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-

( )

.. , ..

-
2010

517.91

, .. []: / .. , .. . .: (), 2010.


64 .

, ,
.

, , .
: -1, -1 240700 ; -1, -1, -8, -9, -21 240100 ; -1, -10 230100 ; -1, -10, -1, -2
220400 ; -1, -9, -21 151000 ; -1,
-1 150100 ; -11 280700 - ; -1,
-1,-2 270800 ; -5, -15, 31 080200 ; -1, -10
031600 .
. 2, . 10 .

: . . ,
. . . , . .-.
- - 15.11.2010.
()


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 , , . . . . .

10

1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

2 . . .

19

2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

2.1.1
,
 
0
.............................................
0
2.1.2 , no
.......................................

2.1.3 ,

19

22

{ } . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

2.2.1
,
 
0
.............................................
0
2.2.2 , no

.......................................

2.2.3 ,

27

30

{ } . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

4 . . . .

35

4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

4.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

4.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

4.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

5.2 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

5.3 {1 } . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

. . . . . . . . . .

57

B. . . . .

60

C. . . . . . . .

63

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64


,
.
, , , ,
.. .
, , , .,
,
. , , ,
, . .
, , ,
, ,

.

, . :
, ,
, .
,
, ,
, [1-3].

1
1.1


, , , (Bernard Placidus Johann Nepomuk
Bolzano, 1781-1848) 1816 - (AugustinLouis Cauhy, 1789-1857) 1821 . . , , XVII-XVIII
,
. (Michelle
Rolle, 1652-1719) ,
, ,
.

(Cours DAnalyse de LEcole


Royale Polytechnique. 1 Partie: Analyse
Algebrique. Paris, 1821) 1821 : , , , , , ,
. 1823 (Resume
des lecons donnees `a lecole royale polytechnique sur les calcul infinitesemales)
, .
.
. f D R,
x0 ( ,
, . [1,2]). A f
x0 ,
> 0 > 0 : x D 0 < |x x0 | < |f (x) A| < .

lim f (x) = A

xx0

(1)

( lim limit)
f (x) A.
xx0

, f A x, x0 .

, (1), : [] [], , x,
x0
, A , .
,
, (1).
, (1)
,
. , , ( )
Lecole polytechnique
.
, , . ,
, . , . , ( ) ,
, ..

l = 20 0.1.
, 20 ,
(0.1 ), ..
19.9 < l < 20.1

|l 20| < 0.1.

, (1). 7

,
x x0 , x 6= x0 ,

f (x) A,

f (x) A
x0 .

, .
. - a, a R, > 0,

U (a, ) = (a ; a + ) .
, - :
x U (a, ) a < x < a + |x a| < .
. - a - a, ..

U(a, ) = (a ; a) (a; a + ) .
, , :

a<x<a
x
U(a, )
0 < |x a| < .
a<x<a+
(1)
:
> 0 > 0 : x D
U(x0 , ) f (x) U (A, ).

(2)

:
( ) - A
x0 ,
( ) - A. (.,
, [1-3]), , ,
.

1.
lim x2 = 4.

x2

22 = 4.
( , !) , 1.
1: 1.
x
2.1
2.01
2.001
2.0001
...
1.9
1.99
1.999
...

f (x) = x2
4.41
4.0401
4.004001
4.00040001
...
3.61
3.9601
3.996001
...

4
4.0
4.00
4.000
...
4
4.0
4.00
...

, , , (1), .. , (). ,
> 0 > 0 : x D 0 < |x 2| < |x2 4| < .
, ,
< x2 4 <

4 < x2 < + 4.

< 4, ,
, . ,

4 < x < + 4 4 2 < x 2 < + 4 2.

2 4 4 + 2,
, x,
|x 2| < = < x 2 < ,

4 2 < x 2 < + 4 2,
9

, , |x2 4| < . , = 0.41


= 0.1.
,


. f (x) = sin x x 0.
,
,

 , 2
2
2n+1 ; 2n1 ( n N ),
1 +1. , < 1
(1) A. ,
, , ..

.
1.2

, ,

1803 , ,
(Pierre Simon Laplace, 1749-1827),
,
( ) .
, ,
,
.
XVII-XVIII XIX
. . , . ,
, ,
, , , ,
. . ,
( , 3 . ..), (
IX .), ( )
, , ( 10

), ( ). (Isaac
Newton, 1642-1727 , , )
(Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz Leibniz, 1646-1716 ), ,
,
, .. .
.
, ,
, .

.
. x0 ,

lim (x) = 0
xx0

> 0 > 0 : x D 0 < |x x0 | < = |(x)| < .

(3)

(3) (1) A 0. :
x0 ,
,
x0 .
.
.
. f x0 ,
:
lim f (x) = +

xx0

M > 0 : x D 0 < |x x0 | < = f (x) > M.

(4)

(4) : x0 ,
, x0 . , ( )
M , , . , ,
. , , , .
11

.
. A f x +,

> 0 M : x D x > M = |f (x) A| < .

(5)

, (5), :

M , , ,
, A , .
2.

x+1
= 1.
x+
x
f (x) = x+1
x y = 1.
( 2).
lim

2: 2.
x+1
x

f (x) =

= 1.1

= 1.01

1.0

= 1.001

1.00

= 1.000001

1.00000

...

...

10
100
1000
1000000
...

11
10
101
100
1001
1000
1000001
1000000

x > 1012 , 12- ,


1. ,
, x
, , x .
, , (5), .. ,


x + 1

> 0 M : x x > M =
1 < .
x
12


x+1
1
<
1 < < < ,
x
x
, , x > 1 > 0.
x > 0, ,
. ,
(5) M () = 1 .
3.
lim sin x .

x+

(5) . , = 1.
, - A
M ,
x > M | sin x A| < 1.

, M , (
, . [1]) n, 2n > M . ,
x1 = 2n + 2 > M x2 = 2n + 3
2 > M ,








3



A < 1.
A < 1 sin 2n +
sin 2n +
2
2

x1 x2 , , A





|1 A| < 1
|A 1| < 1
1 < A 1 < 1
0<A<2

| 1 A| < 1
|1 + A| < 1
1 < 1 + A < 1
2 < A < 0

, A
, .
, , , x,
, .
, ( ). (45), ,
z (z) +,
13

z |z| +.

,
,
, (1), (4) (5), . ,
. (2),
. ,



 

1
1
U (+, ) =
.
; + = x R x >

,


 


1
1
1
,
U (, ) = ;

; + .
U (, ) = ;

1
(4) (5) (2), M = .

,
, , , , .. , ,
.
-
.
. f
G, G
, ..
P : x G |f (x)| 6 P.

(6)

. f x0 ,
, ..
> 0 P : x 0 < |x x0 | < = |f (x)| 6 P.
1.3


. , .
14

. , .. , (N):
a : N R.
,
, .. a(n) an .
, , 5, , , , .
, , . .
, , an = n 3n f (x) = x 3x , x R
n N f (n) = an . , , an = (1)n , +1, 1,
. , (1)x
( 1), f (x) = cos x,
n N cos n = (1)n , , ,
, .
an = n! = 1 2 . . . n ( -
).

