Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

`

GROWTH AND YIELD OF AMPALAYA VARIETIES (Momordica charantia Linn.) Planted in Between Rambutan

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS IN RESEARCH METHOD IN AGROFORESTRY 107

SUBMITTED TO: Dr. Nelly Antolin

SUBMITTED BY: Jennifer D. Abat

March 2013

INTRODUCTION

Ampalaya or bitter gourd, which is known in the Philippines as ampalaya, is an annual plant that is native in this country. It is botanically known as (Momordica Charantia Linn) is one of the most important commercial and backyard fruit vegetables in the country today. It has both nutritive and medicinal use. The fruit and leaves of which are used as vegetable and the latter are further used as a laxative for new born babies while the stem and roots as antidotes for fever. They are rich in calcium, phosphorus, iron, carbohydrates and vitamin B. It is also known to cure diabetes, arthritis, rheumatism, asthma, warts, and ulcer. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Ampalaya-Momordica-Charantia-LinnPastillas-1346163.html. Several supplements for diabetics have been developed using the ampalaya, most notably an ampalaya tea and capsules using the dried ampalaya fruit. As diabetes continues to rapidly spread across countries and social strata, the ampalaya is expected to provide diabetics with a safe and natural alternative to help control their elevated sugar levels. While the herb is still rare in countries where it is not indigenous, expect the Ampalaya and Ampalaya-based products to start gracing local grocery shelves as more and more people realize its potential anti-diabetes use. Ampalaya can be direct seeded or transplanted. Direct seeding is most common, a hectare of

production area requires 2.5 to 3.0 kilograms of seeds, Seeds are soak in water overnight or wrap in cheesecloth to facilitate water absorption. Seeds are planted the following day or as the radicle break. (http://Ezine

Articles.com/347711). Transplanting can also be done especially when the seeds are scarce and during off-season planting. Seeds are planted in small plastic bags (1 seed/bag with soil mixture of 1:1 garden soil and sand/compost/carbonized rice hull) and transplanted to the field when the vine starts to grow. Pre- germinated seeds result in good seedling and an even crop establishment. Early planting in some areas is usually done during the months of October to December and late planting during the month of January to February. The rate and distance of planting use by most farmers is 3 meters between furrows and 0.5 meters between hills with 3 seeds. Other recommended spacing is: 30 m x 30 m with 1 plant/hill and 2.0 m x 0.5 m with 2 plants/hill. http://technokits.blogspot.com/2008/11/ampalya-

production.html).

Objective To determine the growth, yield and percentage survival of varieties of ampalaya seeds. To determine that growth give the best growth highest yield and survival percentage. To determine the net income varieties.

DEFINITION OF TERMS Ampalaya is a slender, climbing annual vine with long-stalked leaves and yellow, solitary male and female flowers borne in the leaf axils. BonitoF1 refers to the fruits are Class A, uniform in size & bright dark green in color. Galactica F1 Fruits are of good quality - thick, firm, elongated in shape, dark green and glossy. Galaxy F1 has ideal fruit type with long and fat fruits, dark green and glossy in appearance. Growth refers to the increase in the height of ampalaya plant.

Jade star F1 refers to the fruits that are 30 cm long, cylindrical, and have an appealing green color. Marketable fruit refers to the portion of the crop sold in the market. Non-Marketable refers to the fruits that are attacked by pests and diseases as well marketable fruits. Rambutan( Nephelium lappaceum) is a medium-sized tropical tree in the family Sapindaceae. Yield refers to the weight of harvested ampalaya per hectare. as deformed fruits that are separated from the

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

According to Jamon, bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) which is sometimes called Bitter melon or Balsam Pear is a locally known ampalaya. It is a vine that climbs on trellis or creeps on the ground. It belongs to the family of cucurbits or cucurbitaceae. Bitter gourd (Ampalaya) is one of the leading commercial fruit vegetables in the country. It ranks second to the squash in total hectorage among the cucurbits. Based on analysis concluded by Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) (1980), fruits and shoots have high leads of vitamin A, B, C and calcium, phosphorous and iron. Ampalaya also has medicinal value. The leaves and leaf buds of the ampalaya or parya are crushed and moistened with coconut oil. The crushed moistened leaves are wrapped with clean cloth is the form of a nipple to be sucked by new-born babies. The folk believe that the juice hardens the bones of the babies. Ampalaya leaves and fruits are excellent sources of iron, calcium, phosphorous and Vitamin B. These elements are components of Biochemical compounds essential. In teeth and bone formation and ossification, this native practice is encouraged but care should be taken in its preparation. The leaves should be washed thoroughly and the cloth used for wrapping the pounded leaves should be clean and free from germs. The juice of ampalaya leaves is also used to expel meconium and the ripe seeds can be used as decoration taken in large quantities for a number of days as abortive agent and checks urethral

