonging, number of turns, in-slot and outslot number of each coil, it is possible to design single- and double-layer winding arrangement for any purposes. Analyze Air-Gap Magnetic Field Distribution For both uniform and non-uniform air gaps, Schwarz-Christopher Transformation is adopted to solve for the air-gap magnetic field distribution. Analyze EMF Waveform and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Based on the analysis of the air-gap magnetic field waveform, taking into account coil short pitch, winding distribution, skew slot, winding connection, load effects and other factors, the emf waveforms in the coils and the windings are analyzed to solve for the emf distortion facRMxprt Machine Types 27-95

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tors.

Analyze Dynamic Parameters of Damping Winding Different from the squirrel-cage winding of the induction machine, the damping winding of the salient-pole synchronous machine is located in the surface of magnetic field poles, which deviates greatly along the d- and the q-axes. Furthermore, the connection of damping bars has several forms. The bars under each pole could be connected, but not connected with those under other poles. All the bars could be connected together. The bars could be connected through end-plate. RMxprt can deal with all those complicated situations and give the dynamic parameters for the damping winding.

Defining a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine


The general procedure for defining a three-phase synchronous machine is as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Insert a three-phase synchronous machine into a existing or new project. Double-click the Machine entry in the project tree to define the general data. Double-click the Machine-Stator entry in the project tree to define the stator geometry.

Double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree to define the stator slot dimensions. 5. Optionally, you can add a vent to, or remove an existing vent from the stator. To add a vent, select the stator, and right-click to display the pop-up menu for Insert Vent. 6. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree to define the stator windings, conductors, and insulation data. 7. Double-click the Machine-Rotor entry in the project tree to define the general rotor geometry, the pole data, and the insulation data. 8. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree to define the rotor conductors and windings. 9. Optionally, you can add a damper to the design or remove an existing damper. To add a damper, use Machine-Insert Damper. This inserts the damper in the project tree under the rotor. You must then specify the slot type and other properties for the damper. 10. Optionally, you can add a vent to, or remove an existing vent from the rotor. To add a vent select the rotor, and right-click to display the pop-up menu. Use Insert Vent. 11. Double-click the Machine-Shaft entry in the project tree to define the magnetism of the shaft. 12. Right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup to define this solution data. 13. Choose File>Save to save the project. 14. Choose RMxprt>Analyze to analyze the design.
Note

When you place the cursor over an entry field, a brief description of that field appears in the status bar at the bottom of the RMxprt window.

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Once the design is analyzed, the model can be viewed in the Maxwell 2D Modeler, or it can be used to create a new Maxwell 2D project, and a Maxwell 3D design.

Defining the General Data for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine


Use the General Data Properties window to define the power settings, speed, and efficiency of the generator. This window allows you to define the basic parameters of the synchronous generator, such as power, voltage, winding connections, and losses. To define the general data: 1. To open the General Data Properties window, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Enter the number of poles for the machine in the Number of Poles field. This value is the total number of poles in the stator (or the number of pole pairs multiplied by two). Enter the power lost through frictional forces in the Frictional Loss field. Enter the wind loss measured at the reference speed in the Wind Loss field. Enter the given speed in the Reference Speed field. Click OK to close the Properties window.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

General Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines


To access the general data, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree. The General Data Properties window for a three-phase induction motor contains the following fields: The machine type you selected when inserting a new RMxprt design (Three Phase Synchronous Machine). Number of Poles The number of poles the machine contains. Frictional Loss The frictional energy loss (due to friction) measured at the reference speed. Wind Loss The wind loss (due to air resistance) measured at the reference speed. Reference Speed The given speed of reference.
Machine Type

Defining the Stator for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine


Use the Stator windows to define the slot dimensions, stacking factors, air ducts, and insulation of the stator. The stator is the outer lamination stack where the three-phase windings reside. To define general stator data: 1. To open the Stator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. 3. Enter the Outer Diameter of the stator. Enter the Inner Diameter of the stator.
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4. 5. 6.

Enter the length of the stator core in the Length field. Enter the stacking factor for the stator core in the Stacking Factor field. Select a Steel Type for the stator core: a. b. c. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

7. 8.

Enter the Number of Slots in the stator. Select the Slot Type: a. b. Click the button for the Slot Type. The Select Slot Type window appears. Select a slot type (available types include 1 through 6). Slot types 1 though 4 are filled with round wire. Slot types 5 and 6 are filled with rectangular wire. If Auto Design is enabled, the software designs an optimum slot geometry; in this case, you can input the tooth width dimension, and the software determines the slot width accordingly. When you place the mouse cursor over the slot type, a schematic of the selected type appears, displaying the slot dimension variables. Click OK to close the Select Slot Type window and return to the Properties window.

Note

c.

9. Enter the number of sectors in the Lamination Sectors field. 10. Enter the thickness of the magnetic pressboard in the Pressboard Thickness field. Enter 0 for a non-magnetic pressboard. 11. Enter the skew width, measured in slot number, in the Skew Width field. 12. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines


To access the general stator data, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree. The Stator Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Stacking Factor Steel Type Number of Slots Slot Type

The outer diameter of the stator core. The inner diameter of the stator core. The length of the stator core. The stacking factor of the stator core. The steel type of the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The number of slots the stator core contains. The type of slots in the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Slot Type window.

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Lamination Sectors Pressboard Thickness Skew Width

The number of lamination sectors. The magnetic press board thickness (0 for a non-magnetic press board). The skew width measured in slot number.

Defining Stator Slots for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine


To define the slot dimensions: 1. To open the Stator Slot Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Optionally, to automatically design the dimensions of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2, select the Auto Design check box. Optionally, to design dimensions of slots Bs1 and Bs2 based on the stator tooth width, select the Parallel Tooth check box, and enter a value in the Tooth Width field. Enter the available slot dimensions.
Hs0 Hs2 Bs0 Bs1

2. 3. 4.

Bs2

Always available. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. Always available. Available only when Auto Design and Parallel Tooth are both cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Available only when Auto Design and Parallel Tooth are both cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field.

5.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Slot Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines


To access the stator slot data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree.

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The Stator Slot Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Auto Design Select or clear this to enable or disable auto-design of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2. When this check box is selected, only two other fields appear in the window: Hs0 and Bs0. Parallel Select this to design Bs1 and Bs2 based on the tooth width. When this check box is selected, the Bs1 and Bs2 fields are removed, and the Tooth Tooth Width field is added. Tooth Width The tooth width for the parallel tooth, on which Bs1 and Bs2 are designed. Hs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Hs2 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Bs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Bs1 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Bs2 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs A slot dimension. (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

Defining Stator Windings and Insulation for a Three-Phase Synchronous

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Machine
Use the Stator Winding window to define the stator winding data, such as the coils, wires, insulation, number of parallel branches, and physical dimensions of the windings.

End Clearance Base-End Inner Radius

Top-End Inner Diameter End of Stator

End Adjustment

Stator Coil
The stator winding data defines the configuration of one phase of the three-phase windings. To define the stator windings and insulation: 1. To open the Stator Slot Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-StatorWinding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Click the Winding tab. 3. 4. Enter the number of layers in the stator winding in the Winding Layers field. Select a Winding Type: a. b. Click the button for Winding Type. The Winding Type window appears. Select from one of the following three types of winding:

Whole Coiled Half Coiled Editor

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When you place the mouse cursor over a winding button, an outline of the selected winding appears. The following table describes the six types of windings that are possible (three for one-layer and three for two-layer): Type Description A user-defined one-layer winding arrangement. You need to set up the winding arrangement for each slot. For this winding type, the following letters are used for the phase windings:
Editor

Phase C/C return uses C/Z. A one-layer whole-coiled winding:

Phase A/A return uses A/X. Phase B/B return uses B/Y.

Whole Coiled

Slot 123

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A one-layer concentric half-coiled winding:

Half Coiled

Slot 123

A user-defined two-layer winding arrangement. When you select 20, the Winding Editor Editor opens, where you can specify a different winding arrangement for each slot. A two-layer wave winding:

Whole Coiled

Slot 123

The phase belt for this winding configuration is equal to 360/2m, where m is the phase number.

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A two-layer half-coiled winding:

Half Coiled

Slot 1 2 3

There is only one coil per phase per pair of poles.


Note Example 1: A one layer winding arranged in 12 slots should be defined as type 10, with the following arrangement: AAZZBBXXCCYY Example 2: A two layer winding arranged in 12 slots should be defined as type 20, with the following arrangement: AAZZBBXXCCYY

Only the top layer needs to be defined; the bottom layer will be determined according to the coil pitch. c. 5. Once you have clicked a button to select a winding, click OK to close the Winding Type window and return to the Properties window.

Select a Winding Type. When you place the mouse cursor over a winding, an outline of the

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selected winding appears. The following winding types are available:

10 A user-defined single-layer winding arrangement. When you select it, enter the winding 11
phase A/A return uses A/X. phase B/B return uses B/Y.

arrangement, and choose OK. For this winding type, the following letters are used for the phase windings:

phase C/C return uses C/Z. A one-layer whole-coiled winding:

Slot 123

12

A one-layer concentric half-coiled winding:

Slot 123

20 A user-defined winding arrangement. When you select this type, enter the winding
arrangement, and choose OK.

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21 A two-layer wave winding:

Slot 123

The phase belt for this winding configuration is equal to 360/2m, where m is the phase number.

22 A two-layer winding:

Slot 1 2 3

Note

Example 1: A one layer winding arranged in 12 slots should be defined as type 10, with the following arrangement: AAZZBBXXCCYY Example 2: A two layer winding arranged in 12 slots should be defined as type 20, with the following arrangement: AAZZBBXXCCYY

Only the top layer needs to be defined; the bottom layer will be determined according to the coil pitch. 6. 7. Select or enter the number of parallel branches in one phase of the winding in the Parallel Branches field. Enter the total number of conductors in each stator slot in the Conductors per Slot field. This

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8.

value is the number of turns per coil multiplied by the number of layers. Enter the coil pitch, measured in number of slots, in the Coil Pitch field. The coil pitch is the number of slots separating one winding. For example, if a coil starts in slot 1 and ends in slot 6, it has a coil pitch of 5.

9.

Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design this value. 10. Enter the thickness of the double-sided wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Enter 0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library.

Insulation Conductor y Wire Wrap = 2*y

11. Select the Wire Size: a. b. c. Click the button for Wire Size. The Wire Size window appears. Select a value from the Wire Diameter pull-down list. Select a wire gauge from the Gauge pull-down menu. You can select from the following options:

You can select a specific gauge number. When you select a gauge number, the <number> Wire Diameter field is automatically updated. This option allows you to manually enter the Wire Diameter. This is useful when USER you want to enter a diameter that does not correspond to a particular wire gauge. This option sets the Wire Diameter to zero, and RMxprt automatically calculates AUTO the optimal value. The diameter information is then written to the output file when you analyze the design. This option allows you to define a conductor that is made of different size wires. MIXED For example, a single conductor may consist of 5 wires, 3 wires with a diameter of 0.21mm and 2 with a diameter of 0.13mm. The gauge number is based on AWG settings. You can create your own wire table using Machine>Wire, and then you can select this wire table using the Tools>Options>Machine Options command. d. When you are done setting the wire size, click OK to close the Wire Size window and
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return to the Properties window. 12. Click the End/Insulation tab. 13. Select or clear the Input Half-turn Length check box. 14. Do one of the following:

If you selected Input Half-turn Length, then enter the half-turn length of the armature winding in the Half Turn Length field. If you cleared Input Half-turn Length, then enter the end length adjustment of the stator coils in the End Adjustment field. The end adjustment is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator.

End Adjustment

End of Stator

Stator Coil
15. Enter the inner radius of the base corner in the Base Inner Radius field. 16. Enter the inner diameter of the coil tip in the Tip Inner Diameter field. 17. Enter the distance between two stator coils in the End Clearance field. 18. Enter the thickness of the slot liner insulation in the Slot Liner field. 19. Enter the thickness of the wedge insulation in the Wedge Thickness field. 20. Enter the thickness of the insulation layer in the Layer Insulation field. 21. Enter the limited slot fill factor for the wire design in the Limited Fill Factor field. 22. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Winding and Insulation for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines


To access the stator winding and insulation data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree.

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The Stator Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Winding tabWinding Layers The number of winding layers. Winding Type The type of stator winding. Click the button to open the Winding Type window and choose from Whole Coiled, Half Coiled, and Editor. Parallel Branches The number of parallel branches in the stator winding. Conductors per The number of conductors per stator slot (0 for auto-design). Slot Coil Pitch The coil pitch measured in number of slots. Number of The number of wires per conductor (0 for auto-design). Strands Wire Wrap The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library). Wire Size The diameter of the wire (0 for auto-design). Click the button to open the Wire Size window where you can specify units, wire type, diameter, and gauge. End/ Input Half-turn Select or clear this check box to specify whether or not you want to enter the half-turn length. When this check box is selected, the Insulation Length7 tab Half Turn Length field appears the next time you open the Properties window. When this check box is selected, the End Adjustment field appears instead. Half Turn Length The half-turn length of the armature winding. End Adjustment The end length adjustment of the stator coils, which is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator. Base Inner The inner radius of the base corner. Radius Tip Inner The inner diameter of the coil tip. Diameter End Clearance The end clearance between two adjacent coils. Slot Liner The thickness of the slot liner insulation. Wedge Thickness The thickness of the wedge insulation.

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Layer Insulation The thickness of the insulation layer. Limited Fill The limited slot fill factor for the wire design. Factor

Winding Editor for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine


For a three-phase synchronous machine, you may want to specify a different number of conductors for each stator slot. The Winding Editor makes this possible by enabling you to specify the number of turns for each coil. To specify the number of turns for each coil: 1. Click Machine>Winding>Edit Layout. The Winding Editor window appears. 2. In the table in the upper left, set which phase you want for each coil and which slot is the in and out slot for the current in each coil. 3. 4. If you are working on a quarter or half model, you may want to specify a multiplier by clicking the Periodic Multiplier check box and specifying a value. Select or deselect the Constant Turns or Constant Pitch check boxes, depending on whether you want to be able to change these setting in the table above. When these options are selected, you cannot change the turns or pitch. When you are satisfied with the coil settings, click OK to close the Winding Editor window.

5.

Defining Different Size Wires for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine


Use the Gauge option if you have a conductor that is made up different size wires. To define different size wires: 1. In the Wire Size window, select MIXED from the Gauge pull-down menu. 2. Select either Round or Rectangular as the Wire Type.

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3.

Enter the appropriate wire data in the table:

For a round wire:


4. 5. 6.

Enter the Diameter in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this diameter. Enter the Width of the wire in the table. Enter the Thickness of the wire in the table. Enter the Fillet value in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this data.

For a rectangular wire:

Choose Add to add the new wire data. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each size wire you want to add. When you are finished defining the wires, click OK to close the Wire Size window. For example, if one conductor is made up of 5 wires, and 3 of those wires have a diameter of 0.21mm, and the other 2 have a diameter of 0.13mm, then the mixed wire size table will have two lines. The first line will list Diameter = 0.21 and Number = 3. The second line will list Diameter = 0.13 and Number = 2. An equivalent wire diameter is displayed as Wire Size value in the Winding tab in the Properties window.

Note

Stator Vent Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines


To insert a vent on a stator for a three phase synchronous machine: 1. Right click on the stator icon in the project tree to display the shortcut menu. 2. Click Insert Vent. The vent icon appears in the project tree under the stator. To remove an existing vent item, 1. Right-click on the stator icon in the project tree to display the shortcut menu. 2. Click Remove Vent. This removes the vent item from the project tree. To access the Vent properties for a vent, double click on a vent item. The Vent Properties window contains the following fields.
Vent Ducts Duct Width Magnetic spacer width Duct pitch.

The number of radial vent ducts. The width of the radial vent ducts. Width of magnetic spacer which holds vent ducts. O for non-magnetic spacer. Center-to-Center distance between two adjacent Vent ducts
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Defining the Rotor for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine


The rotor consists of copper bars in which current is induced by the magnetic fields produced by the stator windings. In the project tree, double-click Machine-Rotor and Machine-Rotor-Winding to define the rotor. To define the general rotor data: 1. To open the Rotor Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Rotor entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click the Rotor tab. Enter the outer diameter of the rotor in the Outer Diameter field. Enter the inner diameter of the rotor in the Inner Diameter field. Enter the length of the rotor core in the Length field. Select a Steel Type for the rotor core: a. b. c. 7. 8. 9. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

Enter the stacking factor for the rotor core in the Stacking Factor field. Click the Pole tab. Enter the pole-arc center offset from the rotor center in the Pole Arc Offset field.

Radius

Offset

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10. Enter the width of the pole shoe in the Pole Shoe Width field. 11. Enter the height of the pole shoe in the Pole Shoe Height field. 12. Enter the width of the pole body in the Pole Body Width field. 13. Enter the height of the pole body in the Pole Body Height field. 14. Enter the width between the rotor pole and rotor yoke in the Second Air Gap field. 15. To include the two arcs in the half-pole range, do the following: a. Select the Select Pole Arc check box. b. c. Enter the offset of the second arc perpendicular to the pole-center line in the Off2_x field. Enter the offset of the second arc parallel with the pole-center line in the Off2_y field.