, N +. (5), D N
, .
. A an ,
> 0 M : n N n > M = |an A| < .

(7)

(
) M ,
M A , .
:
lim an = A

n+

15

an A.

, , n, , ,
, n + , .
(5) (7), ,
.
4.
lim sin n = 0,

n+

lim sin x .

x+

,
(
!) . ,
1 +1.
5.

lim (1)n .

n+

3
sin x x + .
1.4

. ( )
a R,
lim f (x) = A 6= lim g(x) = B 6= ,
xa

xa

1. lim (f (x) + g(x))


xa

2. lim f (x) g(x)


xa

lim (f (x) + g(x)) = A + B;

xa

lim f (x) g(x) = A B;

xa

B 6= 0
f (x)
xa g(x)

3. lim

A
f (x)
= .
xa g(x)
B
lim

, , ,
, , , . , , ,
16


, . ,
.
, , ,
.
.
1. , + .

.
2. , h , h
. ,
.
f
3. f , h , f + h

h
.
4. f , g ( , g ),
f g .
5. ,

1
.

6. f ,

1
.
f


, ,
. . ,
. ,
, ;
, ;
17

, .. ,
.
6.

sin x
.
x+ x
.
lim

1
sin x
= lim sin x ,
x+
x+ x
x
lim

, 1/x ( ,
), sin x , .. x R | sin x| 6 1.
,
( ) , .
: 0.
7.


1

lim
.
cos
x0 x
x
. , 1/x ( , ), cos x , ,
. , . , ,
.
: .
, : , ( ), .
, :
 
no
0
,
, { } , { 0} , . . .


.
, , ,
18

. ,

, , , . ,
, .
. :
 0  0
{1 } ,
0 , .

.
8.


lim x4 x2 .

. { }, , x ,
. , :


lim x4 x2 = lim x2 x2 1 .
x

, , (
), .
.
: .

2
2.1
2.1.1



 
0
,
0

. , (x0 ) , .. x0

 
Pn (x) 0
.
lim
xx0 Qm (x)
0
19

(Etienne
Bezout, 1730-1783).
. x0 ,
x x0 . ..
Pn (x0 ) = 0 Pn (x) = (x x0 )Sn1 (x),
Sn1 (x) , Pn (x).
x x0
. , . ,
- ( !)
. x x0 . ,
. .
9.

x2 5x + 6
L = lim 2
x3 2x 5x 3
. x 3 , , . , . .
.
6. (, , 3),
3
+2. x1 x2 = . ,
2
1
x1 = 3, x2 = . :
2


(x 2)(x 3)
1
x2
x2 5x + 6 0


=
.
= lim
=
lim
lim 2
x3 2 x 3
x3 2x + 1
x3 2x 5x 3
0
7
x + 12

.
,
. : y = x3 0. ,
x = 3 + y,

9 + 6y + y 2 5(y + 3) + 6
y2 + y
y(y + 1)
=
lim
=
lim
=
L = lim
y0 2y 2 + 7y
y0 y(2y + 7)
y0 2 (9 + 6y + y 2 ) 5(y + 3) 3
20

y+1
0+1 1
=
= .
y0 2y + 7
0+7 7
.
: 71 .
= lim

10.

x4 5x3 + 7x + 10
lim
x2 2x4 + x3 9x2 4
. x = 2 .
x 2
. ,
.
x4 5x3
+ 7x + 10 x 2
4
3
x 2x
x3 3x2 6x 5
3x3
3x3 +6x2
6x2 + 7x
6x2 + 12x
5x + 10
5x + 10
0
2x4 + x3 9x2
4 x2
4
3
2x 4x
2x3 + 5x2 + x + 2
5x3 9x2
5x3 10x2
x2
x2 2x
2x 4
2x 4
0
, .. .

 
3
2
4
3
(x

2)
x

3x

6x

5
x 5x + 7x + 10 0
= lim
=
lim 4
x2 (x 2) (2x3 + 5x2 + x + 2)
x2 2x + x3 9x2 4
0
x3 3x2 6x 5 8 12 12 5 21
= lim 3
=
=
.
x2 2x + 5x2 + x + 2
16 + 20 + 2 + 2
40
21

: 21
40 .
2.1.2

no

x
.
.
, . .
11.

4
2
x4 3 + + 3 +
n
o
4
3
3x + 2x + 4x + 5
x x

lim 4
=
lim
x x + x3 + 5x2 + 1
x
5
1

x4 1 + + 2 +
x x


5
x4
=
1
x4

}|
{
z
5
4
2
3+ + 3 + 4
x x
x = 3 = 3.
= lim
1
5
1
x
1
1+ + 2 + 4
|x x{z x}

: 3.
12.

5
2
2
3
+
+
+
x

1
+
n
o
x4 + 3x3 + 2x2 + 5x + 2
x x2 x3 x4


=
lim
lim
x
x
2
1
1
50x3 + 2x2 + x + 1

x3 50 + + 2 + 3
x x
x
4

}|
{
z
3
2
5
2
1+ + 2 + 3 + 4
x x
x
x = .
= lim |{z}
x
1
1
2
x

50 + + 2 + 3

|x x{z x}

22

1
.
, 50
.
: .

13.


7
6
3
x4 5 + 3 + 4
n
o
4
3
5x 3x + 6x + 7
x x
x
=

=
lim
lim 5
x x + 2x3 8x + 11
x
8
11
2
x5 1 + 2 4 + 5
x
x
x
0

}|
{
z
3
7
6
1 5 x + x3 + x4
= lim
= 0.

8
11
2
x x
|{z} 1 +
4+ 5
2

x
x
{z x }
|
0

(,
), 5. .
: 0.
,
. , ,
, , , , .
, . , , x .

14.

(n + 2)! + (n + 1)! n o
L = lim
.
n+
(n + 3)!

, . (n!), 15,
(k + 1)! = k!(k + 1), ,
(n+2)! = (n+2)(n+1)!,

(n+3)! = (n+3)(n+2)! = (n+3)(n+2)(n+1)! .


23


(n + 2) (n + 1)! + (n + 1)!
(n + 1)! (n + 2 + 1)
= lim
=
n+ (n + 3)(n + 2) (n + 1)!
n+ (n + 3)(n + 2) (n + 1)!

L = lim

n+3
1
= lim
= 0.
n+ (n + 3)(n + 2)
n+ n + 2

= lim
: 0.
15.

1 + 2 + 4 + + 2n
.
n+
2n
. ,
. , 2.
L = lim

q n+1 1
b0 + b0 q + b0 q + + b0 q = b0
q1
2

b0 = 1 q = 2:

1 + 2 + 4 + + 2n = 2n+1 1 .
:


1
2n+1
2n+1 1 n o
1 n+1 = 2,
= lim
L = lim
n+ 2n
n+
2n

1
, n+1 0 (, ).
2
: 2.
2.1.3

, { }

16.
L = lim


2x3 + x2 + 3 2x3 + 4x + 1
{ } .
2
x2 4x + 3
x 5x + 4

,

, , ,
(. ),
, .
24

1- .


