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II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -•’-üµ¿¢√®Ωç 22 °∂œ-v•-´-J 2006

Dinesh: Hi Ramesh, I hear (that) you have Ramesh: My brother hasn’t seen my new bike
bought a new bike. yet. He has been away in Chennai for
bike
(†’´¤y éÌûªh éÌØ√o-´E NØ√o†’/ the past four days. We expect him
ûÁL-ÆœçC) tomorrow.
Ramesh: Yes, I bought it the day before yes- (´÷brother new bike
Éçé¬ Ø√
terday. I took it to the temple yester- îª÷∞Ïxü¿’. Çߪ’† Ø√©’-í∫’-®Ó-V-©’í¬ îÁØÁj o™
day, and had the pooja done. ÖØ√oúø’. Í®§Ò-≤ƒh-úø-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√oç.)
(Å´¤†’, ¢Á·†o éÌØ√o†’. E†o í∫’úÕéÀ Dinesh: Have you shown it to our friend
BÆæ’-ÈéR} °æ‹ï îË®·ç-î√†’) Kapil?
Had the pooja done = °æ‹-ï îË®·ç-î √†’ (éπ°œ-™¸èπ◊ îª÷°œç-î√¢√?)
Dinesh: Wish you a happy ride on the new Ramesh: Yes. I showed it to him yesterday a) I bought it the day before yesterday.
u have + pp/ has + pp †’ á°æ¤púÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº¢Á’i É°æp-
bike itself. He liked the colour very much. bought - past doing
(¢Á·†o éÌØ√o†’ – 鬕öÀd actions
öÀ-´-®Ωèπÿ ïJ-T† èπÿ ¢√úøû√ç. °j con-
ride = bike, scooter
(´÷´‚-©’í¬) ≤ƒyK, (E†oØË îª÷°œç-î√†’. ®Ωçí∫’ Åûª-EéÀ î√™« word) versation ™ Ñsentences îª÷úøçúÕ.
ride
™«çöÀ ¢√£æ«-Ø√© O’ü¿ ¢Á∞¡xôç èπÿú≈ †*açC). b) I took it to temple yesterday and had the a) I have used my bike for only two years
Dinesh: Do come down this evening. Let me pooja done (È®çúË-∞¡Ÿxí¬– Åçõ‰ È®çúË∞¡x éÀçü¿öÀ †’ç* É°æp-öÀ-
have a ride on it. ´-®Ωèπ◊– Ø√ bike ¢√ú≈†’. Åçõ‰ action from
E†o í∫’úÕéÀ BÆæ’-ÈéR} °æ‹ï îË®·çî√
(≤ƒßª’çvûªç ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ ®√. ã≤ƒJ ††’o c) I called your home three times yesterday then. Å°æpöÀ †’ç* É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ ïJ-T† °æE.)

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù b) I haven’t had (have not had) any trouble with


-†-úø°æF ü∆Eo.) Phone
116 Ramesh: Oh, certainly. (ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈).
؈’ O’ ÉçöÀéÀ E†o ´‚úø’-≤ƒ®Ω’x î˨»
it so far
trouble
(ü∆E-´©x Ø√éÀ-°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ àç ™‰ü¿’) Ééπ\úø
(Till now)
èπÿú≈ É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ action
ïJ-T† èπ◊

I haven’t had any trouble have + not + pp (haven’t had)

Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ´÷brother
verb - has + not + seen)
îª÷úø-™‰ü¿’.
¢√ú≈ç.
c) My brother hasn’t seen my new bike yet.
(yet= bike
Ø√ éÌûªh
d) Have you shown your bike to Kapil?
Ramesh: Thank you. I have called your home Dinesh: Bye then, see °j ´‚úø’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥-™x†÷ time ûÁL-Æœ† Past (F bike Have
éπ°œ-™¸èπ◊ îª÷§ƒ¢√ (Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊–
three times yesterday, but there was you this shown)
actions 鬕öÀd bought, took, called ÅØË past
no response. I wanted to show the evening. e) He has been away in Chennai for the past
doings words ¢√ú≈ç.
bike to you. four days
(Å™«Íí, ≤ƒßª’çvûªç a) I have seen the movie; I saw it yesterday.
phone
(O’ ÉçöÀéÀ E†o ´‚úø’-≤ƒ®Ω’x (Ø√©’í∫’ ®ÓV-©’í¬– Ø√©’í∫’ ®ÓV© éÀçü¿öÀ †’ç*
éπ©’ü∆lç). ¢Á·ü¿ô time îÁ°æpôç ™‰ü¿’ á°æ¤púø’ îª÷ÆœçC. É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ Çߪ’† îÁØÁj o™ ÖØ√oúø’. has been
bike
î˨»†’, é¬E á´®Ω÷ áûªh-™‰ü¿’. Fèπ◊ éÀçü¿öÀ lesson ™ Åçü¿’-´©x have seen (have + pp). È®çúÓ - ‘be’ form - state of being -ÖØ√oúø’ – ÅØË
îª÷°œ-ü∆l-´’-†’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’.) îª÷¨»ç ´’†ç– have + M. SURESAN ¶µ«í∫ç™ yesterday ÅE îÁ°æp-ôç-´©x, saw - past
Response = Ææpçü¿†. Phone ™«çöÀN á´-È®jØ√ Å®ΩnçûÓ)
past participle/ has doing word.
îËÊÆh °æ©-éπúøç response u So, have + pp/ has + pp- Ñ verb form†’ éÀçC
+ past participle (PP)_ (DEo present perfect b) We have finished our breakfast; We finished
Dinesh: We were at my cousin’s to attend a Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ¢√úøû√ç.
tense Åçö«ç)– past action time not stated èπ◊ it an hour ago. 1) Past action, time not stated (í∫ûªç™ ïJT,
function
cousin
(´÷ function
Éçöx èπ◊ ¢Á∞«xç) ¢√úøû√ç. Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ èπÿú≈ Å™«çöÀ ¢√úøéπç (¢Á·ü¿öÀ ¶µ«í∫ç™ time îÁ°æpô癉ü¿’, 鬕öÀd have time îÁ°æpE °æEéÀ)
Ramesh: Any idea of buying a new bike?
îª÷úøçúÕ. finished. È®çúÓ ¶µ«í∫ç™ ‘an hour ago’, ÅE 2) Action from then till now (Å°æpöÀ†’ç* É°æp-öÀ-
bike
(†’¢Ëy-´’Ø√o éÌûªh éÌçü∆-´’-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’- You have bought a new bike = †’´¤y éÌûªh time îÁ°æ¤ hØ√oç, 鬕öÀd finished.
´-®Ωèπ◊ ïJ-T† °æEéÀ)
Ø√o¢√?) bike éÌØ√o´¤. é̆ôç past, Å®·ûË á°æ¤p-úø-ØËC c) The police have arrested him; They arrested u have + pp/ has + pp (pp- Åçõ‰ past participle)-
Dinesh: I have used my bike for only two îÁ°æpôç ™‰ü¿’. Verb: have bought = have + just, just now, ÅØË ´÷ô©’ ¢√úÕûË É°æ¤púË °æ‹®Ωh-
him last week.
years. I haven’t had any trouble with PP ÅD past action, time stated (í∫ûªç™ (Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ have arrested (time not stated); a) ®·† °æ†’-©èπ◊ ¢√úø-´îª’a.
it, so I don’t find a reason to change ïJT, á°æ¤púø’ ïJ-TçD time ûÁL-§ƒ-´’-†’-éÓçúÕ)– ¢√úÕ-°æ¤púË •ßª’-ôèπ◊ ¢Á∞«xúø’=
arrested (past doing word because time is
He has just gone out
it. Å°æ¤púø’ past indefinite / past simple tense stated) b) Train É°æ¤púË ´*açC=
bike
(Ø√ †’ È®çúË∞Ïx ¢√ú≈-E-°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊. ¢√úøû√ç. Åçõ‰ Past doing word (came,
trouble
Ñ difference English ™ very important. So The train has just arrived.
Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ÅC Ø√Íéç É´y-™‰ü¿’. went, sang, danced ™«çöÀ verbs ¢√úøû√ç). c)
´÷®Ωa-ö«-EéÀ Ø√Íéç 鬮Ωùç éπE-°œç-îª-ôç- ´’†ç have + pp/ has + pp èπ◊, Past doing èπÿ ¢√Rx-°æ¤púË ¶µçîË-¨»®Ω’=
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ü∆E Öü∆-£æ«-®Ωù îª÷úøçúÕ. Ö†o ûËú≈ î√™« careful í¬ í∫’®Ω’h-°-ô’d-éÓ-¢√L. They have just had their meals.
™‰ü¿’)

PRACTISE THE
ANSWER:
FOLLOW-
Ñ game ÇúøçúÕ É°æ¤púø’ O’®Ω’ îËߪ÷-LqçC.
I know that he has gone- sentence model
Ñ
Interviewer: O’ Nü∆u-®Ω|-ûª©’ àN’öÀ? sentences
(ŶµºuJn): ؈’ B.Tech î˨»†’. Interviewer: What are your qualifications?
í¬ BÆæ’-èπ◊E áEo Å®·ûË ÅEo ņôç
Candidate I know that he has gone. Model: sub + Vb + that clause
Candidate: I have done B.Tech.
Interviewer: O’®Ω’ B.Tech degree á°æ¤púø’ BÆæ’- Åûªúø’ ¢Á∞«x-úøE Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’. I Know that he has gone
Interviewer: When did you take the B.Tech
èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’? That he has gone= ¢Á∞«x-úøE ´’J-éÌEo examples:
Degree?
Candidate: ؈’ B.Tech exam June 2004 ™ (that èπ◊ Ééπ\úø Å®Ωnç = ÅE.) She says that she knows Telugu.
Candidate: I took the B.Tech exam in June
®√¨»†’. Result Aug 2004 ™ That he has passed = Åûªúø’ pass Åߪ÷uúø’ He does (not) know that it is mine.
2004. The result came in Aug
É™« English ™ that ûÓ begin ÅßË’u ´÷ô™x OöÀ™x a) questions b) dialogues
èπÿú≈ practice
´*açC. 2004.
verb (6 forms of verb í∫’®Ω’h-Ø√o®· éπü∆?) Öçõ‰
Interviewer: Å°æp-öÀ-†’ç*
îËߪ’-´îª’a.
Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ O’Í®ç- Interviewer: What have you done since a) Does she think that I am a fool?
îË-¨»®Ω’? then? ü∆Eo ‘that clause’ Åçö«ç.
Candidate: ؈’ ã software company ™ Candidate: I have been a programmer in a Ééπ\úø ... that he has gone- that ûÓ begin ÅßË’u b) Kumar: Do you know that Ganesh is here?
Kesav: I don’t. How do you Know that he is
Programmer í¬ ÖØ√o†’. software company. Ñ ´÷ô™x has gone ÅØË verb ÖçC. 鬕öÀd, ÉC, here.
Interviewer: É°æp-öÀéÀ O’èπ◊ áØËo∞¡x experience? Interviewer: Howmany years of experience ‘that clause’. Kumar: Your sister has said that he is here.
Candidate: ü∆ü∆°æ¤ Ææç´-ûªq-®Ωç-†o®Ω. have you had so far?
Candidate: About a year and a half.
Interviewer: îª÷úøçúÕ, O’È®ç-ü¿’èπ◊ éπç°F ´÷®√-
©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’? Interviewer: Look here, Why do you want to -v°æ-¨¡o: He is a student of learn well school ÅE -O’®Ω’ ®√¨»®Ω’.
change your company? He is a student at learn well school ÅE Öçú≈L éπü∆. N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
Candidate: O’ éπç°-F™ job îËߪ÷-©ØË éÓJéπ
Ø√èπ◊ î√™«-é¬-©çí¬ ÖçC. Candidate: I have had the wish/ desire of – -üµ¿-†, £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛
doing a job in your company.
Interviewer: That’s OK. O’ certificates
Interviewer: That’s OK. Have you brought
-ï-¢√-•’: A Student of, Student at- Ñ È®çúø÷ correct. Å®·ûË A Student at Learn
well School éÌçîÁç formal. -¢√u´-£æ…-J-éπçí¬ student of a School/ College/
ûÁî√a®√?
your certificates?
Candidate: ûÁî √a†’.
Candidate: Yes, I have. University ÅØËüË áèπ◊\´ ¢√úø’-éπ™  ÖçC.
Interviewer: ††’o îª÷úø-E-´yçúÕ.
Interviewer: Let me see them.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -¨¡Ÿ-véπ¢√®Ωç 24 °∂œ-v•-´-J 2006
Gunavanth: Where have you been since the
(Let us ring him up = phoneîËü∆lç. Let's go
morning?
¢Á ∞ «l =
ç °æ ü ¿ . Let Åçõ‰ äéπ®Ω’ äéπ °æE îËߪ’F
(Öü¿ßª’ç †’ç* áéπ\-úø’-Ø√o´¤?) ÅE Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ÖçC.
Yashwanth: I have been working on the com-
Let him come = ÅûªúÕE ®√F.
puter in the next room.
Let me go = ††’o ¢Á∞¡xF... É™«í∫.)
(°æéπ\ í∫C™ computer °j ´®˝\ îËÆæ’-
èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o.) °j Conversation ™ Ñ sentences îª÷úøçúÕ:
Gunavanth: I have been trying to get you since a) I have been working on the computer since
the morning. the morning.
(§Òü¿’löÀ †’ç* FûÓ ´÷ö«x-ú≈-©E v°æߪ’- b) I have been trying to get you since the morn-
Ao-Ææ’hØ√o.) ing.
í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬, Ééπ\úÕ 3rd use- (Action Have + PP/ has + PP É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ ïJ-T† action
Yashwanth: Why didn't you call my cell? c) I have been getting the response...
starting in the past and going on till now) èπÿ †’ îÁ•’-ûª’çC. É°æ¤p-úÕçé¬ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûÓçü∆, ™‰ü∆ ÅØË
cell
(Ø√ phone
Èéçü¿’èπ◊ îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’?) d) He has been staying at his cousin's.
Gunavanth: That's what I did. But I've been e) I have been thinking of meeting him. have been + ing/ has been + ing use- Action N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ ü∆E-´©x ûÁL-ߪ’´¤.
getting the response, 'switched off' starting in the past and going on even now èπÿ b) Tendulkar has been playing cricket since his
(ÅüË Øˆ’ îËÆœçC. áEo≤ƒ®Ω’x îËÆœØ√ î√™« §ÚLéπ ÖçC éπü∆? ÅC correct. 19th year.
'switched off' ÅØË ´-≤ÚhçC.) Ééπ\úÕ verb, has been + ...ing Åçõ‰ 19´ àöÀ
a) í∫ûªç †’ç* É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ Å®·ûË: have + PP /
Yashwanth: Well, what's so urgent?
(-àçôçûª Å´-Ææ®Ωç?) -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 117 has + PP †’ç* Éçé¬ Çúø’-ûª÷ØË ÖØ√o-úøE. Continue Å´¤-
ûÓçC.
鬕öÀd 1) have + PP/ has + PP - É°æpöÀ´®Ωèπ◊