16. Select or clear the Magnetic PressBoard check box to specify whether or not the press board is made of magnetic material. 17. Enter the thickness of the press board in the Press Board Thickness field. 18. Click the Insulation tab. 19. Enter the thickness of the insulating material beneath the shoe pole in the Shoe Insulation field. 20. Enter the thickness of the insulating material on the side of the pole body in the Pole Insulation field. 21. Enter the clearance distance between the windings in the Winding Clearance field. 22. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor, Rotor Pole, and Insulation for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines


To access the general rotor data, pole data, and insulation data double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree. The Rotor Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Rotor tab Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Steel Type Stacking Factor Pole Arc Offset Pole Shoe Width Pole Shoe Height Pole Body Width Pole Body Height Second Air Gap

Pole tab

The outer diameter of the rotor core. The inner diameter of the rotor core. The length of the rotor core. The steel type of the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The stacking factor of the rotor core. The pole-arc center offset from the rotor center. The width of the pole shoe. The height of the pole shoe. The width of the pole body. The height of the pole body. The width of the second air gap, between the rotor pole and rotor yoke.
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Insulation tab

Second Pole Arc Select or clear this option to specify whether or not the pole surface includes the two arcs in the half-pole range. When you select this check box, two additional fields appear: Off2_x and Off2_y. Off2_x The offset of the second arc perpendicular to the pole-center line. This field is only available when Second Pole Arc is selected. Off2_y The offset of the second arc parallel with the pole-center line. This field is only available when Second Pole Arc is selected. Magnetic Select or clear this option to specify whether or not the press board is made of magnetic material. PressBoard Press Board The thickness of the press board. Thickness Shoe Insulation The thickness of the insulating material beneath the pole shoe. Pole Insulation Winding Clearance

The thickness of the insulating material on the side of the pole body. The clearance distance between the windings.

Defining the Rotor Pole for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine


The rotor pole drives the electromagnetic field that is coupled with the stator windings. The following figure shows a partial diagram of a rotor pole:

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The following figure shows a diagram of an entire rotor:

Machine

Defining the Rotor Winding Data for a Three-Phase Synchronous

Use the Rotor Winding window to define the wires and physical dimensions of the rotor winding. The rotor winding provides the excitation for the electromagnetic field that produces the rotor pole.

Center slot pitch Slot pitch Pole shoe width Pole insulation Wire width Pole body width Second air-gap
RMxprt Machine Types 27-115

Overall height

Shoe insulation

Wire thickness

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To define the rotor windings: 1. To open the Rotor Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Select the Winding Type for the rotor: a. b. Click the button. The Winding Type window appears. Click to select the type of winding, from Round, Cylinder, or EdgeWise. When you place the mouse cursor over the winding type, a schematic of the selected winding appears Click OK to return to the Properties window.

c. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Enter the number of parallel branches for the winding in the Parallel Branches field. Conductors per Pole Enter the number of wires in each conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter the width of the insulating wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Interturn Insulation Enter the gauge of the wire in the Wire Size field. Enter the Axial Clearance to specify the axial distance between the core and the coil at the end of the lamination stack.

Winding Fillet

Axial Clearance Rotor winding

Radial Duct Width


10. Limited Cross Width 11. Limited Cross Height 12. Winding Fillet 13. Click OK to close the Properties window.
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Rotor Winding Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines


To access the rotor winding data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree. The Rotor Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields: The type of rotor winding. Click the button to open the Winding Type window and choose from Whole Coiled, Half Coiled, and Editor. Parallel Branches The number of parallel branches in the rotor winding. Conductors per The number of conductors per rotor pole (0 for auto-design). Pole Number of The number of wires per conductor (0 for auto-design). Strands Wire Wrap The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library). Interturn The thickness of the inter-turn insulation of an edgewise winding. This field only appears when EdgewiseCoil is selected as the Winding Type. Insulation Wire Size The diameter of the wire (0 for auto-design). Click the button to open the Wire Size window where you can specify units, wire type, diameter, and gauge. Axial Clearance The axial gap between the field winding and the pole body or inner coil. Limited Cross The limited cross-section width for the winding design or arrangement (0 for available maximum area). Width Limited Cross The limited cross-section height for the winding design or arrangement (0 for available maximum area). Height Winding Fillet The size of the winding fillet.
Winding Type

Defining the Rotor Damper Data


To define a rotor damper for a machine that permits one: 1. Click Machine>Insert Damper. The Damper icon appears in the project tree under the rotor icon. A slot icon appears in the hierarchy under the damper. Double click on the Damper icon to display the properties window for the damper. Enter the appropriate values for the damper. The slot type, the bar conductor type, and end conductor type are entered by clicking on buttons that open other windows. Click OK to close the properties window.

2. 3. 4.

Damper Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines


By option, you can add a damper to or remove damper from the rotor of a three phase machine.

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To add a damper: 1. Right-click on the rotor icon in the project tree to display the short cut menu. 2. Click Insert Damper on the menu. The damper appears in the project tree under the rotor. The damper also includes an associated slot. 1. 2. To remove a damper, right-click on the rotor icon in the project tree to display the short cut menu. Click Remove Damper on the menu.

The damper and associated slot are removed from the project tree. The damper data contains the following fields.
Damper slots per Number of damper slots per pole. pole Slot type Cast Rotor. Bar conductor type. End length End ring width End ring height End ring conductor type. Slot pitch End Ring type

Damper slot type. Specify this by clicking the button in the properties field and selecting from the Select Slot Type window. Whether the rotor squirrel cage winding is cast. Specify this by clicking the button in the properties field, and using the Select Definition window to find and assign materials. Single side end extended bar length/ Axial width of end ring. Radial height of end ring. Specify this by clicking the button in the properties field and using the Select Definition window to find and assign the material. Slot pitch in mechanical degrees. Type of end ring for the damper. Specify this by clicking the button in the properties field and use the Select Pole type window to select from the available types.

Center slot pitch Center slot pitch in mechanical degrees

Defining the Shaft Data for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine


To define the shaft: 1. To open the Shaft Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Select or clear the Magnetic Shaft check box to specify whether or not the shaft is to be made

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3.

of magnetic material. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Shaft Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines


To access the shaft data, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree. The Shaft Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Magnetic Shaft

Select or clear this check box to indicate whether or not the shaft is made of magnetic material.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine


To define the solution data: 1. 2. 3. 4. To open the Solution Setup window, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. Click the General tab. Select Motor or Generator from the Operation Type pull-down list. Select the Load Type used in the motor from the following options:
Infinite Bus Independent Generator Const Speed Const Power Const Torque

For Generators. For Generators. For Motors. The speed remains constant in the motor. For Motors. The output power remains constant in the motor. For Motors. The torque remains constant regardless of the speed. In this case, Tload = Trated, given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. For Motors. The torque increases linearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/nrated) where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. For Motors. The load varies nonlinearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/nrated)2 where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed.

Linear Torque

Fan Load

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Enter the output power developed at the shaft of the machine in the Rated Output Power field. Enter the RMS line-to-line voltage in the Rated Voltage field. Enter the desired output speed of the motor at the load point in the Rated Speed field. Enter the temperature at which the system functions in the Operating Temperature field. Click the Three-Phase Synchronous Machine tab.
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10. Enter a value in the Rated Power Factor field. 11. Select Wye or Delta from the Winding Connection pull-down list. 12. In the Exciter Efficiency field, enter the efficiency of the exciter used to supply the rotor winding with DC current if it is mechanically connected to the shaft of the generator. The efficiency value ranges between 0 and 1 and will only affect the total efficiency result. 13. To enter an Input Exciting Current, select the check box, enter a value, and select the units. 14. Click OK to close the Solution Setup window.
Related Topics:

Solution Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines

Solution Data for Three-Phase Synchronous Machines


To access the solution data, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. The Solution Setup window contains the following fields:
On the General tab. Select from Motor or Generator. On the General tab. For a motor, select from Const Speed, Const Power, Const Torque, Linear Torque, and Fan Load. The default is Const Power. For a generator, select from Infinite Bus and Independent Generator. Rated Output On the General tab. Type a value for the rated output voltage, and select the units. Power Rated Voltage On the General tab. Type a value for the rated voltage, and select the units. Rated Speed On the General tab. Type a value for the rated speed, and select the units. Operating On the General tab. Type a value for the operating temperature, and select the units. Temperature Rated Power On the Three-Phase Synchronous Machine tab. Type a value for the rated power factor. Factor Winding On the Three-Phase Synchronous Machine tab. Select from Wye or Connection Delta. Exciter Efficiency On the Three-Phase Synchronous Machine tab. Type a percent for the exciter efficiency. Input Exciting On the Three-Phase Synchronous Machine tab. If you select this check box, then enter the exciting current, and select the units. Current
Operation Type Load Type Related Topics:

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Three-Phase Synchronous Machine

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Brushless Permanent-Magnet DC Motors


After you have selected Brushless Permanent-Magnet DC Motors as your model type, you need to define the following:

General data, such as the voltage, speed, and circuit type of the model. Circuit data, such as lead trigger angle, transistor drop, and control circuit information. Stator data, such as the diameter, slot dimensions, winding data, and skew width of the stator. Rotor data Rotor pole data, such as the magnet dimensions and stacking factor. Shaft data Solution data, such as rated output voltage and frequency.

Analysis Approach for Brushless PMDC Motors


The stator of a brushless DC motor is equipped with a polyphase winding. The phases are connected to the DC bus through a switching circuit. The switching sequence is controlled so that it is synchronized with the position of the rotor. As a result, the stator produces a rotating magnetic field. The rotor is equipped with permanent magnets, creating a structure with the same number of poles at the stator. The stator switches act like a commutator in a classic DC motor. In brushless permanent-magnet DC (BLDC) motors, the armature currents are commutated exactly according to rotor position. The signal of rotor position may be obtained from a position sensor, or from induced voltages for sensor-less control system. The performance of BLDC motors is analyzed via a time-domain simulation. The voltage equation in the time domain is:

R1 + Ld p Lq e 0 id iq vq eq = Ld e R1 + Lq p 0 e0 0 0 R1 + L0 p i0 v0 vd ed
where R1, Ld, Lq, and L0 are armature resistance, d-axis synchronous inductance, q-axis synchronous inductance, and 0-axis inductance, respectively. e is rotor speed in electrical rad/s, and represents for d/dt. The transformations for terminal voltages, induced voltages, and winding currents are given by the following three equations:

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vd

T vq = C v b M v0

va

ed

T eq = C e b M e0

ea

ib = C iq M i0

ia

id

The transformation matrices for 2-phase, 3-phase, and 4-phases systems, noted as C2, C3, and C4, are as follows:

C2 =

cos sin 0 sin cos 0

C3 =

cos sin 1 ( 2) 2 -- cos ( ) sin ( ) 1 ( 2 ) 3 cos ( 2 ) sin ( 2 ) 1 ( 2 ) cos C 4 = sin cos sin sin cos sin cos 0 0 0 0

where = 2 /3. The input power (electric power) can now be computed from the voltage and current as:

T 1 p 1 = -- ( v d i d + v q i q + v 0 i 0 ) dt t 0
The output power (mechanical power) is:

P2 = P1 - (Pfw + PCua + Pt + PFe)


where Pfw, PCua, Pt, and PFe are frictional and wind loss, armature copper loss, transistor/diode loss, and iron-core loss, respectively.
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The output mechanical shaft torque T2 is:

T2 = P2 /
where is the rotor speed in mechanical rad/s. The efficiency is computed by:

eff = P2/P1 * 100%

Defining a Brushless Permanent-Magnet DC Motor


The general procedure for defining a brushless permanent-magnet DC motor is as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Insert the permanent magnet brushless DC motor into a new or existing project. Double-click the Machine entry in the project tree to define the general data. Double-click the Machine-Circuit entry in the project tree to define the control circuit. Double-click the Machine-Stator entry in the project tree to define the stator geometry. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree to define the stator slot dimensions. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree to define the stator windings and conductors. Double-click the Machine-Rotor entry in the project tree to define the rotor geometry. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Pole entry in the project tree to define the pole, embrace, offset, and air gap data for the rotor pole. Double-click the Machine-Shaft entry in the project tree to define the magnetism of the shaft.

10. Right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup to define the solution data. 11. Choose File>Save to save the project. 12. Choose RMxprt>Analyze to analyze the design.
Note

When you place the cursor over an entry field in the data windows, a brief description of that field appears in the status bar at the bottom of the RMxprt window.

Once analyzed, the model can be viewed in the Maxwell 2D Modeler, or it can be used to create a new Maxwell 2D project, and a new Maxwell 3D design Please refer to the Brushless Permanent-Magnet DC Motor Problem application note, on the technical support page of the Ansoft web site, for a specific example of a brushless permanent-magnet DC motor problem.

Defining the General Data for a Brushless PMDC Motor


Use the General window to specify the rated output power, voltage values, circuit type, and speed of the brushless DC motor. To define the general data: 1. To open the General Data Properties window, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without
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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

opening a separate window.) Enter the number of poles for the machine in the Number of Poles field. This value is the total number of poles in the stator (or the number of pole pairs multiplied by two). Enter the energy loss due to friction at the given speed in the Frictional Loss field. Enter the wind loss due to air resistance measured at the reference speed in the Wind Loss field. Enter the given speed in the Reference Speed field. Select DC or CCC from the Control Type pull-down list. Select a Circuit Type from the following types: Y3 Y-connected, three-phase. L3 Loop-type, three-phase. S3 Star-type, three-phase. C2 Cross-type, two-phase. L4 Loop-type, four-phase. S4 Star-type, four-phase. The circuit types are based on industry standards. By default, type Y3, a three-phase, six-status circuit, is selected as the circuit type.

Note

When you place the mouse cursor over a circuit type, an outline schematic of the circuit appears.

8.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

General Data for Brushless PMDC Motors


To access the general data, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree. The General Data Properties window for a three-phase induction motor contains the following fields: The machine type you selected when inserting a new RMxprt design (Brushless Permanent-Magnet DC Motor). Number of Poles The number of poles the machine contains. Rotor Position Select whether the rotor is an Inner Rotor or Outer Rotor. Frictional Loss The frictional energy loss (due to friction) measured at the reference speed. Wind Loss The wind loss (due to air resistance) measured at the reference speed.
Machine Type

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Reference Speed The given speed of reference. Control Type The way the circuit is controlled. Select from DC or CCC (chopped current control). Circuit Type The drive circuit type. Click the button to open the Circuit Type window and select from the following six types:

Y3: Y-Type, 3-Phase L3: Loop-Type, 3-Phase S3: Star-Type, 3-Phase C2: Cross-Type, 2-Phase L4: Loop-Type, 4-Phase S4: Star-Type, 4-Phase

Defining the Circuit Data for a Brushless PMDC Motor


Use the Circuit Data Properties window to specify the rated output power, voltage values, circuit type, and speed of the brushless DC motor. To define the general data: 1. To open the Circuit Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Circuit entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the triggers lead angle in electrical degrees in the Lead Angle of Trigger field. The triggers lead angle is shown in the following plot of the open circuit induced voltage versus

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position. An angle of 0 means that the induced voltage in the triggered phase is at a maximum:

Note

A positive value represents a lead angle, and a negative value represents a lag angle.

3. 4. 5.

Enter the period from on-status to off-status of a transistor, in electrical degrees, in the Trigger Pulse Width field. Enter the voltage drop across one transistor when the transistor is turned on in the Transistor Drop field. Refer to the figures of the different circuit types in step 2. Enter the voltage drop of one diode in the discharge loop in the Diode Drop field. If you selected a star-type circuit (S3 or S4) as the Circuit Type, enter the total discharge voltage in this field. If you selected CCC (chopped current control) as the Control Type, then enter the maximum and minimum current values in the Maximum Current and Minimum Current fields. Click OK to close the Properties window.

6. 7.

Circuit Data for Brushless PMDC Motors


To access the Circuit Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Circuit entry in the project tree.
Lead Angle of Trigger Trigger Pulse Width Transistor Drop

The triggers lead angle, in electrical degrees. The period from on-status to off-status for a transistor, in electrical degrees. The voltage drop across one transistor when the transistor is turned on.

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Diode Drop Maximum Current Minimum Current

The voltage drop across one diode in the discharge loop. The maximum current for the chopped current control. This field is not available for a DC circuit. The minimum current for the chopped current control. This field is not available for a DC circuit.

Defining the Stator Data for a Brushless PMDC Motor


The stator is the outer lamination stack where the polyphase voltage windings reside. To define the general stator data: 1. To open the Stator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Enter the Outer Diameter of the stator. Enter the Inner Diameter of the stator. Enter the length of the stator core in the Length field. Enter the stacking factor for the stator core in the Stacking Factor field. Select a Steel Type for the stator core: a. b. c. 7. 8. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

Enter the Number of Slots in the stator. Select the Slot Type: a. b. Click the button for the Slot Type. The Select Slot Type window appears. Select a slot type (available types include 1 through 4). When you place the mouse cursor over the slot type, a schematic of the selected type appears, displaying the slot dimension variables. Click OK to close the Select Slot Type window and return to the Properties window.

Note

c. 9.

Enter the skew width, measured in slot number, in the Skew Width field.

10. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Data for Brushless PMDC Motors


To access the general stator data, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree.

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The Stator Data Properties window contains the following fields:


Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Stacking Factor Steel Type Number of Slots Slot Type Skew Width

The outer diameter of the stator core. The inner diameter of the stator core. The length of the stator core. The stacking factor of the stator core. The steel type of the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The number of slots the stator core contains. The type of slots in the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Slot Type window. The skew width measured in slot number.

Defining the Stator Slots for a Brushless PMDC Motor


To define the physical dimensions of the stator slots: 1. To open the Stator Slot Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Optionally, to automatically design the dimensions of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2, select the Auto Design check box. 3. Optionally, to design dimensions of slots Bs1 and Bs2 based on the stator tooth width, select the Parallel Tooth check box, and enter a value in the Tooth Width field. 4. Enter the available slot dimensions.
Hs0 Hs2 Bs0 Bs1

Bs2

Always available. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. Always available. Available only when Auto Design and Parallel Tooth are both cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Available only when Auto Design and Parallel Tooth are both cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field.