,
.
, :
x2 4x + 3 = (x 1)(x 3),

x2 5x + 4 = (x 1)(x 4).

,


2x3 + x2 + 3 (x 4) 2x3 + 4x + 1 (x 3)
L = lim
=
x
(x 1)(x 3)(x 4)


2x4 7x3 x2 + 3x 12 2x4 6x3 + 4x2 11x 3
= lim
=
x
(x 1)(x 3)(x 4)


14
9
5
x3 1 + 2 3
x3 5x2 + 14x 9 n o
x x
x
 
 
=
= lim 
= lim
x
x (x 1)(x 3)(x 4)
3
4
1
x 1
x 1
x 1
x
x
x
5 14
9
1 + 2 3
 x x   x
 = 1.
= lim 
x
3
4
1
1
1
1
x
x
x
, x , (,
).
: 1.
2- . , , .. , . . ,
, .
2x3 + x2
2x3 8x2 + 6x
9x2 6x
9x2 36x
30x

2x3
+ 4x
2x3 10x2 + 8x
10x2 4x
10x2 50x
46x

+ 3 x2 4x + 3
2x + 9
+3
+ 27
24

+ 1 x2 5x + 4
2x + 10
+1
+ 40
39

(x2 4x + 3)(2x + 9) + (30x 24) = 2x3 + x2 + 3;


25

(x2 5x + 4)(2x + 10) + (46x 39) = 2x3 + 4x + 1.


 


46x 39
30x 24
2x + 10 + 2
=
2x + 9 + 2
L = lim
x
x 4x + 3
x 5x + 4

 !
39
24
x 46 x
x 30 x

 =

= lim 1 + 2
x
x 1 x4 + x32
x2 1 x5 + x42

39 
30 24
46

1
1
x
x
1 + lim

= 1.

3
4
5
x x 1 + 2
x 1 x + x42
x
x

, ,
(
x), .
: 1.
17.


1
12
L = lim
3
{ } .
x2 x 2
x 8
, ,
. , x > 2 , x < 2
. , . ,

,
 
0

. , , 0
x2.
, :
 
x2 + 2x + 4 12
x2 + 2x 8
0


L = lim
.
=
lim
x2 x 2 (x2 + 2x + 4)
x2 x 2 (x2 + 2x + 4)
0

, , x1 = 2. , x1 x2 = 8, :
x2 = 4. , , :
L = lim

x2

x+4
7
(x 2)(x + 4)

=
lim
=
.
x 2 (x2 + 2x + 4) x2 x2 + 2x + 4 12
26

7
12 .

18.
L = lim

n+


n
1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n

{ } .
5n + 2
10

. ,
.
. ,
, :
n(n + 1)
.
2



2
5
n
+
n
n(5n + 2)
n
n(n + 1)

=
= lim
L = lim
n+
n+ 2(5n + 2)
10
10(5n + 2)
3n
3
3
 = lim
=


= lim
.
n+
n+
2
2
50
10n 5 +
10 5 +
n
n
:
 2


 2
n +n
1
n
n +n
L = lim
n .
=

lim
n+ 10n + 4
10
10 n+ n + 25



2
3
6
, n2 + n = n +
n+
,
5
5
25


3
6
3
1 3
1
 6 n =
lim 6 n +
= .
L=
2
10 n+
5 25 n + 5
10 5 50
| {z }
3
&0
: 50
.
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ... + n =

2.2
2.2.1


 
0
,
0

, (..,
), .
27

, , ..
. , ,
() :
a2 b2 = (a b)(a + b),

a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 + ab + b2 ),

a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2 ).

a2 b2
a3 b3
a4 b4
ab=
= 2
=
.
a+b
a + ab + b2
(a + b) (a2 + b2 )
, , ( , . .), .
19.

 
5+x3 0
.
L = lim 2
x4 x 9x + 20
0
. .
,
. ..,
a = 5 + x, b = 3, a + b:
2

5 + x 32
5+x9
 = lim
.

L = lim 2
x4 (x 9x + 20)
x4 (x2 9x + 20)
5+x+3
5+x+3

, ,
. , , 3 + 3 = 6.
, x = 4 0.
! ,
, , . , , , . , x 4. :
1
1
x4
x4

=
lim
=
x4 x2 9x + 20
5 + x + 3 x4 (x 4)(x 5)
5+x+3

L = lim

28

1
1
1
1
1
=

= .
x4 x 5
6
5+x+3 45 3+3
.
:
.
2
y = 5 + x, y 3, x = y 5.
= lim

y3
y3
=
lim
.
y3 y 4 19y 2 + 90
y3 (y 2 5)2 9 (y 2 5) + 20

L = lim

. , . , . y 2 = z,
:
z 2 19z + 90 = 0 = z1 z2 = 90.

z1 = 32 = 9 = z2 = 10.

y3
y3
=
lim
=
y3 (y 3) (y + 3) (y 2 10)
y3 (y 2 9) (y 2 10)
1
1
=

.
= lim
y3 (y + 3) (y 2 10)
6
, , ,
.
: 16 .
L = lim

, ,
, , .
20.

 
3
7 + x 2x 0
L = lim
.
x1
10 x 3 0

a = 3 7 + x b = 2x,

a2 + ab + b2 ( ), c = 10 x
d = 3, c + d ( ).




3
7 + x 2x (7 + x)2/3 + (7 + x)1/3 2x + 4x2
10 x + 3
=


L = lim
x1
10 x 3
10 x + 3 (7 + x)2/3 + (7 + x)1/3 2x + 4x2


3

3
3
7 + x (2x)
10 x + 3

= lim 
=
2
x1
2/3
1/3
2
2
(7 + x) + 2x(7 + x) + 4x
10 x 3
29


10 x + 3
7 + x 8x3

= lim
.
x1 10 x 9
(7 + x)2/3 + 2x(7 + x)1/3 + 4x2

, ,
, , ..
, . x 1.
:
8x3
+x +7
8x3 + 8x2
8x2 + x
8x2 +8x
7x + 7
7x + 7
0.

x1
8x2 8x 7

10 x + 3
(8x2 + 8x + 7)(x 1)
=

L = lim
x1
(x 1)
(7 + x)2/3 + 2x(7 + x)1/3 + 4x2

10 x + 3
8x2 + 8x + 7
3+3
23
= lim
=
23

=
.
x1
1
4+4+4
2
(7 + x)2/3 + 2x(7 + x)1/3 + 4x2
:

23
2.