I have been enquiring ii) have been + ...ing/ has been + ...ing - Éçé¬
(Å®·ûË ã ´·êu N≠æߪ’ç. Ñ ûËú≈ Ö†o-°æp-öÀéÃ,
´÷´‚©’ usage ™ Spoken/ Written form ™
OöÀ È®çöÀéÃ Ñ ûËú≈ °ü¿lí¬ §ƒöÀç-Ω’. Éçé¬ ØÌéÀ\
Gunavanth: Ravi is in town for some course in
f) I have been doing a
b) í∫ûªç †’ç* Éçé¬ Å®·ûË have been + ...ing/
îÁ§ƒp-Lq-†-°æ¤púø’ have been + ...ing/ has been +
special course in ...ing, better)
software. He has been staying at has been + ...ing.
his cousin's for the past two days. computers. a) I have worked here for ten years now.
a) Tendulkar has played cricket for since his
He wants to meet us. g) I have been enquir-
nineteenth year b) I have been working here for ten years now.
(®ΩN Ü∞x ÖØ√oúø’. àüÓ software ing.
(19´ àöÀ †’ç* É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπÿ Çú≈úø’). Çúøôç a), b) ü∆ü∆°æ¤ äÍé Å®Ωnç éπ©N. Å®·ûË b)
™
course cousin
èπ◊. È®çvúÓ-V-©’í¬ ¢√∞¡x Oô-Eoöx verb
Å®·-§Ú-®·çü∆? – -ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’. Ñ sentence áèπ◊\´ continuityéÀ v§ƒüµ∆†uç.
have been + ... ing/
M. SURESAN
Éçöx •Ææ îËÆæ’h-Ø√oúø’. ´’†-Lo-ü¿lJo éπ©’-
Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’.) has been + ... ing form
v°æ鬮Ωç Çúøôç é̆-≤ƒ-í∫’-ûÓç-ü∆?– ÅD ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’.
Yashwanth: In fact I've been thinking of meet- ™ ÖçC éπü∆.
ing him. I want some books from Have been + ... ing/ has been + ... ing form ™ PRACTISE THE FOLLOWING ANSWER
him. verb Öçõ‰ ÅC Present Perfect Continuous Govind: Where are you studying?
Govind: †’¢Áy-éπ\úø îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?
(ØËØË Åûª-úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’- Tense Å´¤-ûª’çC. Krishna: In Suvidya College
Krishna: Ææ’Nü∆u 鬙‰-@™
Ø√o†’. ¢√úÕ ü¿í∫_-®Ω’oç* Ø√èπ◊ éÌEo I have been trying to get you since the morn- Govind: How long have you been studying
Govind: áçûª-鬩çí¬ îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o-´-éπ\úø?
°æ¤Ææh-鬩’ 鬢√L.) ing. there?
Gunavanth: Why do you need them? Krishna: í∫ûª È®çúË-∞¡Ÿxí¬ Krishna: For the past/ last two years/ for two
§Òü¿’löÀ†’ç* F éÓÆæç v°æߪ’-Ao-Ææ’hØ√o (Phone -™¿). Govind: F marks ᙫ ÖØ√o®·?
(-Å-N FÈéç-ü¿’-é¬\-¢√L?) years now.
Yashwanth: You know, I've been doing a spe- Ñ sentence ™ îª÷úøçúÕ. Krishna: ÅEo subjects ™ 80] éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\¢Ë Govind: How are your marks?
cial course in computers for the í∫ûªç™ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº¢Á’i, Éçé¬ é̆-≤ƒ-í∫’-ûª’çúË action èπ◊ score îËÆæ’h-Ø√o†’ Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊. Maths ™ Krishna: I have been scoring more than 80% in
past two weeks. The course has have been + ing ¢√úø’-ûª’Ø√oç. (§Òü¿’löÀ †’ç*,
Å®·ûË ØËEçûª´®Ωèπ◊ 90]èπ◊ ûªí∫_-™‰ü¿’. all subjects. In Maths, I haven't
almost come to an end. I've to Éçé¬). scored less than 90% so far.
Govind: Ééπ\úø †’´¤y O’ ûªLxü¿çvúø’©ûÓ
take an exam in it next week. O’èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’, I, we, you and they Å®·ûË, have Öçô’-Ø√o¢√? Govind: Do you live with your parents here?
That's why I need them. been + ... ing Åçö«ç, He, she, it Å®·ûË has Krishna: No. From the beginning I have been
Krishna: ™‰ü¿’. ¢Á·ü¿-öÀoç* hostel ™ØË Öçô’Ø√o.
(Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’ éπü∆, È®çúø’ ¢√®√-©’í¬ been + ... ing Åçö«ç. (This is for an action staying in the hostel.
computers ™ ØËØÓ special course starting in the past and continuing even now.) (Stay ¢√úøçúÕ)
Govind: My friend Ravi too has been staying
Govind: Ø√ friend Ravi èπÿú≈ ã Ææç´ûªq®Ωçí¬
îËÆæ’h-†oô’x. ÅC ü∆ü∆°æ¤ Å®·-§Ú-®·çC. The congress party has been ruling AP for in the hostel for the past one year. Do
´îËa ¢√®Ωç °æKéπ~. Åçü¿’Íé °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ the year and a half (AP hostel ™ØË Öçô’-Ø√oúø’. Åûªúø’ Fèπ◊
E Ææç´-ûªq-®Ωç-†o-®Ωí¬ you now him?
鬢√L.) past
§ƒL-≤Úhç-C. -à-ú≈-C-†o®Ω éÀçü¿ô, ™ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº¢Á’i ûÁ©’≤ƒ? Krishna: Yes. I know him (I do). We have been
Gunavanth: Perhaps that's why he has wanted Krishna: ûÁ©’Ææ’. -¢Ë’-´· È®çúø’ ØÁ©-©’í¬ äÍé
Éçé¬ é̆-≤ƒ-í∫’-ûÓçC §ƒ©†.) going to the same teacher for tuition
to meet us teacher ü¿í∫_-JéÀ tuition èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’Ø√oç.
°j conversation ™ç* BÆœ† sentences ™ Govind: I have been visiting him frequently
(•£æ›¨¡ Åçü¿’-éπØË Åûªúø’ ´’†Lo Present Perfect Continuous Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç í∫´’-Eç- Govind: ؈-ûª-úÕE éπ©-´-ö«-EéÀ Åûªúø’ îËJ-†-°æpöÀ since he joined there. Haven't you
éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o-úË¢Á÷.) îªçúÕ. †’ç* ´Ææ’h-Ø√o†’. †ØÁo-°æ¤púø÷ îª÷úø-™‰ü∆? ever seen me? (ever - á°æ¤p-úÁjØ√)
Yashwanth: I have been enquiring all book
c) I have been getting the response... Krishna: ™‰ü¿’. ¢Ë’ç ¢ËÍ®y®Ω’ blocks ™ Öçö«ç. Krishna: No. We live in different blocks.
shops here for the books. They
(...
ÅØË responseéÌçûª é¬©ç †’ç*, (§Òü¿’l-
aren't available.
Eoç* Éçé¬) ´≤ÚhçC.)
book
(-Ç °æ¤Ææhé¬-©éÓÆæç ØËE-éπ\úø ÅEo d) He has been staying at his cousin's.
shops ™ ¢Áûª’-èπ◊-ûª’Ø√o. ÅN üÌ®Ω-éπôç (¢√∞¡xcousin Past
Éçöx •Ææ îËÆæ’h-Ø√oúø’– ™ -v°æ-¨¡o: Pronunciation èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† Å稻©-†’ ≤ÚpéπØ˛ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ¶µ«í∫çí¬ ÅçCç-îª-
™‰ü¿’.) v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº¢Á’i, Éçé¬.) í∫-©®Ω’. ¶µ«≠æ ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-´-úøç™ ´·çü¿’í¬ Öî√a®Ωù ´·êuç. à °æü∆Eo à Nüµ¿çí¬
Gunavanth: Are you sure Ravi has them?
e) I have been thinking of meeting him °æ©-鬙 ûÁ-©’Ææ’hçC. -≤ÚpéπØ˛ ÉçTx≠ˇèπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† Æ‘úŒ-©’-í¬F, é¬uÂÆ-ô’x-í¬F
(®ΩN ü¿í∫_®Ω ÅN ÖØ√oߪ’E éπ-*a-ûªçí¬ (Åûª-úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’ – Éçé¬) üÌ-JÍé Åvúø-Æˇ-©†’ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’.
– Èé.-áÆˇ.éπ%-≠æg, -¢Á’-ö¸°æ-Lx
ûÁ©’≤ƒ?) f) I have been enquiring
Yashwanth: I bought them here a year ago and
sent them to him.
(Nî√-JÆæ÷h ÖØ√o†’ – á°æp-öÀ-†’çîÓ... Éçé¬) -ï-¢√-•’: 1) éÌûªh ´÷-ô àüÁjØ√ ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’ ü∆E pronunciation Ææ÷*-Ææ÷hØË ÖØ√oç
(àú≈C éÀçü¿ ØËØË ¢√öÀE éÌE Åûª-úÕéÀ (éÀç-ü¿-ô lesson ™ have + PP (Past Participle)/ éπü∆. ´·çü¿’-´·çü¿’ lessons -™ N´-®Ωù éÌçûª áèπ◊\-´í¬ Öçô’çC.
has + PP use îª÷¨»ç éπü∆? ÅC üËEéÀ ¢√úøû√ç?
°æ秃.) 2) Spoken English èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† CDs, Casettes °ü¿l °ü¿l book-
1) Past action, time not stated.
Gunavanth: That's O.K. Then let's ring him up shops ™ üÌ®Ω’èπ◊-û√®·. Central Institute of English and Foreign
2) Action just completed.
and ask him to see us.
3) Action starting in the past and going on till Languages (CIEFL) ¢√∞¡x Pronunciation Casettes, CDs -N-†ç-úÕ.
(ÆæÍ®– Åûª-úÕéÀ ´’†ç phone îËÆœ
now.
éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´’çü∆ç.)
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 26 °∂œ-v•-´-J 2006
Kasturi: Hi Mayuri what's new? Mayuri: You know what happened to me yes-
(àçöÀ N¨Ï-≥ƒ©’) terday? I went home from Charitha,
Mayuri: I met Charitha yesterday. She had a and by then my husband had left for
piece of good news. She told me she office. He had not taken the lunch box.
had bought a new apartment. He had forgotten it in his hurry.
(E†o ؈’ îªJ-ûª†’ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√o. ã ÆæçûÓ-≠æ- (E†o Ø√Íéç ïJ-TçüÓ ûÁ©’≤ƒ? ؈’ îªJûª
éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç îÁ°œpçC. éÌûªh apartment ü¿í∫_-J-†’ç* ÉçöÀ-Èé-∞«x†’. Å°æp-öÀÍé ´÷ Çߪ’†
éÌØ√o-†çC.)
Office èπ◊ ¢ÁRx§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. Lunch box BÆæ’-èπ◊-
News - uncountable. A news ņç. Å®·ûË
News á°æ¤púø’ singular í¬ØË ¢√úøû√ç. A good/ ¢Á-∞¡x-™‰ü¿’. ûÌçü¿-®Ω™ ´’®Ω-*-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’.)
a bad news ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. Good news/ bad news Look at these sentences picked up from the There are two past actions in sentence (a):
Had + PP is always used
´’†ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†oC:
Åçö«ç. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ a piece of good news/ a conversation above: 1) She told me (Ø√ûÓ îÁ°œpçC) for the earlier of two past actions-
piece of bad news ņ-´îª’a. a) She told me she had bought a new apart- 2) That she had bought an apartment (apart- Åçõ‰ í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† È®çúø’ °æ†’™x, ¢Á·ü¿öÀ/
Kasturi: That's good really. ment ment é̆o-ü¿E). ´·çü¿J °æEéÀ had + PP ¢√úøû√ç.
Mayuri: She told me (that) she had got bank Ñ È®çúø÷ past actions. Å®·ûË é̆ôç ´·çü¿’,
b) She told me she had got a bank loan a) The teacher knew that he had not done the
loan for buying the apartment. The (éÌØ√o-†E) îÁ°æpôç ûª®√yûª ïJ-í¬®·. ´·çü¿’ ïJ- home work
bank released the loan three days ago. T† action had bought (had + PP form) ™
(ûª†èπ◊ É©’x é̆-ú≈-EéÀ bank ®Ω’ùç É*aç-ü¿E Åûªúø’ home work îËߪ’-™‰-ü¿E teacher èπ◊ ûÁL-ÆœçC.
Öçúøôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. (îËߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´ôç– earlier/ first past action)
Åçõ‰ had + PP form, È®çúø’ past actions™
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
îÁ°œpçC. È®çvúÓ-V© éÀçü¿õ‰ ®Ω’ùç Núø’-ü¿©
b) Where had you worked before you joined
î˨»®Ω’.) 118 ´·çü¿®Ω ïJ-T† past action èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç. here?
Kasturi: Where are you coming from now?
(†’´¤y É°æ¤púø’ áéπ\úÕ†’ç* ´Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤?)
Mayuri: I went to the station to book tickets to
Tirupati. But by the time I reached the
reservation counter, they had closed. I
was late by only five minutes.
؈’ A®Ω’-°æ-AéÀ tickets reserve îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ü∆-
I had had some work
´’E station èπ◊ ¢Á∞«x†’. é¬E ¢Á∞Ïx-Ææ-JéÀ, c) By the time I reached the reservation count- Å™«Íí sentence (b) ™
reservation counter ´‚ÊÆ-¨»®Ω’. 5 EN’- (Ééπ\úø îËÍ®-´·çü¿’ O’È®-éπ\úø °æE-îË-¨»®Ω’.)
er they had closed. She told me
≥ƒ™‰ Ç©-Ææuçí¬ ¢Á∞«x†’. èπÿú≈. Ééπ\úø îË®Ωôç – past - Åçûª-èπ◊ -´·çü¿’ Ææçí∫-A
d) I had had some work and when I finally... (that) she had got a -é¬-•öÀd had worked)
Kasturi: Why didn't you start early enough?
e) I found it had run out of petrol. bank loan - loan ´*aç- c) I had not known him till you introduced him to
(éÌçîÁç ´·çüË áçü¿’èπ◊ •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-™‰ü¿’?)
Mayuri: I had some work, and when I finally
f) The train had left before I reached the station. ü¿E îÁ°œpçC. loan ®√´ôç me.
went there it was 2 o' clock. You know g) ... by then my husband had left for office ´·çü¿J past action O’®Ω’ °æJ-îªßª’ç îËÊÆ-´-®Ωèπ◊ Çߪ’† Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’.
that on sundays reservation closes by h) ... he had not taken the lunch box 鬕öÀd had got. M. SURESAN
In English, had + PP is very important. ÅC
2.30. I started on my scooter, but on i) He had forgotten it. Sentence c) By the time I reached the reser- ¢√úø-éπ-§ÚûËconfusion communication
éπLT,
the way I found it had run out of petrol. In all the sentences above look at the verbs: vation counter, they had closed. (؈’ îËÍ®-ô-°æp- ÆæJí¬ Öçúøü¿’.Look at the following.
I had it filled and then went to the sta- a) had bought (had + Past participle (PP) of öÀÍé ¢√∞¡Ÿx ´‚ÊÆ-¨»®Ω’). ´‚ÊÆ-ߪ’ôç ´·çü¿’ 鬕öÀd 1) He gave me yesterday what I asked for
tion. That delayed me. buy) had closed. 2) He gave me yesterday what I had asked for.
àüÓ °æ†’ç-úÕçC. Ç ûª®√yûª •ßª’-™‰l-Í®-Ææ-JéÀ b) had got (had + PP of get) d) I had had some work and when I finally went Sentence 1 Å®Ωnç: ؈-úÕ-TçC ÅûªúÕî√aúø’. Ééπ\úø
õ„jç È®çúÁjçC. Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆. ÇC-¢√-®√©’, c) had closed (had+ PP of close) there it was 2 o' clock. ؈-úø-í∫ôç, Åûªúø’ É´yôç ¢Áçô ¢ÁçôØË, ü∆ü∆°æ¤
Reservations 2.30Íé éπõ‰d-≤ƒh-®ΩE. Scooter
d) had had (had + PP of have) Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ °æE ÖçúÕçC ´·çü¿®Ω, ¢Á∞¡xôç ûª®√yûª äÍé-≤ƒJ ïJ-T-†ô’x Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. È®çúø÷ E†oØË.
O’ü¿ •ßª’-™‰l®√. ü∆J™ ü∆çöx petrol Å®·- 鬕öÀd had had (had + PP)
e) had run (had + PP of run) Sentence 2 Å®Ωnç: ؈ç-ûªèπ◊ ´·çüÁ-°æ¤úÓ ÅúÕ-TçC
§Ú-®·ç-ü¿E îª÷¨». Petrol §Ú®·ç* ¢Á∞Ïx-Ææ-JéÀ
f) had left (had + PP of leave) e) I found it had run out of petrol Åûªúø’ Ø√èπ◊ E†o Éî√aúø’. (É´y-ô¢Ë’ E†o, Åúø-í∫ôç
Ç©Ææuç Å®·-§Ú-®·çC.
Run out of (petrol/ money etc.) = g) had left ( had + PP of leave ) Petrol Å®·-§Ú®· Öçúøôç (´·çü¿J action) Åçûªèπ◊ ´·çüÁ-°æ¤púÓ)
Å®·-§Ú-´ôç.Have it filled = §Ú®·ç-îªôç, Ééπ\úø h) had (not) taken (had + PP) îª÷¨»†’ – 鬕öÀd had run (had + PP) Sentence (1) èπÿ, (2) èπÿ áçûª ûËú≈ØÓ