5.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Slot Data for Brushless PMDC Motors


To access the stator slot data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree.
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The Stator Slot Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Auto Design Select or clear this to enable or disable auto-design of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2. When this check box is selected, only two other fields appear in the window: Hs0 and Bs0. Parallel Select this to design Bs1 and Bs2 based on the tooth width. When this check box is selected, the Bs1 and Bs2 fields are removed, and the Tooth Tooth Width field is added. Tooth Width The tooth width for the parallel tooth, on which Bs1 and Bs2 are designed. Hs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Hs1 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Hs2 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Bs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Bs1 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Bs2 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs A slot dimension. (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

Defining the Stator Windings and Conductors for a Brushless PMDC

Motor

To define the stator windings, wires, and conductors: 1. To open the Stator Slot Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-StatorWinding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Click the Winding tab. 3. 4. Enter the number of layers in the stator winding in the Winding Layers field. Select a Winding Type: a. b. Click the button for Winding Type. The Winding Type window appears. Select from one of the following three types of winding:

Whole Coiled Half Coiled Editor


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When you place the mouse cursor over a winding button, an outline of the selected winding appears. The following table describes the six types of windings that are possible (three for one-layer and three for two-layer): Type Description A user-defined one-layer winding arrangement. You need to set up the winding arrangement for each slot. For this winding type, the following letters are used for the phase windings:
Editor

Phase C/C return uses C/Z. A one-layer whole-coiled winding:

Phase A/A return uses A/X. Phase B/B return uses B/Y.

Whole Coiled

Slot 123

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A one-layer concentric half-coiled winding:

Half Coiled

Slot 123

A user-defined two-layer winding arrangement. When you select 20, the Winding Editor Editor opens, where you can specify a different winding arrangement for each slot. A two-layer wave winding:

Whole Coiled

Slot 123

The phase belt for this winding configuration is equal to 360/2m, where m is the phase number.

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A two-layer half-coiled winding:

Half Coiled

Slot 1 2 3

There is only one coil per phase per pair of poles.


Note

For a two layer winding, if you check Constant Pitch in the Winding Editor, only the top layer needs to be defined; the bottom layer will be determined according to the coil pitch. Once you have clicked a button to select a winding, click OK to close the Winding Type window and return to the Properties window.

c. 5.

Select a Winding Type. When you place the mouse cursor over a winding, an outline of the selected winding appears.

Note

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The following winding types are available:

10 A user-defined single-layer winding arrangement. When you select this type, enter the
winding arrangement, and choose OK. For this winding type, the following letters are used for the phase windings:

11

Phase A/A return uses A/X. Phase B/B return uses B/Y.

Phase C/C return uses C/Z. A one-layer whole-coiled winding:

Slot 123

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12 A one-layer concentric half-coiled winding:

Slot 123

20 A user-defined two-layer winding arrangement. When you select this type, enter the 21
winding arrangement, and choose OK. A two-layer wave winding:

Slot 123

The phase belt for this winding configuration is equal to 360/2m, where m is the phase number.

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22 A two-layer winding:

Slot 1 2 3

6. 7.

Select or enter the number of parallel branches in one phase of the winding in the Parallel Branches field.

Enter the total number of conductors in each stator slot in the Conductors per Slot field. This value is the number of turns per coil multiplied by the number of layers. 8. Enter the coil pitch, measured in number of slots, in the Coil Pitch field. The coil pitch is the number of slots separating one winding. For example, if a coil starts in slot 1 and ends in slot 6, it has a coil pitch of 5. 9. Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design this value. 10. Enter the thickness of the double-sided wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Enter 0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library.

Insulation Conductor y Wire Wrap = 2*y

11. Select the Wire Size: a. Click the button for Wire Size. The Wire Size window appears.
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b. c.

Select a value from the Wire Diameter pull-down list. Select a wire gauge from the Gauge pull-down menu. You can select from the following options:

You can select a specific gauge number. When you select a gauge number, the <number> Wire Diameter field is automatically updated. This option allows you to manually enter the Wire Diameter. This is useful when USER you want to enter a diameter that does not correspond to a particular wire gauge. This option sets the Wire Diameter to zero, and RMxprt automatically calculates AUTO the optimal value. The diameter information is then written to the output file when you analyze the design. This option allows you to define a conductor that is made of different size wires. MIXED For example, a single conductor may consist of 5 wires, 3 wires with a diameter of 0.21mm and 2 with a diameter of 0.13mm. The gauge number is based on AWG settings. You can create your own wire table using Machine>Wire, and then you can select this wire table using the Tools>Options>Machine Options command. d. When you are done setting the wire size, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the Properties window.

12. Click the End/Insulation tab. 13. Select or clear the Input Half-turn Length check box. 14. Do one of the following:

If you selected Input Half-turn Length, then enter the half-turn length of the armature winding in the Half Turn Length field. If you cleared Input Half-turn Length, then enter the end length adjustment of the stator coils in the End Adjustment field. The end adjustment is the distance one end of the con-

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ductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator.

End Adjustment

End of Stator

Stator Coil
15. Enter the inner radius of the base corner in the Base Inner Radius field. 16. Enter the inner diameter of the coil tip in the Tip Inner Diameter field. 17. Enter the distance between two stator coils in the End Clearance field. 18. Enter the thickness of the slot liner insulation in the Slot Liner field.

Slot Insulation

19. Enter the thickness of the wedge insulation in the Wedge Thickness field. 20. Enter the thickness of the insulation layer in the Layer Insulation field. 21. Enter the limited slot fill factor for the wire design in the Limited Fill Factor field. 22. Click OK to close the Properties window.
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Winding Editor for a Brushless DC Motor


For a brushless DC motor, you may want to specify a different number of conductors for each stator slot. The Winding Editor makes this possible by enabling you to specify the number of turns for each coil. To specify the number of turns for each coil: 1. Click Machine>Winding>Edit Layout. The Winding Editor window appears. 2. 3. 4. In the table in the upper left, set which phase you want for each coil and which slot is the in and out slot for the current in each coil. If you are working on a quarter or half model, you may want to specify a multiplier by clicking the Periodic Multiplier check box and specifying a value. Select or deselect the Constant Turns or Constant Pitch check boxes, depending on whether you want to be able to change these setting in the table above. When these options are selected, you cannot change the turns or pitch. When you are satisfied with the conductor settings, click OK to close the Winding Editor window.

5.

Defining Different Size Wires for a Brushless DC Motor


Use the Gauge option in the Wire Size dialog if you have a conductor that is made up different size wires. To define different size wires: 1. In the Wire Size window, select MIXED from the Gauge pull-down menu. 2. 3. Select either Round or Rectangular as the Wire Type. Enter the appropriate wire data in the table:

For a round wire:


4. 5. 6.

Enter the Diameter in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this diameter. Enter the Width of the wire in the table. Enter the Thickness of the wire in the table. Enter the Fillet value in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this data.

For a rectangular wire:

Click Add to add the new wire data. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each size wire you want to add. When you are finished defining the wires, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return

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to the RMxprt Properties window.


Note

For example, if one conductor is made up of 5 wires, and 3 of those wires have a diameter of 0.21mm, and the other 2 have a diameter of 0.13mm, then the mixed wire size table will have two lines. The first line will list Diameter = 0.21 and Number = 3. The second line will list Diameter = 0.13 and Number = 2. An equivalent wire diameter is displayed as Wire Size value in the Winding tab in the Properties window.

Stator Winding Data for Brushless PMDC Motors


To access the stator winding data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree. The Stator Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Winding tabWinding Layers The number of winding layers. Winding Type The type of stator winding. Click the button to open the Winding Type window and choose from Whole Coiled, Half Coiled, and Editor. Parallel Branches The number of parallel branches in the stator winding. Conductors per The number of conductors per stator slot (0 for auto-design). Slot Coil Pitch The coil pitch measured in number of slots. Number of The number of wires per conductor (0 for auto-design). Strands Wire Wrap The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library). Wire Size The diameter of the wire (0 for auto-design). Click the button to open the Wire Size window where you can specify units, wire type, diameter, and gauge. End/ Input Half-turn Select or clear this check box to specify whether or not you want to enter the half-turn length. When this check box is selected, the Insulation Length tab Half Turn Length field appears the next time you open the Properties window. When this check box is selected, the End Adjustment field appears instead. Half Turn Length The half-turn length of the armature winding. End Adjustment The end length adjustment of the stator coils, which is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator. Base Inner The inner radius of the base corner. Radius Tip Inner The inner diameter of the coil tip. Diameter End Clearance The end clearance between two adjacent coils.
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Slot Liner The thickness of the slot liner insulation. Wedge Thickness The thickness of the wedge insulation. Layer Insulation The thickness of the insulation layer. Limited Fill The limited slot fill factor for the wire design. Factor

Defining the Rotor Data for a Brushless PMDC Motor


The rotor consists of copper bars in which current is induced by the magnetic fields produced by the stator windings. In the project tree, double-click Machine>Rotor and Machine-Rotor-Pole to define the rotor and the pole. To define general rotor data: 1. To open the Rotor Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the outer diameter of the rotor in the Outer Diameter field. 3. 4. 5. Enter the inner diameter of the rotor in the Inner Diameter field. Enter the length of the rotor core in the Length field. Select a Steel Type for the rotor core: a. b. c. 6. 7. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

Enter the stacking factor for the rotor core in the Stacking Factor field. Select a Pole Type:

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a. b.
Note

Click the button. The Select Pole Type window appears. Click a button to select the desired pole type (1, 2, 3, 4, or 5). TIP: When you run the mouse over each option, the diagram changes to show that pole type. When you place the mouse cursor over a pole type, an outline of the selected circuit type appears. Click OK to close the Select Pole Type window and return to the Properties window.

c. 8.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Data for Brushless PMDC Motors


To access the general rotor data, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree. The Rotor Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Steel Type Stacking Factor Pole Type

The outer diameter of the rotor core. The inner diameter of the rotor core. The length of the rotor core. The steel type of the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The stacking factor of the rotor core. The pole type for the rotor. Click this button to open the Select Pole Type window and select from the following types: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Defining the Rotor Pole for a Brushless PMDC Motor


The rotor pole drives the electromagnetic field which is coupled with the stator windings. Use the Rotor Pole Data Properties window to define the rotor pole.
Note

Some of the fields in the Rotor Pole window change, or are inactive, depending on the Rotor Type you select.

To define the rotor pole: 1. To open the Rotor Pole Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Pole entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. For all pole types except type 4, enter the ratio of the actual arc distance in relation to the max-

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imum possible arc distance in the Embrace field. This value is between 0 and 1.

Pole Embrace = 0.7


3. 4.

Pole Embrace = 1.0

For pole type 4, enter the shaft diameter of the rotor in the Shaft Diameter field. For pole types 1, 2, and 3, enter the distance from the center of the rotor to the polar arc center in the Offset field. Enter 0 for a uniform air gap.

Magnet Radius Rotor OD Radius

Offset
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. For pole type 5, enter the thickness of the bridge across the two poles in the Bridge field. For pole type 5, enter the width of the rib supporting the bridge in the Rib field. Select the type of magnet to use in the rotor pole from the Magnet Type pull-down menu. For pole types 4 and 5, enter the width of the magnet in the Magnet Width field. Enter the maximum radial thickness of the magnet in the Magnet Thickness field.

10. Click OK to close the Properties window.


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Rotor Pole Data for Brushless PMDC Motors


To access the pole rotor data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Pole entry in the project tree. The Rotor Pole Data Properties window may contain the following fields, depending on the pole type specified. The pole embrace. For pole types 1, 2, 3, and 5. The shaft diameter of the rotor. For pole type 4. The pole-arc center offset from the rotor center (0 for a uniform air gap). For pole types 1, 2, and 3. Bridge The thickness of the bridge across two adjacent poles. For pole type 5. Rib The width of the rib at the center of two adjacent poles that support the bridge. For pole type 5. Magnet Type The type of magnet. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. For all pole types. Magnet Width The maximum width of the magnet. For pole types 4 and 5. Magnet Thickness The maximum thickness of the magnet. For all pole types.
Embrace Shaft Diameter Offset

Defining the Shaft Data for a Brushless PMDC Motor


To define the shaft: 1. To open the Shaft Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Select or clear the Magnetic Shaft check box to specify whether or not the shaft is to be made of magnetic material. 3. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Shaft Data for Brushless PMDC Motors


To access the shaft data, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree. The Shaft Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Magnetic Shaft

Select or clear this check box to indicate whether or not the shaft is made of magnetic material.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Brushless PMDC Motor


To define the solution data: 1. To open the Solution Setup window, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. 2. Click the General tab. The Operation Type is Motor for this machine type.
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3.

Select the Load Type used in the motor from the following options:
Const Speed Const Power Const Torque Linear Torque

Fan Load

The speed remains constant in the motor. The output power remains constant in the motor. The torque remains constant regardless of the speed. In this case, Tload = Trated, given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The torque increases linearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated) where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The load varies nonlinearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated)2 where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Enter the output power developed at the shaft of the motor in the Rated Output Power field. Enter the RMS line-to-line voltage in the Rated Voltage field. Enter the desired output speed of the motor at the load point in the Rated Speed field. Enter the temperature at which the system functions in the Operating Temperature field. Click OK to close the Solution Setup window.

Related Topics:

Solution Data for Brushless PMDC Motors Analysis Offered

Analysis Offered

Adapted to both Synchronous Motor and Generator The structures of the salient-pole synchronous motor and the generator are basically the same, but their phasor relationships and the computation methods are slightly different, their output characteristics data are also different. Therefore, RMxprt divides the synchronous machine into two design modules: Synchronous Motor and Synchronous Generator. Auto Arrangement of Three-phase Windings Almost all commonly used three-phase single- and double-layer, half- and whole-type ac windings (including fractional-pitch windings) can be automatically arranged. Users do not need to define coils one by one. RMxprt also supports a double-layer winding with half-turn coils which are auto-arranged in the order of even, odd, even, odd, , and even, odd, as long as it is physically possible. When a designer adopts single-layer whole-coiled windings, RMxprt will perform winding arrangement optimization to minimize the average coil pitch. When asymmetric three-phase windings are used, winding arrangement is optimized in such a way that minimum negativesequence and zero-sequence components are achieved. Winding Editor Supporting Any Single- and Double-Layer Windings Besides taking the great advantage of the winding auto-arrangement function in RMxprt, users can also specify any special winding by using of the Winding Editor function.

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In Winding Editor, through modification of phase belonging, number of turns, in-slot and outslot number of each coil, it is possible to design single- and double-layer winding arrangement for any purposes.

Analyze Air-Gap Magnetic Field Distribution For both uniform and non-uniform air gaps, Schwarz-Christopher Transformation is adopted to solve for the air-gap magnetic field distribution. Analyze EMF Waveform and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Based on the analysis of the air-gap magnetic field waveform, taking into account coil short pitch, winding distribution, skew slot, winding connection, load effects and other factors, the emf waveforms in the coils and the windings are analyzed to solve for the emf distortion factors.

Analyze Dynamic Parameters of Damping Winding Different from the squirrel-cage winding of the induction machine, the damping winding of the salient-pole synchronous machine is located in the surface of magnetic field poles, which deviates greatly along the d- and the q-axes. Furthermore, the connection of damping bars has several forms. The bars under each pole could be connected, but not connected with those under other poles. All the bars could be connected together. The bars could be connected through end-plate. RMxprt can deal with all those complicated situations and give the dynamic parameters for the damping winding.

Related Topics:

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Brushless PMDC Motor

Solution Data for Brushless PMDC Motors


To access the solution data, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. For this machine type, there is only one tab, the General tab. The Solution Setup window contains the following fields:
Operation Type Load Type Rated Output Power Rated Voltage Rated Speed Operating Temperature Related Topics:

The operation type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. Select from Const Speed, Const Power, Const Torque, Linear Torque, and Fan Load. The default is Const Power. Type a value for the rated output voltage, and select the units. Type a value for the rated voltage, and select the units. Type a value for the rated speed, and select the units. Type a value for the operating temperature, and select the units.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Brushless PMDC Motor

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Switched Reluctance Motors


After you have selected Switched Reluctance Motors as your model type, define the following:

General data, such as the power, voltage, and speed of the motor. Circuit data. Stator core data, such as the number of poles, diameter, and yoke thickness. Stator coil data, such as the slot liner thickness, number of parallel branches, and number of wires in each conductor. Rotor core data, such as the air gap dimensions and number of poles in the rotor. Shaft data. Solution data.

Analysis Approach for Switched Reluctance Motors


This motor type operates with shaft position feedback to synchronize the commutation of the phase currents with precise rotor position. Typically, both the stator and the rotor are salient to increase the torque-producing characteristics of the motor. The rotor has no windings; the torque is produced by the alignment tendency of the rotor to the stator so that the stator flux linkage is maximized. In these motors, the stator and rotor have different numbers of poles. The stator phase windings are energized at precise moments synchronized with the position of the rotor. The task of energizing the stator windings is performed by a complex electronic system. The number of phases in the winding is the ratio of the stator number of poles to the smallest common divider of the stator and the rotor number of poles. In switched reluctance motors (SRM), the stator and the rotor have a different number of poles, and the stator currents are commutated exactly according to rotor position. The signal of the rotor position is obtained from a position sensor. The stator windings are triggered one by one, and normally the current in a winding has finished or almost finished freewheeling when the next winding is triggered. Therefore, the mutual effects between two phases can be neglected. The voltage equation of one phase is:

d ( , i ) u = u T + R S i + -------------------dt
where uT is the transistor or diode voltage drop, and Rs is the stator winding resistance. ( , i) is the flux linkage of the winding at rotor position and winding current i, as is shown in Figure 8,

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where the rotor position when the center of the rotor slot is aligned to the winding axis is defined as 0.