, , , .
, :


7 + x 8x3 = 7 7x3 + x x3 = 7 1 x3 + x 1 x2 =




= 7 1 x 1 + x + x2 +x(1x)(1+x) = 1 x 7 + 7x + 7x2 + x + x2 =


= 1 x 7 + 8x + 8x2 ,

.
2.2.2

no

, , , ..
. .
30

21.

no
3x2 + x4 + 3x2 + 5

L = lim
.
x+ 3 x6 + 4x3 + 2 +
x2 + 2x + 7

, x  1 . , x = 100
, , :

100000000 + 30000 + 5 = 100030005 100000000 = 1004 = 1002 .


x :
p
p

3
3
2
4
2
6
3
4
x + 3x + 5 x = x ,
x + 4x + 2 x6 = x2 ,
p

x2 + 2x + 7 x2 = |x| = x,

( x + , x > 0). ,
, .
x2 . x2
:
r

3
3
6
3
6
3
6
3
x + 4x + 2
x + 4x + 2
3 x + 4x + 2

=
=
=
3
x2
x6
x6
r
r
6
4x3
2
2
4
3 x
3
=
+
+
=
+
.
1
+
x6
x6
x6
x3 x6
, :
q


5
3
2
x 3 + 1 + x2 + x4
q
L = lim
q
=
x+ 2
1
2
2
7
4
3
x
1 + x3 + x6 + x2 + x3 + x4

: 4.
2.2.3

q
3 + 1 + x32 + x54
q
= lim q
x+ 3
2
4
1 + x3 + x6 + x12 + x23 +

7
x4

3+1
=4.
1+0

, { }

,
.
31

22.
L = lim

p

x2

+ 3x + 1 x .

x x , x
+ x ,
.
. x , :
p

2
x + 3x + 1 |{z}
L = lim
x = + .
{z
}
x |


,

. a = x2 + 3x + 1, b = x
,
:
a2 b2
ab=
.
a+b
:

2

p
2 + 3x + 1
x
x2
2

x + 3x + 1 x { } = lim
=
L+ = lim
x+
x+
x2 + 3x + 1 + x
no
3x + 1
.
= lim p
x+

x2 + 3x + 1 + |{z}
x
|
{z
}

, .
x . , x > 0
s
s 


p
3
1
1
3
x2 + 3x + 1 = x2 1 + + 2 = x2
1+ + 2 =
x x
x x
s
r

3
1
1
3
1+ + 2 =x 1+ + 2 ,
= |x|
x x
x x
:

x 3 + x1
3 + x1
3+0 3
=
= .
L+ = lim q
 = lim q
x+
x+
1
+
1
2
3
3
1
1
x
1+ + +1
1+ + +1
x

32

,
.
!
r
1
3
L+ = lim x
1 + + 2 1 { 0}
x+
x x
0. ,
. , x
x2 + 3x + 1 x2 ,
x. , 3x . . x = 100 , ,

10301 100 101.493842 100 = 1.493842,


, 0.01 .
: L = +, L+ = 32 .

4+x2
x0
x


x2
x3
7. lim

x 2x2 1
2x + 1

x 3
8. lim
x3
x+12
2
x2 + 3x + 2
9. lim 3
x1 x + 2x2 x 2
p

2
n 3n + 2 n
10. lim
6. lim

x3 x2 x + 1
x1 x3 + x2 x 1

1. lim

x3 + 2x2 + 3x + 4
2. lim
x 4x3 + 3x2 + 2x + 1
x2 5x + 6
3. lim
x3
x2 9

2x2 5x + 4
4. lim
x 5x2 2x + 3

n+

2x2 + 5x 7
5. lim
x1 3x2 x 2

x2 2x + 1
11. lim 3
x1 x x2 x + 1
33

(2x + 1)2 (x 1)2


12. lim
x
5x2 x + 4
2x3 2
13. lim 2
x1 3x 3

p
p
3
3
2
3
3
5+x 3+x
14. lim x
x

ax x
15. lim
xa x a

3
x1
16. lim
x1
x1

2 x3
17. lim
x7
x2 49
1 + 3 + 5 + . . . + (2n 1)
18. lim
n+
1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n


1
2
19. lim
2
x1 x 1
x 1

p
p
2
2
x +x+1 x x
20. lim
x+


1 + 3 + . . . + (2n 1)
21. lim
n
n
n+3

p
p
2
2
x + 1 x 4x
22. lim
x


1
4
23. lim
+ 2
x2 x + 2
x 4


p
2
24. lim x x x + 1
x+


p
2
2
25. lim x x a
x+


1 + 2 + ... + n n
26. lim

n+
n+2
2

p
p
2
2
x + ax x ax
27. lim
x

34

x
28. lim q
p

x+
x+ x+ x
q
p

x+ x+ x

29. lim
x+
x+1

x+ 3x+ 4x

30. lim
x+
2x + 1

1 + 2x 3
31. lim
x4
x2

x a+ xa

32. lim
xa
x2 a2

x + 13 2 x + 1
33. lim
x3
x2 9

3
x6+2
34. lim
x2
x3 + 8

1x3

35. lim
x8
2+ 3x

x2 + 1 3 x2 1

36. lim
x 4 x4 + 1 5 x4 + 1

2x2 7 x2 x 1
37. lim
x2
x2 3x + 2

3
x12
38. lim
x9
x9
x3 + 3x2 9x 2
39. lim
x2
x3 x 6
(n + 2)!
40. lim
n+ n! + (n + 1)!
1 + 3 + + 3n
41. lim
n+
3n

4
4.1
4.1.1

sin x
lim
x0 x

 
0
=1.
0

(8)

(8) . ,
sin x
x
sin x
x
0.1 0.0998334... 0.9983342 . . .
0.01 0.0099998... 0.9999833 . . .

, , ,
. (8)
, .
 
tg x 0
sin x
sin x
1
lim
= lim

=1,
(9)
= lim
x0 x
x0 x
x0 x cos x
0
cos x
(8) cos 0 = 1.
arctg x
=1.
x0
x
lim

(10)

y = arctg x 0, x = tg y
(9). (8)
arcsin x
=1.
x0
x
lim

4.1.2

(11)

. e
n

1
def
{1 } 2.7182818284...
(12)
e = lim 1 +
n+
n
35

, (John Nepier, 1550-1617).



. e,
, . (12) (Jacob Bernulli, 1654-1705). e , ,
, . (12)
:

x
1
lim 1 +
{1 } = lim (1 + y)1/y = e .
x
y0
x
e ( )
( )
.
ex = exp x,

loge x = ln x .

(13)


:
loga x =

ln x
,
ln a

ax = exp (x ln a) .