Kasturi: A similar thing happened to me yes- i) had forgotten (had + PP) f) ؈’ platform îË®Ω’-éÌØËÆæJéÀ train ¢ÁR}-§Ú-®·çC. – í∫´’-Eçî√®Ω’ éπü∆. ÅD had + PP Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç.
terday. The train had left before I °j verb form í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’ éπü∆: had + Past ÉC ´·çü¿’, 鬕öÀd had left (had + PP) ´’J-éÌEo examples îª÷úøçúÕ.
reached the station. So I called my Participle (had + PP)-verb- Ñ form ™ Öçõ‰ g) Éçü¿’™ èπÿú≈ 'ØËEç-öÀ-Èé-∞Ï}-Ææ-JéÀ, Çߪ’† a) He had not slept for two days. When I know
office and told them I was not coming. ÅC past perfect tense Å´¤-ûª’çC. É°æ¤púø’ DE ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. (Had left- ÉC ´·çü¿’) that I felt pity for him
My delay was due to traffic jam. Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç îª÷ü∆lç. h) He had not taken the lunch box - Lunch box È®çúø’ ®ÓV-©’í¬ Åûªúø’ Evü¿-§Ú-™‰ü¿’. ÅC ûÁL-Æœ†
(--E-†o Ø√èπÿ Å™«ç-öÀüË ïJ-TçC. ؈’ sta- a) She told me (yesterday) that she had bought BÂÆ\-∞¡x-™‰ü¿’ – ÉC ´·çü¿’ – 鬕öÀd had (not) ؈’ ñ«L-°æ-ú≈f†’.
tion èπ◊ îËÍ®-™ Ê° train ¢ÁRx-§Ú-®·çC. ´÷ a new apartment taken b) Who had opened this before I saw it?
office èπ◊ Phone îËÆ œ ؈’ ®√´-ôç-™‰-ü¿E
îÁ§ƒp†’. Ø√èπ◊ traffic jam ´©x Ç©Ææuç éÌûªh apartment éÌØ√o-†E îÁ°œpçC E†o. i) He had forgotten - ÉC èπÿú≈ ´·çü¿J past ؈’ îª÷ÊÆ-´·çüË á´®Ω’ ûÁJ-î√®Ω’ DEo?
ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: action 鬕öÀd had forgotten - had + PP
Å®·çC.)
-v°æ-¨¡o: 5-15 Ææç´-ûªq-®√© ´ßª’-Ææ’q†o °œ©x-©èπ◊ Angad: Hi Vaali. Åûªúø’ Chennai ¢Á∞«x-úøE †’´¤y PRACTISE THE FOLLOWING
Angad: I thought that he had gone. So I
thought I could give him the book later.
‘Spoken English’™ °æô’d ≤ƒCµç- E†o Ø√ûÓ áçü¿’èπ◊ Å•ü¿l¥ç îÁ§ƒp´¤?
Vaali: He was/ felt angry that I had not
îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ àßË’ areas ™ focus (Å•ü¿l¥ç – lie ¢√úøçúÕ) Åûªúø’ áçü¿’èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡x-™‰ü¿’?
returned his book.
îËߪ÷L. ü∆EéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† Vaali: ™‰ü¿’. ؈’ Å•ü¿l¥ç îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’. Åûªúø’ ¢Á∞¡-û√- Angad: Åûªúø’ wait îËÆæ’h†o Phone call ®√™‰-ü¿ô.
Vaali: I am sorry. I thought he would tell you
Books, Cassettes, C.D.s Vaali: OK. ØË¢Á-∞«xL. ´≤ƒh.
†E Ø√ûÓ îÁ§ƒpúø’. FûÓ ´÷ö«x-úÕç-ûª-®√yûª about his change of programme.
áéπ\úø üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-û√®·? Åûªúø’ ¢Á∞¡x-™‰-ü¿E ûÁL-ÆœçC. Åûªúø’ pro- Angad: Bye. Because I had thought so, I didn't call
– Æœ.-áç.-áÆˇ.®√-V, È®j-™‰yéÓ-úø÷®Ω’ gramme ´÷®Ω’a-èπ◊Ø√o†E îÁ§ƒpúø’. ANSWER you (So - Å™«)
-ï-¢√-•’: NCERT ¢√∞¡x- (Central schools/ cen- Angad: ØËØË¢Á÷ Åûªúø’ ¢Á∞«x-úøE ņ’-èπ◊Ø√o. Åçü¿’-éπE Angad: Hi. Vaali, why did you lie to me that he Angad: I had known that he would not go.
tral syllabus follow ÅßË’ schools ™ ÅûªúÕé¬ °æ¤Ææhéπç ûª®√yûª É´ya™‰ ņ’-èπ◊Ø√o. had left for Chennai yesterday? Vaali: Why didn't he go? (Why did he not
¢√úË) books î√-™« Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ®Ωç. 5 – 15 ØËØ√°æ¤Ææhéπç É´y-™‰-ü¿E Ø√O’ü¿ î√™« éÓ°æp-ú≈fúø’. Vaali: No. I didn't lie. He had told me that he go?)
à∞¡x-™ °æ¤¢√∞¡Ÿx concentrate îËߪ÷-Lq† Vaali: I am sorry. Åûªúø’ -FûÓ Programme would go. I knew that he had not gone Angad: He didn't get the phone call he had
areas: spellings, sentence structures, ´÷®Ω’a-èπ◊†o N≠æߪ’ç îÁ§ƒh-úø-†’-èπ◊Ø√o. 鬕öÀd only after I had talked to you. He told waited for.
Conversational Skills. É´Fo èπÿú≈ Fèπ◊ Phone îËߪ’™‰ü¿’ ؈’. me that he had changed his pro- Vaali: OK. I must be going. Bye.
NCERT books ™ -Öç-ö«®·. Angad: Åûªúø’ ¢Á∞¡x-úøE Ø√èπ◊ ´·çüË ûÁ©’Ææ’. gramme. Angad: Bye.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 28 °∂œ-v•-´-J 2006
Soundarya: Hi What a fine dress you've
Ö†o Ñ verbs sentenceses †’ îª÷úøçúÕ.
bought? Where did you buy it and
1) I had been thinking of buying it for a longtime.
how much did it cost you?
I had the opportunity yesterday.
(Ŷs -î√-™«- ¶«í∫’ç-C - F vúøÆˇ 2) She had been working as a teacher when
áéπ\úøéÌØ√o´¤? áçûª?) she got married.
Aiswarya: Thank you for the compliment. I
3) We had been studying in the same college
bought it at Vastraloka for Rs.
until we completed the degree.
3000/-
4) She had been staying with us until she got
(-ü∑∆uçé˙q -´‚-úø’ -¢Ë-© ®Ω÷-§ƒ-©-ߪ’-©’ the job.
°öÀd ´ÆæY-™éπ™ éÌØ√o.) Last two lessons had + past participle
™ ´’†ç
Soundarya: Certainly worth it. I wish I had one
( past perfect tense ) uses (°∞¡xßË’ ´®Ωèπÿ/ °∞¡x-ßË’u-ô-°æp-öÀéÀ Ç¢Á’ -öÃ-˝í¬
ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç éπü∆! (Å´¤†’. Å-°æ¤púø’ O’Í®-¢Á÷ -´÷-vûª-©’ Éî√a®Ω’.
like it.
Let us recall it once again. °æEîËÆæ÷h ÖçC.) Ééπ\-úø verb had been+ing. È®çvúÓV© ûª®√yûª ûªT_-§Ú-®·çC. Å°æp-öÀ-
(a) ™ í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† °æ†’™x äéπöÀ ´·çü¿’, È®çúÓC
(éπ*a-ûªçí¬ Åçûª îËÆæ’hçC. Ø√èπÿ\ú≈ ✔ Had Past participle is used for the earlier of †’ç* Ñ®ÓV Öü¿ßª’ç ´®Ωèπ◊ Ø√Íé Ææ´’≤ƒu
Å™«ç-öÀC Öçõ‰ áçûª ¶«í∫’ç-ô’ç-ü¿-E - two past actions. ûª®√yûª, éπü∆? - (had + pp) ™‰ü¿’ )
°œ-≤ÚhçC.) (í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† È®çúø’ °æ†’™x, ¢Á·ü¿öÀ ü∆ØÁo-°æ¤p (b) ™ í∫ûªç™ äéπ °æE v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº¢Á’i È®çúÓ °æE ´®Ωèπ◊ Ééπ\úø πÿú≈ ....
I wish I had one like that. ´’†ç ´÷ö«xúø’ûª’†o-
continue Å®·uçC 鬕öÀd had been + ing. a) had been walking... felt the pain.
°æ¤púø’ B®ΩE éÓJéπ©èπ◊ É™« Åçö«ç. She wishes a) He had been driving at 100 kmph when he b) hadn't been having any pain till this morn-
she had a car
hit a lorry. ing.
(
100
ûª†èπ◊ 鬮Ω’çõ‰ áçûª ¶«í∫’ç-úø’ØÓ Å†’èπ◊ç-öçC.) (Åûªúø’ ™«KE úµŒéÌ-õ‰d-°æp-öÀéÀ -éÀ.-O’. ¢Ëí∫çûÓ - - a)
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
Ééπ\úø had, past Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÀ É°æpöÀ éÓJéπ†’ ûÁ©’-°æ¤- Ø√èπ◊ ØÌ°œp éπL-T-†-°æ¤úø’ †úø’Ææ÷h ÖØ√o†’.
b)
119
vúÁj-¢˛ îËÆæ’h-Ø√oúø’.) §Òü¿’l-† -´-®Ωèπ◊ Ø√èπ◊ ØÌ°œp ÅØË-üË™‰ü¿’.
b) The British had been ruling India for over
ûª’çC. 鬕öÀdhad been + ing á°æ¤púø÷ èπÿú≈ í∫ûªç™ v§ƒ®Ωç-
Aiswarya: Time you bought one, Soundarya.
(É°æp-öÀÍé éÌØ√-LqçC †’´¤y)

We had been studying...


Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ bought - past form
Time you bought = á°æ¤púÓ éÌE Öçú≈-LqçC.
Time you learnt manners .
(†’´¤ymanners ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√L)
(Éçé¬ Fèπ◊manners ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’;
á°æ¤púÓ ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√-LqçC.)
Soundarya: When did you buy it? two centuries until it
úø÷ had + PP form ™ ûÁ©’-°æ¤û√ç.) ¶µº-¢Á’i† two actions ™ first action, 2nd action
(á°æ¤púø’ éÌØ√o´¤?) e.g. became independent in ´®Ωèπ◊ continue Å®·ûË ü∆Eo had been + ing ûÓ
Aiswarya: Yesterday. I had been thinking of 1947
a) He was unhappy that his friend had gone.
buying it for a long time. I had the (1947 ™ ≤ƒyûªçvûªuç
îÁ°æ¤û√ç.
opportunity yesterday when dad
(¢√∞¡x -v°∂ç-ú˛ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ߪ÷-úøE Åûª†’ ¶«üµ¿-°æ-ú≈fúø’) ÉC 'be' form ™ îª÷úøçúÕ. (Åçõ‰ í∫ûªç™ È®çúÓ °æE
b) She had worked as a teacher before she got §ÒçüË-´-®Ωèπ◊ -vG-öÃ-≠æ®Ω’x
gave me the money. I got it for my ïJÍí ´®Ωèπ◊ Ö†o N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo -Ê°®Ì\-†-úøç)
married. ¶µ«®Ω-û˝†’ È®çúø’ ¨¡û√-¶«l-© - a) He had been here till his father called him.
birthday the day after tomorrow. †’ç-* §ƒL-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’.) M. SURESAN
(°RxéÀ ´·çü¿’ -öÃ-˝í¬ °æE îËÆœçC)
Soundarya: Who is the other dress for? Doctor: What's your complaint?
(¢√∞¡x Ø√†o °œLîË ´®Ωèπ◊ Åûª-E-éπ\úË ÖØ√oúø’.)
c) We know that he had passed.
(Öçúøôç had been - í∫ûªç™, ûª®√yûª his father
(Ç ÉçéÓ vúøÆˇ á´-JéÀ?) (
-§ƒÆˇ Åߪ÷u-úøE ´÷èπ◊ ûÁL-ÆœçC) Subash: I have a pain in the side, doctor. I
Aiswarya: That's for my cousin Sowjanya. I called- °œ©-´ôç)
ÉO Had + PP
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬-EéÀ Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù©’. É°æ¤púø’ have had the pain since this morn-
am going to present it to her. b) Abdul Kalam had been a space scientist until
¢Á·ü¿öÀ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù-™E had been + ing
(Åçõ‰ Past ing. I had been taking my morning
he took over as President
(ÅC ´÷ éπ->-Ø˛ -≤˘-ï-†uèπ◊. ØËØ√-¢Á’èπ◊ Perfect Continuous tense)
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç îª÷ü∆lç. walk when I suddenly felt it.
(®√-≠æZ°æ-Aí¬ ¶«üµ¿uûª©’ Æ‘yéπ-JçîË ´®Ωèπ◊ éπ-™«ç ÊÆpÆˇ

ÅC 鬆’-éπí¬ É´y-¶-ûª’-Ø√o†’.) í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† È®çúø’ °æ-†’-™x äéπöÀ ´·çü¿’ v§ƒ®Ωç- (§Òü¿’löÀ †’ç* úÌéπ\™ ØÌ°œpí¬ ÖçC.
Soundarya: Has she returned from the states? ¶µº¢Á’i È®çúÓ °æE ïJÍíü∆é¬ continue
Å®·ûË Øˆ’ §Òü¿’l† †úø’-Ææ’h-†o-°æ¤púø’ ØÌ°œp -´-*aç- ÂÆjç-öÀÆˇdí¬ (ÖØ√o®Ω’)
( ÊÆd-ö¸q †’ç* AJ-íÌ-*açü∆?) c) I thought till this morning that he had been
Å°æ¤púø’ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo had been + ing form C)
Aiswarya: Yes, last weekend. here.
™ îÁ§ƒhç. Doctor: I remember that you came to me last
(Å´¤†’. í∫ûª ¢√®√çûªç-™) Compare the following sentences. month with a similar complaint.
(§Òü¿’l† ´®Ωèπ◊ Åûª-E-éπ\úË ÖØ√o-úøE ņ’-èπ◊Ø√o)
Soundarya: Wasn't she a teacher here? ÉD had been, had been + ing ¢√ú≈-Lq† B®Ω’. ûÁ©’-
a) She had worked as a teacher before she got (O’®Ω’ í∫-ûª ØÁ© ÉüË éπç°æx®·ç-ö¸-ûÓ ´*a-
(Ééπ\úø Ç¢Á’ -öÃ-˝í¬ ÖçúËC éπü∆?) married. †ô’d Ø√èπ◊ í∫’®Ω’h) í∫ ’™™« é¬èπ◊çú≈, English ™ time of action, time
Aiswarya: Yes. She had been working as a of state of being †’ •öÀd ´’†ç ¢√úË verb forms
(°RxéÀ ´·çü¿’ Ç¢Á’ -öÃ-˝í¬ °æE îËÆœçC.) Ééπ\- Subash: Yes, doctor. You gave me some
teacher when she got married. She úø verb- had + PP tablets and I felt all right after two
éπ*aûªçí¬ ´÷®Ω’-ûª’ç-ö«®·. Å™« correct í¬ Å®·†
then joined her husband in the verb forms †’ ¢√úø-éπ-§ÚûË Â°úø-®√n-©èπ◊, -Aéπ-´’éπ©èπ◊ ü∆J-
b) She had been working as a teacher until- days. Since then I hadn't been having
U.S. when she got married. any problem till this morning.
B- ≤ƒh®·.
(°∞¡x-ßË’u-°æp-öÀéÀ Ç¢Á’ Ééπ\úø öÃ-˝ í¬ °æE
îËÆæ’hç-úËC. Ç ûª®√yûª ¢√∞«x-ߪ’† ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ friend got an idea that we start a soft-
¢ÁRx-§Ú-®·çC.) Tarun: -´®Ω’-ù˝ , î√™«-é¬-©-¢Á’içC E†’o îª÷Æœ, áéπ\- PRACTISE THE FOLLOWING ware company in Hyderabad.
Soundarya: We had been studying in the same úø’-Ø√o´¤? àç îËÆæ’h-Ø√o´¤? Tarun: It's good. When are you starting it?
college until we completed the Varun: v°æÆæ’hûªç ؈’ -´·ç-¶-®·™ ÖØ√o. ´·ç-¶- Tarun: Best of Luck. Varun: In two or three months.
degree. Later she took a job and I ®· ™ Å´-鬨¡ç ´îËa-°æp-öÀéÀ £j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛™ Answers Tarun: Best of luck.
went for M.Sc. °æE-îË-Ææ’hØ√o. Tarun: Hi Varun, long since I saw you. Where Ñ game ÇúøçúÕ. Ñ éÀçC sentence †´‚Ø√™
(¢Ë’ç Éü¿l®Ωç -úÕ-vU °æ‹-Jh ÅßË’u-´-®Ωèπ◊ äÍé Tarun: -´·ç-¶-®·éÀ ´÷Í®-´-®Ωèπ◊ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ ™ áçûª- are you and what are you? sentences
O™„j-†Eo ®√ߪ’çúÕ. ®√Æœ Gí∫_-®Ωí¬ îªü¿-
é¬-™‰-ñ ¸™ îªü¿’-´¤-èπ◊-ØË¢√∞¡xç. ûª®√yûª Ç¢Á’ é¬©ç °æE-îË-¨»´¤. Varun: I am at present in Mumbai. I had been ´çúÕ,Not ûÓ†÷, Questioní¬†÷, Dialogue form
ÖüÓu-í∫ç™ îËJçC. ؈’ - áç.- Varun: v§Ú-ví¬-´ ’®˝í¬ °æE-îËÆæ ÷h Ñ Å´-鬨¡ç working in Hyderabad when I got the ™†÷ ®√ߪ’çúÕ.
áÆˇ.Æœ.éÀ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ߪ÷†’. §Òçü∆†’. opportunity in Mumbai. They laughed at him Ééπ\úø †´‚Ø√.
Aiswarya: She had been staying with us until, Tarun: £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛èπ◊ ´·çüÁ-éπ\úÓ ÖØ√o´¤ éπü∆? Tarun: How long had you been working in sub verb Preposition Noun or pronoun
she got the job. Her father who had Varun: Å´¤†’. îÁØÁj o™ ÖØ√o 6 ØÁ©©’. Hyderabad when you got the opportu- a) She looked at me.
been working else where, had a Tarun: É°æ¤p-úÁ-éπ\-úÕéÀ? nity in Mumbai? b) They did not come for him
transfer here, and she went back Varun: ؈’ Ø√ -v°∂ç-ú˛-ûÓ, ( í∫-ûª ØÁ© ņ’-èπ◊çö«) Varun: I had been working as a programmer c) Why do you stare at her?
home. ´÷ö«xúø’ûª’çõ‰, ÅûªúÕ -v°∂ç-ú˛ ´î√aúø’. ã - when I got the opportunity. (Stare- ÅüË °æEí¬ îª÷úøúøç)
( -Ö-üÓuí∫ç ´îËa ´®Ωèπ◊ ´÷ ü¿í∫_Í® ÖçC. í∫çô ´÷ö«x-úø’-èπ◊-ØË-ô-°æp-öÀéÀ Ñ È®çúÓ -v°∂ç- Tarun: Hadn't you (had you not) been some a) Prem: Why do you look at your watch (so
Åçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ÉçÈé-éπ\úÓ °æE îËÆæ’h†o ú˛èπ◊ -äéπ -Ç-™-îª-† ´*açC. ¢Ë’ç ´·í∫’_®Ωç where before you were in Hyderabad? often) ?
¢√∞¡x Ø√†oèπ◊ -Ééπ\-úÕéÀ vö«-Ø˛q°∂æ®˝ ÅßË’u- éπLÆœ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«--ü˛™ ã -≤ƒ°∂ˇd-¢Ë®˝ éπç°-F Varun: Yes. In Chennai for six months. Karim: I must talk to my uncle immediately
Ææ-JéÀ ¢√Rxç-öÀéÀ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-®·çC.) °ö«d-©-E. Tarun: Where now? Prem: You wait for a few minutes.
Soundarya: She is quite nice. Tarun: ¶«í¬ØË ÖçC. á°æ¤púø’ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµ-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. Varun: When I was talking to my friend, I think Karim: I have waited for half an hour already
(-ûª-†’ ´’ç* Å´÷t®·) Varun: È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ ØÁ©™x. it was last month, his friend came. As
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ had been combinations ûÓ - we had been talking for an hour, this