Figure 8
Let

( , i ) L = ------------------i
and

L ( i ) G = ----------------- = -------
Then

u = u T + R S i + L pi + G e i

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where e is the rotor speed in electrical rad/s, and p is the differential operator as given by:

p =
The instant electromagnetic torque t2 is:

d dt

1 2 t 2 = -- Gi 2
The input electric power is computed from voltage and current as:

T 1 P 1 = -- ( u i dt ) T 0
The output mechanical power is:

P 2 = P 1 ( P fw + P Cua + P t + P Fe )
where Pfw, PCua, Pt, and PFe are frictional and wind loss, armature copper loss, transistor/diode loss, and iron-core loss, respectively. The average output mechanical shaft torque T2 is:

P2 T 2 = -----

where is the rotor angular speed in mechanical rad/s. The efficiency of the electric machine is computed by:

P2 = ------ 100 P1

Defining a Switched Reluctance Motor


The general procedure for defining a switched reluctance motor is as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Insert a Switched Reluctance motor into a new or existing project. Double-click the Machine entry in the project tree to define the general data. Double-click the Machine-Circuit entry in the project tree to define the control circuit. Double-click the Machine-Stator entry in the project tree to define the stator geometry. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree to define the stator windRMxprt Machine Types 27-149

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6. 7. 8. 9.

ings and conductors. Double-click the Machine-Rotor entry in the project tree to define the rotor geometry. Double-click the Machine-Shaft entry in the project tree to define the magnetism of the shaft. Right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup to define the solution data. Choose File>Save to save the project.

10. Choose RMxprt>Analyze to analyze the design.


Note

When you place the cursor over an entry field in the data windows, a brief description of that field appears in the status bar at the bottom of the RMxprt window.

Once analyzed, the model can be viewed in the Maxwell 2D Modeler, or it can be used to create a new Maxwell 2D project, and a new Maxwell 3D project. Please refer to the Switched Reluctance Motor Problem application note, on the technical support page of the Ansoft web site, for a specific example.

Defining the General Data for a Switched Reluctance Motor


Use the General window to define the power settings, speed, and period of the motor. To define the general data: 1. To open the General Data Properties window, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the energy loss due to friction at the given speed in the Frictional Loss field. 3. 4. 5. 6. Enter the wind loss due to air resistance measured at the reference speed in the Wind Loss field. Enter the given speed in the Reference Speed field. Select DC or CCC from the Control Type pull-down list. Select a Circuit Type from the following types:

Full-Voltage Half-Voltage Coupled-Coil

The circuit types are based on industry standards. By default, type Full-Voltage, is selected as the circuit type.
Note

When you place the mouse cursor over a circuit type, an outline schematic of the circuit appears.

7.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

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General Data for Switched Reluctance Motors


To access the general data, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree. The General Data Properties window for a three-phase induction motor contains the following fields: The machine type you selected when inserting a new RMxprt design (Switched Reluctance Motor). Frictional Loss The frictional energy loss (due to friction) measured at the reference speed. Wind Loss The wind loss (due to air resistance) measured at the reference speed. Reference Speed The given speed of reference. Control Type The way the circuit is controlled. Select from DC or CCC (chopped current control, which forces the current to fall between the minimum and maximum values specified). Circuit Type The drive circuit type. Click the button to open the Circuit Type window and select from the following three types:
Machine Type

Full-Voltage Half-Voltage Coupled-Coil

Defining the Circuit Data for a Switched Reluctance Motor


Use the Circuit Data Properties window to specify the rated output power, voltage values, circuit type, and speed of the brushless DC motor. To define the general data: 1. To open the Circuit Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Circuit entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the triggers lead angle in electrical degrees in the Lead Angle of Trigger field. The trigger angle is the point at which the magnetic poles interact to begin the motion of the motor. An angle of 0 means that each phase is triggered when its axis is aligned with the rotor slot center. The triggers lead angle is shown in the following plot of the open circuit induced voltage versus position. An angle of 0 means that the induced voltage in the triggered phase is at a

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maximum:

Note

A positive value represents a lead angle, and a negative value represents a lag angle.

3.

Enter the period from on-status to off-status of a transistor, in electrical degrees, in the Trigger Pulse Width field. The trigger pulse width is the width of the energizing pulse applied to the winding, or the period for an on status of the transistors. The maximum on period is given by 180 degrees plus the value for the lead angle of trigger. Enter the voltage drop across one transistor when the transistor is turned on in the Transistor Drop field. Refer to the figures of the different circuit types in step 2. This value is over one conduction path when the transistors are triggered. Enter the voltage drop on all anti-parallel diodes in the discharge path in the Diode Drop field. If you selected a star-type circuit (S3 or S4) as the Circuit Type, enter the total discharge voltage in this field. If you selected CCC (chopped current control) as the Control Type, then enter the maximum and minimum current values in the Maximum Current and Minimum Current fields. Click OK to close the Properties window.

4.

5.

6. 7.

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Circuit Data for Switched Reluctance Motors


To access the Circuit Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Circuit entry in the project tree. When AC is selected at the Control Type, now circuit data properties exist.
Lead Angle of Trigger Trigger Pulse Width Transistor Drop Diode Drop Maximum Current Minimum Current

The triggers lead angle, in electrical degrees. The period from on-status to off-status for a transistor, in electrical degrees. The voltage drop across one transistor when the transistor is turned on. The voltage drop across one diode in the discharge loop. The maximum current for the chopped current control. This field is not available for a DC circuit. The minimum current for the chopped current control. This field is not available for a DC circuit.

Defining the Stator Data for a Switched Reluctance Motor


The stator is the outer lamination stack where the polyphase voltage windings reside. To define the general stator data: 1. To open the Stator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the Outer Diameter of the stator. 3. 4. 5. Enter the Inner Diameter of the stator. Enter the total length of the stator core in the Length field. Enter the effective magnetic length of the core in the Stacking Factor field. This value typically ranges from between 0.93 and 1.0, and is defined as the total length minus the total lamination insulation, divided by the total length. Select a Steel Type for the stator core: a. b. c. 7. 8. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

6.

Enter the number of poles the stator core contains in the Number of Poles field. Enter the pole embrace in the Embrace field. The pole embrace is the ratio of the actual pole arc angle to the maximum possible pole angle in the field. This value ranges from between 0 and 1. Enter the thickness of the stator coil yoke in the Yoke Thickness field.

9.

10. Click OK to close the Properties window.


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Stator Data for Switched Reluctance Motors


To access the general stator data, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree. The Stator Data Properties window contains the following fields: The outer diameter of the stator core. The inner diameter of the stator core. The length of the stator core. The stacking factor of the stator core. The steel type of the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. Number of Poles The number of poles the stator core contains. Embrace The stator pole embrace. Yoke Thickness The thickness of the yoke at the stator core.
Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Stacking Factor Steel Type

Defining the Stator Winding Data for a Switched Reluctance Motor


The stator coils provide the excitation for the rotating magnetic poles. Use the Stator Coil window to define the parallel branches, wire specifications, and slot liner for the stator coil. To define the stator coils: 1. To open the Stator Slot Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-StatorWinding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the thickness of the insulation between the stator core and the field winding in the Insulation Thickness field. 3. Enter the end length adjustment of the stator coils in the End Adjustment field. The end adjustment is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the

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stator.

End Adjustment

End of Stator

Stator Coil
4. 5. 6. 7. Select or enter the number of parallel branches in one phase of the winding in the Parallel Branches field. Enter the number of turns per stator pole in the Turns per Pole field. Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design this value. Enter the thickness of the double-sided wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Enter 0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library.

Insulation Conductor y Wire Wrap = 2*y

8.

Select the Wire Size: a. b. c. Click the button for Wire Size. The Wire Size window appears. Select a value from the Wire Diameter pull-down list. Select a wire gauge from the Gauge pull-down menu. You can select from the following

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options: You can select a specific gauge number. When you select a gauge number, the <number> Wire Diameter field is automatically updated. This option allows you to manually enter the Wire Diameter. This is useful when USER you want to enter a diameter that does not correspond to a particular wire gauge. This option sets the Wire Diameter to zero, and RMxprt automatically calculates AUTO the optimal value. The diameter information is then written to the output file when you analyze the design. This option allows you to define a conductor that is made of different size wires. MIXED For example, a single conductor may consist of 5 wires, 3 wires with a diameter of 0.21mm and 2 with a diameter of 0.13mm. The gauge number is based on AWG settings. You can create your own wire table using Machine>Wire, and then you can select this wire table using the Tools>Options>Machine Options command. d. When you are done setting the wire size, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the Properties window. 9. Enter the conductor area ratio of the coupled circuit to the main circuit in the Coupled Ratio field. 10. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Defining Different Size Wires for a Switched Reluctance Motor


Use the Gauge option in the Wire Size window if you have a conductor that is made up different size wires. To define different size wires: 1. In the Wire Size window, select MIXED from the Gauge pull-down menu. 2. 3. Select either Round or Rectangular as the Wire Type. Enter the appropriate wire data in the table:

For a round wire:


4.

Enter the Diameter in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this diameter. Enter the Width of the wire in the table. Enter the Thickness of the wire in the table. Enter the Fillet value in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this data.

For a rectangular wire:

Click Add to add the new wire data.

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5. 6.

Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each size wire you want to add. When you are finished defining the wires, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the RMxprt Properties window. For example, if one conductor is made up of 5 wires, and 3 of those wires have a diameter of 0.21mm, and the other 2 have a diameter of 0.13mm, then the mixed wire size table will have two lines. The first line will list Diameter = 0.21 and Number = 3. The second line will list Diameter = 0.13 and Number = 2. An equivalent wire diameter is displayed as Wire Size value in the Winding tab in the Properties window.

Note

Stator Winding Data for Switched Reluctance Motors


To access the stator winding data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree. The Stator Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Insulation The thickness of the insulation between the stator core and the field winding. Thickness End Adjustment The end length adjustment of the stator coils, which is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator. Parallel Branches The number of parallel branches in the stator winding. Turns per Pole The number of turns per stator pole (0 for auto-design). Number of The number of wires per conductor (0 for auto-design). Strands Wire Wrap The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library). Wire Size The diameter of the wire (0 for auto-design). Click the button to open the Wire Size window where you can specify units, wire type, diameter, and gauge. Coupled Ratio The conductor area ratio of the coupled circuit to the main circuit.

Defining the Rotor Data for a Switched Reluctance Motor


The rotor core channels the flux generated by stator windings and provides shaft torque. The rotor consists of copper bars in which current is induced by the magnetic fields produced by the stator windings. Use the Rotor Data Properties window to define the air gaps, rotor dimensions, and type of steel used in the rotor core. In the project tree, double-click Machine>Rotor to define the rotor. To define general rotor data: 1. To open the Rotor Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop
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2. 3. 4. 5.

without opening a separate window.) Enter the outer diameter of the rotor in the Outer Diameter field. Enter the inner diameter of the rotor in the Inner Diameter field. Enter the length of the rotor core in the Length field. Select a Steel Type for the rotor core: a. b. c. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

6.

7. 8. 9.

Enter the effective magnetic length of the core in the Stacking Factor field. This value ranges from 0 to 1, and is defined as the total length minus the total lamination insulation, divided by the total length. Enter the number of poles the rotor core contains in the Number of Poles field. Enter the ratio of the actual pole angle in relation to the maximum possible pole angle in the Embrace field. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Enter the thickness of the rotor yoke in the Yoke Thickness field.

10. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Data for Switched Reluctance Motors


To access the general rotor data, double-click the Machine-Rotor entry in the project tree. The Rotor Data Properties window contains the following fields: The outer diameter of the rotor core. The inner diameter of the rotor core. The length of the rotor core. The steel type of the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. Stacking Factor The stacking factor of the rotor core. Number of Poles The number of poles the rotor core contains. Embrace The rotor pole embrace. Yoke Thickness The thickness of the rotor core yoke.
Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Steel Type

Defining the Shaft Data for a Switched Reluctance Motor


To define the shaft: 1. To open the Shaft Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Select or clear the Magnetic Shaft check box to specify whether or not the shaft is to be made

2.

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3.

of magnetic material. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Shaft Data for Switched Reluctance Motors


To access the shaft data, double-click the Machine-Shaft entry in the project tree. The Shaft Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Magnetic Shaft

Select or clear this check box to indicate whether or not the shaft is made of magnetic material.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Switched Reluctance Motor


To define the solution data: 1. 2. 3. To open the Solution Setup window, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. Click the General tab. The Operation Type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. Select the Load Type used in the motor from the following options:
Const Speed Const Power Const Torque Linear Torque

Fan Load

The speed remains constant in the motor. The output power remains constant in the motor. The torque remains constant regardless of the speed. In this case, Tload = Trated, given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The torque increases linearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated) where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The load varies nonlinearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated)2 where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Enter the output power developed at the shaft of the motor in the Rated Output Power field. Enter the RMS line-to-line voltage in the Rated Voltage field. Enter the desired output speed of the motor at the load point in the Rated Speed field. Enter the temperature at which the system functions in the Operating Temperature field. Click OK to close the Solution Setup window.

Related Topics:

Solution Data for Switched Reluctance Motors

Solution Data for Switched Reluctance Motors


To access the solution data, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. For this machine type, there is only one tab, the General tab.
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The Solution Setup window contains the following fields:


Operation Type Load Type Rated Output Power Rated Voltage Rated Speed Operating Temperature Related Topics:

The operation type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. Select from Const Speed, Const Power, Const Torque, Linear Torque, and Fan Load. The default is Const Power. Type a value for the rated output voltage, and select the units. Type a value for the rated voltage, and select the units. Type a value for the rated speed, and select the units. Type a value for the operating temperature, and select the units.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Switched Reluctance Motor

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Line-Start Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors


Once you have selected Line-Start Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors as your motor type, you can define the following:

General data, such as the frequency, winding connection, number of poles, and voltage. Stator data, such as the slot type and dimensions, stator diameter, and winding data. Rotor pole data, such as its associated dimensions, stacking factor, and magnet type. Shaft data. Solution data. add a vent to or remove an existing vent from a stator, add a damper to or remove a damper from a rotor.

By option, you can:

Analysis Approach for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors


Synchronous motors use a three-phase sinusoidal voltage source to induce a rotating magnetic field in the stator. Applying this three-phase sinusoidal voltage source to the stator winding of a synchronous motor yields the rotational magnetic field in the air gap. The permanent magnet poles mounted on the rotor try to align in this rotating field, producing a synchronous torque on the rotor. Upon starting, the damping winding on the rotor generates the asynchronous starting torque, creating a self-starting feature. The phasor diagram for the line-start permanent-magnet synchronous motor (LSSM) in the frequency domain is shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6

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In Figure 6, R1, Xd, and Xq are armature resistance, d-axis synchronous reactance, and q-axis synchronous reactance, respectively. Xd is the sum of leakage reactance, X1 and d-axis armature reactance Xad, and Xq is the sum of X1 and q-axis armature reactance Xaq:

X d = X 1 + X ad X q = X 1 + X aq
For a given torque angle , the angle that E0 lags U, we have the following:

I d X d + I q R 1 = U cos E 0 I d R 1 + I q X q = U sin
Solving for Id and Iq yields:

X q ( U cos E 0 ) R 1 U sin I d = ---------------------------------------------------------------------2 R 1 + Xd Xq R 1 ( U cos E 0 ) X d U sin I q = ---------------------------------------------------------------------2 R 1 + Xd Xq


The angle that I legs E0 is:

Id = tanh ---Iq
The power factor angle (or torque angle) that I legs U, is:

= +
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The input power (electric power) can now be computed from voltage and current as:

P 1 = 3UI cos
The output power (mechanical power) is:

P 2 = P 1 ( P fw + P Cu + P Fe )
where Pfw, PCu, and PFe are frictional and wind loss, armature copper loss, and iron-core loss, respectively. The output mechanical power (torque) T2 is:

P2 T 2 = -----
where is the synchronous speed in rad/s. The efficiency is computed by:

P2 = ------ 100 % P1

The motor is started the same way as for an induction motor, by using a squirrel-cage-type winding -- called a damper winding in this case -- that is mounted on the rotor, producing the starting torque.

Defining a Line-Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor


The general procedure for defining a line-start synchronous motor is as follows: 1. Insert a line-start synchronous motor into a new or existing project. 2. Double-click the Machine entry in the project tree to define the general data. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Double-click the Machine-Stator entry in the project tree to define the stator geometry. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree to define the stator slot dimensions. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree to define the stator windings and conductors. Double-click the Machine-Rotor entry in the project tree to define the rotor geometry. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Pole entry in the project tree to define the pole, embrace, offset, and air gap data for the rotor pole. Double-click the Machine-Shaft entry in the project tree to define the magnetism of the shaft. Right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup to define the solution
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data. 10. Choose File>Save to save the project. 11. Choose RMxprt>Analyze to analyze the design.
Note

When you place the cursor over an entry field in the data windows, a brief description of that field appears in the status bar at the bottom of the RMxprt window.

Once analyzed, the model can be viewed in the Maxwell 2D Modeler, or it can be used to create a new Maxwell 2D project, and a new Maxwell 3D design.

Defining the General Data for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor


Use the General window to define the basic parameters of the motor, such as the motors rated output power, rated voltage, losses, and connection type. To define the general data: 1. To open the General Data Properties window, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Enter the number of poles for the machine in the Number of Poles field. This value is the total number of poles in the stator (or the number of pole pairs multiplied by two). Enter the energy loss due to friction at the given speed in the Frictional Loss field. Enter the wind loss due to air resistance measured at the reference speed in the Wind Loss field. Enter the given speed in the Reference Speed field. Click OK to close the Properties window.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

General Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors


To access the general data, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree. The General Data Properties window for a three-phase induction motor contains the following fields: The machine type you selected when inserting a new RMxprt design (LineStart PM Synchronous Motor). Number of Poles The number of poles the machine contains. Frictional Loss The frictional energy loss (due to friction) measured at the reference speed. Wind Loss The wind loss (due to air resistance) measured at the reference speed. Reference Speed The given speed of reference.
Machine Type

Defining the Stator Data for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor


The stator is the outer lamination stack where the polyphase voltage windings reside.