(14)

, , ,
. ,
, Pascal
..
, (12)
. . ,
, .
. ( .. ). 1%
1 . ,
2000 .
. : 1% 1 1 . 1% 2000
36

2000 20 . 21 . , , .
, , 1 ( ), 0.01 ( ).
1%, 1.01. 2000 1.012000 .
:

100 !20
1
1+
1.012000 = (1 + 0.01)10020 =
e20 ,
100
(12). e = 10lg e ,
20

e20 = 1020 lg e = 10 ln 10 .
e ,
, 2 < ln 10 < 3. ln 10 2.3026.
e20 108.686 = 108 100.686 .
,
! : 485 . .
4.1.3

(12) :
 
ex 1 0
= 1.
lim
x0
x
0
(14), ,
 
ax 1 0
= ln a.
lim
x0
x
0
 
 
loga (1 + x) 0
1
ln(1 + x) 0
= 1, lim
=
.
lim
x0
x0
x
0
x
0
ln a
 
(1 + x)m 1 0
lim
= m.
x0
x
0
23.
L = lim

x0

1+x1
.
x

37

(15)

(16)
(17)
(18)

.
3

3
1 + x 13
x
 = lim
=
L = lim
x0 x (1 + x)2/3 + (1 + x)1/3 + 1
x0 x (1 + x)2/3 + (1 + x)1/3 + 1
1
1
1
=
=
.
x0 (1 + x)2/3 + (1 + x)1/3 + 1
1+1+1 3

= lim

, (18)
m = 31 .
: 31 .
4.2


, , . .
x a.

.
, , .
 
(x) 0
=0.
(19)
lim
xa (x)
0

, ,
, :

0 ||  || .

(19)
= o ()
(: - ). :
.
 
(x) 0
=
lim
xa (x)
0
= o (). ,
38

, , .
,
. .
. ( ),
, ..
 
(x) 0
lim
=1.
(20)
xa (x)
0
(20), , , . , ,
,
0 0 .
.
. :
= 0() .
, = + o(). . ,
. , . ,
, .

( (20)) (8-18), . x 0:
sin x x,
ex 1 x,

tg x x,

arcsin x x,

arctg x x;

ln(1 + x) x,

(1 + x)m mx .

sin (x) (x),


|{z}

tg (x) (x),
|{z}

(21)
(22)

:
, ..
, x
(21,22) :

39

..

.
. , , , , .
, (21,22) ,
.
24. sin 1o .
. , 180o ,
, :
sin 1o = sin

0.01745329 .
180
180

: sin 1o = 0.017452406..., ,
0.005%.
25. 1 cos x.
. (21):
1 cos x = 2 sin2

x
x
x x x2
x
= 2 sin sin 2 =
2
2
2
2 2
2

(23)

(23) .

, , . . .
, .
5.1

,
.
40

26.
sin 3x
L = lim
x0 sin x

 
0
.
0

. . .
sin(2x + x)
sin 2x cos x + sin x cos 2x
= lim
=
x0
x0
sin x
sin x

L = lim


sin x 2 cos2 x + cos 2x
2 sin x cos x cos x + sin x cos 2x
= lim
=
= lim
x0
x0
sin x
sin x

= lim 2 cos2 x + cos 2x = 3 .
x0

(8):

sin 3x
x
sin 3x
x

= lim 3

=311=3.
x0
x
sin x x0
3x
sin x

L = lim

. (21), x 0 : sin x x, sin 3x 3x. , :


3x
=3.
L = lim
x0 x
: 3.
27.
tg 5x
L = lim
x0 sin 3x

 
0
.
0

. :
3x 3x .
tg |{z}
5x 5x , sin |{z}
&0

: 35 .

56x 5
= .
x0 3 6 x
3

L = lim

28.
tg 5x
L = lim
x sin 3x
41

 
0
.
0

. , . (21) . ,
(21,22, 23) ,
y = x . x = y + ,
tg 5 (y + )
tg (5y + 5)
= lim
.
y0 sin 3 (y + )
y0 sin (3y + 3)

L = lim

( ), tg( + ) =
tg , sin( + ) = sin . ,
 
56y
5
0
tg 5y
= lim
= .
L = lim
y0 3 6 y
y0 sin 3y
0
3
, tg 5y 5y, sin 3y 3y ( y 0).
. :
tg (5x 5)
.
x sin (3x 3)

L = lim

:
tg (5x 5) 5x 5 = 5(x ) ,
| {z }
&0

sin (3x 3) 3x 3 = 3(x ) .


| {z }

5
5(x )
= .
x 3(x )
3

: L = lim
: 53 .
29.

x2 4x + 3
L = lim
x1
cos x
2

 
0
.
0

. : y = 1 x 0. , x = 1 y,

y 2 + 2y
(1 2y + y 2 ) + (4 + 4y) + 3
=
= lim
L = lim
y0 cos y
y0
cos y
2
2
2
42

2
6 y(y + 2)
4
y(y + 2)
=
.
= lim
=
y

6y
y0
y0 sin

2
2
2
lim

sin y
2 2 .


. cos 2 = sin .

(x 1)(x 3)
(1 x)(3 x)
3x
4

=
lim
=
lim
=
,

x1 sin x
x1
x1
(1

x)

2
2
2
2
 x  x

= (1 x) .
, sin
2
2
2
2
2
| {z }

L = lim

: 4 .

30.
tg x sin x
L = lim
x0
x3

 
0
.
0

tg x sin x x x . ,
() .
.
. cos x ( !) (21, 23), :
2

x x2
sin x sin x cos x
sin x (1 cos x)
1
L = lim
=
lim
.
=
lim
=
.
x0
x0
x0 x3 cos x
x3 cos x
x3 cos x
2
: 21 .
31.
sin 3x sin x
.
x0
arctg x
. ,
(sin 3x 3x sin x x)
, . , ,
.
L = lim

43

. x
:
sin 3x sin x

x
x = 3 1 = 2.
L = lim
arctg x
x0
1
x
+
. sin sin = 2 sin
2 cos 2 , ,
:

2 sin x cos 2x
2x cos 2x
= lim
= 2.
x0
x0
arctg x
x

L = lim
: 2.
32.

L = lim

x0

1
1

sin2 x 4 sin2 x2

{ } .

.
:


1 cos2 x2
sin2 x2
1
1
1
.
L = lim

=
lim
=
lim
=
2 x
x0 4 sin2 x cos2 x
x0 4 sin2 x cos2 x
x0 4 sin2 x cos2 x
4
4
sin
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
: 41 .
33.
1 cos (1 cos x)
L = lim
x0
x4

 
0
.
0

. , (23):
1
1
1 cos (1 cos x) (1 cos x)2
| {z } 2
2
&0

L=

x4
lim 8
x0 x4

: 81 .
44

1
.
8

x2
2

2

x4
=
.
8

34.

 
sin x2 + sin 3x
0
2
L = lim
.
x
x
0
. sin +
+

sin = 2 sin
cos
y = x .
2
2
2 sin (2y + 2) cos (y + )
2 sin 2y ( cos y)
2 sin 2x cos x
= lim
= lim
=
x
y0
y0
x
y
y

L = lim

2 sin y cos y cos y


sin y cos2 y
= 2 lim
= 4 lim

= 4 1 1 = 4.
y0
y0 y
y
1
: 4.
35.

 
sin x + 3
0
.
L = lim
0
x 1 2 cos x
3

. ,
:


x 


x 

1
sin
.
cos x = 2 cos cos x = 22 sin

+
12 cos x = 2
2
3
2 6
2 6



sin x + 3
2 sin x2 + 6 cos x2 + 6




L = lim

= lim

=
x
x
x
x
4
sin

sin
+
4
sin

sin
+
x 3
x 3
2
6
2
6
2
6
2
6

cos x2 + 6
cos 0
1



=
=
= lim
x

2 sin 3
3
x 3 2 sin 2 6

:
5.2

1 .
3

36.

 
ln 1 + 3x2
0

.
L = lim
x0 1 3 x2 + 1
0
. (. (22):
p

1
3x2
3
1 + |{z}
x2 1 x2 . = L = lim x2 = 9.
ln 1 + |{z}
3x2 3x2 ;
x0
3
&0

45

: 9.