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ í∫’®Ω’¢√®Ωç 2 -´÷-Ja 2006
Pramod: Hi Prasanth, when are you starting Pramod: It's for him and for his dad to settle.
for Bangalore? Meet you at the station tomorrow.
(á°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?) Bye.
Prasanth: Tomorrow by the evening train.It (ÅC ¢√úø÷, ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o ûË©’a-éÓ-¢√-Lq†
arrives here at 6 and leaves at 6.10 N≠æߪ’ç. Í®°æ¤ E†’o station ™ éπ©’≤ƒh.
(≤ƒßª’çvûªç Train™. ÅC-éπ\-úÕéÀ ÇJç-öÀ-éÀ- ´≤ƒh-´’J)
´*a, 6.10éÀ •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω’-ûª’çC.) Prasanth: Bye.
Pramod: I'll be at the station even before 6 to Ñ Conversation ™, look at the following
see you off. expressions.
1) starting for Bangalore
(Fèπ◊ OúÓ\-L-´y-ö«-EéÀ ÇJç-öÀéÀ ´·çüË At home, at college, at school, at that place,
station ™ Öçö«) 2) by the evening train
PRACTISE THE FOLLOWING
at the village, at 6.00 pm, at 12 noon, at a
See off= OúÓ\-L-´yôç 3) arrives here at 6 and leaves at 6.10 stage/ a certain stage/ at that stage, (stage = Subha:
àçöÀ ¨¶µ«, Vizag †’ç* á°æ¤púø’
Prasanth: O that's good of you. Thank you. 4) before six ü¿¨¡) AJ-íÌ-î√a-´¤?
(î√™« ¶«í∫’çC. ü∑∆çé˙ ߪ‚. á´-È®j-Ø√ 5) good of you at the theatre, at the station etc. Sobha: E†o, §Òü¿’l-öÀ train ™
´’†èπ◊ ´’ç*-í¬F, ÆæçûÓ≠æç éπL-TçîËCí¬F 6) into software 2) to = äéπîÓöÀéÀ, äéπ-JéÀ, äéπîÓô’¢Áj°æ¤ - to Subha: ¢Á ∞Ï-xô-°æ¤púø’ car ™ -¢Á-∞«}-´¤í∫-ü∆, 鬮ÓxØË ´≤ƒh-
îËÊÆh, that's (that is) good of you, 7) close to Hyderabad, to Vijayawada, to Tirupathi to my ´- †’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’.
That's Kind of you Åçö«ç. good/ father, to the CM, etc. Sobha: Car repair ™ ÖçC. ØËE-éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢ÁçôØË
8) talked to him over phone
Kind ´·çü¿’ very îË®Ωa-´îª’a) 3) äéπJ†’ç*, äéπ v°æü˨¡ç†’ç* = from. from ®√¢√Lq ´îËa-¨»†’.
9) the day before sivarathri
Pramod: You remember our friend vinod is Hyderabad, order from the CM, etc. Subha: F O’ü¿ Ø√èπ◊ î√™« éÓ°æçí¬ ÖçC.
10) his father is angry with him at his postpon-
there too. He is into software. 4) By- éπ°æ¤p Ö†o ¢√£æ«-Ø√-©-®·ûË - by bus, by car, Sobha: áçü¿’èπ◊?
ing his marriage.
(´’† v°∂çú˛ NØÓü˛ èπÿú≈ Åéπ\úË by train, by ship, by lorry, etc - D†®Ωnç Ñ ¢√£æ«- Subha: E†oöÀ†’ç* Éçöx ÖçúÕ äéπ\-≤ƒJ èπÿú≈
11) differs with his father over who he should
ÖØ√oúø’. Åûªúø’ èπÿú≈ ≤ƒ°∂ˇd-¢Ë®˝ (éπç°æ‹u- Ø√™x ÅE. phone îËߪ’-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊
marry.
ô®˝q)™ ÖØ√oúø’. 'into' Ñ ´’üµ¿u Ñ a) I go to school by bus = Sobha: ؈’ ´îËa-Ææ-JéÀ É©xçû√ ´·JéÀ. É™xçû√
12) Particular about
Å®ΩnçûÓ áèπ◊\´ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
School èπ◊ bus ™ ¢Á∞«h†’. clean îËÆæ÷h busy í¬ Ö-Ø√o. Sorry.
He was into business for some time 13) Outside the family circle
b) Goods arrived by lorry = ANSWER
14) The reason for
Åûªúø’ éÌçûª-é¬©ç ¢√u§ƒ-®Ωç™ ÖØ√oúø’/ Subha: Hi Sobha, when did you come back?
¢√u§ƒ®Ωç î˨»úø’) 15) It's for him and for his dad to settle. ≤ƒ´÷†’x ™«K™ ´î√a®·.
Sobha: Yesterday, by the morning train.
16) At the station c) He travelled by train =
Subha: While going you went by car. I thought
Words like for, by, at, before, of, into, to, over, Train
™ v°æߪ÷ùç î˨»úø’.
you would return by car again.
with, about, outside etc. are prepositions. 5) Top ™‰E (scooter, bike, cycle, horse) ™«çöÀ-

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 120
Sobha: The car was under repair. I came back
prepositions í∫’Jç* Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ lessons ™ ´-®·ûË on. because I had to come back urgently.
éÌçûª ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. a) He goes to college on bike.
Subha: I am very angry with you
Sobha: What for?

By the evening train


Subha: You have been at home and haven't
called me even once.
Sobha: By the time I came back, the house
was dirty. I was busy cleaning it. Sorry.

Prasanth: Yea. My office in Bangalore is close ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ preposi- b) She moves about on a scooter -
to his. I talked to him over phone this tions ´’†’-≠æfl©, ´Ææ’h-´¤©, Ç¢Á’ scooter O’ü¿ A®Ω’í∫’ûª’çô’çC.
morning, He said he would be at the ïçûª’-´¤© Ê°®Ωx ´·çü¿’ c) Travel was on horseback in the olden days =
station to receive me' (Bangalore ™ Ææn©ç, ÆœnA, time, °æü¿l¥A §ƒûª ®ÓV™x v°æߪ÷-ù«©’ í∫’v®√© O’ü¿.
Ø√ office ÅûªúÕ Ç°∂‘Æˇèπ◊ ü¿í∫_Í®. ؈-ûª-úÕûÓ
v°æ¨¡o: Spoken
ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç ÅE
English, Grammar ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-´-
6) äéπ îÓöÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡xôç = go to a place;
Ñ®ÓV Phone ™ ´÷ö«x-ú≈†’. Ø√éÓÆæç -É-C-´®Ωéπ-öÀ lessons ™
station èπ◊ ´≤ƒh†Ø√oúø’.) îª÷¨»ç. äéÓ\-≤ƒJ ´÷ô© M. SURESAN Å®·ûË äéπ-îÓ-öÀéÀ •ßª’-™‰l-®Ωôç = leave for a place, ú≈-EéÀ ûÁ©’-í∫’™, ûªèπ◊\´ üµ¿®Ω ÖçúË °æ¤Ææh鬩
ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ preposi- depart for a place; be bound for a place. N´-®√©’ îÁ°æp-í∫-©®Ω’.
Pramod: He was here the day before
sivarathri it seems his father is angry
tions ´≤ƒh®·. a) He is going to Delhi tonight. – >. Í騡-´¤©’, §ƒ´·- π◊çô
with him at his postponing his mar-
î√™« ´·êu-¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç. à preposition áéπ\úø b) She has left for Kolkata
-ï-¢√-•’: O’®Ω’ Ö†oC *†o °æ™„xô÷®Ω®·-†ç-ü¿’-´©x
¢√ú≈-©ØË rule à-O’™‰ü¿’. ´÷ö«x-úøôç, îªü¿-´ôç ´™‰x c) This train is bound for Chennai O’èπ◊ English ´îËa Å´-é¬-¨»©’ ûªèπ◊\´ ÅØË
riage.
Å©-¢√-ô-´¤-ûª’çC. (îÁØÁj o ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’çC) ¶µºßª’ç Åéπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. *†o °æ™„x-ô÷-®Ωx-†’ç-*
(¢Á·†o P´-®√vAéÀ ´·çü¿’-®ÓV Ééπ\-úø’- The correct use of prepositions is just a mat- d) The train is ready to depart for Lucknow. ´îËa-¢√∞¡Ÿx èπÿú≈ v•£æ…tç-úøçí¬ English
Ø√oúø’. Åûªúø’ °Rx-¢√-®·ü∆ ¢ËÆæ’h-Ø√o-úøE ter of practice. 7) äéπJéÓÆæç, äéπ N≠æߪ’çéÓÆæç = for ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’, O’®Ω’ èπÿú≈ ´÷ö«x-
¢√∞¡x Ø√†oèπ◊ éÓ°æçí¬ Ö†o-ô’dçC) English ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’†oéÌDl, îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’†oéÌDl a) This book is for Ramesh = úø-í∫-©®Ω’ ÆæÈ®j† serious practice îËÊÆh.
It seems- Å™« ÅE-°œç-îªôç/ éπE-°œç-îªôç prepositions Å©-¢√-ô-´¤-û√®·. Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ùèπ◊ ´’†ç Ñ °æ¤Ææhéπç ®Ω¢Ë’≠ˇ éÓÆæç. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ N´-®Ωù ÖçúË spoken English
books ™ Rapidex, English in 30
Prasanth: He differs with his father over who ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Åçô÷çö«ç: ¢√úÕ O’ü¿ Ø√èπ◊ éÓ°æç. b) I am taking a lot of trouble for you =
days ™«çöÀ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ îª÷úøçúÕ. ¢Á’-©xí¬
he should marry. His father insists Ééπ\úø éÓ°æç ´·çü¿’ 'O’ü¿— áçü¿’èπ◊ ¢√ú≈L ÅØË
O’ éÓÆæç ØËEçûª trouble BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’.
v°æ¨¡oèπ◊ ï¢√-•’ç-úøü¿’ éπü∆. Ç ¶µ«≠æ ©éπ~ùç, ¢√úø’éπ English news paper îªü¿-´ôç v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-
that he marry his uncle's daughter.
ÅçûË. English ™ preposition ¢√úø’éπ èπÿú≈ 8) a) Angry with = äéπ ´uéÀh O’ü¿ éÓ°æç îªçúÕ. Å®Ωnç Å®·Ø√ é¬éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√, interest
He is particular about marrying a girl b) Angry at/about = äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷-EéÀ éÓ°æç. ÖØ√o ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√ îªü¿-´çúÕ. ´’ç* dic-
ÅçûË. à ´÷ô´·çü¿’ à preposition, ûª®√yûª à
outside the family circle. That's the preposition ÅØËC éÌçîÁç éπç®∏ΩÆæhç îËߪ’ôç èπÿú≈ i) My father is angry with me = Ø√ O’ü¿ éÓ°æç. tionary (English to Telugu) ü¿í∫_®Ω Öç-
reason for his coming rarely. ´’ç*üË. äÍé-´÷ô ûª®√yûª ¢√úË preposition ™ ii) My father is angry at/about my low marks. éÌE àüÁjØ√ °æü¿ç O’èπ◊ Å®Ωnç é¬èπ◊ç-õ‰ ûÁ©’-
ûËú≈´ÊÆh Å®Ωnçèπÿú≈ ´÷J-§Ú-ûª’çC. Åçü¿’-éπE (Ø√éÌ*a† ûªèπ◊\´ ´÷®Ω’\-©èπ◊ Çߪ’-†èπ◊ éÓ°æçí¬ ÖçC) Ææ’-éÓçúÕ. *†o *†o story books, *†o
(Åûª-úÕéÀ, ¢√∞¡x Ø√†oèπ◊, ÅûªúÁ´JE °Rx classes English nondetailed books
prepositions N≠æߪ’ç-™  î√™« ñ«ví∫ûªh Å´-Ææ®Ωç. 9) Particular about = äéπ N≠æߪ’ç™ °æô’d-ü¿-©í¬
îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√-©ØË N≠æߪ’ç™ ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ’-¶µ‰-ü∆-©’-
Å®·ûË éÌEoîÓôx Åçûª confusion ®√ü¿’. í∫’®Ω’hç-- TV
îªü¿-´çúÕ. Å®Ωnç Å®·Ø√ é¬éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√
Ø√o®·. ¢√∞¡x Ø√-ØËo¢Á÷ ÅûªúÕ ´÷´’ߪ’u Öçúøôç. English news
éÓ-¢√-Lq† N≠æߪ’ç: ûÁ©’-í∫’™, English ™, ´·çü¿’ Many members of TRS are particular about
N†ç-úÕ. O’èπ◊ ûÓ*-†N ®√Æœ
èπÿûª’-JE °Rx îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√-©E °æô’d-•-úø’-ûª’- é¬ÆæhEnglish ûÁL-Æœ† ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ îª÷°œç-îªçúÕ.
¢Á†’éπ Å´¤-ûª’ç-ö«®·. KCR's resignation = OöÀûÓ§ƒô’ ´÷ Spoken English
Ø√oúø’. ÉûªúË¢Á÷ ü¿í∫_®Ω ö«d-©-¢√-∞Îx-´-JE Eg: To Mumbai = ´·ç¶„jéÀ KCR ®√@-Ø√´÷ N≠æߪ’ç™ î√™« ´’çC TRS îªü¿-´ôç practice îËߪ’ôç ´©x O’èπ◊ ã
îËÆæ’-éÓ-†E °æô’d-ü¿-©í¬ ÖØ√oúø’. ¢√úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ 1) äéπ-îÓô, äéπ v°æüË-¨¡ç™, äéπ time èπÿ, äéπ ü¿¨¡™  – Æ涵º’u©’ °æô’d-•-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. ØÁ© ®ÓV™x î√-™« ûËú≈ éπE°œÆæ’hçC.
®√´ôç Åçü¿’Íé Å®Ω’ü¿’) É™«çöÀ Å®√n©’ ´îËa preposition, at. É™«çöÀN îªC-¢Ë-ô-°æ¤púø’ í∫´’-EÆæ÷h îªü¿-´çúÕ.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -¨¡-E¢√®Ωç 4 -´÷-Ja 2006
Yamini: Hi Salini, when exactly do you expect I a) at 11.30 II a) by 12.30
Malini? b) at the age of 22 b) by then
(´÷LE éπ*a-ûªçí¬ á°æ¤púø’ ´Ææ’hç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’- c) at breakfast c) by chance
Ø√o´¤?) d) at a distance of d) by your watch
expect = ÉÈéqpé˙d– 'Èéqp— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç =
ÇPç-îªôç/ áü¿’-®Ω’-îª÷-úøôç/ ņ’-éÓ-´ôç e) at 50 to 60 KMPH e) fast by/ slow by 5 min.