discharge. The tops, leaves and fruits are usually eaten in raw or cooked form. The fruit can be fried with eggs and served for breakfast. It is usually used as one of the mixtures in the known Ilokano dish or recipes known as Pinakbet. In eateries and restaurants, they are prepared or cooked with pork, beef or fish and saved as a special menu for customers. Aside from being used for human consumption, the leaves are also good for the treatment of skin diseases. Like ringworm and Tina Flara. Medical laboratories also utilize the sap in the preparation of medicines for stomachache. According to Oshima, the staff writer of Taking the bitter with the sweet, that for a long time, however, farmers on the mainland Japan grew it only to shade their gardens from the sun, and its usage as a foodstuff was limited to southern Kyushu and Okinawa, where the hot summer weather caused a lack of other locally grown green vegetables.Today, as tourism to Okinawa introduces travellers to famous local dishes such as goya champuru (stir- fry of bitter gourd with tofu, egg and other ingredients), more and more people are becoming accustomed to the vegetable. The gourds popularity has also been accderated by the well- publicized facts about its nutritional value. One hundred grams of bitter gourd contains 120 mg of vitamin C much higher than many vitamin C rich vegetables and fruits.Scientific data has shown this extremely rich vitamin content is not lost with heating. Okinawa is now the largest bitter-gourd producing district in Japan. Production has more than doubled from 2,700 tons in 1990, to 6,000 tons in 1997, most of which is

shipped to the mainland. The vegetables best season is June to August the bitter flavour increases as its nutritional levels peak. According to Yaedake, the staff writer of Taking the bitter with sweet in the Japan. Times online, in an attempt to jump on the bandwagon, Okinawan companies have put various bitter- gourd products on supermarket shelves, including goya sherbet, goya juice and dried goya. Goya tea made by drying and roasting sliced bitter- gourd picked in its peak season, is also popular. To prepare bitter- gourd for cooking, cut the vegetable in half lengthwise, discard the seeds and fibrous core, and then slice into half- moons. Do not remove the skin. A dash of salt tames the bitterness. According to medicalhealthguide.com, the Philippine Department of Health endorses the ampalaya plant for use as an alternative medicine for many conditions. Ampalaya is recommended to help relieve liver problems, to control blood sugar, HIV, skin diseases, sterility in women, to kill parasites, to reduce fever and purge illness from the body through defecation. Both the Ampalaya leaves and fruits contain vitamin B, iron, calcium, beta carotene and phosphorus. Some of its benefits are, it disinfects, relieve cold symptoms, boosts immunity, regulates blood sugar levels, lowers blood pressure, relieves headaches and protects spleen and liver.

MATERIAL AND METHODS Materials The materials to be used in this study include varieties of ampalaya seeds, bolos, shovel, placards, footrule, meter tape, electronic weighing balance meter stick and notebook for recording data. Source of Materials Varieties of ampalaya seeds will be taken from Agro-Sales, San Fernando City,La Union. The bolo shovels, placards, foot rule, meter tape, electronic weighing balance, meter stick will be borrowed at the Agroforestry nursery. Site Preparation This study will be conducted at the Rambutan Plantation of the Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University, Bacnotan, La Union. The soil sample will be collected and subjected to analysis at the bureau of soils, to analyze the soil pH nitrogen; phosphorus and potassium. Crops grow well in any types of soil with a pH of 5.5-6.5. Experimental Design This will be laid out using the 4x4x3 factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Treatments The different treatments to be used in the study are as follows:

Factor A Ampalaya Varieties V0 - BonitoF1 V1- Jade star F1 V2- Galaxy F1 V3- Galactica F1 Planting The varieties of ampalaya seeds will be transplanting can also be done especially when the seeds are scarce and during off-season planting. The ampalaya can be direct seeded or transplanted. Direct seeding is most common, a hectare of production area requires 2.5 to 3.0 kilograms of seeds, Seeds are soak in water overnight or wrap in cheesecloth to facilitate water absorption. Seeds are planted the following day or as the radicle break. Land Preparation The field should be well prepared, plowed and harrowed twice to remove weeds and other plant debris in the field. Furrows are then made 3 meter apart. Rate of Planting The rate and distance of planting use by most farmers is three meters between furrows and 0.5 meters between hills with 3 seeds line at 4 inches apart. Other recommended spacing are: 30 m x 30 m with 1 plant/hill and 2.0 m x 0.5 m with 2 plants/hill.