37.

 
3x 2x 0
L = lim
.
x0
x
0
. (16):
x


3 x
2x 23 1
1
3
= lim 2x 2
= ln .
L = lim
x0
x0
x
x
2
: ln 23 .

38.

 
3x 9
0
L = lim
.
x2 ln(x 1)
0
. , ln(x 1) = ln (1 + (x 2)) (x 2).

9 3x2 1
9 (3y 1)
L = lim
= lim
= 9 ln 3.
x2
y0
x2
y
: 9 ln 3.
39.

 
x+2 7 0
.
L = lim
x5
ln(6 x)
0
. . , ln(6 x) = ln (1 + 5 x)) (5 x),
.. 5 x 0.
2
2

x+2
7
x5
1
 = lim
= .
L = lim

x5 (5 x)
x5 (x 5)
x+2+ 7
x+2+ 7
2 7

. : y = x 5 0, x = 5 + y.
p

1 y

1 + y7 1

7
7+y 7
= 7 lim
= 7 lim 2 7 =
.
L = lim
y0 ln (1 + (y))
y0 y
y0
ln(1 y)
14
:

147 .

40.

 
x2 1 0
L = lim
.
x1 ln x
0
. y = x 1 0, x = 1 + y (17):
(x 1)(x + 1)
y(2 + y)
y
L = lim
= lim
= lim
(2 + y) = 1 2 = 2.
x1 ln(1 + x 1)
y0 ln(1 + y)
y0 ln(1 + y)
: 2.
46

5.3

{1 }

c
(. (4.1.2)).
41.


2x+1
x+3
L = lim
{1 } .
x x 2


.

x:

x 1 + x3
1 + x3
x+3
=
=
1.
x 2 x 1 x2
1 x2 x
:
2x+1
2x+1


x+3
5
1
.
L = lim 1 +
= lim 1 +
x
x
x2
x2
:
L = lim (1 + y)

5
x2

1+4+ 10
y

y0

= y 0. , x = 2 +
5

= lim (1 + y) (1 + y)
y0

1
y 10

5
y



1 10
y
=
= lim (1 + y) (1 + y)
5

y0

= 1 e10 = e10 .
: e10 .
, .
(A > 0):
(1) A = eln A = exp(ln A),

( )

(2)

ln Ab = b ln A,

(3)

ln (1 + (x)) (x) 0,

(4)

lim exp (f (x)) = exp (lim f (x)) ,

( )
(. (22))
( )
47

.

2x+1



x+3
x+3
L = lim exp ln
{ 0} .
= exp lim (2x + 1) ln
x
x
x2
x2
:






5
x+3
x+3
5

ln
= ln 1 +
1 = ln 1 +
.
x2
x2
x

2
x

2
| {z }

:

L = exp lim (2x + 1)
x

&0

5
x2

2 + x1
= exp 5 lim
x 1 2
x

!
5x 2 + x1
 =
= exp lim
x x 1 2
x

= exp(10) = e10 .

. .
42.
A = 2ex2 1

 3x+2
x2

lim A {1 } =?

x2

. A:
lim ln A = lim ln 2e

x2

x2

x2

 3x+2
x2


3x + 2
ln 2ex2 1 { 0} .
x2 x 2

= lim

:
%0
z
}|
{


x2
x2
x2
x

2
ln 2e
1 = ln 1 + 2e
1) 2(x 2) .
| {z 2} = 2 (e
| {z 2} 2e
&0

&0

3x + 2
2(x 2) = lim 2(3x + 2) = 16.
x2
x2 x 2
x2


lim A = lim exp (ln A) = exp lim ln A = exp(16) = e16
lim ln A = lim

x2

x2

x2

: e16 .

48

43.

 
ln cos ax 0
L = lim
.
x0 ln cos bx
0
. :
a2 x2
ax
ln cos ax = ln (1 + cos
{z 1}) cos ax 1 = 2 sin 2 2 .
| ax
2

&0

, a b, .
2 2

L = lim

x0

a 2x

2 2

b 2x

a2
= 2 .
b

a2
b2 .

44.

 
ln(cos x) 0
L = lim sin2 2x
.
x2 3
1 0
. y = x 2 0 :
ln(cos y)
ln(cos(y + 2))
=
lim
.
2
2
y0 3 sin 2y 1
y0 3 sin (2y+4) 1

L = lim

ln cos y = ln(1 + cos y 1) cos y 1 = (1 cos y)


3sin

2y

y2
,
2

1 ln 3 sin2 2y ln 3 (2y)2 = 4y 2 ln 3 .
2

y2
1
L = lim 2
=
.
y0 4y ln 3
8 ln 3

: 8 ln1 3 .
45.

arcsin x3

L = lim
x ln 1 + 1
2x

 
0
.
0

. :


1
1
3
3

= L = lim
, ln 1 +
arcsin
x
x
x
2x
2x
|{z}
|{z}
&0

&0

49

3
x
1
2x

= 6.

: y = x1 (11,
17).
y
arcsin 3y
arcsin 3y
3
2
 = lim
 1 = 6.

L = lim
y
y
y0 ln 1 +
y0
3y
ln 1 + 2
2
2

: 6.

46.
ln(1 + x) sin2 x
L = lim
x0
arcsin x

 
0
.
0

. x (8, 11, 17):


ln(1 + x) sin x sin x
+
1+0
x
x
= 1.
L = lim
=
arcsin x
x0
1
x
: 1.
47.

ctg 2x
L = lim tg x +
{1 } .
x0
4
. .

  
ctg 2x
=
L = lim exp ln
tg x +
x0
4

 

{ 0} .
= exp lim ctg 2x ln tg x +
x0
4

tg( + ) =

tg + tg
,
1 tg tg

:




 
1 + tg x
1 + tg x

1 =
= ln
= ln 1 +
ln tg x +
4
1 tg x
1 tg x


2 tg x
2 sin x
2 tg x

=
.
= ln 1 +
1 tg x
1 tg x cos x sin x
| {z }
| {z }
&0

&0

50

2 sin x
cos 2x

L = exp lim
x0 sin 2x cos x sin x
: e.

cos 2x
= exp lim
x0 cos x (cos x sin x)

48.
ln (1 + 2 sin (x 3))
L = lim
x3
arctg x3
2

= e1 .