Salini: At 11.30. I am sure she will be here f) good at calculations f) by 11.45


atleast by 12.30 Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù-™E Éûª®Ω prepositions:
(11.30 éÀ. éπFÆæç 12.30 éπ™«x Ééπ\-úø’ç-ô’ç- a) from the US b) leave for
ü¿E éπ*a-ûªçí¬ Å†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o) c) age of d) in a short time
sure = ≠æ‡uÅ = éπ*a-ûªçí¬ I) At
áéπ\-úÁ-éπ\úø ¢√ú≈¢Á÷ îª÷úøçúÕ. ii) Planes Ñ ®ÓV™x í∫çôèπ◊ 700 ¢Á’i∞¡Ÿx ü∆öÀ ii) ´÷ ÉçöÀ-éπØ√o ´÷ °æéÀ\©’x 10 Åúø’-í∫’©’ áûª’h=
Yamini: So she is returning from the US. When
a) at 11.30. éπ*a-ûªçí¬ °∂晫Ø√ time èπ◊ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ v°æߪ÷ùç îËߪ’-í∫-©´¤. Our next building is taller than ours by 10 feet.
did she actually leave for the states?
at ¢√úøû√ç. Planes today can travel/ fly at more than iii) ü∆EéÀ DEéÀ ûËú≈ 10 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’=
(Åçõ‰ Ç¢Á’ US †’ç* AJ-íÌ-Ææ’hç-ü¿-†o-´÷ô. 700 miles per hour. This differs from that by Rs 10/- (This is
i) I show 6.15 èπ◊ ¢Á·ü¿-©-´¤-ûª’çC.
ÅÆæ-™„-°æ¤p-úÁ-RxçC Å¢Á’-J-é¬èπ◊?) f) Good at calculations costlier than that by Rs 10/-)
Salini: She left at the age of twenty two, two The first show begins at 6.15
™„éπ\©’ ¶«í¬ ûÁLÆœ Öçúøôç iv) He is taller than his brother by 4 cms
years ago. By then she had completed ii) ´÷ classes 4.30 éÀ Å®·§Úû√®·.
i) Maths ¶«í¬ îËߪ’-í∫-©-í∫ôç= brother éπØ√o Åûªúø’ 4 cms §Òúø´¤.
¢√∞¡x
her software training here. Our classes end/ close at 4.30
good at/ clever at/ bright at Maths ÉO at, by
© Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’. É°æ¤púø’–
(Ç¢Á’èπ◊ 22 à∞¡x-°æ¤púø’, È®çúË∞¡x éÀçü¿ô. Å°æp-öÀ- iii) Ç time èπ◊ Ø√éà Ææçí∫A ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’ 1) From: -D-E-E– '†’ç*— ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úøû√ç.
鬢Á’ Ééπ\úø ûª† software training °æ‹Jh-îË- ii) English ¶«í¬ ®√éπ-§Ú-´ôç=
I did not know this at that time. Kumar: Srikanth is coming from Chennai today
ÆœçC). poor at/ bad at English
iv) ¢√úÁ°æ¤púø’ ´≤ƒh-úø-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? iii) Kesav: How do you know?
Yamini: I was at breakfast when you called to ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-´ôç Ç©-Ææuçí¬/ Eü∆-†çí¬= (FÈ陫 ûÁ©’Ææ’)
tell me that she wanted to see me. I am At what time do you expect him? slow at learning- Kumar: I had it from his brother. (Ñ ¢√®Ωh Ø√èπ◊
surprised that Malini still remembers (Å®·ûË Ééπ\úø At what time •ü¿’©’, when, iv) ûªy®Ωí¬ ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-´ôç= ÅûªúÕ brother †’ç* ûÁL-ÆœçC)
me and told you to phone me. better) Kesav: You know, Srikanth and I are from
quick at learning.
Nellore.
(Ç¢Á’ ††’o îª÷ú≈-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’†o N≠æߪ’ç II) Now let us look at by
îÁ°æp-ú≈-EéÀ F´¤ Ø√èπ◊ §∂ÚØ˛ îËÆœ-†-°æ¤púø’ ؈’ (Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’≤ƒ, Xé¬çû˝, ؈÷ Éü¿l®Ωç ØÁ©÷x®Ω’
a) By 12.30= 12.30 éπ™«x= 12.30 ü∆ô-èπ◊çú≈= ¢√∞¡x¢Ë’). Ééπ\úø From †’ à ÜJéÀ îÁçC†
v¶‰é˙-§∂ƒÆˇd îËÆæ’h-Ø√o†’. ´÷LE É°æp-öÀéà ††’o 12.30èπ◊ í¬F, Åçûª-èπ◊-´·ç-ü¿’-í¬E. ÉC time Íé
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 121
ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úøû√ç.
í∫’®Ω’h-°-ô’d-èπ◊-†oç-ü¿’èπ◊, Ø√èπ◊ §∂ÚØ˛ îËߪ÷-©E é¬èπ◊çú≈, date èπ◊, month èπÿ year èπÿ à time Sankar: Where are you from? (O’üË Ü®Ω’?)
Fèπ◊ îÁ°œp-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ǩ¡a-®Ωuçí¬ ÖçC) ™ Å®·Ø√ ´Jh-Ææ’hçC. Sukumar: I am from Vizag (´÷C Vizag)
Ééπ\úø Sentence ™ from Å®Ωnç îª÷úøçúÕ. O’üË

I will be there by 6.30


Ü®Ω’? ÅE Å®Ωnç= Ñ Å®Ωnç-ûÓØË Where do you
come from? Åçö«ç– Åçõ‰ O’È®-éπ\-úÕoç* ´Ææ’h-
Ø√o®Ω’ ÅE é¬ü¿’, O’üË-´‹®Ω’ ÅE. I come from
Hyderabad Åçõ‰ ´÷C Hyderabad ÅE.
(Å®·ûË Ææçü¿-®√s¥-Eo-•öÀd äéÓ\-≤ƒJ– O’È®-éπ\-úÕoç*
´≤ƒh®Ω’ v°æA ®ÓW – ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊, where do you
Salini: She is that type. She never loses b) at the age of come from? ņ-´îª’a. Where are you com-
i) ؈’ 6.30 éπ™«x Åéπ\úø Öçö«†’=
friendship. äéπ-JéÀ °∂晫Ø√ ´ßª’-Ææ- ing from Åçõ‰ ´÷vûªç, O’®Ω’ É°æ¤púø’ áéπ\-úÕoç*
I will be there by 6.30 (I will be there at
(ûª†™«çöÀüË. friendship ´ü¿’-©’-éÓü¿’). °æ¤púø’– 6.30= 6.30 èπ◊ correctí¬, by 6.30= 6.30 èπ◊ ´Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’? ÅE.)
Yamini: We met only once, that too by chance, i) Children in India are í¬F, Åçûª-èπ◊-´·ç-ü¿’-í¬-F) PRACTISE THE FOLLOWING IN ENGLISH:
a year ago. After that we have met just put to school at the
ii) 20 à∞¡xÍé Tendulkar tests Çúøôç v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç- Sasikanth: ´÷´‚©’í¬ †’¢Áy-°æ¤p-úø’ç-ö«-N-éπ\úø?
once or twice. Good of her to remem- age of 3. Ravikanth: 9.30 éπ™«x Ééπ\-úø’ç-ö«†’. Éçöx correct
î√úø’=
ber me. ¶µ«®Ω-û˝™ °œ©xLo ´‚úÓ M. SURESAN Tendulkar began playing tests by his twen- í¬ 8.45 èπ◊ •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω’-û√†’.
(á°æ¤púÓ Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç éÀçü¿ ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ éπ©’- àôØË School èπ◊ tieth year Sasikanth: 8.45èπ ◊ ؈’ breakfast ™ Öçö«†’.
Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç ¢Á·ü¿-öÀ-≤ƒJ. Ç ûª®√yûª äéπöÀ °æç°æ¤-û√®Ω’. iii) 2003 èπ◊ Åûª†’ ©é~¬-Cµ-é¬J Å®·-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’= Ravikanth: Ç time èπ◊ ؈’ ≤ƒo†ç, breakfast
È®çúø’-≤ƒ-®Ωx-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’. Eïçí¬ ii) Åûª-úø’ 11´ àôØË Chess grand master Åçû√ °æ ‹ Jh îË≤ƒh.
He became a lakhier by 2003.
´’ç*üË– ††’o éπ©-¢√-©-†’-éÓ-´ôç) Åߪ÷uúø’ Sasikanth: ᙫ ´≤ƒh´¤ †’´¤y?
Salini: What's the time by your watch? b) By then= Å°æp-öÀÍé
He became a Chess grand master even at Ravikanth: Bus™, ´÷ Office ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ 10 éÀ.O’
( watch time
F áçûª?) the age of 11/ even at 11 i) I went there at 11.30. By then the match
ü¿÷®Ωç. Åçü¿’-éπE 45E. ´·ç-ü¿’ •ßª’-™‰l-
c) at break fast = breakfast îËÆæ’h-†o-°æ¤púø’. É™«Íí had begun=
Yamini: It is 11.15 ®Ω’û√.
Salini: Mine shows 11.20. My watch is fast by at lunch; at dinner; at bath, etc... Çߪ÷ Ææ´’- ؈-éπ\-úÕéÀ 11.30èπ◊ ¢Á∞«x†’. Å°æp-öÀÍé match Sasikanth: ؈’ bike ™ ´≤ƒh. Traffic jam ™‰éπ-
five minutes or your watch is slow by 5 ߪ÷™x ÅE. v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº-¢Á’içC. §ÚûË 40-50 kmph ¢Ëí∫çûÓ ´ÊÆh ØËE-éπ\-
minutes. Doesn't matter. She will be i) ¢√∞¡Ÿx ¶µçîË-Ææ’h-†o-°æ¤púø’ jokes ¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’. ii) ؈’ ¢Á∞Ïx-Ææ-JéÀ ÅûªEo ¢√∞¡Ÿx B-Ææ’Èé-∞«}®Ω’= úÕéÀ correct í¬ 9.30éÀ îË®Ω’-èπ◊çö«.
here in a short time. They had jokes at their meals/ lunch/ din- By the time I reach there, they had taken Ravikanth: E†o ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ Xé¬çû˝ éπL-¨»úø’.
(Ø√ watch 11.20 îª÷°œ-≤ÚhçC. Ø√ watch 5 ner etc... him away. Åûª†’ lift Éî√aúø’. ´÷´‚-©’-éπØ√o 10
EN’-≥ƒ©’ ´·çüÁjØ√ †úø’-Ææ’hç-ú≈L, ™‰ü∆ F ii) Åûªúø’ ≤ƒo†ç îËÆæ’h-†o-°æ¤púø’ phone ¢Á÷TçC. c) By chance= ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈= by accident. EN’- ≥ƒ©’ ´·çü¿-®Ω’Ø√o.
i) ¢Ë’´· ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ éπ©’Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç= We met Sasikanth: ¶«í¬ drive îË≤ƒhúø’.
watch 5 EN’-≥ƒ©’ Ç©-Ææuçí¬ †úø’-Ææ’hç-ú≈L. He heard the phone ringing when he was
Xé¬çû˝
ANSWER
°∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰-ü¿’™‰. éÌCl-ÊÆ-°æöx ûªE-éπ\-úø’ç-ô’çC.) at bath. by chance/ by accident (accidentally).
Sasikanth: When/ At what time are you here
Yamini: How is she coming? É™«Íí - at that height = Ç áûª’h™ ÅE èπÿú≈ Å™«Íí by mistake= §Ò®Ω-§ƒ-ô’†. usually?
Salini: She is driving. When she last called Åçö«ç. ii) By mistake I posted the letter to him
Ravikanth: By 9.30. I start at home at 8.45
me she was at a distance of 80 Kms. d) at a distance of = ... ü¿÷®Ωç™ instead of to his sister=
Sasikanth: I am at breakfast at 8.45
Suppose she is driving at 50 to 60 i) Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛èπ◊ 300 Km ü¿÷®Ωç™ §Ò®Ω-§ƒ-ô’† ¢√∞¡x îÁ™„x-LéÀ •ü¿’©’, Ç Öûªh®Ωç Ravikanth: By then I finish my both, breakfast,
KMPH, she will be here by 11.45 at the ÖçC ÅûªúÕéÀ post î˨»†’. etc.
most. Vijayawada is at a distance of 300 Km from iii) Åûªúø’ àüÓ §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’ ´©x ÅC î˨»úø’=
Sasikanth: How do you come?
(Ç¢Á’ Car ™ ´≤ÚhçC. Ç¢Á’ Ø√èπ◊ Phone Hyderabad. He did it by mistake. Ravikanth: By bus. My home is at a distance of
îËÆœ-†-°æ¤púø’ 80 Kms ü¿÷®Ωç™ ÖçC. í∫çôèπ◊ ii) Åçûªü¿÷®Ωç™ Öçúø-ôç-´©x Åûª-E-éπ\-úÕéÀ ûª®Ωîª÷ d) By your watch= O’ watch
v°æ鬮Ωç. 10 km from office. So I start 45 min-
50/ 60 Km ¢Ëí∫çûÓ ´≤Úhç-ü¿-†’éÓ. ®√™‰úø’ i) Ø√ watch ™ time 8 Å®·çC. utes earlier.
11.45éπ™«x Ééπ\úø Öçô’çC.) Being at such a distance (= so far off) he
It's 8 by my watch. Sasikanth: I come on bike. If there is no traffic
Yamini: You are good at calculations. cannot come here frequently.
ii) O’ watch ™ time áçûª?= jam, I reach here exactly at 9.30,
´’†ç last lesson ™ prepositions discuss e) at 50 to 60 KMPH driving at 40 to 50 kmph.
(îªJaç-îªôç) î˨»ç éπü∆. Let's (let us) know What's the time by your watch?
50/ 60 Km ¢Ëí∫çûÓ. ¢Ëí∫ç í∫çôéÓ, EN’-≥ƒ-EéÓ îÁÊ°p- Ravikanth: I met Srikanth by chance yester-
something more. (´’J-éÌçûª ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç). at
ô-°æ¤púø’ ¢√úøû√ç. e) Fast/ slow by= Éô’-´ç-öÀ-îÓôx by 'áçûª¢Ë’®Ωèπ◊— day. He gave me a lift on his bike.
°j Conversation ™ We have used the two i) í∫çôèπ◊ 70 Km = at 70 KMPH; Second èπ◊
ÅØË N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC. So I was here earlier than usual by
prepositions 'at' and 'by'. Let's look where we 1230 Åúø’-í∫’© ¢Ëí∫çûÓ = at 1230 feet per i) ´÷ ņo Ø√éπØ√o È®çúË∞¡Ÿx °ü¿l= 10 minutes.
have used them: second etc. My brother is my elder by two years. Sasikanth: He is good at driving.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -≤Ú-´’¢√®Ωç 6 -´÷-Ja 2006
Vighnesh: Hi Manikanth you appear very a) India became independent on the 15th
happy today. August 1947.
(Ñ ®ÓV †’´¤y î√™« ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ éπE-°œ- b) The college closed preparation holidays on
Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤) the 2nd March.
Manikanth: You are right. Dad called home this c) India became a republic on Jan 26th 1950.
morning. He is coming on the 10th, °jSentence
™ date
îÁÊ°p-ô-°æ¤púø’ month
that is, the day after tomorrow. (January)
´·çü¿’ îÁ°œp ûª®√yûª ûËC îÁ§ƒpç éπü∆.
(§Òü¿’l† ´÷ Ø√†o §∂ÚØ˛ î˨»®Ω’. Åçü¿’éπØË on Jan 26th ÅØ√oç. Months (ØÁ©©’),
á©’xçúÕ Åçõ‰ 10´ ûËC† ´Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’) Ææç´-ûªq-®√© (years) ´·çü¿çû√ in.
Vighnesh: So he will be here on saturday. a) Ramu: When did Saran come here?
That's good. Will he go back to the Raghu: He came here in February.
states again? [every October / November 鬕öÀd on ®√ü¿’] ✓ Since = DE Å®Ωnç í∫ûªç™ äéπ time †’ç* ÅE.
(February ™ ´î√aúø’)
(Åçõ‰ ¨¡E-¢√®Ωç Ééπ\-úÕéÀ ´≤ƒh-®Ω-†o-´÷ô. Ramu: When is he going to complete his
c) The child was born in August 2005. Åçõ‰ °∂晫-† time †’ç*, °∂晫-† ®ÓV †’ç*,
´’Sx states èπ◊ ¢Á∞«h®√?) research project? (Gúøf August 2005 ™ °æ¤öÀdçC - in August) °∂晫E ØÁ© /Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç / Ææç°∂æ’ô† †’ç*
Manikanth: Yes, he will be leaving again in a d) The child was born last August
ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ since ¢√úøû√ç.
(Åûªúø’ ûª† -KÂÆ®˝a -v§ƒ-ñ„é˙d-†’ á°æ¤púø’ °æ‹Jh i) India has been independent since 1947
month. He has to be back there in îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√oúø’?) (§Ú®·† August™ °æ¤öÀdçC–last ÖçC 鬕öÀd in
April. (1947 †’ç*)
Raghu: I think in another year; that is in 2007. ™‰ü¿’)
(Å´¤†’. äéπ ØÁ© ûª®√yûª ¢ÁRx-§Ú-û√®Ω’. ✓ Å™«Íí Last year, next year, that year, this ii) I have not met him since last January
(ÉçéÓ Ææç´-ûªq-®√-E-éπ-†’-èπ◊çö«, Åçõ‰ 2007™) January
year, every year ´·çü¿’ in ®√ü¿’ (í∫ûª †’ç* ؈-ûªEo éπ©’q-éÓ-™‰ü¿’)
àv°œ-™¸™ Çߪ’† Åéπ\úø Öçú≈L.) Ramu: When did he begin it?
Vighnesh: Will he settle down there? a) We had heavy rains last year Compare the following:
Raghu: In 2005
(
í∫ûª àú≈C ´®√{©’ ¶«í¬ °æú≈f®·.) a) India has been a republic since 1950.
(Åéπ\úË Æœn®Ω°æúøû√®√?) b) There are only 28 days in February, except
Manikanth: No, but he will be there for quite a ✓ Last year ´·çü¿’ in ™‰ü¿’. b) India has been a republic for the past/ for the
once in four years.
longtime. b) There was an earthquake that year last 55 years.
(Ø√©’-Íí-∞¡xèπ◊ äéπ-≤ƒJ ûª°æp February ™ 28 ®ÓV™‰
(é¬ü¿’. Å®·ûË éÌ-Ø√o-∞¡x-§ƒ-ô’ Åéπ\úË Öçö«®Ω’) (Ç Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç ¶µº÷éπç°æç ´*açC.) ✓ a)™ 1950 †’ç* Republic í¬ ÖçC Åçô’Ø√oç.
Öçö«®·.) Åçõ‰ since, point of time ´·ç-ü¿’ ¢√úø’-ûª’Ø√oç.
Vighnesh: When will you people join him? ✓ That year ´·çü¿’ – in ™‰ü¿’)
✓ b) ™ 55 à∞¡Ÿxí¬ (Period of time) ÅE ´u´Cµ
(O’®Ωç-ü¿®Ω÷ Çߪ’† ü¿í∫_-®Ω-Èé-°æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞«h®Ω’?) c) He will return next year
Manikanth: I have told you my sister is getting (¢√úø’ ´îËa Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç AJ-íÌ-≤ƒhúø’) 鬕öÀd for ¢√úø’-ûª’Ø√oç.
a) He has not seen a movie since January
married on the 4th of April. The ✓ next year ´·çü¿’ in ™‰ü¿’)
bridegroom is a software engineer
there. So she will be leaving on the
-Ç-Ççí∫
çí∫x-¶x-¶µ«µ«-≠-≠æ-ùæ-ù 122 d) He goes to Ooty every year
b) He has not seen a movie for the past / for the
last two months.
10th or so of April. Dad will leave a
week after that.Mother and I will
join him next year, after I finish my
studies.
(´÷ Åéπ\ °Rx àv°œ™¸ 4† ÅE îÁ§ƒp†’
éπü∆. °Rx-éÌ-úø’èπ◊ Åéπ\úø ≤ƒ°∂ˇd-¢Ë®˝ Éç>-
During the training period...
F®˝. Ç¢Á’ 10† ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ûª’çC. -ûª®√y-ûª -
¢√®Ωç ®Ó-V-©èπ◊ -Ø√-†oí¬®Ω’ -¢Á-∞«h®Ω’.؈’, c) There are 12 months
in a year. ( Ææç´-ûªq-®Ωç™ (v°æA Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç Å-ûª-úø’ ÜöÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡-û√úø’) a) ™ January †’ç* b) ™ È®çúø’ ØÁ©-©’í¬
Å´’t ´îËa Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç Ø√ îªü¿’´¤ °æ‹®Ωh- ✓ (Every year ´·çü¿’ in ™‰ü¿’.
12 ØÁ©-©’ç-ö«®·) Now practise the following
®·† ûª®√yûª ¢Á∞«hç.) ✓ Å™«Íí This week, that week, next week,
Vighnesh: I have my visa interview on 18th d) He was born on 10th Dheeraj: ØËFo-éπØ√o °ü¿l-¢√--úÕ-†-E áçü¿’-éπ-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-
every week, last week ´·çü¿’ in ®√ü¿’. (Week
September 1984.
March. I have got admission into ´·çü¿’ á°æ¤púø÷ in) Ø√o´¤?
MBA in one of the universities in ( ¢√úø’ 10th September Neeraj: †’´¤y July™ °æ¤ö«d´¤, ؈’
a) I saw him here three times last week
the US. The course will begin on 1984 ™ °æ¤ö«dúø’.) September™ °æ¤ö«d†’ é¬-•-öÀd.
Imp...
M. SURESAN (§Ú®·† ¢√®Ωç ؈-ûªEoéπ\úø ´‚úø’-≤ƒ®Ω’x îª÷¨»)
the 7th May. I propose to leave in Dheeraj: é¬F -´’-† -É-ü¿l®Ωç school™ June 12 †
(Last week ´·çü¿’ in ™‰ü¿’)
the 4th week of April. i) On – before dates and days;
e) For quite a long time: îË®√ç.
(Ø√èπ◊ -O≤ƒ Éç-ô®Ω÷yu -´÷-Ja 18-† -