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Use the Stator Data, Stator Slot Data, and Stator Winding Data windows to define the stator data, such as physical dimensions of the lamination, windings, and conductors. To define the general stator data: 1. To open the Stator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the Outer Diameter of the stator. 3. 4. 5. 6. Enter the Inner Diameter of the stator. Enter the length of the stator core in the Length field. Enter the effective magnetic length of the core in the Stacking Factor field. Select a Steel Type for the stator core: a. b. c. 7. 8. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears.

Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window. Enter the Number of Slots in the stator. Click the button for the Slot Type. The Select Slot Type window appears. Select a slot type (available types include 1 through 4). When you place the mouse cursor over the slot type, a schematic of the selected type appears, displaying the slot dimension variables.

Select the Slot Type: a. b.

Note

c. 9.

Click OK to close the Select Slot Type window and return to the Properties window. Enter the skew width, measured in slot number, in the Skew Width field.

10. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors


To access the general stator data, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree. The Stator Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Stacking Factor Steel Type

The outer diameter of the stator core. The inner diameter of the stator core. The length of the stator core. The stacking factor of the stator core. The steel type of the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window.

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Number of Slots Slot Type Skew Width

The number of slots the stator core contains. The type of slots in the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Slot Type window. The skew width measured in slot number.

Defining the Stator Slots for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor


To define the slot type: 1. To open the Stator Slot Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Optionally, to automatically design the dimensions of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2, select the Auto Design check box. Optionally, to design dimensions of slots Bs1 and Bs2 based on the stator tooth width, select the Parallel Tooth check box, and enter a value in the Tooth Width field. Enter the available slot dimensions.
Hs0 Hs2 Bs0 Bs1

2. 3. 4.

Bs2

Rs

Always available. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. Always available. Available only when Auto Design and Parallel Tooth are both cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Available only when Auto Design and Parallel Tooth are both cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

5.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Slot Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors


To access the stator slot data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Slot entry in the project tree.

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The Stator Slot Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Auto Design Select or clear this to enable or disable auto-design of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2. When this check box is selected, only two other fields appear in the window: Hs0 and Bs0. Parallel Select this to design Bs1 and Bs2 based on the tooth width. When this check box is selected, the Bs1 and Bs2 fields are removed, and the Tooth Tooth Width field is added. Tooth Width The tooth width for the parallel tooth, on which Bs1 and Bs2 are designed. Hs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Hs1 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Hs2 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Bs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Bs1 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Bs2 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs A slot dimension. (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

Defining the Stator Windings and Conductors for a Line-Start PM

Synchronous Motor

To define the stator windings and conductors: 1. To open the Stator Slot Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-StatorWinding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Click the Winding tab. 3. 4. Enter the number of layers in the stator winding in the Winding Layers field. Select the Winding Type for the stator: a. b. Click the button for Winding Type. The Winding Type window appears. Select from one of the following three types of winding:

Whole Coiled Half Coiled

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Note

Editor

When you place the mouse cursor over the winding type, a schematic of that type appears. Click OK to close the Winding Type window and return to the Properties window.

c. 5. 6. 7.

Select or enter the number of parallel branches in one phase of the winding in the Parallel Branches field. Enter the total number of conductors in each stator slot in the Conductors per Slot field. This value is the number of turns per coil multiplied by the number of layers. Enter the coil pitch, measured in number of slots, in the Coil Pitch field. The coil pitch is the number of slots separating one winding. For example, if a coil starts in slot 1 and ends in slot 6, it has a coil pitch of 5. Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design this value. Enter the thickness of the double-sided wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Enter 0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library.

8. 9.

Insulation Conductor y Wire Wrap = 2*y

10. Select the Wire Size: a. b. c. Click the button for Wire Size. The Wire Size window appears. Select a value from the Wire Diameter pull-down list. Select a wire gauge from the Gauge pull-down menu. You can select from the following

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options: You can select a specific gauge number. When you select a gauge number, the <number> Wire Diameter field is automatically updated. This option allows you to manually enter the Wire Diameter. This is useful when USER you want to enter a diameter that does not correspond to a particular wire gauge. This option sets the Wire Diameter to zero, and RMxprt automatically calculates AUTO the optimal value. The diameter information is then written to the output file when you analyze the design. This option allows you to define a conductor that is made of different size wires. MIXED For example, a single conductor may consist of 5 wires, 3 wires with a diameter of 0.21mm and 2 with a diameter of 0.13mm. The gauge number is based on AWG settings. You can create your own wire table using Machine>Wire, and then you can select this wire table using the Tools>Options>Machine Options command. d. When you are done setting the wire size, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the Properties window. 11. Click the End/Insulation tab. 12. Select or clear the Input Half-turn Length check box. 13. Do one of the following:

If you selected Input Half-turn Length, then enter the half-turn length of the armature winding in the Half Turn Length field. If you cleared Input Half-turn Length, then enter the end length adjustment of the stator coils in the End Adjustment field. The end adjustment is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator.

End Adjustment

End of Stator

Stator Coil

Stator Pole

14. Enter the inner radius of the base corner in the Base Inner Radius field. 15. Enter the inner diameter of the coil tip in the Tip Inner Diameter field. 16. Enter the distance between two stator coils in the End Clearance field.

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17. Enter the thickness of the slot liner insulation in the Slot Liner field.

Slot Insulation

18. Enter the thickness of the wedge insulation in the Wedge Thickness field. 19. Enter the thickness of the insulation layer in the Layer Insulation field. 20. Enter the limited slot fill factor for the wire design in the Limited Fill Factor field. 21. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Winding Editor for a Line-Start Synchronous Motor


For a line-start synchronous motor, you may want to specify a different number of conductors for each stator slot. The Winding Editor makes this possible by enabling you to specify the number of turns for each coil. To specify the number of turns for each coil: 1. Click Machine>Winding>Edit Layout. The Winding Editor window appears. 2. In the table in the upper left, set which phase you want for each coil and which slot is the in and out slot for the current in each coil. 3. If you are working on a quarter or half model, you may want to specify a multiplier by clicking the Periodic Multiplier check box and specifying a value. 4. Select or deselect the Constant Turns or Constant Pitch check boxes, depending on whether you want to be able to change these setting in the table above. When these options are selected, you cannot change the turns or pitch. 5. When you are satisfied with the coil settings, click OK to close the Winding Editor window.

Defining Different Size Wires for a Line-Start Synchronous Motor


Use the Gauge option in the Wire Size window if you have a conductor that is made up different size wires.
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To define different size wires: 1. In the Wire Size window, select MIXED from the Gauge pull-down menu. 2. 3. Select either Round or Rectangular as the Wire Type. Enter the appropriate wire data in the table:

For a round wire:


4. 5. 6.

Enter the Diameter in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this diameter. Enter the Width of the wire in the table. Enter the Thickness of the wire in the table. Enter the Fillet value in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this data.

For a rectangular wire:

Click Add to add the new wire data. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each size wire you want to add. When you are finished defining the wires, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the RMxprt Properties window. For example, if one conductor is made up of 5 wires, and 3 of those wires have a diameter of 0.21mm, and the other 2 have a diameter of 0.13mm, then the mixed wire size table will have two lines. The first line will list Diameter = 0.21 and Number = 3. The second line will list Diameter = 0.13 and Number = 2. An equivalent wire diameter is displayed as Wire Size value in the Winding tab in the Properties window.

Note

Stator Winding Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors


To access the stator winding data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree. The Stator Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Winding tabWinding Layers The number of winding layers. Winding Type The type of stator winding. Click the button to open the Winding Type window and choose from Whole Coiled, Half Coiled, and Editor. Parallel Branches The number of parallel branches in the stator winding. Conductors per The number of conductors per stator slot (0 for auto-design). Slot Coil Pitch The coil pitch measured in number of slots. Number of The number of wires per conductor (0 for auto-design). Strands
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End/ Insulation tab

The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library). Wire Size The diameter of the wire (0 for auto-design). Click the button to open the Wire Size window where you can specify units, wire type, diameter, and gauge. Input Half-turn Select or clear this check box to specify whether or not you want to enter the half-turn length. When this check box is selected, the Length Half Turn Length field appears the next time you open the Properties window. When this check box is selected, the End Adjustment field appears instead. Half Turn Length The half-turn length of the armature winding. End Adjustment The end length adjustment of the stator coils, which is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator. Base Inner The inner radius of the base corner. Radius Tip Inner The inner diameter of the coil tip. Diameter End Clearance The end clearance between two adjacent coils. Slot Liner The thickness of the slot liner insulation. Wedge Thickness The thickness of the wedge insulation. Layer Insulation The thickness of the insulation layer. Limited Fill The limited slot fill factor for the wire design. Factor
Wire Wrap

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Optional Vent for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor Stator


To add a Vent to the stator, select the stator icon and right-click to display the pop-up menu with Insert Vent. The vent is shown in the project tree under the stator. To remove an existing Vent, select the stator and right-click to display the up-up menu with Remove Vent. The Vent Data properties window contains the following fields.
Vent Ducts Duct Width Magnetic spacer width Duct pitch

Number of radial vent ducts Width of radial vent ducts Width of magnetic spacer which hold vent ducts. 0 for non-magnetic spacer. Vent ducts.

Defining the Rotor Data for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor


The rotor consists of copper bars in which current is induced by the magnetic fields produced by the stator windings. In the project tree, double-click Machine-Rotor and Machine-Rotor-Pole to define the rotor and the pole. To define general rotor data: 1. To open the Rotor Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the outer diameter of the rotor in the Outer Diameter field. 3. 4. 5. Enter the inner diameter of the rotor in the Inner Diameter field. Enter the length of the rotor core in the Length field. Select a Steel Type for the rotor core: a. b. c. 6. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

Enter the effective magnetic length of the rotor core in the Stacking Factor field. This value ranges from 0 to 1 and is defined as the total length minus the total lamination insulation, divided by the total length. A value of 1 indicates that the rotor is not laminated. Select a Pole Type: a. b. Click the button. The Select Pole Type window appears. Click a button to select the desired pole type (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8). TIP: When you run
RMxprt Machine Types 27-173

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the mouse over each option, the diagram changes to show that pole type.
Note

When you place the mouse cursor over a pole type, an outline of the selected circuit type appears. Click OK to close the Select Pole Type window and return to the Properties window.

c. 8.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors


To access the general rotor data, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree. The Rotor Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Steel Type Stacking Factor Pole Type

The outer diameter of the rotor core. The inner diameter of the rotor core. The length of the rotor core. The steel type of the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The stacking factor of the rotor core. The pole type for the rotor. Click this button to open the Select Pole Type window and select from the following types: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. When you mouse over each button, a diagram appears for that pole type, showing the arrangement and dimensions.

Defining the Rotor Pole for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor


The rotor pole drives the electromagnetic field which is coupled with the stator windings. Use the Rotor Pole Data Properties window to define the rotor pole.
Note

Some of the fields in the Rotor Pole window change, or are inactive, depending on the Rotor Type you select.

To define the rotor pole: 1. To open the Rotor Pole Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Pole entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the limited diameter for the magnet ducts in the D1 field. 3. 4. 5. Enter one or more of the following magnet duct dimensions, depending on the pole type selected: O1, O2, B1. For all pole types except number 8, enter the width of the rib supporting the bridge in the Rib field. Select the type of magnet to use in the rotor pole: a. Click Magnet Type button.

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b. c. 6. 7. 8.

The Select Definition window appears. Select a material. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

Enter the total width of all magnets per pole in the Magnet Width field. Enter the maximum radial thickness of the magnet in the Magnet Thickness field. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Pole Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors


To access the pole rotor data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Pole entry in the project tree. The Rotor Pole Data Properties window contains the following fields: The limited diameter for the magnet ducts. See the diagrams in the Select Pole Type window for the location of each dimension and which pole types require which dimensions. O1 A magnet duct dimension. See the diagrams in the Select Pole Type window for the location of each dimension and which pole types require which dimensions. O2 A magnet duct dimension. See the diagrams in the Select Pole Type window for the location of each dimension and which pole types require which dimensions. B1 A magnet duct dimension. See the diagrams in the Select Pole Type window for the location of each dimension and which pole types require which dimensions. Rib The width of the rib at the center of two adjacent poles that support the bridge. For pole types except number 8. Magnet Type The type of magnet. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. For all pole types. Magnet Width The maximum width of the magnet. For all pole types. Magnet Thickness The maximum thickness of the magnet. For all pole types.
D1

Optional Rotor Damper for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor


To add a damper, right-click on the rotor item in the project tree to display the pop-up menu with Insert Damper. To remove an existing damper, right-click on the rotor icon in the project tree to display the shortcut menu with Remove Damper.

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The Damper Data properties window contains the following fields.


Damper Slots per Number of damper slots per pole. Pole Slot Type Cast Rotor. Bar conductor type End Length End Ring Width End Ring Conductor type

Damper slot type. Click the field button open the Slot selection window and select one of the four types. Specify whether the rotor squirrel cage winding is cast. Click the field button to open the Materials Selection window to specify the material for the bar conductor. Single side end extended bar length Axial width of end ring. Click the field button to open the Materials Selection window to specify the material for the end ring conductor.

End Ring Height Radial height of end ring

Defining the Shaft Data for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor


To define the shaft: 1. To open the Shaft Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Shaft entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Select or clear the Magnetic Shaft check box to specify whether or not the shaft is to be made of magnetic material. 3. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Shaft Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors


To access the shaft data, double-click the Machine-Shaft entry in the project tree. The Shaft Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Magnetic Shaft

Select or clear this check box to indicate whether or not the shaft is made of magnetic material.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor


To define the solution data: 1. 2. To open the Solution Setup window, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. Click the General tab. The Operation Type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type.

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3.

Select the Load Type used in the motor from the following options:
Const Speed Const Power Const Torque Linear Torque

Fan Load

The speed remains constant in the motor. The output power remains constant in the motor. The torque remains constant regardless of the speed. In this case, Tload = Trated, given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The torque increases linearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated) where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The load varies nonlinearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated)2 where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Enter the output power developed at the shaft of the motor in the Rated Output Power field. Enter the RMS line-to-line voltage in the Rated Voltage field. Enter the desired output speed of the motor at the load point in the Rated Speed field. Enter the temperature at which the system functions in the Operating Temperature field. Click the Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor tab. Select Wye or Delta from the Winding Connection pull-down list.

10. Click OK to close the Solution Setup window.


Related Topics:

Solution Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors

Solution Data for Line-Start PM Synchronous Motors


To access the solution data, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. For this machine type, there is only one tab, the General tab. The Solution Setup window contains the following fields:
Operation Type Load Type Rated Output Power Rated Voltage Rated Speed Operating Temperature Winding Connection Related Topics:
RMxprt Machine Types 27-177

General tab. The operation type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. General tab. Select from Const Speed, Const Power, Const Torque, Linear Torque, and Fan Load. The default is Const Power. General tab. Type a value for the rated output voltage, and select the units. General tab. Type a value for the rated voltage, and select the units. General tab. Type a value for the rated speed, and select the units. General tab. Type a value for the operating temperature, and select the units. Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor tab. Select Wye or Delta from the Winding Connection pull-down list.

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Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Line-Start PM Synchronous Motor

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Universal Motors
After you have selected Universal Motors as your model type, enter the motor data to define the following:

General data, such as the number of poles, frictional loss, and reference speed. Stator pole and winding data, such as its associated pole dimensions, type of steel, and wire definitions. Rotor data, such as the slot types and dimensions, rotor diameter, laminations, and windings and conductors. Commutator and brush data, such as the commutator dimensions and brush length. Shaft data. Solution data.

Analysis Approach for Universal Motors


For a DC motor, if its field winding is connected in series with its armature winding, it becomes a series motor. When the polarity of the terminal voltage changes, the direction of the produced electromagnetic torque does not change because the armature and the exciting currents alternate their directions at the same time. That means the motor can operate not only with a DC source but also with an AC source. Because it can operate with both DC and AC sources, a series motor is also called universal motor (UniM). For a universal motor, the stator is equipped with p pairs of coil-wound poles, creating P pairs of alternating north and south poles. The coil excitation may be either AC or DC. The rotor is equipped with a distributed winding connected to a commutator that revolves together with the rotor. A system of brushes is kept in permanent electrical contact with the commutator. When AC or DC current is applied to the rotor winding (via the brushes and commutator) a torque is produced by the interaction of the rotor (armature) currents and the field produced by the stator poles. The commutator causes the armature to create a magnetic flux distribution whose axis is perpendicular to the axis of the field flux produced by the permanent magnets. For these motors, the commutator acts as a mechanical rectifier. The performance of a universal motor is analyzed in the frequency domain. The voltage equation of a universal motor is:

U = ZI = ( R a + R f + R b )I + j ( L a + L f + 2M af )I + e ( G aa + G af )I
where, Ra, Rf, and Rb are the armature resistance, field winding resistance, and the brush contact resistance, respectively. La, Lf, and Maf are the armature self inductance, field winding self inductance, and their mutual inductance, respectively, and are linearized nonlinear parameters. Gaa and Gaf are the coefficients of motion induced voltages by the armature and field winding currents, respectively, and are also linearized nonlinear parameters. is the radian frequency, and e the
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rotor speed in electric rad/s. Z is equivalent input impedance. When the brush axis is aligned with q-axis:

M af = G aa = 0
For a given rotor speed e, armature current can be computed based on the applied voltage U, as:

U I = --Z
The input power (electric power) is directly computed from voltage and current as:

P 1 = UI cos
The output power (mechanical power) is:

P 2 = P 1 ( P fw + P b + P + P Fe ) cuf
where Pfw, Pb, Pcua, Pcuf, and PFe are frictional and wind loss, brush drop loss, armature copper loss, field winding copper loss, and iron-core loss, respectively. The output mechanical shaft torque T2 is:

P2 T 2 = -----
The efficiency is computed by:

P2 eff = ------ 100 P1

Defining a Universal Motor


The general procedure for defining a universal motor is as follows: 1. Insert a universal motor into a new or existing project. 2. 3. 4. Double-click the Machine entry in the project tree to define the general data. Double-click the Machine-Stator entry in the project tree to define the stator geometry. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Pole entry in the project tree to define the stator pole dimensions.