 
0
.
0

. :
ln (1 + 2 sin (x 3)) 2 sin(x 3) 2(x 3),

arctg

x3
x3

.
2
2

2(x 3) 2
= 4.
x3
x3

L = lim
: 4.
49.
L = lim

p
3

x3

6x2

+ x + 5 x { } .

. ,
.
s 
!
!
r

5
5
1
1
6
6
3
1+ + 2 + 3 1 .
L = lim 3 x3 1 + + 2 + 3 x = lim x
x
x
x x
x
x x
x
(22):
r


6
1
5
1
1
5
6
3
.
+
+
1+ + 2 + 3 1
x x
x
3 x x2 x3
,
,
x 

5
6
6
1
x2 = o x x3 = o x .
, (19). ,
39, ,


1 6
1 6
5
1
2
+ 2+ 3 = .
3 x x
x
3 x x
:
L = lim x
x

51

2
= 2.
x

: 2.
50.

 
x + 10 3 0
L = lim
.
x1
7 + 3x 2 0
. . :




x + 10 3
x + 10 + 3
7 + 3x + 2


=
L = lim
x1
7 + 3x 2
7 + 3x + 2
x + 10 + 3


2



2
x + 10 3
7 + 3x + 2
(x + 1) 7 + 3x + 2

=

lim
= lim 
2
 = x1
x1
2
(3
+
3x)
x
+
10
+
3
7 + 3x 2
x + 10 + 3

7 + 3x + 2
2
2+2
=

= .
lim
x1 3
3(3 + 3) 9
x + 10 + 3

. y = x + 1 0, x = y 1:

p

1 + y9 1
3
y 1 + 10 3
9+y3
=
L = lim p
= lim
= lim q
y0
y0
y0
4
+
3y

2
7 + 3(y 1) 2
2
1 + 3y
4 1
= lim

y0

: 92 .

3 12
1
2

51.

y
9
3y
4

1
3
3
2

2
.
9

x1
L = lim
x1 x 1

 
0
.
0

. . ,
,
:
 

2
0
x1
( 4 x) 12

=
=
lim
L = lim
x1 (x 1) ( 4 x + 1)
x1 (x 1) ( 4 x + 1)
0
2
( x) 1

=
= lim
x1 (x 1) ( 4 x + 1) ( x + 1)
52

x1
1
1

= .
=
4
x1 (x 1) ( x + 1) ( x + 1)
22 4
. t =

4
x. , t 1 x = t4 . :
= lim

t1
1
t1
=
lim
=
.
t1 (t 1) (t3 + t2 + t + 1)
t1 t4 1
4

L = lim

. :

x1=

1
4.

x1
1
1
1 + (x 1) 1 (x 1) = L = lim
= .
| {z }
x1 4(x 1)
4
4
&0

52.

 
ln x ln 2 0
L = lim
.
x2 sin x sin 2
0
. , :


x
x
x2
x
ln x ln 2 = ln
;
= ln 1 + 1 1 =
2
2
2
2
| {z }
&0

%0

z }| {
x2
x+2
x2
x+2
sin x sin 2 = 2 sin
cos
2
cos
.
2
2
2
2
x2
1
1
2
L = lim
.
= lim
=
x + 2 x2
x+2
x2
2 cos 2
(x 2) cos
2 cos
2
2
1
: 2 cos 2 .
53.
ln tg x
L = lim
x cos 2x
4

 
0
.
0

. :
sin x cos x
ln tg x = ln (1 + tg x 1) tg x 1 =
;
| {z }
cos x
&0

cos 2x = cos2 x sin2 x = (cos x sin x) (sin x + cos x) .


53

L = lim
x 4

1
sin x cos x

=
cos x
(cos x sin x) (sin x + cos x)

= lim
x 4

1
=
cos x (sin x + cos x)

2
2

= 1.
2

x 0
4
(. 47 50):




1

tg
y
2
tg
y

ln
ln 1 +
ln tg 4 y
1 + tg y
1 + tg y

L = lim
=
lim
=
lim
.
y0 cos 2y
y0
y0
sin
2y
sin
2y
2

. y =

:


2y
2 tg y
2 tg y

ln 1 +
1 + tg y
1 + tg y
1 + tg y

sin 2y 2y.

2y
= 1.
y0 (1 + tg y) 2y

L = lim


49.

1 5x
42. lim
x0 1 ex

50.

x2

5 1
x0
5x
ln (1 + 3x sin 2x)
44. lim
x0
tg x2

1 + 2x 1
45. lim
x0
tg 3x
43. lim

51.
52.
53.

sin2 3x
46. lim 2
x0 ln (1 + 2x)
sin 5x
47. lim
x0 sin 2x
sin 5x
48. lim
x sin 2x

54.


ln 1 + 3 sin2 5x
lim
x0
x2
arctg2 3x
lim
x0 1 cos 5x
x sin 2x
lim
x0 arcsin2 3x
e2 sin 3x 1
lim
x0
x

1 tg x 1 + tg x
lim
x
sin 2x
sin 2x cos 2x 1
lim
cos x sin x
x
4

sin2 x
55. lim
x0
1 + x sin x cos x
arcsin (x + 2)
56. lim
x2
x2 + 2x
54

57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.


tg x
lim x
2
x 2


sin x
lim
tg2 x
2
cos x
x 2

x+42
lim
x0
sin 5x
x3 + 1
lim
x1 sin(x + 1)
sin(1 x)
lim
x1
x1

5
32x5 x8
lim
x0
e5x 1
sin2 x tg4 x
lim
x0 3x2 + 5x4
sin 2x 2 tg x
lim
x0
x3

cos 4x 1
lim
x0 arcsin2 2x

sin x2 3x + 2
lim
x2
5x2 20
arctg(x 4)
lim x4
x0 (e
1) sin (2x 8)

ln 9 2x2
lim
x2
sin 2x
1 cos 5x
lim
x0 1 cos 3x
sin(a + x) sin(a x)
lim
x0 tg(a + x) tg(a x)

1 cos x2
lim
x0 1 cos x
sin 2x arctg 3x
lim
x0 tg 5x arcsin 4x
arcsin(3x + 6)
lim
x2 tg (x2 + 3x + 3)
sin2 4x
lim
x 1 sin x
2

75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.

e2x 1
lim
x0 ln(1 4x)
ln cos x
lim
x0 ln (1 + x2 )
a5x 1
lim
x0 ln (1 + 2x x2 )
ln x
lim
x1 2 (2x1 1)

x2 x + 1 1
lim
x1
tg x
1 cos 4x
lim
x0 1 cos 3x



81. lim x a1/x 1


x

sin(x + 2)
x2 4x + 8
ax ax
83. lim
x0 sin x
84. lim x (ln(a + x) ln x)

82. lim

2x 2
x1
26 + x 3
ln cos x
lim
x0 ln (1 + x2 )
8x 7x
lim
x 6x 5x
sin2 sin2
lim

2 2
ln (1 + 3x )
lim
x ln (1 + 2x )
ln(4 x)
lim 2
x0 2x 5x 3
 1
2
lim x 2x + 2 x1

85. lim
3
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.

x1

ln cos x
x0 sin2 x
2
ln (2 cos 2x)
93. lim 2
x0 ln (1 sin 3x)

92. lim

55


23.