in – before months and years.
'the'
For Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç... (for Åçõ‰ Éçûª-鬩çí¬ ÅE.) Neeraj: §Ú®·†¢√®Ωç ü∆é¬ ´’E-ü¿l®Ωç äÍé ´ßª’-Ææ-
Öç-C. Å¢Á’-J-鬙-E ߪ‚E-´-Kq-öÀ™ -ûË-D-©èπ◊ ´·çüÁ-°æ¤púø’ ®√¢√L. i) (He was here for a week.) †’-èπ◊Ø√o ؈’. F date of birth áéπ\úÓ
áç.G.à. Æ‘ö¸ ´*açC. éÓ®Ω’q -¢Ë’ 7-† On the 10th June; on the 15th of August, etc.
(¢√úÕ-éπ\úø ¢√®Ωç ÖØ√oúø’.) îª÷¨». Å°æ¤púø’ ûÁL-ÆœçC.
v§ƒ®Ω綵º´’´¤-ûª’çC. ؈’ -àv°œ™ ¸ ✓
Å®·ûË dates, days, months, years èπ◊ ´·çü¿’ Dheeraj:
ii) (I waited for two hours for you yesterday.) Ñ ØÁ© 12 Ø√ °æ¤öÀd† ®ÓV †’´¤y ûª°æpéπ
Ø√-™_ ¢√®Ωç-™ ¢Á∞¡-û√†’.) Next (´îËa), last (§Ú®·†), every (v°æA) this ®√. 2002 †’ç* Ø√ °æ¤öÀd† ®ÓV-Èé-°æ¤púø÷
Manikanth: Best of luck for you. During your (Ñ), that (Ç) ÅE-´ÊÆh Å°æ¤púø’ dates and days E†o FéÓÆæç È®çúø’ í∫çô©’ îª÷¨»
stay there you can meet dad. He iii) Any degree course is for three years
´Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤ éπü∆. Ñ≤ƒJ èπÿú≈ ®√.
èπ◊ ´·çü¿’ on é¬F, months and years ´·çü¿’ Neeraj:
will be happy to be of help to you. in é¬F ®√´¤. (à degree Course Å®·Ø√ ´‚úË-∞¡x-§ƒô’ Ñ ≤ƒJ ؈’ ®√™‰-ØË¢Á÷. Ø√ éÓÆæç Ü∞x
(Best of luck) 1. a) He will be here on Sunday. (Åûª†’ ÇC-¢√®Ωç Öçô’çC.) Ø√©’í∫’ ®ÓV-©’í¬ ´÷ Åéπ\ߪ’u áü¿’-®Ω’-

(†’´y-éπ\úø Ö†o-°æ¤úø’ ´÷ Ø√†o í¬Jo Ééπ\úø Öçö«úø’.) Sunday ´·çü¿’ on ®√´-ú≈Eo 鬩-´u-´Cµ (Period of time) ´·çü¿’ for ¢√úøû√ç. îª÷-≤ÚhçC. ´’Sx ؈’ ´îËa ≤Ú´’-¢√-®Ω¢Ë’
éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´îª’a. Çߪ’† Fèπ◊ ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ) a) He has been here for the past two days
®√í∫-©†’.
à ≤ƒßª’ç Å®·Ø√ îË≤ƒh®Ω’. b) He will be here next Sunday (´îËa (next) ANSWERS
(È®çvúÓ-V-©’í¬ Çߪ’-E-éπ\úø Öçô’-Ø√oúø’)
Vighnesh: Thank you. As soon as I go there, I Sunday ¢√úÕ-éπ\úø ´¤çö«úø’ - next Sunday Dheeraj: Why do you think I am older than
b) The train stops here only for 5 minutes
shall get in touch with him. 鬕öÀd on ¢√úøç] you?
( È®j©’ Ééπ\úø 5 EN’-≥ƒ©’ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Çí∫’-ûª’çC.
(ü∑∆çèπÿu. Åéπ\-úøéÀ ¢Á∞¡x-í¬ØË Çߪ’-†ûÓ 2. a) I met him on the 26th Feb. Neeraj: You were born in July and I was born
f) During your stay = (†’´¤y Ö†o 鬩ç™)
touch ™ Öçö«†’.) (؈’ ÅûªúÕo °∂œv•-´J 26† éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√o). ûËC© in September.
✓ äéπ ´u´Cµ ™°æ© ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´îËa-ô’dí¬ Å®·ûË dur-
✓ At, by time èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† prepositions. Å™«Íí ´·çü¿’ On ®√´-ú≈Eo í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. Dheeraj: But we joined school on 12th June.
ing ¢√úøû√ç.
in, on, during, for, from, to/till, since èπÿú≈ b) I met him last 26th. (§Ú®·† 26† éπ©’q-èπ◊Ø√o) Neeraj: Till last week I had thought we were
i) During his visit here, he did not meet me
timeèπ◊ Åçõ‰ Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† preps. last Öçúøôç ´©x 'on' ®√ü¿’) the same age. I then saw your date of
(prepositions) (Åûª-†’ -ûª-† °æ®Ωu-ô-†-™ ††’o éπ©’q-éÓ-™‰ü¿’.)
c) Salaries are paid on the first of every birth some where I knew it then.
Look at the following expressions from the ii) During the training period, you do not get
month. [on the first - on] í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ any salary Dheeraj: My birth day is on the 12th this
conversation at the beginning of this lesson:
d) Salaries are paid every 1st. (Péπ~ù« 鬩ç™ Fèπ◊ @ûªç ®√ü¿’) month. Do attend it. You have been
a) This morning b) on the 10th c) on satur-
(v°æA ØÁ™« ¢Á·ü¿öÀ ûËC† @û√©’ îÁLx-≤ƒh®Ω’) iii) During the show there was some distur- attending (coming for) my birth day
day d) in a month e) for quite a longtime
Ééπ\úø every 1st 鬕öÀd on ™‰ü¿’. bance since 2002. Don't fail this time.
f) on the 4th of April g) on the 10th of April h)
3. a) Deepavali comes in October or November. time Neeraj: I'm afraid I may not come/ I doubt if I
on 18th March /the 7 th May i) in the 4th week (Ç v°æü¿-®Ωz† ™ àüÓ Åçûª-®√ߪ’ç éπL-TçC.)
October
(D§ƒ-´R November
™ é¬F ™ é¬F iv) During his tenure as President, he visited can come - My sister has been wait-
j) during your stay Days (sunday, monday,etc.)
month
´Ææ’hçC). Ééπ\úø in
´·çü¿’ ®√´-ú≈Eo many foreign countries. ing for me for the past four days at my
dates (the 10th, the 18th April)èπ◊ ´·çü¿’, on
í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. village. I can come back only next
®√´-ú≈Eo í∫´’-Eç* Öçö«®Ω’. Å™«Íí months and (Åüµ¿u-èπ~◊-úÕí¬ Çߪ’† °æü¿-O-é¬-©ç™ î√™« Nü˨»©’
b) Deepavali comes every October/November. îª÷¨»úø’. Tenure - õ„†÷uÅ = °æü¿-O -鬩ç) Monday.
years in
´·çü¿’ ´≤ÚhçC éπü∆?
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -•’-üµ¿¢√®Ωç 8 -´÷-Ja 2006
Viswanath: When does the temple near your Viswanath: A few days ago our friend Trinath
place open? met me. You know he had been
(O’ ÉçöÀ ü¿í∫_®Ω temple á°æ¤púø’ ûÁ®Ω’-≤ƒh®Ω’?) away for long. He said he would
meet me the next evening, but he
Lokanath: In the morning or in the evening?
did not come.
(§Òü¿’lØ√o, ≤ƒßª’ç-vûª´÷?)
(´’† v°∂çú˛ vAØ√ü∑˛, éÌCl®ÓV©éÀçü¿
Viswanath: In the morning.
éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’. ´’®Ω’-ÆæöÀ®ÓV éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«-
(§Òü¿’lØËo) †-Ø√oúø’. é¬E ®√™‰ü¿’. Åûªúø’ î√™« 鬩ç
Lokanath: It opens at 5 in the morning and †’ç* Ééπ\úø ™‰úø’.)
closes at 12 noon. Lokanath: Trinath is unreliable.
(§Òü¿’l† 5 í∫çô-©èπ◊ ûÁ®Ω’-≤ƒh®Ω’. ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç iv) She is at leisure in the evenings Ramana: Well, let me see; that is the 4th Feb,
(vAØ√ü∑˛ Åçûª ´÷ô E©’-°æ¤-éÌØË¢√úø’ é¬ü¿’.
12èπ◊ ´‚≤ƒh®Ω’.) Unreliable = Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æ-úø-ü¿-í∫-E)
≤ƒßª’ç-vû√©’ Ç¢Á’ BJ-éπí¬ Öçô’çC. isn't it? That's right. On the morning
(leisure = ™„ï®˝ – measure ™ su ™«í∫ – '™„— of the 4th Feb I left for Guntur. So I
Viswanath: In the evening? Viswanath: Well then. Meet you again.
ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç) didn't take the walk that morning.
(≤ƒßª’çvûªç?) (´’ç*C. ´’Sx éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çö«.) b) at noon: ÆæJí¬_ ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç 12 í∫çô©’ noon.
Lokanath: The temple is open from 4 in the Lokanath: Bye. DEéÀ Åçõ‰ noon èπ◊ ´·çü¿’ ´÷vûªç at noon, the (Åçõ‰... Ç®ÓV Ø√©’íÓ ûËD éπü∆. éπÈ®Íéd.
evening till 8 in the evening. ´’†ç timeèπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† prepositions ®√ü¿’. Ø√©’íÓ ûËC Öü¿ßª’ç ؈’ í∫’çô÷®Ω’
(≤ƒßª’çvûªç Ø√©’í∫’ †’ç* 8 ´®Ωèπ◊ ûÁJîË îªJa-Ææ’hØ√oç éπü∆ éÌEo lessons †’ç*. This les- i) ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç 12èπ◊ Ææ÷®Ω’uúø’ ´’† ØÁAh O’ü¿ Öçö«úø’ ¢Á∞«x.)
Öçô’çC.) son too deals with prepositions of time. The Sun is exactly above our heads at noon. Bhanu: When did you return?
ii) ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç °æØÁoç-úÕç-öÀéÀ Åûª†’ •ßª’-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞«xúø’
Viswanath: I thought it opened from three in (á°æ¤púø’ AJ-íÌ-î√a´¤)
He went out at 12 noon/at noon. Ramana: I returned on the evening of the 5th
the afternoon.
c) In the night or at night -
(Å®·üÓ ûËD ≤ƒßª’çvûªç).
(´’üµ∆u£æ«oç ´‚úÕçöÀ †’ç* ûÁJ* in
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 123
Ñ È®ç-úÕ-çöÀ™ àüÁjØ√ ņ-´îª’a. Å®·ûË, ûª®√yûª
The morning, the evening, the afternoon
Öçô’ç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊Ø√o.) the ®√´ôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.
´·çü¿’ in ´Ææ’hçC. Å®·ûË Â°j conversation ™
™«í¬ °∂晫-†-®ÓV, °∂晫† ûËC morning, after-