Harvesting Harvest when the fruits are green. Harvesting will be starts 45 to 50 days after seedling. It can be done twice a week. Harvest early in the morning to protect harvested fruits against rain, sun, and mechanical damage. Care and Maintenance Water and Weeding Management of Ampalaya requires an abundant supply of moisture for vegetative and reproductive development to maintain a good crop stand in the dry season. Data to be Gathered: A.Cash Crop (Ampalaya) a) Numbers of days to seed emerge. This will be determined by counting the numbers of days from sowing to approximately 50% of the seedling have emerged. b) Number of days to flowering. This will be done by counting the number of days from seed emergence to approximately 50% of the plants have developed flowers. c) Number of harvested fruits per hill. This will be determined the counting the number of harvested fruits per hill in every harvesting. d) Weight of harvested fruits per hill, plot and ha (kg).The weight of harvested fruits will be recorded by weighing the harvested fruits per hill plot and ha using electronic weighing balance express in kilograms.

e) Gross income (Php). This will be taken by computing the total yield of ampalaya per hectare to the current price of the crop. Price will be based on the price in the market. f) Total expenses (Php).This will be taken from the actual expenses incurred in growing ampalaya. g) Net income (Php). This will be computed by subtracting the total expense of raising ampalaya from the gross income. h) Return on investment (%). This will be computed by dividing the net income by the total expenses multiplied by 100. B. Growth of Perennial crops Monthly height. Height of rambutan will be gathered by measuring the plants from the ground level to the apical tip with the use of a meter stick in meters. Crown diameter. This will be gathered by measuring the diameter of the crown with the use of a meter tape in centimeters. Stem diameter. This will be gathered monthly by measuring the diameter of the main stem at 35cm from the ground with the use of a vernier caliper. Additional number of leaves. Additional number of leaves will be gathered by counting the number of leaves produced in monthly basis. Additional number of branches. Number of branches will be gathered by counting the number of branches produced in monthly basis. Final height. Height of rambutan will be gathered by measuring the plants from the ground level to the apical tip with the use of a meter stick.

C. Soil Properties before and at the termination of the study The soil sample before planting and after harvesting will be collected and subjected to analysis at the bureau of soils, to analyze the soil pH nitrogen; phosphorus and potassium. Crops grow well in any types of soil with a pH of 5.5-6.5. Higher yield will be attained on sandy loam soil. Soil analysis will be must for commercial planting. D. Climatological Data 1. Rainfall. This will be taken at the weather station of the college using the rain gauge instrument. 2. Temperature. This will be taken at the weather station of the college using thermometer. 3. Relative Humidity. This will be taken at the weather station of the college using the barometer. 4. Light intensity. This will be collected at 10 am and 2 pm at the start and end of the day using the luxmeter.

All the data gathered will be summarized, presented and analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) in 4x4x3 factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT) will be used in the comparison among treatment means.

BLOCK I

V0

V3

V2

V1

V3

V2

V1

V0

V2

V1

V0

V3

V1

V0

V3

V2

BLOCK II

V1

V3

V2

V0

V3

V2

V0

V1

V2

V0

V1

V3

V0

V1

V3

V2

BLOCK III

V2

V0

V1

V3

V0

V3

V2

V2

V3

V1

V2

V0

V1

V2

V0

V3

BLOCK IV

V0

V2

V3

V1

V3

V1

V0

V2

V1

V3

V2

V0

V2

V0

V1

V3

Legend: Factor A Ampalaya Varieties V0 BonitoF1 V1 Jade star F1 V2 Galaxy F1 V3 Galactica F1 Figure 1. Experimental Layout of the Study

LITERATURE CITED GALVEZ, Food and National Research Institute (FNRI), 1980. (http://Ezine Articles.com/347711). http://www.scribd.com/doc/50774167/updated-revised-thesis-by-MrMartinez http://technokits.blogspot.com/2008/11/ampalya-production.html). http://ichinisan-jessieca.blogspot. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Ampalaya-Momordica-Charantia-LinnPastillas-1346163.html.