1. 0.
1
2.
4
1
3.
6
2
4.
5
5.

1
4

9
4
5
47.
2

1
2
25. 0

24.

48.

1
2
27. a
26.

3
4

1
4
1
7.
4
2
8.
3
9. 0
6.

10. 0
1
11.
2
3
12.
5
13. 1
3
14.
5
1
15. ,
2
2
16.
3
1
17.
56
18. 2
1
19.
2
20. 1
21. 3

22. 2

70. cos a3

71. 2
3
72.
10
73. 3

46.

5
2

49. 75
18
50.
25
2
51.
9
52. 6

28. 0
29. 1

1
30.
2
4
31.
3
1
32.
2a
1
33.
16
1
34.
144
35. 2

53.
54.

1
2

55. 1

1
2
57. 1
1
58.
2
1
59.
20
60. 3
56.

36. 1
5
37.
2
1
38.
12
15
39.
11
40. +
3
41.
2
42. ln 5

61. 2
2
62.
5
1
63.
3
64. 2

65. 1
1
66.
20
67.
4
68.

25
69.
9

43. 0
44. 6
1
45.
3
56

74. 128
1
75.
2
1
76.
2
5 ln a
77.
2
1
78.
ln 4
79. 0
16
80.
9
81. ln a
1
82.
4
2 ln a
83.

84. a
85. 54

1
2
ln 8/7
87.
ln 6/5
sin 2
88.
2
89. 0
1
90.
7
91. 1

86.

92. 2
2
93.
9


()


/

sin

cos

tg

ctg

6
1
2
3
2
1

4
2
2
2
2
1
1

3
3
2
1
2

3
1

2
1
0

cos2 + sin2 = 1;

tg =

sin
;
cos

ctg =

sin( + 2) = sin ;
tg( + ) = tg ;

cos( + 2) = cos ;

ctg( + ) = ctg ;

sin( + ) = sin ;

cos( + ) = cos ;

sin( ) = sin ; cos( ) = cos ;




sin + 2 = cos ; cos + 2 = sin ;


sin 2 = cos ; cos 2 = sin .


tg + 2 = ctg ; ctg + 2 = tg ;


tg 2 = ctg ; ctg 2 = tg .
57

cos
;
sin

ctg =

1
tg

sin() = sin ;
tg() = tg ;

cos() = cos ;
ctg() = ctg .

sin( + ) = sin cos + cos sin ;


cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin ;
sin( ) = sin cos cos sin ;

cos( ) = cos cos + sin sin ;


tg + tg
;
tg( + ) =
1 tg tg
tg tg
tg( ) =
;
1 + tg tg

sin 2 = 2 sin cos ;

tg 2 =

2 tg
;
1 tg2

cos 2 = cos2 sin2 = 2 cos2 1 = 1 2 sin2 .


sin + sin = 2 sin +


2 cos 2 ;
+
sin sin = 2 sin
2 cos 2 ;

cos + cos = 2 cos +


2 cos 2 ;

cos cos = 2 sin +


2 sin 2

tg tg =

sin( )
.
cos cos

58

1 cos = 2 sin2 2 ;
cos2 =

1 + cos = 2 cos2 2 .

1 + cos 2
;
2

sin2 =

1 cos 2
.
2

a [1; 1],

bR:

x = arcsin a

x = arctg b
a [1; 1]

sin x= a, 
x 2 ; 2 ; .

tg x = b, 
x 2 ; 2 .

x = arcctg b

sin (arcsin a) = a,

b (; +)

x = arccos a


cos x = a,
x [0; ] .

ctg x = b,
x (0; ) .

cos (arccos a) = a.

tg (arctg b) = b.

x [ 2 ; 2 ]

arcsin (sin x) = x,

x ( 2 ; 2 )

arctg (tg x) = x,

59

x [0; ]

arccos (cos x) = x,

x (0; )

arcctg (ctg x) = x.

B
()

a2 b2 = (a b)(a + b);


a3 b3 = (a b) a2 + ab + b2 ;


an bn = (a b) an1 + an2 b + + abn2 + bn1 .


a3 + b3 = (a + b) a2 ab + b2 ;


a5 + b5 = (a + b) a4 a3 b + a2 b2 ab3 + b4 ;

. .

(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 ;

(a b)2 = a2 2ab + b2 ;

(a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2 b + 3ab2 + b3 ;

(a b)3 = a3 3a2 b + 3ab2 b3 ;

(a b)4 = a4 4a3 b + 6a2 b2 4ab3 + b4 ;

. .

ak = ak1 + d,

k N (d )

ak = a0 + kd.
60

n+1
=
a0 + a1 + a2 + + an = (a0 + an )
2
:
1 + 2 + 3 + + n =

n(n + 1)
;
2


d
a0 + n (n + 1).
2

1 + 3 + 5 + + (2n 1) = n2 .

bk = bk1 q,

k N (q )

bk = b0 q k1 .

1 q n+1
.
Sn = b 0 + b 1 + + b n = b 0
1q
|q| < 1,

lim Sn =

n+

:
n

1 + 2 + 4 + + 2 = 2

n+1

1,

b0
.
1q
lim

1
1 1
1 + + + ... n
2 4
2

= 2.

0! = 1,

n N

n! = 1 2 3 . . . n = n (n 1) (n 2) . . . 1.

n! = (n 1)! n.

x = loga b ax = b
a, b > 0, a 6= 1

aloga b = b

( );
( ).

:
a1 = a loga a = 1,

a0 = 1 loga 1 = 0.
61

:
x, y > 0

loga (xy) = loga x + loga y,

loga

y 
x

= loga y loga x;

x > 0, p R
loga xp = p loga x;
logc b
loga b =
( ).
logc a
( c = b):
loga b =

1
.
logb a

62

C
()

(x) 0:
sin (x) (x);
tg (x) (x);

arcsin (x) (x);


arctg (x) (x);

2 (x)
;
1 cos (x)
2
ln (1 + (x)) (x);

e(x) 1 (x);

a(x) 1 ln a (x);

(1 + (x))m 1 m (x).

63


1 . . . 1 / - ., 2003. 704 .
2 . ., . . . 1
/ - . ., 2005. 648 .
3 . . . 1
/ - . ., 2007. 288 .
4 . . / -
. ., 2008. 608 .
5 . ., . ., . . :
/ . . ., 1990. 28 .
6 . ., . ., . ., . . / -: , .
., 2008. 815 .
7 . ., . . : : / - . ., 2009. 381 .
8 . ., . ., . . . .
/ - . ., 2008.
256 .
9 . . / -
. ., 2008. 240 .
10 . ., . . . : / - . .,
2009. 320 .

64

-. 60 901/16
. . 4. 500 .
-
( )
190013, -, ., 26