She is very busy in the mornings


noon, evening Å®·ûË on ®√´ôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.
1) on the morning of the 4th
2) on the evening of the 5th
3) on the after noon of Sunday.
We met him on a Sunday afternoon
Lokanath: On festive days it is open till 2 in the deal with = îªJaç-îªôç/ i) Ñ®ÓV Öü¿ßª’ç, Ñ®ÓV ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç, Ñ®ÓV
afternoon. For example it was äéπ N≠æߪ’ç îª÷Ææ’-éÓôç Åûªúø’ ®√vA Ç©-Ææuçí¬ Evü¿-§Ú-û√úø’
He goes to bed late in the night/late at night. ≤ƒßª’çvûªç
open at one on the afternoon of etc.
ii) This morning, this afternoon, this evening.
Sivarathri and closed late at night.
®√vA Åçûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ ¢Ë’™Ô\E Öçúøôç éπ≠dçæ
Look at the following
It's difficult to be awake/keep awake so late (today morning/ today afternoon, today
(°æçúøí∫ ®ÓV™x ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç È®çúø’ ´®Ωèπ◊ expressions in the con-
in the night/so late at night. evening
ņç).
versation above:
ûÁJîË Öçô’çC. Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ùèπ◊ P´-®√vA iii) Åûªúø’ ®√vA î√™« §Òü¿’l-§Ú-ߪ÷éπ ÉçöÀéÀ ´î√aúø’. Ñ®ÓV ®√vA = tonight
®ÓV ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç äçöÀ-í∫ç-ôèπ◊ èπÿú≈ ûÁJ* a) In the morning or in the M. SURESAN He came home very late at night/in the night.
(this night, today night
ņç)
Öç-*, ®√vA î√™« Ç©-Ææuçí¬ ´‚¨»®Ω’.) evening. ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ in the night éπØ√o at night ¢√úø’éπ i) ØËF-®ÓV ®√vA Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√o
Viswanath: I visited the temple on the morning b) at 12 noon áèπ◊\´.
I am leaving for Vijayawada tonight
of Saturday. I went to your place c) till 8 in the evening d) in the day = °æí∫-öÀ-°æ‹ô. 2) Programme Ñ®ÓV §Òü¿’l† ¢Á·ü¿-™„jçC
too. You were out. d) in the afternoon i) ®√vA-éπØ√o °æí∫-öÀ-°æ‹ô îªü¿-´ôç ¢Ë’©’
The programme began this morning.
e) on the afternoon of Sivarathri
(؈’ í∫’úÕéÀ ¨¡E-¢√®Ωç Öü¿ßª’ç ¢Á∞«x†’. It is better to study in/ during the day than at (Today morning é¬ü¿’.)
Å™«Íí O’ ÉçöÀéÀ ´î√a†’. †’´¤y •ßª’-öÀéÀ f) at night night. (during = Ç ´u´-Cµ™) 3) Ñ®ÓV ´’üµ∆u-£æ«o¢Ë’ ؈-ûªEo éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√o
¢Á∞«x´¤.) g) on the morning of Saturday
ii) We move about more during/ in the day than I met him only this afternoon
Lokanath: On the morning of Saturday? Yea, I h) every evening at night (Today afternoon é¬ü¿’)
went to my sister's. She was plan- i) last evening
°æí∫-öÀ-°æ‹ô áèπ◊\´ A®Ω’-í∫’û√ç ®√vA-éπçõ‰. 4) Ñ®ÓV ≤ƒßª’çvûªç ¢√∞Ôx-≤ƒh®Ω’
ing to go to Delhi on the evening of j) the next evening
iii) He worked day and night to educate his chil- They will come this evening
Sunday. I was there to help her in Ééπ\úø îª÷Ææ’hØ√oç éπü∆: Åçû√ morning, evening, dren (Today evening é¬ü¿’)
packing. night, noon ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀE áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√ú≈ç. É´Fo
°æ‹ô©’ (parts of the day) ûª† °œ©x-©†’ îªC-Nç-îª-ö«-EéÀ ®√vAç-•-´-∞¡Ÿx/ -®√-vûª-†éπ Å™«Íí, E†o-®√vA = last night, E†o ≤ƒßª’çvûªç =
(¨¡E-¢√®Ωç §Òü¿’lØ√o? Å´¤†’. ´÷ °æí∫-©-†éπ °æE-îË-¨»úø’. last evening. (yesterday night, yesterday
Åéπ\ߪ’u ÉçöÀéÀ ¢Á∞«x†’. ÇC-¢√®Ωç °∂晫-†-°æ‹ô – morning, evening etc.
Ééπ \ úø day and night ´·çü¿’ à preposition ¢√úøç. evening ņç).
≤ƒßª’çvûªç Ç¢Á’ úµÕMxéÀ -¢Á-∞¡Ÿ-ûª’ç-úø-ôçûÓ ïJ-T† N≠æߪ’ç í∫’Jç* îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰, Ç °æ‹ô (part
That, this, every, last, next OöÀ™x à¢ÁjØ√ morn-
≤ƒ´÷†’x Ææ®Ωl-ôç™ Ææ£æ…-ߪ’-°æ-ú≈-©E of the day) ´·çü¿’, the °öÀd, ü∆E ´·çüÁ-°æ¤púø÷ e) At midnight = ®√vA 12 í∫çô-©èπ◊.
ing, evening, afternoon, night ´·çü¿-®Ω-¢√-úÕûË in,
¢Á∞«x†’.) 'in' ¢√úøû√ç. i) You can wake me up even at midnight if you
on àO-®√´¤.
want my help = Ø√ ≤ƒßª’ç éÓÆæç ´’üµ¿u-®√-vûª-®·Ø√
Viswanath: Do you go to your sister's frequent- é¬-™‰-ñ ¸ §Òü¿’l† 8éÀ ¢Á·ü¿-©-´¤-ûª’çC
1) He came to me that morning (on ®√ü¿’)
ly? The college starts at 8 in the morning. ††’o ™‰°æ-´îª’a.
2) I sent it to him that afternoon (on ®√ü¿’)
鬙‰ñ ¸ ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç È®çúÕç-öÀéÀ Å®·-§Ú-ûª’çC. ii) The train arrive here at midnight
(O’ Åéπ\ߪ’u ¢√Rxç-öÀéÀ ûª®Ωîª÷ ¢Á∞«h¢√?) 3) The doctor checks him up every morning
The college closes at 2 in the afternoon Train Ééπ\-úÕéÀ ®√vA 12èπ◊ ´Ææ’hçC.
Lokanath: Almost every evening. They live (v°æA-®ÓV Öü¿ßª’ç doctor Åûª-úÕE °æK-éÀ~-≤ƒhúø’.)
a) In the morning, in the evening, in the The morning, the evening, the afternoon, the
very close to our place. (on/in ®√ü¿’)
afternoon night ´·çü¿’ in ´Ææ’hçC; Å™«Íí noon, mid day,
(ü∆ü∆°æ¤ v°æA ≤ƒßª’çvûªç.) 4) He left for Bangalore that night (on ®√ü¿’)
i) My mother gets up at 5 in the morning night, mid night ´·çü¿’ at ´Ææ’hçC.
Viswanath: But I saw you at home last 5) He goes out 9 every night and comes back at
´÷ Å´’t Öü¿ßª’ç Å®·CçöÀéÀ ™‰Ææ’hçC. Bhanu: You come here in the mornings; why?
evening. 11.
ii) I saw him in the park at 8 in the evening. (Ééπ\-úÕéÀ §Òü¿’lØËo áçü¿’-éÌ-≤ƒh´¤?)
(Å®·ûË E†o ≤ƒßª’çvûªç †’Nyçöx (v°æA-®√vA ûÌN’t-Cç-öÀéÀ •ßª’-öÀ-éÀ-¢ÁRx 11 í∫ç-ô-©èπ◊
؈’ ¢√úÕE E†o ≤ƒßª’çvûªç áE-N’-Cç-öÀéÀ îª÷¨»-†’. Ramana: You see me on my morning walk up AJ-íÌ-≤ƒhúø’) (In/ on/ at àO-®√´¤)
Öçúøôç îª÷¨»†’.) í∫´’-Eéπ: English ™ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ®√vA °æúø’-èπ◊ØË´®Ωèπ◊, to the river bank 6) I wanted to meet him the next morning but I
Lokanath: Yea, I was at home last evening. ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ evening ÅØË Åçö«®Ω’. ü∆ü∆°æ¤ 9 (†C äúø’f ü∆é¬ §Òü¿’l† †úÕ-îË-ô°æ¤púø’ ؈’ was busy.
My sister was away shopping. ´®Ωèπ◊ evening ÅØË Åçö«ç. Fèπ◊ éπE-°œ-≤ƒh†’. (On the next morning é¬ü¿’)
(E†o ؈’ ÉçöxØË ÖØ√o, ≤ƒßª’çvûªç ´÷ iii) She is very busy in the mornings.
Bhanu: But I didn't see you on the morning of
Åéπ\ߪ’u shopping èπ◊ ¢ÁRxçC.) §Òü¿’l-†-°æ‹ô Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ÅÆæ©’ BJ-èπ◊ç-úøü¿’. Saturday.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -¨¡Ÿ-véπ¢√®Ωç 10 -´÷-Ja 2006
Karthik: Kousik, have you seen Mallik? 2) If I don't submit it tomorrow - verb, do submit
( ´’Lxé˙†’ îª÷¨»¢√?) (= submit) = submit
Í®°æ¤ ؈’ îËߪ’-éπ-§ÚûË.
Kousik: I haven't met him since the day before 3) If I do not go now - Verb, do go (=go) É°æ¤púø’
yesterday. Well, What's the matter? ؈’ ¢Á∞¡x-éπ-§ÚûË.
(¢Á·†oöÀ†’ç* éπ©-´-™‰ü¿’. àçöÀ N≠æߪ’ç?) 4) If I see him - verb, see = ؈’ Åûª-úÕE
Karthik: If you happen to see him, tell him to îª÷ÊÆh/éπLÊÆh
call me or meet me. I need to see him 5) If I go to his place - verb, go= ؈’ ¢√Rxç-öÀéÀ
urgently. ¢ÁRûË
(¢√úÕE †’´¤y îª÷ÊÆh ††’o éπ©-´´’ØÁjØ√ 6) If I go now - verb - go, É°æ¤púø’ ؈’ ¢Á∞Ïh
îÁ°æ¤p. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ §∂ÚØ˛ Å®·Ø√ îËߪ’-´’†’. 7) If he sends me the books- verb, sends - ¢√úø’ 7) If he sends me the books - d) You get the books when you pay the money
books
¢√úÕE ؈’ ¢ÁçôØË éπ©-¢√-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç Ø√èπ◊ °æç°œûË °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ ¢√úø’ Ø√èπ◊ °æç°œûË,
ÖçC) (úø•’s îÁLxç-*-†-°æ¤púË Fèπ◊ °æ¤Ææh-é¬-™Ô-≤ƒh®·. úø•’s
IMP: É™«çöÀ verb Ö†o group of words †’ I shall be happy - îÁLxç-*-†-°æ¤púø’ – when you pay the money -
Kousik: What is so urgent about it?
clause Åçö«ç. (ÉC î√™« ´·êuç. í∫’®Ω’hç-- ؈’ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æú≈h conditional clause)
(àçôçûª Å´-Ææ®Ωç?) éÓçúÕ. Ééπ\úÕ†’ç* ´’†ç clauses ûÓ deal 7) ™ îª÷úøçúÕ. ؈’ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úË-üÁ-°æ¤púø’– If he sends É™«çöÀ¢Ë´-®·Ø√ ÆæÍ®, conditions †’ ûÁLÊ° claus-
Karthik: He has two books of mine with him. I îËÆæ’hçö«ç) me the books, Åçõ‰ ¢√úø’ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ °æç°œûË –
es - conditional clauses.
need the books for my assignment. If I 鬕öÀd Ø√ ÆæçûÓ-≥ƒ-EéÀ ≠æ®Ωûª’ (condition) ¢√úø’
So a CLAUSE is a group of words with a verb.
don't submit the assignment tomor- °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ °æç°æôç. If clauses á°æ¤púø÷ É™«çöÀ If I see him - Ñ conditional clause – ؈-ûª-úÕE
Some more examples of clauses (Clauses éπLÊÆh – Éçé¬ éπ©-´-™‰ü¿’. éπ©-¢√L – Åçõ‰ ÉC future
row, I lose marks. conditions †’ ûÁ©’-°æ¤-û√®·. É™« conditions †’
(Ø√ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ È®çúø’ ¢√úÕ ü¿í∫_®Ω’Ø√o®·. Ø√ ´’J-éÌEo Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù©’) ûÁLÊ° clauses †’ conditional clauses Åçö«ç. (¶µºN-≠æuûª’h)†’ ûÁLÊ° clause. Å®·ûË Éçü¿’™ verb
assignment èπ◊ ÅN Å´-Ææ®Ωç. Í®°æöÀ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ conversation ™E clauses (1) to (7) - 'see' future tense é¬ü¿’. Present tense ÅØËC
™°æ© submit îËߪ’-éπ-§ÚûË, ´÷®Ω’\©’ ÅFo èπÿú≈ conditional clauses. Ééπ\úÕ condi- í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. Åçõ‰ àçöÀ? Conditional Clause
tional clauses ÅFo èπÿú≈ 'if' ûÓ begin Å´¤-ûª’- Future †’ ûÁLÊ°üÁjØ√, Åçü¿’-™ E verb future
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 124
§Úû√®·.)
Kousik: Phone him or go to his place. Ø√o®·éπü∆. conditional clauses, if ûÓØË é¬èπ◊çú≈, tense ™ Öçúøü¿’.
(¢√úÕéÀ phone Å®·Ø√ îÁ®·u, ™‰ü¿çõ‰ éÌEo Éûª®Ω ´÷ô-©-ûÓ†÷ v§ƒ®Ω綵ºç 鬴a. Åçõ‰ conditional clause ™ shall/ will ®√´¤.
¢√Rxç-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡Ÿ})
Karthik: I've called his home twice already. He