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5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree to define the stator windings and conductors. Double-click the Machine-Rotor entry in the project tree to define the rotor geometry. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree to define the rotor slot dimensions. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree to define the rotor windings and conductors. Double-click the Machine-Commutator entry in the project tree to define the commutator and brush data.

10. Double-click the Machine-Shaft entry in the project tree to define the magnetism of the shaft. 11. Right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup to define the solution data. 12. Choose File>Save to save the project. 13. Choose RMxprt>Analyze to analyze the design.
Note

When you place the cursor over an entry field in the data windows, a brief description of that field appears in the status bar at the bottom of the RMxprt window.

Once analyzed, the model can be viewed in the Maxwell 2D Modeler, or it can be used to create a new Maxwell 2D project, and a new Maxwell 3D design. Refer to the Universal Motor Problem application note, on the technical support page of the Ansoft web site, for a specific example.

Defining the General Data for a Universal Motor


Use the General window to define the basic parameters of the universal motor such as the power settings, speed, and rated voltage. To define the general data: 1. To open the General Data Properties window, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the number of poles for the machine in the Number of Poles field. This value is the total number of poles in the stator (or the number of pole pairs multiplied by two). 3. Enter the energy loss due to friction at the given speed in the Frictional Loss field. 4. 5. 6. Enter the wind loss due to air resistance measured at the reference speed in the Wind Loss field. Enter the given speed in the Reference Speed field. Click OK to close the Properties window.

General Data for Universal Motors


To access the general data, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree.
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The General Data Properties window for a three-phase induction motor contains the following fields: The machine type you selected when inserting a new RMxprt design (Switched Reluctance Motor). Number of Poles Number of poles for this machine. Frictional Loss The frictional energy loss (due to friction) measured at the reference speed. Wind Loss The wind loss (due to air resistance) measured at the reference speed. Reference Speed The given speed of reference.
Machine Type

Defining the Stator Data for a Universal Motor


Use the Stator Properties windows to define the stator dimensions, slots, windings, and conductors. The stator is the outer lamination stack where the polyphase voltage windings reside. To define the general stator data: 1. To open the Stator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the Outer Diameter of the stator. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Enter the overall width of the stator outer profile in the Overall Width field. Enter the Inner Diameter of the stator. Enter the length of the stator core in the Length field. Enter the stacking factor for the stator core in the Stacking Factor field. Select a Steel Type for the stator core: a. b. c. 8. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Data for Universal Motors


To access the general stator data, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree. The Stator Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Outer Diameter Overall Width Inner Diameter

The outer diameter of the stator core. The overall width of the stator outer profile. The inner diameter of the stator core.

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Length Stacking Factor Steel Type

The length of the stator core. The effective magnetic length of the stator core. The steel type of the stator core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window.

Defining the Stator Pole for a Universal Motor


The rotor pole drives the electromagnetic field which is coupled with the stator windings. Use the s Stator Pole Data Properties window to define the stator pole. To define the rotor pole: 1. To open the Stator Pole Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Stator-Pole entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.)
Note

For a two-pole machine, a pole embrace of 0.75 yields a magnet with a span of 135 degrees (based on 0.75*180 degrees).

2. 3.

Enter the ratio of the actual arc distance in relation to the maximum possible arc distance in the Embrace field. This value is between 0 and 1. Enter the distance from the center of the stator to the magnet arc center in the Offset field.

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Enter 0 for a uniform air gap.

Magnet Radius Rotor OD Radius

Offset

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Enter the minimum pole width in the PoleWidth field. Enter the yoke thickness in the Ty field. Enter the shoe-tip thickness in the Ts field. Enter the poles hole radius in the R1 field. If there is no hole in the design, enter 0. Enter the poles side fillet radius in the R2 field. Enter the radius of the poles center side fillet arcs in the R3 field.

10. Enter the radius of the shoe connecting arc in the R4 field. To auto-design this dimension, enter 0. For a linear connection, enter 0.
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11. Enter the inner radius of the screw hole between the two poles in the R5 field. If there is no hole in the design, enter 0. 12. Enter the outer radius of the screw hole between the two poles in the R6 field. If there is no hole in the design, enter 0. 13. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Pole Data for Universal Motors


To access the stator pole data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Pole entry in the project tree. The Stator Pole Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Embrace Offset PoleWidth Ty Ts R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

The pole embrace. The pole-arc center offset from the stator center (0 for a uniform air gap). The minimum pole width. The yoke thickness. The shoe-tip thickness. The hole radius in the pole (0 for no hole). The radius of the pole side fillet. The radius of the center of the pole side fillet arcs. The radius of the shoe connecting arc (0 for auto-design or for a linear connection). The inner radius of the screw hole between two poles (0 for no hole). The outer radius of the screw hole between two poles (0 for no hole).

Defining the Stator Windings and Conductors for a Universal Motor


To define the stator windings and conductors: 1. To open the Stator Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the thickness of the insulation between the stator core and the field winding in the Insulation Thickness field. 3. Enter the end length adjustment of the stator coils in the End Adjustment field. The end adjustment is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the

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stator.

End Adjustment

End of Stator

Stator Coil
4. 5. 6. 7.

Stator Pole

Enter the number of parallel branches in the stator winding in the Parallel Branches field. Enter the number of turns per stator pole in the Turns per Pole field. To auto-design the number of turns, enter 0. Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design this value. Enter the thickness of the double-sided wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Enter 0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library.

Insulation Conductor y Wire Wrap = 2*y

8.

Select the Wire Size: a. b. c. Click the button for Wire Size. The Wire Size window appears. Select a value from the Wire Diameter pull-down list. Select a wire gauge from the Gauge pull-down menu. You can select from the following

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options: You can select a specific gauge number. When you select a gauge number, the <number> Wire Diameter field is automatically updated. This option allows you to manually enter the Wire Diameter. This is useful when USER you want to enter a diameter that does not correspond to a particular wire gauge. This option sets the Wire Diameter to zero, and RMxprt automatically calculates AUTO the optimal value. The diameter information is then written to the output file when you analyze the design. This option allows you to define a conductor that is made of different size wires. MIXED For example, a single conductor may consist of 5 wires, 3 wires with a diameter of 0.21mm and 2 with a diameter of 0.13mm. The gauge number is based on AWG settings. You can create your own wire table using Machine>Wire, and then you can select this wire table using the Tools>Options>Machine Options command. d. When you are done setting the wire size, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the Properties window. Enter the thickness of the wedge insulation in the Wedge Thickness field.

9.

10. Enter the thickness of the insulation layer in the Layer Insulation field. 11. Enter the limited slot fill factor for the wire design in the Limited Fill Factor field. 12. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Defining Different Size Wires for a Universal Motor Stator Winding


To define different size wires: 1. In the Wire Size window, select MIXED from the Gauge pull-down menu. 2. 3. Select either Round or Rectangular as the Wire Type. Enter the appropriate wire data in the table:

For a round wire:


4. 5.

Enter the Diameter in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this diameter. Enter the Width of the wire in the table. Enter the Thickness of the wire in the table. Enter the Fillet value in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this data.

For a rectangular wire:

Click Add to add the new wire data. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each size wire you want to add.
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6.

When you are finished defining the wires, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the RMxprt Properties window. For example, if one conductor is made up of 5 wires, and 3 of those wires have a diameter of 0.21mm, and the other 2 have a diameter of 0.13mm, then the mixed wire size table will have two lines. The first line will list Diameter = 0.21 and Number = 3. The second line will list Diameter = 0.13 and Number = 2. An equivalent wire diameter is displayed as Wire Size value in the Winding tab in the Properties window.

Note

Stator Winding Data for Universal Motors


To access the stator winding data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Winding entry in the project tree. The Stator Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Insulation The thickness of the insulation between the stator core and the field winding. Thickness End Adjustment The end length adjustment of the stator coils, which is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator. Parallel Branches The number of parallel branches in the stator winding. Turns per Pole The number of turns per stator pole (0 for auto-design). Number of The number of wires per conductor (0 for auto-design). Strands Wire Wrap The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library). Wire Size The diameter of the wire (0 for auto-design). Click the button to open the Wire Size window where you can specify units, wire type, diameter, and gauge.

Defining the Rotor Data for a Universal Motor


The rotor is equipped with slots containing copper conductors that are connected to the commutator. The commutator acts as a mechanical rectifier in the motor. The rotor consists of copper bars in which current is induced by the magnetic fields produced by the stator windings. In the project tree, double-click Machine>Rotor and Machine-Rotor-Pole to define the rotor and the pole. To define general stator data: 1. To open the Rotor Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Enter the stacking factor for the rotor core in the Stacking Factor field. This value relates to the effective magnetic length of the core, and ranges from 0 to 1. It is defined as the total length

2.

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3. 4.

minus the total insulation from the laminations, divided by the total length. A value of 1 indicates that the rotor is not laminated. Enter the number of slots in the rotor core in the Number of Slots field. Select a Slot Type: a. b. Click the button. The Select Slot Type window appears. Click a button to select the desired pole type (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6). Though slots 3 and 4 are visually similar, they differ in how the edges are constructed. Slot 3 has a tapered edge leading from the slot opening to the main slot body. Slot 4 has a rounded edge at the same location, where the quantity Hr1 defines the radius of the corner slot. TIP: When you run the mouse over each option, the diagram changes to show that pole type. Click OK to close the Select Slot Type window and return to the Properties window.

c. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Enter the outer diameter of the rotor core in the Outer Diameter field. Enter the inner diameter of the rotor core in the Inner Diameter field. Enter the length of the rotor core in the Length field. Select a Steel Type for the rotor core: a. b. c. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

9.

Enter the number of slots in the skew width in the Skew Width field.

10. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Data for Universal Motors


To access the general rotor data, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree. The Rotor Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Stacking Factor Number of Slots Slot Type Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Steel Type Skew Width

The effective magnetic length of the rotor core. The number of slots in the rotor core. The rotor core slot type. Click the button to open the Select Slot Type window and select from the following types: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. The outer diameter of the rotor core. The inner diameter of the rotor core. The length of the rotor core. The steel type of the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The skew width measured in slot number.

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Defining the Rotor Slots for Universal Motors


To define the physical dimensions of the rotor slots: 1. To open the Rotor Slot Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Optionally, to automatically design the dimensions of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2, select the Auto Design check box. Using this option causes the software to converge to a flux density value of 1.5 Tesla in the rotor teeth. 3. Enter the available slot dimensions. The following dimensions may be listed, depending on the Slot Type selected and depending on whether or not Auto Design is selected.:
Hs0 Hs1 Hs2 Bs0 Bs1

Bs2

Rs

Always available. Always available. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. Always available. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Always available. Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

4.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Slot Data for Universal Motors


To access the rotor slot data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree. The Rotor Slot Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Auto Design Select or clear this to enable or disable auto-design of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2. When this check box is selected, only two other fields appear in the window: Hs0 and Bs0. Parallel Select this to design Bs1 and Bs2 based on the tooth width. When this check box is selected, the Bs1 and Bs2 fields are removed, and the Tooth Tooth Width field is added. Tooth Width The tooth width for the parallel tooth, on which Bs1 and Bs2 are designed. Hs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). Hs1 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected).

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Hs2 Bs0 Bs1 Bs2 Rs Rs

A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension. (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

Defining the Rotor Windings and Conductors for a Universal Motor


To define the rotor windings, wires, and conductors: 1. To open the Rotor Slot Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-RotorWinding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Click the Winding tab. 3. Select a Winding Type: a. b. Click the button for Winding Type. The Winding Type window appears. Select from one of the following three types of winding:


4.

Lap Wave Frog Leg

Enter the number of windings in the Multiplex Number field (1 for a single winding, 2 for double windings, 3 for triple windings). For a lap winding, the multiplex number is the number of commutators between the start and end of one winding, and the number of parallel branches is equal to the number of poles multiplied by the multiplex number. For a wave winding, the

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number of parallel branches equals the multiplex number multiplied by two.

5.

Enter the number of virtual slots per each real slot in the Virtual Slots field. The rotor is assumed to have two layers of conductors, an upper and a lower layer. Each layer of conductors can have a number of windings, which are referred to as virtual slots. For example, the upper and lower layer can have two windings each, which would yield a virtual slot number of two; for a 12 slot machine, this would yield 24 commutation segments.

Note

6.

7.

8. 9.

Enter the total number of conductors in each rotor slot in the Conductors per Slot field. This value is the number of turns per coil multiplied by the number of layers. This value is the total number of conductors in one real full rotor slot. Enter the coil pitch, measured in number of slots, in the Coil Pitch field. The coil pitch is the number of slots separating one winding. For example, if a coil starts in slot 1 and ends in slot 6, it has a coil pitch of 5. Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design this value. Enter the thickness of the double-sided wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Enter 0 to automat-

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ically obtain this value from the wire library.

Insulation Conductor y Wire Wrap = 2*y

10. Select the Wire Size: a. b. c. Click the button for Wire Size. The Wire Size window appears. Select a value from the Wire Diameter pull-down list. Select a wire gauge from the Gauge pull-down menu. You can select from the following options:

You can select a specific gauge number. When you select a gauge number, the <number> Wire Diameter field is automatically updated. This option allows you to manually enter the Wire Diameter. This is useful when USER you want to enter a diameter that does not correspond to a particular wire gauge. This option sets the Wire Diameter to zero, and RMxprt automatically calculates AUTO the optimal value. The diameter information is then written to the output file when you analyze the design. This option allows you to define a conductor that is made of different size wires. MIXED For example, a single conductor may consist of 5 wires, 3 wires with a diameter of 0.21mm and 2 with a diameter of 0.13mm. The gauge number is based on AWG settings. You can create your own wire table using Machine>Wire, and then you can select this wire table using the Tools>Options>Machine Options command. d. When you are done setting the wire size, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the Properties window.

11. Click the End/Insulation tab. 12. Select or clear the Input Half-turn Length check box. 13. Do one of the following:

If you selected Input Half-turn Length, then enter the half-turn length of the armature winding in the Half Turn Length field.
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If you cleared Input Half-turn Length, then enter the end length adjustment of the stator coils in the End Adjustment field. The end adjustment is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator.

End Adjustment

End of Stator

Stator Coil
14. Enter the inner radius of the base corner in the Base Inner Radius field. 15. Enter the inner diameter of the coil tip in the Tip Inner Diameter field. 16. Enter the distance between two rotor coils in the End Clearance field. 17. Enter the thickness of the slot liner insulation in the Slot Liner field.

Slot Insulation

18. Enter the thickness of the wedge insulation in the Wedge Thickness field. 19. Enter the thickness of the insulation layer in the Layer Insulation field.
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20. Enter the limited slot fill factor for the wire design in the Limited Fill Factor field. 21. Select the type of equalizer connection from the Equalizer Connection pull-down menu. Select from None, Half, or Full. 22. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Defining Different Size Wires for a Universal Motor Rotor Winding


Use the Gauge option if you have a conductor that is made up different size wires. To define different size wires: 1. In the Wire Size window, select MIXED from the Gauge pull-down menu. 2. 3. Select either Round or Rectangular as the Wire Type. Enter the appropriate wire data in the table:

For a round wire:


4. 5. 6.

Enter the Diameter in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this diameter. Enter the Width of the wire in the table. Enter the Thickness of the wire in the table. Enter the Fillet value in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this data.

For a rectangular wire:

Click Add to add the new wire data. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each size wire you want to add. When you are finished defining the wires, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the RMxprt Properties window. For example, if one conductor is made up of 5 wires, and 3 of those wires have a diameter of 0.21mm, and the other 2 have a diameter of 0.13mm, then the mixed wire size table will have two lines. The first line will list Diameter = 0.21 and Number = 3. The second line will list Diameter = 0.13 and Number = 2. An equivalent wire diameter is displayed as Wire Size value in the Winding tab in the Properties window.

Note

Rotor Winding Data for Universal Motors


To access the stator winding data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree.

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The Rotor Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Winding tabWinding Type

The type of rotor winding. Click the button to open the Winding Type window and choose from Lap, Wave, and Frog Leg.

End/ Insulation tab

Multiplex Number Single, double, or triple windings (1, 2, or 3). Virtual Slots The number of virtual slots per real slot. Conductors per The number of conductors per rotor slot (0 for auto-design). Slot Coil Pitch The coil pitch measured in number of slots. Number of The number of wires per conductor (0 for auto-design). Strands Wire Wrap The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library). Wire Size The diameter of the wire (0 for auto-design). Click the button to open the Wire Size window where you can specify units, wire type, diameter, and gauge. Input Half-turn Select or clear this check box to specify whether or not you want to enter the half-turn length. When this check box is selected, the Length Half Turn Length field appears the next time you open the Properties window. When this check box is selected, the End Adjustment field appears instead. Half Turn Length The half-turn length of the armature winding. End Adjustment The end length adjustment of the rotor coils. Base Inner Radius The inner radius of the base corner. Tip Inner The inner diameter of the coil tip. Diameter End Clearance The end clearance between two adjacent coils. Slot Liner The thickness of the slot liner insulation. Wedge Thickness The thickness of the wedge insulation. Layer Insulation The thickness of the insulation layer.

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Limited Fill FactorThe limited slot fill factor for the wire design. Equalizer The connection type of the equalizer. Select from None, Half, or Connection Full.

Defining the Commutator and Brush for a Universal Motor


The commutator allows current transfer between DC terminals or brushes and the rotor coils, providing the current to the system as a function of rotation. Due to the action of the commutator, the corresponding magnetic field has a fixed distribution with respect to the stator. To define the commutator and brush pairs: 1. To open the Commutator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Commutator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. 3. Click the Commutator tab. Select Cylinder or Pancake Type as the Commutator Type. When you place the mouse cursor over the commutator type, an outline of the commutator appears.

Note

4.

For Cylinder commutators, do the following: a. b. Enter the Commutator Diameter. Enter the Commutator Length. Enter the Outer Diameter. Enter the Inner Diameter.

5.

For Pancake commutators, do the following: a. b.

6.

Enter the thickness of the insulation between two consecutive commutator segments in the Commutator Insulation field.
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7. 8. 9.

Click the Brush tab. Enter the Brush Width. Enter the Brush Length.

10. Enter the number of brush pairs when using a wave armature winding in the Brush Pairs field. 11. Enter the angle of displacement from the neutral axis, in mechanical degrees, in the Brush Displacement field.
Note

The brush displacement is positive for the counter-clockwise direction. For example, if the rotor turns clockwise and the brush displacement is also clockwise, then the angle is negative; if the rotor turns clockwise but the brush displacement is counter-clockwise, then the angle is positive.

12. Enter the voltage drop across one brush pair in the Brush Drop field. 13. Enter the mechanical pressure of the brushes as they press against the commutator in the Brush Press field. 14. Enter the Frictional Coefficient of the brush.
Note

If the Friction Loss field is used in the General window, the Brush Press and Frictional Coefficient fields will be hidden in the Commutator/Brush window. These fields are shown only when the Friction Loss field in the General window is set to zero.

15. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Commutator and Brush Data for Universal Motors


To access the commutator and brush data, double-click the Machine>Commutator entry in the project tree. The Commutator Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Commutator Commutator Type The type of commutator. Click the button to open the Select tab Commutator Type window and select from Cylinder or Pancake. Commutator Diameter Commutator Length Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Commutator Insulation
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For a Cylinder commutator type, the diameter of the commutator. For a Cylinder commutator type, the length of the commutator. For a Pancake commutator type, the outer diameter of the commutator. For a Pancake commutator type, the inner diameter of the commutator. The thickness of the insulation between the two commutator bars.

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Brush tab

Brush Width Brush Length Brush Pairs Brush Displacement Brush Drop Brush Press Frictional Coefficient

The width of the brush. The length of the brush. The number of brush pairs. The displacement of the brush from the neutral position, in mechanical degrees (positive for anti-rotating direction). The voltage drop across a one-pair brush. The brush press per unit area. (Available only when Frictional Loss is set to zero for the machine.) The frictional coefficient of the brush. (Available only when Frictional Loss is set to zero for the machine.)

Defining the Shaft Data for a Universal Motor


To define the shaft: 1. To open the Shaft Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Select or clear the Magnetic Shaft check box to specify whether or not the shaft is to be made of magnetic material. Click OK to close the Properties window.

2. 3.

Shaft Data for Universal Motors


To access the shaft data, double-click the Machine>Shaft entry in the project tree. The Shaft Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Magnetic Shaft

Select or clear this check box to indicate whether or not the shaft is made of magnetic material.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Universal Motor


To define the solution data: 1. To open the Solution Setup window, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. 2. Click the General tab. The Operation Type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. 3. Select the Load Type used in the motor from the following options:
Const Speed Const Power

The speed remains constant in the motor. The output power remains constant in the motor.

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Const Torque Linear Torque

Fan Load

The torque remains constant regardless of the speed. In this case, Tload = Trated, given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The torque increases linearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated) where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed. The load varies nonlinearly with speed. In this case, Tload = Trated * (n/ nrated)2 where Trated is given by the output power divided by the given rated speed.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Enter the output power developed at the shaft of the motor in the Rated Output Power field. Enter the RMS line-to-line voltage in the Rated Voltage field. Enter the desired output speed of the motor at the load point in the Rated Speed field. Enter the temperature at which the system functions in the Operating Temperature field. Click the Universal Motor tab. Enter the Frequency, and select the units.

10. Click OK to close the Solution Setup window.


Related Topics:

Solution Data for Universal Motors

Solution Data for Universal Motors


To access the solution data, right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup. For this machine type, there is only one tab, the General tab. The Solution Setup window contains the following fields:
Operation Type Load Type Rated Output Power Rated Voltage Rated Speed Operating Temperature Frequency Related Topics: General tab. The operation type is automatically set to Motor for this machine type. General tab. Select from Const Speed, Const Power, Const Torque, Linear Torque, and Fan Load. The default is Const Power. General tab. Type a value for the rated output voltage, and select the units. General tab. Type a value for the rated voltage, and select the units. General tab. Type a value for the rated speed, and select the units. General tab. Type a value for the operating temperature, and select the units. Universal Motor tab. Enter a frequency in the Frequency field, and select the units.

Setting Up Analysis Parameters for a Universal Motor

27-200 RMxprt Machine Types

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General DC Machines
After you have selected DC Machine as your model type, enter the motor data to define the following:

General data, such as the output power, rated voltage, speed, and machine type (motor or generator). Stator data, such as its associated pole dimensions, type of steel, and pole magnet specifications. Stator field data, such as shoe and pole insulation, dimensions, and winding information. Rotor data, such as the slot types and dimensions, rotor diameter, lamination, and wire specifications. Commutator and brush data, such as the commutator type and dimensions and brush length. Shaft data.

Solution data. By option you can insert or remove the following to a DC machine. Compensating data, added under the stator Commutating data, added under the stator Vent data, added under the rotor Shunt data, added under the stator field. Series data, added under the stator field.

Analysis Approach for General DC Machines


For a Direct-Current (DC) Electric Machine Design, either a generator or motor, the rotor is equipped with a distributed winding -- called armature winding -- that is connected to a commutator revolving together with the rotor. The stator is equipped with p pairs of poles, which are excited by p pairs of shunt and/or series windings. A shunt winding may be separately excited or self-excited. The separately excited shunt winding is excited by a separate DC voltage source. The self-excited shunt winding is excited by the terminal voltage of the armature winding and is connected in parallel with the armature winding. A series winding is connected in series with the armature winding. If both self-excited shunt and series windings are mounted on the stator poles, RMxprt assumes that the armature winding connects the series winding in series first, then connects the shunt winding in parallel. A system of brushes is kept in permanent electrical contact with the commutator. When DC current is applied to the rotating armature winding via the brushes and commutator, a stationary magnetic field distribution is created with the axis electrically perpendicular to the axis of the field produced by the shunt and/or series windings. As a result, a torque is produced by the interaction of the fields produced by the armature and exciting currents. For these brush commutating machines, the commutator together with the brushes acts as a mechanical rectifier. The field produced by the armature current is called armature reaction field. The armature reaction field causes poor commutating and poor voltage distribution along commutator bars. In order to
RMxprt Machine Types 27-201

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improve commutating, commutating poles and winding can be equipped between two adjacent main poles and compensating winding can be equipped under main poles. The performance of a DC machine is computed by DC analysis.

DC Machine Operating as a Motor


The voltage equation of a DC motor is

U = E + ( Ub + R1 Ia )
where, Ub is the voltage drop of one-pair brushes, R1 is the total series resistance of the armature branch, E is the back emf as given below:

E = C Ef I f + C Es I a
where CEf and CEs, which depend on the saturation of the magnetic field, are the back-emf coefficients in ohm.s/rad, is the rotor speed in mechanical rad/s, and If and Ia are the exciting currents of the shunt and series windings, respectively. For a given speed, armature current can be computed based on the terminal voltage U, as shown below:

U U b C Ef I f I a = -------------------------------------------------R 1 + C Es
The shaft torque is computed from:

T 2 = ( C Tf I f + C Ts I a ) I a T fw
where CTf and CTs are the torque coefficients in Nm/A^2 which are numerically the same as CEf and CEs, respectively. Tfw is the frictional and wind torque. The output power (mechanical power) is

P2 = T2
The input power (electrical power) is

P 1 = P 2 + ( P fw + P Cua + P b + P Fe )

27-202 RMxprt Machine Types

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where Pfw, PCua, Pb, and PFe are the frictional and wind loss, armature branch copper loss, brush drop loss, iron-core loss and shunt winding copper loss, respectively. The efficiency is:

P2 = ------ 100 % P1

DC Machine Operating as a Generator


For a DC generator, the voltage equation is

U = E ( Ub + R1 Ia ) E = C Ef I f + C Es I a
The performance is analyzed as follows

U + U b C Ef I f I a = -------------------------------------------------R 1 C Es T 1 = ( ( C Tf I f + C Ts I a ) I a ) + T fw P1 = T1 P 2 = P 1 ( P fw + P Cua + P b + P Fe ) P2 = ------ 100 % P1

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Defining a General DC Machine


The general procedure for defining a a general DC machine is as follows: 1. Insert a DC machine into a new or existing project. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Double-click the Machine entry in the project tree to define the general data. Double-click the Machine-Stator entry in the project tree to define the stator geometry. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Pole entry in the project tree to define the stator pole dimensions. Double-click the Machine-Stator-Field entry in the project tree to define the stator windings, conductors, and insulation data. Double-click the Machine-Rotor entry in the project tree to define the general rotor geometry, the pole data, and the insulation data. Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree to define the rotor slot dimensions.

Double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree to define the rotor conductors and windings. 9. Double-click the Machine-Commutator entry in the project tree to define the commutator and brush data. 10. Double-click the Machine-Shaft entry in the project tree to define the magnetism of the shaft. 11. Right-click Analysis in the project tree, and click Add Solution Setup to define the solution data. 12. Choose File>Save to save the project. 13. Choose RMxprt>Analyze to analyze the design.
Note

When you place the cursor over an entry field, a brief description of that field appears in the status bar at the bottom of the RMxprt window.

Once analyzed, the model can be viewed in the Maxwell 2D Modeler, or it can be used to create a new Maxwell 2D project, and a new Maxwell 3D design. Refer to the DC Machine application note, on the technical support page of the Ansoft web site, for a specific example of a problem using a DC machine. (IS THERE ONE?)

Defining the General Data for a General DC Machine


Use the General window to define the basic parameters of the DC motor, such as the power settings, speed, and rated voltage. To define the general data: 1. To open the General Data Properties window, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Enter the number of poles for the machine in the Number of Poles field. This value is the total number of poles in the stator (or the number of pole pairs multiplied by two).

2.

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3. 4. 5. 6.

Enter the energy loss due to friction at the given speed in the Frictional Loss field. Enter the wind loss due to air resistance measured at the reference speed in the Wind Loss field. Enter the given speed in the Reference Speed field. Click OK to close the Properties window.

General Data for General DC Machines


To access the general data, double-click the Machine entry in the project tree. The General Data Properties window for a three-phase induction motor contains the following fields: The machine type you selected when inserting a new RMxprt design (DC Machine). Number of Poles The number of poles the machine contains. Frictional Loss The frictional energy loss (due to friction) measured at the reference speed. Wind Loss The wind loss (due to air resistance) measured at the reference speed. Reference Speed The given speed of reference.
Machine Type

Defining the Stator Data for a General DC Machine


Use the Stator Properties windows to define the stator dimensions, slots, windings, and conductors. The stator is the outer lamination stack where the polyphase voltage windings reside. To define the general stator data: 1. To open the Stator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the maximum diameter for a polygon-type frame in the Frame Outer Diameter field. 3. 4. 5. 6. Enter the minimum outer width for a polygon-type frame in the Frame Overall Width field. Enter the Frame Thickness. Enter the Frame Length. Select a steel type for the frame: a. Click the button for Frame Material. The Select Definition window appears. b. c. 7. a. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window. Click the button. The Select Pole Type window appears.
RMxprt Machine Types 27-205

Select a Pole Type:

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b. c. 8. 9.

Click a button to specify the desired field type (either 1 or 2). Click OK to close the Select Pole Type window and return to the Properties window.

Enter the length of the stator main pole in the Pole Length field. Enter the effective magnetic length for the stator main pole in the Pole Stacking Factor field. a. b. c. Click the button for Pole Material. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

10. Select a steel type for the stator main pole:

11. Enter the thickness of the pole press boards in the Press Board Thickness field. 12. If the pole press board is made of magnetic material, then select the Magnetic Press Board check box. 13. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Data for General DC Machines


To access the general stator data, double-click the Machine>Stator entry in the project tree. The Stator Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Frame Outer Diameter Frame Overall Width Frame Thickness Frame Length Frame Material Pole Type Pole Length Pole Stacking Factor Pole Material Press Board Thickness Magnetic Press Board

The maximum diameter for a polygon-type frame. The minimum outer width for a polygon-type frame. The thickness of the frame. The length of the frame. The steel type of the frame. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The pole type of the stator. Click the button to open the Select Pole Type window and select from the following two types: 1 and 2. The length of the stator main pole. The stacking factor of the stator main pole. The steel type of the stator main pole. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The thickness of the pole press boards. Whether or not the pole press board is made of magnetic material.

27-206 RMxprt Machine Types

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Defining the Stator Pole for a General DC Machine


The rotor pole drives the electromagnetic field which is coupled with the stator windings. Use the s Stator Pole Data Properties window to define the stator pole. To define the rotor pole: 1. To open the Stator Pole Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Stator-Pole entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) For a two-pole machine, a pole embrace of 0.75 yields a magnet with a span of 135 degrees (based on 0.75*180 degrees).

Note

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Enter the inner diameter at the pole center in the Dmin field. Enter the diameter at the pole tip in the Dmax field. Enter the width of the pole arc with a uniform air gap in the Bp0 field. For an eccentric air gap, enter 0. Enter the width of the pole tip in the Bp1 field. Enter the maximum width of the pole shoe in the Bp2 field. This field is only available for a Pole Type of 1. Enter the minimum width of the pole shoe in the Bp3 field. This field is only available for a Pole Type of 1. Enter the size of the pole shoe fillet in the Rp0 field. THis field is only available for a Pole Type of 2. Enter the fillet between the pole shoe and the pole body in the Rp1 field. THis field is only available for a Pole Type of 2.

10. Enter the pole shoe height in the Hp field. 11. Enter the pole body width in the Bm field. 12. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Stator Pole Data for General DC Machines


To access the stator pole data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Pole entry in the project tree. The Rotor Pole Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Dmin Dmax Bp0 Bp1 Bp2 Bp3 Rp0

The inner diameter at the pole center. The diameter at the pole tip. The width of the pole arc with a uniform air gap (0 for an eccentric air gap). The width of the pole tip. The maximum width of the pole shoe. For pole type 1. The minimum width of the pole shoe. FOr pole type 1. The pole shoe fillet. For pole type 2.

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Rp1 Hp Bm

The fillet between the pole shoe and the pole body. For pole type 2. The height of the pole shoe. The width of the pole body.

Defining the Stator Field Data for a General DC Machine


To define the stator windings and insulation data: 1. To open the Stator Field Properties window, double-click the Machine-Stator-Field entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) Enter the thickness of the insulation under the pole shoe in the Shoe Insulation field. Enter the thickness of the insulation at the pole body side in the Pole Insulation field. Enter the minimum gap in the Winding Clearance field. The winding clearance is one of the following: the minimum gap between two field windings, or the minimum gap between a field winding and a commutating winding. Enter the thickness of the insulation between the shunt winding and the series winding in the Winding Insulation field. Select the type of exciting of the series winding to the shunt winding from the Compound Exciting Mode pull-down list. The options are Cumulative and Differential. Click OK to close the Properties window.

2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

Stator Field Data for General DC Machines


To access the stator field data, double-click the Machine-Stator-Field entry in the project tree. The Stator Field Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Shoe Insulation Pole Insulation Winding Clearance Winding Insulation Compound Exciting Mode

The thickness of the insulation under the pole shoe. The thickness of the insulation at the pole body side. The minimum air gap between two field windings, or the minimum gap between a field winding and a commutating winding. The thickness of the insulation between the shunt winding and the series winding. The cumulative exciting or differential exciting of the series winding to the shunt winding. Select Cumulative or Differential from the pull-down list.

Shunt Data for General DC Machines


By option you can insert or remove a shunt from a General DC Machine. If you insert a shunt, it appears in the project tree under the stator field data. To insert a shunt. 1. 2. Right click on the Field icon under the stator in the project tree to display the popup menu. Click Insert Shunt.

27-208 RMxprt Machine Types

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The Shunt icon appears under the field icon. To Remove an existing shunt: 1. 2. Right click on the Field icon under the stator in the project tree to display the popup menu. Click Remove Shunt. The shut is removed from the project tree. The Shunt data for a General DC Machine contains the following fields.
Winding type

Specified as Round, Cylinder coil, or Edgewise coil, by clicking the button to display the Winding Type selection window. Number of conductors per pole. 0 for auto-design. Odd number of strands for the case where the input and output leads are on different sides. Number of strands (number of wires per conductor). 0 for auto-design. Double side wire wrap thickness. 0 for auto-pickup in the wire library. Click the button to display the Wire Size selection window. Axial gap between field winding and pole body on the inner coil. Limited cross section width for winding design or arrangement. 0 for available maximum area. Limited cross section height for winding design or arrangement. 0 for available maximum area.

Parallel branches Number of parallel branches. Conductors per pole Number of strands Wire wrap Wire size. Axial Clearance Limited cross width Limited cross height Winding fillet.

Series Data for General DC Machines


By option, you can insert or remove a series from a General DC Machine. If you insert a series, it appears in the project tree under the stator field data. To insert a series: 1. Right click on the Field icon under the stator in the project tree to display the popup menu. 2. Click Insert Series. The Series icon appears under the field icon. To Remove an existing series: 1. Right click on the Field icon under the stator in the project tree to display the popup menu. 2. Click Remove Series. The series is removed from the project tree.

RMxprt Machine Types 27-209

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The Series data for a General DC Machine contains the following fields.
Winding type

Specified as Round, Cylinder coil, or Edgewise coil, by clicking the button to display the Winding Type selection window. Number of conductors per pole. 0 for auto-design. Odd number of strands for the case where the input and output leads are on different sides. Number of strands (number of wires per conductor). 0 for auto-design. Double side wire wrap thickness. 0 for auto-pickup in the wire library. Click the button to display the Wire Size selection window. Axial gap between field winding and pole body on the inner coil. Limited cross section width for winding design or arrangement. 0 for available maximum area. Limited cross section height for winding design or arrangement. 0 for available maximum area.

Parallel branches Number of parallel branches. Conductors per pole Number of strands Wire wrap Wire size. Axial Clearance Limited cross width Limited cross height Winding fillet.

Compensating Data for General DC Machines


By option, you can insert or remove Compensating for a General DC Machine. To insert compensating: 1. Right-click on the Stator icon to display the pop-up menu. 2. Click Insert Compensating. To remove an existing Compensating: 1. 2. Right click on the Stator icon to display the pop-up menu. Click Remove Compensating.

To access the data for compensating inserted to a General DC Machine, double click on the Machine-Rotor-Compensating item in the project tree. The Compensating properties window contains the following fields.
Slots per pole Bc0 Hc0 Bc2 Hc2

Number of slots per pole for the compensating winding. Opening width of the compensating slots. Opening height of the compensating slots. Width of the compensating slots. Height of the compensating slots.

Parallel branches Number of parallel branches.


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Conductors per slot Number of strands Wire wrap Rectangle wire Wire size Slot liner End adjustment

Number of conductors per slot for the compensating windings Number of strands (number of wires per conductor), 0 for auto-design. Double-side wire wrap thickness, 0 for auto pickup in the wire library Whether to use round (the default) or rectangle wire. Click the button to display the Wire Size window to specify the wire diameter and gauge. Insulation slot liner thickness one side end length adjustment of a conductor.

Commutating Data for General DC Machines


Commutating must be inserted under the stator by right-clicking on the stator icon to display the pop-up menu, and click Insert Commutating command. This command also inserts an icon in the project tree for an associated winding. To remove an existing Commutating (and associated winding), right-click on the stator icon to display the pop-up menu and click Remove Commutating. This removes the commutating and the associated winding. Note: This is distinct from the general Commutator data associated with rotor.
Pole width Pole height Pole length Shoe width Shoe height Second air gap Pole stacking factor Pole material Pole insulation

Width of the commutating poles Height of the commutating poles. Length of the commutating poles Shoe width of the commutating poles Shoe height of the commutating poles. Length of the second air gap between the commutating pole and the frame. Stacking factor for the commutating poles. Steel type of the commutating poles. Click the button to display the Select Definition window. Thickness of insulation on the pole body side.

RMxprt Machine Types 27-211

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Winding Data for Commutating


If you have inserted commutating for a General DC machine, an additional winding icon appears in the project tree for the associated winding.
Winding type

Specified as Round, Cylinder coil, or Edgewise coil, by clicking the button to display the Winding Type selection window. Number of conductors per pole. 0 for auto-design. Odd number of strands for the case where the input and output leads are on different sides. Number of strands (number of wires per conductor). 0 for auto-design. Double side wire wrap thickness. 0 for auto-pickup in the wire library. Click the button to display the Wire Size selection window. Axial gap between field winding and pole body on the inner coil. Limited cross section width for winding design or arrangement. 0 for available maximum area. Limited cross section height for winding design or arrangement. 0 for available maximum area.

Parallel branches Number of parallel branches. Conductors per pole Number of strands Wire wrap Wire size. Axial Clearance Limited cross width Limited cross height Winding fillet.

Defining the Rotor Data for a General DC Machine


The rotor is equipped with slots containing copper conductors that are connected to the commutator. The commutator acts as a mechanical rectifier in the motor. The rotor consists of copper bars in which current is induced by the magnetic fields produced by the stator windings. In the project tree, double-click Machine>Rotor and Machine-Rotor-Pole to define the rotor and the pole. To define general stator data: 1. To open the Rotor Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Enter the stacking factor for the rotor core in the Stacking Factor field. This value relates to the effective magnetic length of the core, and ranges from 0 to 1. It is defined as the total length minus the total insulation from the laminations, divided by the total length. A value of 1 indicates that the rotor is not laminated. 3. Enter the number of slots in the rotor core in the Number of Slots field. 4. Select a Slot Type: a. Click the button.

27-212 RMxprt Machine Types

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b.

c. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

The Select Slot Type window appears. Click a button to select the desired slot type (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6). Though slots 3 and 4 are visually similar, they differ in how the edges are constructed. Slot 3 has a tapered edge leading from the slot opening to the main slot body. Slot 4 has a rounded edge at the same location, where the quantity Hr1 defines the radius of the corner slot. TIP: When you run the mouse over each option, the diagram changes to show that pole type. Click OK to close the Select Slot Type window and return to the Properties window.

Enter the number of lamination sectors in the Lamination Sectors field. Enter the outer diameter of the rotor core in the Outer Diameter field. Enter the inner diameter of the rotor core in the Inner Diameter field. Enter the length of the rotor core in the Length field. Select a Steel Type for the rotor core: a. b. c. Click the button for Steel Type. The Select Definition window appears. Select a steel type from the list, or define a new steel type. Click OK to close the Select Definition window and return to the Properties window.

10. Enter the thickness of the pole press boards in the Press Board Thickness field. 11. Enter the number of slots in the skew width in the Skew Width field. 12. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Data for General DC Machines


To access the general rotor data, double-click the Machine>Rotor entry in the project tree. The Rotor Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Stacking Factor Number of Slots Slot Type Lamination Sectors Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Length Steel Type Press Board Thickness Skew Width

The effective magnetic length of the rotor core. The number of slots the rotor core contains. The type of slots in the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Slot Type window. The number of lamination sectors. The outer diameter of the rotor core. The inner diameter of the rotor core. The length of the rotor core. The steel type of the rotor core. Click the button to open the Select Definition window. The thickness of the pole press boards. The skew width measured in slot number.

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Defining the Rotor Slots for a General DC Machine


To define the physical dimensions of the rotor slots: 1. To open the Rotor Slot Data Properties window, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Optionally, to automatically design the dimensions of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2, select the Auto Design check box. Using this option causes the software to converge to a flux density value of 1.5 Tesla in the rotor teeth. 3. Enter the available slot dimensions. The following dimensions may be listed, depending on the Slot Type selected and depending on whether or not Auto Design is selected.:
Hs0 Hs1 Hs2 Bs0 Bs1

Bs2

Rs

Always available. Always available. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. Always available. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Available only when Auto Design is cleared. When Auto Design is selected, this slot dimension is determined automatically. When Parallel Tooth is selected, this slot dimension is determined based on the value entered in the Tooth Width field. Always available.

4.

Click OK to close the Properties window.

Rotor Slot Data for General DC Machines


To access the rotor slot data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Slot entry in the project tree. The Rotor Slot Data Properties window contains the following fields: Select or clear this to enable or disable auto-design of slots Hs2, Bs1, and Bs2. When this check box is selected, only two other fields appear in the window: Hs0 and Bs0. Parallel Tooth Select this to design Bs1 and Bs2 based on the tooth width. When this check box is selected, the Bs1 and Bs2 fields are removed, and the Tooth Width field is added. Tooth Width The tooth width for the parallel tooth, on which Bs1 and Bs2 are designed. Hs0 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). Hs1 A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected).
Auto Design

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Hs2 Bs0 Bs1 Bs2 Rs Rs

A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Rotor-Slot is selected). A slot dimension. (see the diagram shown in the modeling window when Machine-Stator-Slot is selected). Rs is added when the slot type is 3 or 4.

Defining the Rotor Windings and Conductors for a General DC Machine


To define the rotor windings, wires, and conductors: 1. To open the Rotor Slot Winding Properties window, double-click the Machine-RotorWinding entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Click the Winding tab. 3. Select a Winding Type: a. b. Click the button for Winding Type. The Winding Type window appears. Select from one of the following three types of winding:


4.

Lap Wave Frog Leg

Enter the number of windings in the Multiplex Number field (1 for a single winding, 2 for double windings, 3 for triple windings). For a lap winding, the multiplex number is the number of commutators between the start and end of one winding, and the number of parallel branches is equal to the number of poles multiplied by the multiplex number. For a wave winding, the

RMxprt Machine Types 27-215

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number of parallel branches equals the multiplex number multiplied by two.

5.

Enter the number of virtual slots per each real slot in the Virtual Slots field. The rotor is assumed to have two layers of conductors, an upper and a lower layer. Each layer of conductors can have a number of windings, which are referred to as virtual slots. For example, the upper and lower layer can have two windings each, which would yield a virtual slot number of two; for a 12 slot machine, this would yield 24 commutation segments.

Note

6.

7.

8. 9.

Enter the total number of conductors in each rotor slot in the Conductors per Slot field. This value is the number of turns per coil multiplied by the number of layers. This value is the total number of conductors in one real full rotor slot. Enter the coil pitch, measured in number of slots, in the Coil Pitch field. The coil pitch is the number of slots separating one winding. For example, if a coil starts in slot 1 and ends in slot 6, it has a coil pitch of 5. Enter the number of wires per conductor in the Number of Strands field. Enter 0 to have RMxprt auto-design this value. Enter the thickness of the double-sided wire wrap in the Wire Wrap field. Enter 0 to automat-

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ically obtain this value from the wire library.

Insulation Conductor y Wire Wrap = 2*y

10. Select the Wire Size: a. b. c. Click the button for Wire Size. The Wire Size window appears. Select a value from the Wire Diameter pull-down list. Select a wire gauge from the Gauge pull-down menu. You can select from the following options:

You can select a specific gauge number. When you select a gauge number, the <number> Wire Diameter field is automatically updated. This option allows you to manually enter the Wire Diameter. This is useful when USER you want to enter a diameter that does not correspond to a particular wire gauge. This option sets the Wire Diameter to zero, and RMxprt automatically calculates AUTO the optimal value. The diameter information is then written to the output file when you analyze the design. This option allows you to define a conductor that is made of different size wires. MIXED For example, a single conductor may consist of 5 wires, 3 wires with a diameter of 0.21mm and 2 with a diameter of 0.13mm. The gauge number is based on AWG settings. You can create your own wire table using Machine>Wire, and then you can select this wire table using the Tools>Options>Machine Options command. d. When you are done setting the wire size, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the Properties window.

11. Click the End/Insulation tab. 12. Select or clear the Input Half-turn Length check box. 13. Do one of the following:

If you selected Input Half-turn Length, then enter the half-turn length of the armature winding in the Half Turn Length field.
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If you cleared Input Half-turn Length, then enter the end length adjustment of the stator coils in the End Adjustment field. The end adjustment is the distance one end of the conductor extends vertically beyond the end of the stator.

End Adjustment

End of Stator

Stator Coil
14. Enter the inner radius of the base corner in the Base Inner Radius field. 15. Enter the inner diameter of the coil tip in the Tip Inner Diameter field. 16. Enter the distance between two rotor coils in the End Clearance field. 17. Enter the thickness of the slot liner insulation in the Slot Liner field.

Slot Insulation

18. Enter the thickness of the wedge insulation in the Wedge Thickness field. 19. Enter the thickness of the insulation layer in the Layer Insulation field.
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20. Enter the limited slot fill factor for the wire design in the Limited Fill Factor field. 21. Select the type of equalizer connection from the Equalizer Connection pull-down menu. Select from None, Half, or Full. 22. Click OK to close the Properties window.

Defining Different Size Wires for a General DC Machine Rotor Winding


Use the Gauge option if you have a conductor that is made up different size wires. To define different size wires: 1. In the Wire Size window, select MIXED from the Gauge pull-down menu. 2. 3. Select either Round or Rectangular as the Wire Type. Enter the appropriate wire data in the table:

For a round wire:


4. 5. 6.

Enter the Diameter in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this diameter. Enter the Width of the wire in the table. Enter the Thickness of the wire in the table. Enter the Fillet value in the table. Enter a Number in the table to specify how many of the conductors wires have this data.

For a rectangular wire:

Click Add to add the new wire data. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each size wire you want to add. When you are finished defining the wires, click OK to close the Wire Size window and return to the RMxprt Properties window. For example, if one conductor is made up of 5 wires, and 3 of those wires have a diameter of 0.21mm, and the other 2 have a diameter of 0.13mm, then the mixed wire size table will have two lines. The first line will list Diameter = 0.21 and Number = 3. The second line will list Diameter = 0.13 and Number = 2. An equivalent wire diameter is displayed as Wire Size value in the Winding tab in the Properties window.

Note

Rotor Winding Data for General DC Machines


To access the rotor winding data, double-click the Machine-Rotor-Winding entry in the project tree.

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The Rotor Winding Data Properties window contains the following fields:
Winding tabWinding Type

The type of rotor winding. Click the button to open the Winding Type window and choose from Lap, Wave, and Frog Leg.

End/ Insulation tab

Multiplex Number Single, double, or triple windings (1, 2, or 3). Virtual Slots The number of virtual slots per real slot. Conductors per The number of conductors per rotor slot (0 for auto-design). Slot Coil Pitch The coil pitch measured in number of slots. Number of The number of wires per conductor (0 for auto-design). Strands Wire Wrap The thickness of the double-sided wire wrap (0 to automatically obtain this value from the wire library). Wire Size The diameter of the wire (0 for auto-design). Click the button to open the Wire Size window where you can specify units, wire type, diameter, and gauge. Input Half-turn Select or clear this check box to specify whether or not you want to enter the half-turn length. When this check box is selected, the Length Half Turn Length field appears the next time you open the Properties window. When this check box is selected, the End Adjustment field appears instead. Half Turn Length The half-turn length of the armature winding. End Adjustment The end length adjustment of the rotor coils. Base Inner Radius The inner radius of the base corner. Tip Inner The inner diameter of the coil tip. Diameter End Clearance The end clearance between two adjacent coils. Slot Liner The thickness of the slot liner insulation. Wedge Thickness The thickness of the wedge insulation. Layer Insulation The thickness of the insulation layer.

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Limited Fill FactorThe limited slot fill factor for the wire design. Equalizer The connection type of the equalizer. Select from None, Half, or Connection Full.

Vent Data for General DC Machines


By option, you can insert or remove Vent data for general DC machines. If you have inserted a Vent, the icon appears under the rotor winding in the project tree. To insert a vent: 1. Right-click on the rotor icon to display the pop-up menu. 2. Click Insert Vent. To remove an existing vent: 1. Right click on the Stator icon to display the pop-up menu. 2. Click Remove Vent. The Vent Data Properties window contains the following fields.
Vent Ducts Duct Width

Number of radial vent ducts Width of radial vent ducts

Magnetic Spacer Width of magnetic spacer which hold vent ducts. 0 for non-magnetic spacer. Width Duct Pitch Holes per Row Inner Hole Diameter Outer Hole Diameter

Vent ducts Number of axial vent holes per row Diameter of vent holes in inner row. Diameter of vent holes in outer row.

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Inner Hole Location Outer Hole Location Banding Slots

Center-to-center diameter of inner row hole vents. Center-to-center diameter of outer row hole vents. Number of axial banding slots to tight the rotor winding.

Width of Banding Width of axial banding slots Slots Depth of Banding Depth of axial banding slots Slots

Defining the Commutator and Brush for a General DC Machine


The commutator allows current transfer between DC terminals or brushes and the rotor coils, providing the current to the system as a function of rotation. Due to the action of the commutator, the corresponding magnetic field has a fixed distribution with respect to the stator. To define the commutator and brush pairs: 1. To open the Commutator Data Properties window, double-click the Machine>Commutator entry in the project tree on the desktop. (You can also enter values in the Properties section of the desktop without opening a separate window.) 2. Click the Commutator tab. 3. Select Cylinder or Pancake Type as the Commutator Type. When you place the mouse cursor over the commutator type, an outline of the commutator appears.

Note

4.

For Cylinder commutators, do the following: a. b. Enter the Commutator Diameter. Enter the Commutator Length. Enter the Outer Diameter. Enter the Inner Diameter.

5.

For Pancake commutators, do the following: a. b.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Enter the thickness of the insulation between two consecutive commutator segments in the Commutator Insulation field. Click the Brush tab. Enter the Brush Width. Enter the Brush Length.

10. Enter the number of brush pairs when using a wave armature winding in the Brush Pairs field. 11. Enter the angle of displacement from the neutral axis, in mechanical degrees, in the Brush Dis27-222 RMxprt Machine Types

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placement field. Note

The brush displacement is positive for the counter-clockwise direction. For example, if the rotor turns clockwise and the brush displacement is also clockwise, then the angle is negative; if the rotor turns clockwise but the brush displacement is counter-clockwise, then the angle is positive.

12. Enter the voltage drop across one brush pair in the Brush Drop field. 13. Enter the mechanical pressure of the brushes as they press against the commutator in the Brush Press field. 14. Enter the Frictional Coefficient of the brush.
Note

If the Friction Loss field is used in the