If you happen to see him


is out. He will be back in an hour, his
mother told me. I have to go home
now urgently to take mother to hospi-
tal. If I do not go now, mother will be in
trouble.
1) Though she likes music (verb - likes, though a) Unless he pays the
(È®çúø’-≤ƒ®Ω’x §∂ÚØ˛ î˨». ¢√úø’ •ßª’-öÀ-Èé- ´’S} îÁ°æ¤ hØ√oç. conditional clause, future
-Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ) money, I will not give
∞«xúø’. í∫çôûª®√yûª AJT ´≤ƒh-úøE ¢√∞¡x´’t N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo îÁ°œpØ√ èπÿú≈, Åçü¿’™ verb future
2) When he was here (verb- was) him the book
îÁ°œpçC. ØËEç-öÀéÀ ûªy®Ωí¬ ¢Á∞«xL. ´÷ tense Öçúøü¿’. Åçõ‰ conditional clause ™
Å´’t†’ hospital èπ◊ BÆæ’-Èé-∞¡x-ú≈-EéÀ. É°æ¤púø’ 3) He knows that... (verb- knows) (¢√úø’ úø•’s îÁLxÊÆh ûª°æp,
shall/ will ®√´¤. °j† îÁ°œp† ™«çöÀ conditions ™
4) After he had done it.. (verb - had done)
؈’ ¢Á∞¡x-éπ-§ÚûË Å´’t É•sçC °æúø’-ûª’çC.) ؈’ ¢√úÕéÀ °æ¤Ææhéπç
present tense verbs ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ´≤ƒh®·.
Kousik: If see him I'll definitely tell him about É´y†’.
É™« verb Ö†o group of words ÅEoç-öÀE a) Doctor E†’o °æK-éÀ~ç-*† ûª®√yûª ´’çü¿’-L-≤ƒhúø’ –
the books. Unless - Å®·ûË ûª°æp,
clauses M. SURESAN The doctor will give you medicines, after he
Åçö«ç.
(¢√úÕE îª÷ÊÆh books N≠æߪ’ç îÁ§ƒh) É™« ´’†ç conversation (at the beginning of Unless you study well
examines you (will examine ®√ü¿’)
Karthik: If you go to his place, you can see = conditional
this lesson) ™ç* BÆœ† clauses †’ °æJ-Q-Lü∆lç. †’´¤y ¶«í¬ îªC-NûË ûª°æp...
him. b) ÉçöÀéÀ ¢ÁR}† ûª®√yûª Nv¨»çA BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«†’ =
clause
(†’´¤y ¢√úÕç-öÀéÀ -¢Á-∞Ïh ¢√úÕE †’´¤y éπ©-´- 1) Ñ
éπü
Clauses ÅFo èπÿú≈ if ûÓ begin Å´¤-ûª’-Ø√o®·
∆– É™« if ûÓ begin ÅßË’u clauses †’, if b) Before you pay the money, you cannot get
I will take rest after I go home (I will go home
í∫-©´¤) é¬ü¿’)
clauses Åçö«ç. admission
Kousik: If I go now, how can I meet him? He c) ¢√úÕ-éÀC ûÁLÊÆh ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úø-û√úø’ –
2) If Åçõ‰ 'Å®·-†-ôx-®·ûË— ÅE Å®Ωnç éπü∆.
will be back only an hour later. (úø•’s îÁLxç-îª-éπ-´·çü¿’ Fèπ◊ v°æ¢Ë¨¡ç ®√ü¿’. úø•’s If he knows this, (if he will know this é¬ü¿’), he
(É°æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞Ïh ᙫ éπ©-´-í∫-©†’ ¢√úø’ í∫çô- 3) °j† ´’†ç îª÷Æœ† 7 clauses èπÿú≈ if clauses. îÁLxç-îª-éπ-´·çü¿’ – úø•’s îÁLxç-îª-èπ◊çõ‰ – Before will be happy.
ÊÆ-°æöÀ ûª®√yûË éπü∆ AJ-íÌ-≤ƒhúø’) If clauses á°æ¤púø÷ ≠æ®Ω-ûª’†’ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-≤ƒh®·. Åçõ‰ you pay the money - conditional clause)
d) Ø√èπ◊ prize ´ÊÆh, ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úø-û√†’ =
Karthik: That's what I mean too. If you wait for Condition †’. c) You come here, - only after you get the per-
If I get the prize (If I will get the prize é¬ü¿’
another 45 minutes, and go to his 1) If you happen to see him - mission
place, you will find him. If he sends me
éπü∆?) I shall be glad.
†’´¤y ¢√úÕE îª÷úøôç ïJ-TûË (Permission - ņ’-´’A §ÒçC† ûª®√yûË Ø√ ü¿í∫_-
the books, I shall be happy. Imp: Ñ will/ shall ®√éπ-§Ú-´ôç conditional claus-
Tell him to call me - ®Ωèπ◊ ®√. ņ’-´’A §ÒçC† ûª®√y-ûªØË – Only after es Íé, sentences ™ N’í∫û√ clauses èπ◊ ´Jhç-îªü¿’.
(؈-ØËD ÅüË. ÉçéÓ ´·§ƒp´¤ í∫çô îª÷Æœ, Ø√èπ◊ Phone îË-ߪ÷-©-E îÁ°æ¤p you get the permission - conditional clause)
¢√úÕç-öÀ-Èé-∞«x-´çõ‰ ¢√úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´îª’a.
¢√úø’ books °æç°œÊÆh Ø√èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ≠æç)
Sasir: Before I give/ lend you the money, let me
Kousik: Don't you worry. You will get them. Vidur: Hi Sasir,Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç áéπ\úø éÌØ√o´¤ †’´¤y? PRACTISE THE FOLLOWING ALOUD IN ENGLISH
tell you one thing. All the money I have
(¶«üµ¿-°æ-úøèπ◊ Fèπ◊ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ Åçü¿’-û√®·) ØË † ’ î√™« shops ¢ÁA-鬆’. Ø√èπ◊ üÌ®Ω-éπ-™‰ü¿’.
Sasir: ÉCíÓ úø•’s. ûªy®Ωí¬ ¢Á∞¡Ÿx. †’Ny-°æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞¡x-éπ- is Rs.200/- If you (can) return it by the
Look at the following expressions from Sasir: ØËEC Books 'n Books ™ éÌØ√o†’. Åéπ\úø §ÚûË, Fèπ◊ °æ¤Ææhéπç üÌ®Ω-éπ\-§Ú-´îª’a. evening, I will give it to you.
the conversation above. èπÿú≈ áèπ◊\´ copies ™‰´¤. ¢ÁçôØË ¢ÁRûË é̆-
Vidur: Bye. Vidur: As soon as I buy the book, I will go
1) If you happen to see him
í∫-©´¤.
ANSWER home, take the money from dad and
Vidur: †’´¤y Ø√èπ◊ Å°œpÊÆh ¢ÁçôØË ¢Á∞«h. ØËEç-öÀéÀ
2) If I don't submit it tomorrow repay you.
¢ÁR} úø•’s ûÁa-éÌ-ØË-Ææ-JéÀ Ç©Ææuç Å¢Ìya. Vidur: Hi Sasir, where did you buy the book? I
3) If I do not go now Sasir: When you buy the book, don't forget to
Sasir: ؈’ úøGsîËa ´·çü¿’ äéπ N≠æߪ’ç îÁ°æ¤p. -Ø√ have searched/ enquired at a number of
4) If I see him take/ collect the gift coupon.
ü¿í∫_-®Ω’†oü¿çû√ Rs. 200/-. †’´¤y ≤ƒßª’çvûªç shops, but I could not get/ find it.
5) If I go to his place Vidur: What happens if I don't take the gift
AJ--TîËa-ôx-®·ûË É°æ¤púø’ FéÀ≤ƒh. Sasir: I bought it at Books 'n Books. There
6) If I go now coupon?
Vidur: Book é̆’-èπ◊\E ÉçöÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡x-í¬ØË, ´÷ Ø√†o-†’ aren't (are not) many copies either. If
7) If he sends me the books -ÅúÕT BÆæ’-éÌ*a FéÀ≤ƒh. you go now/ at once/ immediately you Sasir: Unless you take the gift coupon, you
°j expressions ÅFo èπÿú≈ groups of words Sasir: °æ¤Ææhéπç éÌØË-ô-°æ¤púø’, ü∆çûÓ §ƒô’ ÉîËa gift can buy it. cannot get the II part of the book free.
(´÷ô© èπÿ®Ω’p©’) éπü∆. °j groups of words coupon ´’Ja-§Úèπ◊. Vidur: If you lend me the money, I will buy it. If Vidur: Thank you.
v°æA ¢√öÀ™x verb Öçúøôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. Vidur: Gift Coupon BÆæ’-éÓ-éπ§ÚûË à´’-´¤-ûª’çC? I go home now, get the money and go, it Sasir: Here is the money. Hurry up. If you don't
1) If you happen to see him -Ééπ\úø verb, happen might be too late. (By the time I go go now/ unless you go now, you may not
Sasir: †’¢√y gift coupon BÆæ’-èπ◊çõ‰ ûª°æp Fèπ◊ II
(To see = to+1st Regular doing word- DEo home, take the money and go to the get the book.
Part of the book ®√ü¿’ free í¬.
infinitive Åçö«ç. ÉC verb é¬ü¿’. í∫’®Ω’hçC éπü∆)
shop, it might be too late) Vidur: Bye.
– Å®Ωnç, Åûª-úÕE †’´¤y îª÷ÊÆh. (If - Å®·-†-ôx-®·ûË). Vidur: Thank you.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 12 -´÷-Ja 2006
Neeraj: Shall we start? Unless we start now, we I will pay the advance provided you begin
cannot reach college on time. the work
(´’†ç •ßª’-©’-üË-®Ω-ü∆´÷? É°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-©’- †’´¤y °æE v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµ-ÊÆhØË Øˆ’ advance É≤ƒh.
üË-JûËûª°æp college éÀ time èπ◊ îË®Ω’-éÓ™‰ç) If, unless Ææç•çüµ¿ç
Suraj: Have you taken the money? Before If = unless... not; unless = if ... not
you pay the fees they won't allow you
Åçõ‰ if Ö†o clause †’, unless clause í¬ ´÷®Ωa-
to attend classes.
´îª’a; ᙫ? If Ö†o sentence ™ not °öÀd.
(úø•’s BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o¢√? úø•’s îÁLxç-îª-éπ-´·çü¿’ eg. a) If you work hard, you will pass
E†’o classes èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡x-F-ߪ’®Ω’)
Neeraj: I have the money ready.
(éπ≠d-°æ æúÕ îªC-NûË, †’´¤y §ƒÆæ-´¤-û√´¤)
I Clause: 1) He was an LIC agent when I last met him.
b) Unless you work hard, you will not pass
(úø•’s ready) Before you pay the fees = Fees îÁLxç-îË-´·çü¿’; Ééπ\úø Subordinate clause - when I last met
Suraj: Have you all your certificates? They
(†’´¤y éπ≠d-°æ æúÕ îªC-NûË ûª°æp, pass 鬴¤) Å®Ωnç °æ‹Jh-é¬-™‰ü¿’, 鬕öÀd ÉC subordinate clause. him.
will grant you admission after they a) if clause Ö†o sentence ™ not ™‰ü¿’. (mean-
II Clause:
™ Åûª-úÕ-E ؈’ *´-Jí¬ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†o-°æ¤púø’...
check up your certificates. b) Å®Ωnç, unless clause Ö†o sentence not ing not complete).
™ ÅüË They will not allow you to attend classes =
(certificates ÅFo ÖØ√oߪ÷? F certifi- He was an LIC agent.
´©x ´≤ÚhçC éπü∆? E†’o classes èπ◊ ®√E-´y®Ω’ – DEéÀ Å®Ωnç
cates ÅFo °æJ-Q-Lç-*† ûª®√y-ûªØË ¢√∞¡Ÿx Å™«Íí unless clause Ö†o sentence ™ not °æ‹®Ωh-®·çC, 鬕öÀd ÉC main clause. Åûª†’ LIC agent í¬ ÖØ√oúø’. Main clause
admission É≤ƒh®Ω’) ™‰éπ-§ÚûË, ÅüË Å®Ωnç ´îËa-ô’xí¬ if clause Ö†o (complete meaning)
Exercise 1
2) I know where he is hiding.
Neeraj: The certificates are all ready, but I have sentence ™ not omit îËÆ œ îÁ§Òpa. Now, ¢Á·ü¿öÀ conversation ™E éÀçC sen-
yet to fill in some columns in the appli- subordinate clause - where he is hiding
a) Unless we start now, we cannot catch the tences ™ main clauses, subordinate claus-
cation. Åûª-ØÁ-éπ\úø ü∆éÌ\E ÖØ√oúÓ, (incomplete mean-
train = ´’†ç É°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-©’-üË-JûË ûª°æp train es í∫’Jhç-îªçúÕ.
ing)
Åçü¿’-éÓ™‰ç. 1) They will grant you admission after they
Main clause - I know
b) If we start now we can catch the train check up your certificates.
Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’ – complete meaning.
´’†ç É°æ¤úø’ •ßª’-©’-üË-JûË, train Åçü¿’-éÓ-í∫©ç. 2) They will accept the application after you fill
Exercise 2
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 125 É™«çöÀ if, sentences if, unless äéπ-ü∆Eo äéπ-öÀí¬
´÷Ja practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
it completely.
3) I will complete it if you help me.
PRACTISE THE FOLLOWING IN ENGLISH
Sriram: †’´¤y Kumar -†’ -*-´-Jí¬ -á°æ¤púø’ îª÷¨»´¤?
Raghu: äéπ ¢√®Ωç éÀç-ü¿-ô.
Sriram: ¢√úË-´’Ø√o ††’o éπ-©’Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«-†E îÁ§ƒpú≈?

If you work hard, you will pass Raghu: È®çvúÓ-V©’ Ü∞x Öçúø-†E îÁ§ƒpúø’.Åçûª-éπçõ‰
ÉçÍéç îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’.
Sriram: ¢√úø’ ûªy®Ωí¬ ´≤ƒh-úøE Ç-PÆæ’hØ√o.
Raghu: àçöÀ -Ææç-í∫A?
Sriram: ´’† film hero ü¿í∫_-JéÀ BÆæ’Èé-∞¡-û√-†-Ø√o-úø’.
4) Conditional clauses 4) If I go on helping you, your dependence on ¢Ë’ç Éü¿l®Ωç Çߪ’† fans í∫ü∆?
(certificates
Æœü¿l¥ç. é¬F application ™ ™
shall/ will ®√´¤. (Åçõ‰ me will increase. Raghu: ü∆E-éπçûª ûÌçü¿-Í®çöÀ?
éÌEo columns 鬩çñ¸ – ï size ™ z
future tense Öçúø-ü¿’ 5) I may make mistakes if I do it on my own. Sriram: next month †’ç* Çߪ’† busy, É°æ¤púø’
™«í¬, Éçé¬ °æ‹Jh îËߪ÷Lq ÖçC)
conditional clause Answer: éπ©-´-™‰-éπ-§ÚûË ûª®√yûª Çߪ’Eo éπ©-´™‰ç.
Suraj: They will accept the application after
future ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’-†o-°æp-öÀéÃ.) Answer:
you fill it completely. Main clause Sub clause
ÉO conditional clauses Sriram: When did you see Kumar last?
(†’´¤y °æ‹Jhí¬ Eç°œ† ûª®√yûË F applica- (complete meaning) (incomplete meaning)
í∫’Jç* ´’†ç last Raghu: A week ago. (a week back
tion BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’) M. SURESAN 1. They will grant you after they checkup your
é¬ü¿’)
lesson ™ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†oC. Sriram: Did he tell you (that) he would meet
Neeraj: I will complete it if you help me. admission. verb, certificates... Verb -
Very Important: me?
(†’´¤y ≤ƒßª’ç-îËÊÆh °æ‹Jh-îË≤ƒh) will grant. checkup
(¢√∞¡Ÿx Fèπ◊ (F certificates
Main clause: Å®Ωnç°æ‹®Ωh-®·† clause. admission É≤ƒh®Ω’). °æJ-Q-Lç-*† ûª®√yûª..) Raghu: He just told me (that) he would be out
Suraj: Fill it yourself. If I go on helping you, of town for 2 days. He didn't tell me
Subordinate clause = Å®Ωnç °æ‹Jh-é¬E clause, 2. They will accept after you fill it complete-
your dependence on me will increase. anything more.
Conditional clause. Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ´’†ç îª÷Æœ-†-´Fo the application. ly... Verb - fill (°æ‹Jh îËÆœ†
You will never be independent. Sriram: I hope (that) he will come soon.
subordinate clauses éπü∆? áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ ¢√öÀéÀ Å®Ωnç verb - will accept. ûª®√yûª..)
(†’¢Ëy fill îÁ®·u. ؈’ Fèπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç-îËÆæ÷h complete é¬-ü¿’ é¬-•-öÀd. (¢√∞¡Ÿx application Raghu: What's the matter?
Öçõ‰, Ø√ O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æ-úøôç áèπ◊\-´-´¤-ûª’çC. If he comes - ¢√úø’ ´ÊÆh - (conditional clause) BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’). Sriram: He said (that) he would take me to our
†’´¤y Ææyûªç-vûªçí¬ Öçúø-™‰´¤.) Å®Ωnç °æ‹®Ωh-´-™‰ü¿’. 鬕öÀd ÉC subordinate clause. 3. I will complete it. if you help me... verb - hero. We two are his fans, you know.
go on doing something = äéπ °æE îËÆæ÷h Look at the following sentences from the verb - will com- help (†’´¤y Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç Raghu: What's the hurry?
Öçúøôç = continue conversation above: plete. (؈’ °æ‹Jh îËÊÆh...) Sriram: He will be busy from next month. If we
Neeraj: I may make mistake if I do it on my i) Unless we start now, we cannot reach college îË≤ƒh†’). can't (can not) see him now, we cannot
own. That's my fear. on time. 4. your dependence If I go on helping you ... see him afterwards.
on me increases. verb - go (helping -
(≤Òçûªçí¬ îËÊÆh ûª°æ¤p©’ îËßÁ·îª’a ؈’, ÅüË Éçü¿’™ áEo clauses ÖØ√o®·? í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓçúÕ.
verb - increase; 'ing' from - verb
äéπ sentence ™ the number of clauses = Íé-´-©ç
-v°æ-¨¡o: Not
Ø√ ¶µºßª’ç) (Ø√O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æ-úøôç é¬ü¿’) (Fèπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç- îËÆæ÷h
Suraj: Don't worry. Complete the application The number of verbs in it. Åçõ‰ sentence ™ only did
áEo verbs Öçõ‰ ÅEo clauses. áèπ◊\-´-´¤-ûª’çC). Öçõ‰...)
and show it to me. Hurry up. 5. I may make mis- If I do it on my own... He..... But also
(àç °∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰ü¿’. Application °æ‹Jh-îËÆœ Ø√èπ◊ In the sentence above, there are two verbs. .... subject
takes. verb - may verb - do. èπ◊
îª÷°œç. ûªy®Ωí¬ é¬F) 1) Start 2) Can reach. make. (؈’ ûª°æ¤p©’ (-Ø√ -Åçûªô ؈’ îËÊÆh...) ´·çü¿’ verb ´ÊÆh
In the last lesson, ´’†ç conditional clauses So there are two clauses. îËߪ’-´îª’a). v°æ¨¡o Å´¤-ûª’çC
1) Unless we start now = ´’†ç É°æ¤úø’ •ßª’-©’- éπü∆?
í∫´’-Eéπ: °j† ´*a† – Ø√u©-°æLx °çôߪ’u,
í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†oC–
- conditional clause, so subordinate
üË-JûË é¬E subordinates ÅFo condition-
1) A group of words with a verb is a clause.
clause. al clauses. Éûª®Ω ®Ω鬩 subordinates ÅL-ߪ÷-¶«ü¿’
(Verb clause)
Ö†o ´÷ô© èπÿ®Ω’p
2) A clause stating a condition is a CONDI-
2) We cannot reach college = ´’†ç college clauses èπÿú≈ î√-™« ÖØ√o®·. äÍé clause -ï-¢√-•’: Sentence not only ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀûÓ
îË®Ω’-éÓ™‰ç – Ñ clause èπ◊ meaning °æ‹®Ωh-®·çC ÖçúË sentences èπÿú≈ Öçö«®·. v§ƒ®Ωç-GµÊÆh, question é¬éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√ verb
TIONAL CLAUSE: clause,
≠æ®Ω-ûª’†’ ûÁLÊ° éπü∆. 鬕öÀd ÉC main clause. I saw him yesterday . This sentence has only ´·çü¿®Ω ®√¢√L.
conditional clause.
ii) Before you pay the fees, they won't allow one verb - saw. So it is a sentence with just a) Not only did he insult me, but also
3) Conditional clauses begin with if, unless, (will not allow) you to attend classes.
one clause, and it is the main clause and it hit me.
before, after, when, where, provided, etc. Here again, there are two verbs = pay, will is the sentence. b) Not once has he helped me.
(Conditional clauses °j ´÷ô-©ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç- allow. sentences
鬕öÀd Ñ two
™ èπÿú≈
Gµç-îª-´îª’a) clauses (to attend - infinitive; verb
Öçö«®·. Éûª®Ω ®Ω鬩 subordinate clauses éÀçC sen- äéπ-≤ƒJ èπÿú≈ ¢√úø’ Ø√èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç
tences ™ îª÷úøçúÕ: îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’.
Provided = if = Å®·ûË é¬ü¿’)

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm