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TAISHA WORDLIST

TAISHA WORDLIST
List 1 abacus --- aloof abacus [ ] n. an instrument for performing calculations by sliding counters along rods or in grooves abacus:calculate=balance:weight [ ] vt. to give (oneself) over unrestrainedly abandon:inhibition=despair:hope=tranquility:agitation Synonyms: unconstraint, unrestraint, desert, forsake Sample: Einstein invented antigravity in desperation and abandoned it first chance he got--but it may be the most powerful force in the universe. [ ] v. To lower in rank, prestige, or esteem abase:prestige=damp:ardor abase:status=shorten:length curtail:duration=abase:strength Synonyms: HUMBLE, bemean, cast down, debase, degrade, demean, humiliate, lower, sink Sample: The president is not willing to abase himself before the nation, and admit that he made a mistake. [ ] vt. to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of:disconcert unabashed:embarrassment=unheralded:announcement embolden<>abash/faze Synonyms: EMBARRASS , confound, confuse, discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze, rattle Sample: He was not at all abashed by her open admiration. [ ] v. to reduce in degree or intensity:MODERATE:to reduce in value or amount abate:tax=alleviate:distress abate:force=fade:loudness abate:degree=discount:price abate:force=attenuate:thickness abate:intensity=fade:loudness alleviate:intensity=abate:tax abate:intensity=taper:width thin:density/intensity=abate:length abate<>intensify/promote abate<>augment abate<>increase in intensity Synonyms: ANNIHILATE , abolish, eradicate, exterminate, extirpate Sample: Although their initial anger had abated somewhat, they continued to berate the careless worker who had broken the machine.
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abandon

abase

abash

abate

abbreviate

abdicate

aberrant

abet

abeyance

abhor

[ ] v. to make briefer; especially:to reduce to a shorter form intended to stand for the whole abbreviation:sentence=abridgment:essay abbreviation:sentence=synopsis:narrative abridge:word=abbreviate:letter abbreviate<>extend Synonyms: SHORTEN, abridge, curtail, cut, cut back, retrench, slash Sample: Because we were running out of time, the lecturer had to abbreviate her speech. [ ] v to relinquish (as sovereign power) formally recant:belief=abdicate:throne abdicate<>constitute abdicate<>assume abdicate<>usurp Synonyms: DISCARD, RELINQUISH shed,slough, renounce, resign; Sample: The king abdicated his throne and left the country. [ ] adj. deviating from the usual or natural type:ATYPICAL aberrant:standard=digressive:topic aberrant<>normal Synonyms: ABNORMAL , anomalous, atypical, deviant, unrepresentative, untypical Sample: The fact that he is late for our meeting is an aberration; he's normally on time. [ ] v. to assist or support in the achievement of a purpose abet:assistance=counsel:guidance abet:encouragement=elucidate:clarity stymie<>abet frustrate<>abet abet<>thwart/impede forestall<>abet abet<>obstruct Synonyms: INCITE, foment, instigate, provoke,stir (up) Sample: She was unwilling to abet him in the swindle he had planned. [ ]n temporary inactivity:SUSPENSION abeyance<>continuance Synonyms: abeyancy,doldrums, dormancy, interruption, latency, quiescence, suspension Sample: Yellow fever, the disease that killed 4,000 Philadelphians in 1793, and so decimated Memphis, Tennessee, that the city lost its charter, has reappeared after nearly two decades in abeyance in the Western Hemisphere. [ ] vt. to regard with extreme repugnance abhorrence:dislike=adoration:fondness abhor<>greatly admire Synonyms: HATE, abominate, detest, execrate, loathe, DESPISE, contemn, disdain, Sample: She abhors bad table manners.
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abiding

abject

abjure

abnegate

abolitionism

aboveboard

abrasion

abridge

[ ] adj. to remain stable or fixed in a state miscreant<>law-abiding individual abiding<>evanescent abiding<>ephemeral Synonyms: CONTINUE, carry through, endure, last, perdure, persist Sample: I have an abiding desire to become a teacher. [ ] adj. cast down in spirit abject<>exultant abject<>spirited/exciting Synonyms: DOWNTRODDEN, underfoot Sample: On the streets of New York the homeless live in abject poverty, huddling in doorways to find shelter from the wind. [ ] v. to renounce upon oath abjure:reject=? ? abjure<>espouse abjure<>embrace Synonyms: forswear, palinode, recall, recant, retract Sample: He abjured his allegiance to the king. [ ] v. SURRENDER, RELINQUISH abnegate<>reaffirm Sample: Though Rudolph and Duchess Flavia loved one another, their love was doomed, for she had to wed the king; their act of abnegation was necessary to preserve the kingdom. [ ] n. principles or measures fostering abolition especially of slavery anarchist:government=abolitionist:slavery abolitionist<>persisted in slavery Sample: The abolitionists advocated freedom for the slaves. adj. in a straightforward manner surreptitious<>barefaced/aboveboard chicanery<>aboveboard action Synonyms: STRAIGHTFORWARD , forthright, plain dealing, straight Sample: He is an honest businessperson; he is aboveboard with everyone. [ ] n. a wearing, grinding, or rubbing away by friction lubricate:abrasion=seal:leakage abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration scuff:abrasion=heat:vaporization abraded:friction=vaporized:heat abrade<>augment Sample: She was treated for contusions and abrasions. [ ] v. to shorten by omission of words without sacrifice of sense:CONDENSE
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abrogate

abscond

absolve

abstain

abstemious

abstinent

abstract

abbreviation:sentence=abridgment:essay abridge:length=attenuate:thickness abridge:word=abbreviate:letter amplify<>abridge abridge<>extend in length protract<>abridge Synonyms: SHORTEN, abbreviate, curtail, cut, cut back, retrench, slash Sample: Reader's Digest abridges long books so that people can read them quickly. [ ] v. to abolish by authoritative action:ANNUL abrogate<>embrace/institute/uphold Synonyms: ANNUL, vacate, ABOLISH, abate, annihilate, annul, invalidate, negate, nullify, quash, undo, vitiate Sample: He intended to abrogate the decree issued by his predecessor. [ ] v. to depart secretly and hide oneself abscond:leave=steal:take abscond:depart=pilfer/sneak:take=secrete:store=lurk:wait Synonyms: ESCAPE , break, bunk, decamp, flee, fly, scape Sample: The teller absconded with the bonds and was not found. [ ] v. to set free from an obligation or the consequences of guilt exculpatory:absolve=motivational:stir hortative:encourage=exculpatory:absolve absolve<>inculpate Synonyms: EXEMPT, discharge, dispense, EXCULPATE, acquit, exonerate, vindicate Sample: Though he refused any responsibility for the failure of the negotiations, Stevenson had no right to absolve himself:it was his acrimony that had caused the debacle. [ ] v. to refrain deliberately and often with an effort of self-denial from an action or practice mandatory:comply=forbidden:abstain Synonyms: constrain, curb, hold back, refrain, REFRAIN , withhold Sample: Two senators abstained on the vote on the new law to raise taxes. [ ] adj. marked by restraint especially in the consumption of food or alcohol reticent:talk=abstemious:gorge abstemious:indulge=austere:decorate abstemious<>indulgence Synonyms: abstentious, abstinent, continent, self-restraining, sober, temperate [ ] adj. voluntary forbearance especially from indulgence of an appetite or craving or from eating some foods:ABSTENTION Synonyms: ABSTEMIOUS, abstentious, continent, self-restraining, sober, temperate Sample: The Catholic Church demands abstinence of its priests. [ ] vt. having only intrinsic form with little or no attempt at pictorial representation or narrative content
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abstruse

abuse

abysmal

accede

accelerate

accessible

accessory

abstract<>elaborate abstraction<>attention Synonyms: hypothetical, ideal, theoretical, NEUTRAL, detached Sample: To him, hunger was an abstract concept; he had never missed a meal. [ ] adj. difficult to comprehend:RECONDITE abstruse<>accessible/patent Synonyms: RECONDITE, acroamatic, deep, esoteric, heavy, hermetic, occult, orphic, profound, secret Sample: That writer's ideas are abstruse. [ ]v to attack in words:REVILE declamation:grandiloquence=diatribe:abuse polemic:disputatious=invective:abusive diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery Synonyms: maltreat, mistreat, misuse, misapply, mishandle, misimprove ,DECRY,depreciate, derogate Sample: The poet W. H. Auden believed that the greatest poets of his age were almost necessarily irresponsible, that the possession of great gifts engenders the propensity to abuse them. [ ] adj.immeasurably low or wretched stygian:dark=abysmal:low Synonyms: BOTTOMLESS, fathomless, plumbless, plummetless, soundless, unfathomable Sample: His arrogance is exceeded only by his abysmal ignorance. [ ] v. to express approval or give consent:give in to a request or demand accede<>demur Synonyms: ASSENT, acquiesce, agree, consent, subscribe, yes Sample: Human nature and long distances have made exceeding the speed limit a cherished tradition in the state, so the legislators surprised no one when, acceding to public practice, they rejected increased penalties for speeding. [ ] v. to move faster:gain speed accelerate:speed=prolong:duration expedite:process=accelerate:pace accelerate<>retard Synonyms: SPEED , hasten, hurry, quicken, shake up, step up, swiften Sample: In our science class, we learn how falling bodies accelerate. [ ] adj. capable of being understood or appreciated abstruse<>accessible/patent Synonyms: OPEN, open-door, public, unrestricted, employable, operative, practicable, usable Sample: We asked our guide whether the ruins were accessible on foot. [ ] adj. present in a minor amount and not essential as a constituent
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accidental

acclimate

accolade

accommodate

accomplice

accost

accessory<>of primarily importance Synonyms: AUXILIARY, adjuvant, ancillary, appurtenant, collateral, contributory, subservient, subsidiary Sample: She bought an attractive handbag as an accessory for her dress. [ ] adj. occurring unexpectedly or by chance inventiveness:accidental=effect:casual safeguard:accident=hedge:loss intentional:accidental=arrogant:humble Synonyms: contingent, fluky, fortuitous, incidental, odd Sample: Actual events in the history of life on Earth are accidental in that any outcome embodies just one possibility among millions; yet each outcome can be rationally interpreted. [ ] vt. to adapt to a new temperature, altitude, climate, environment, or situation acclimate<>make unfamiliar with Synonyms: HARDEN , acclimatize, climatize, season, toughen Sample: One of the difficulties of our present air age is the need of travellers to acclimate themselves to their new and often strange environments. [ ] n. an expression of praise accolade<>cutting remark accolade<>speak ill/derogate accolade<>disapprobation accolade<>criticism accolade<>excoriate accolade<>reprobate/ reproof accolade<>denigration accolade<>swearword accolade<>denunciation Synonyms: HONOR , award, badge, bays, decoration, distinction, kudos, laurels Sample: In Hollywood, an "Oscar" is the highest accolade. [ ] v. to provide with something desired, needed, or suited (as a helpful service, a loan, or lodgings) obliterate:remove=accommodate:supply Synonyms: ADAPT, adjust, conform convenience, favor HARBOR , bestow, domicile, entertain, lodge Sample: Every new theory not only must accommodate the valid predictions of the old theory, but must also explain why those predictions succeeded within the range of that old theory. [ ] n. one associated with another especially in wrongdoing Synonyms: CONFEDERATE, abettor, accessory, coconspirator, conspirator Sample: The police caught the thief and his accomplice, who was driving the car. [ ] vt. to approach and speak to often in a challenging or aggressive way accost:approach=??
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accrete

accumulate

accuse

acerbity

acme

acquiesce

acquisition

Synonyms: ADDRESS , call (to), greet, hail, salute Sample: When the two young men accosted me, I was frightened because I thought they were going to attack me. [ ] v. ACCUMULATE accrete:growth=erode:destruction accrete:grow=inch:advance Synonyms: cohere, cling ,adhere [ ] vi. to gather or pile up especially little by little:AMASS dissipate<>accumulate Synonyms: amass, cumulate, garner, hive, lay up, roll up, stockpile, store (up), uplay Sample: As long as nations cannot themselves accumulate enough physical power to dominate all others, they must depend on allies. [ ] v. to charge with a fault or offense:BLAME Synonyms: arraign, charge, criminate, impeach, incriminate, inculpate, indict, tax Sample: The old man could not have been accused of stinting his affection; his conduct toward the child betrayed his adoration of her. [ ] n. Sourness of taste, character, or tone. acerbity<>saccharin Synonyms: ACRIMONY, asperity, mordancy Sample: The labor union and the company's management, despite their long history of unfailingly acerbic disagreement on nearly every issue, have nevertheless reached an unexpectedly swift, albeit still tentative, agreement on next year's contract. n the highest point or stage acme:surpass=impossible:execute acme:mountain=crest:wave Synonyms: APEX , apogee, capstone, climax, culmination, meridian, peak, pinnacle, summit, zenith Sample: Welles's success in Citizen Kane marked the acme of his career as an actor; never again did he achieve such popular acclaim. [ ] v. to accept, comply, or submit tacitly or passively intransigent:acquiesce=deferential:offend acquiesce:yield={ capitulate:categorical} acquiesce<>resist acquiesce<>defy Synonyms: ASSENT, accede, agree, consent, subscribe, yes Sample: Far from being unctuous, Pat was always loath to appear acquiescent. [ ] n. the act of acquiring divestiture<>acquisition Synonyms: ACQUIREMENT, accomplishment, achievement, attainment, finish Sample: In contrast to the incuriosity with which the acquisition of language by young children was once regarded, the process by which such learning occurs has now become
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acquit

acrid

acrimonious

adamant

adapt

addict

adherent

the object of scrutiny . [ ] vt. to discharge completely Synonyms: EXCULPATE, absolve, clear, disculpate, exonerate, vindicate Sample: The widespread public shock at the news of the guilty verdict was caused partly by biased news stories that had predicted acquittal. [ ] adj. sharp and harsh or unpleasantly pungent in taste or odor:IRRITATING grating:sound=acrid:odor acrid:gentleness=forthright:guile stridency:sound=acridity:odor acrid:odor=piercing:sound acrid<>gentle Synonyms: astringent, austere, bitter, harsh, sharp Sample: The acrid odor of burnt gunpowder filled the room after the pistol had been fired. [ ] adj. caustic , biting , or rancorous especially in feeling, language, or manner acrimonious<>harmonious Synonyms: ANGRY, indignant, irate, ireful, mad, wrathful, wrathy, wroth, wrothful, wrothy Sample: His tendency to utter acrimonious remarks alienated his audience. [ ] adj. unshakable or immovable especially in opposition:UNYIELDING adamant:flexibility=refractory:control impossible:execute=adamant:moved adamant:yield=cautious:gamble adamant<>vacillatory Synonyms: INFLEXIBLE,inexorable,obdurate,relentless,rigid, uncompromising, unswayable, unyielding Sample: Although he attempted repeatedly to disabuse her of her conviction of his insincerity, he was not successful; she remained adamant in her judgment. [ ] vt. to make fit (as for a specific or new use or situation) often by modification adapt<>remain unchanged adapt<>unchangeable Synonyms: accommodate, adjust, conform, fit, quadrate, reconcile, square Sample: The form and physiology of leaves vary according tothe environment in which they develop:for example, leaves display a wide range of adaptations to different degrees of light and moisture. (9504) [ ] vt. to devote or surrender (oneself) to something habitually or obsessively disabuse:error=rehabilitate:addiction inured:tolerance=addicted:dependency Sample: In his stupor, the addict was unaware of the events taking place around him. [ ] n. one that adheres:as a follower of a leader, party, or profession adherent<>forerunner
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adjacent

adjourn

adjunct

ad lib

admission

admonish

adore

Synonyms: FOLLOWER, cohort, disciple, henchman, partisan, , sectary, sectator, supporter Sample: In the wake of the scandal, the senator's one-time adherent quietly deserted him. [ ] adj. having a common endpoint or border also immediately preceding or following Synonyms: NEIGHBORING, contiguous, abutting, adjoining, approximal, bordering, conterminous Sample: Though their apartment lacked a full-scale dining room, an alcove adjacent to the living room made an adequate breakfast nook for the young couple. [ ] vi. to suspend a session indefinitely or to another time or place convoke<>adjourn Synonyms: DEFER, delay, postpone, shelve, prorogate, prorogue, recess Sample: The judge adjourned the trial so people could go to lunch. [ ] n. something joined or added to another thing but not essentially a part of it adjunct<>essential element Synonyms: APPENDAGE, accessory, appendix, appurtenance Sample: I will entertain this concept as an adjunct to the main proposal. [ ] adv. without restraint or limit to speak, sing, or act without a script, saying whatever words come into one's mind ad lib:impromptu=aside:divergent Synonyms: IMPROVISE, extemporize, improvisate Sample: When the actor forgot her lines, she <v.> ad libbed her part. [ ] n. the act or process of admitting lottery:raffle=ticket:admission Synonyms: access, adit, admittance, entrance, entry, ingress, way Sample: Many colleges state that a student must offer three years of a language as a requisite for admission. [ ] v. to express warning or disapproval to especially in a gentle, earnest, or solicitous manner peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation admonish:denounce=punish:pillory apprise:information=admonish:warning pretense:deceive=admonition:reprove alibi:exculpatory=warning:admonishery Synonyms: REPROVE, call down, chide, lesson, monish, rebuke, reprimand, reproach Sample: He admonished his listeners to change their wicked ways. [ ] vt. to regard with loving admiration and devotion terror:apprehension=adoration:affection fascination:interest=adoration:fondness=abhorrence:dislike adulate:fawn=woo (love):adore Synonyms: REVERE, reverence, venerate, worship, affection, idolize Sample: Since 1813 reaction to Jane Austen's novels has oscillated between adoration
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adroit

adulate

adulterate

adumbrate

adversary

and condescension; but in general later writers have esteemed her works more highly than did most of her literary admirers. [ ] adj. having or showing skill, cleverness, or resourcefulness in handling situations loquacious:succinct=adroit:ungainly adroit<>ungainly ham-handed<>deft/adroit Synonyms: DEXTEROUS, clever, deft, handy, SKILLFUL Sample: The finesse and adroitness of the surgeon impressed the observers in the operating room. [ ] v. to flatter or admire excessively or slavishly fulminate:criticize=adulate:flatter=scorn:reject adulate:fawn=woo (love):adore aversion:disinclination=adulation:admiration adulate<>scorn adulation<>disdain adulation<>somber affection vituperate<>adulatory adulation<>obloquy adulate<>disparage Sample: No one is neutral about Stephens; he inspires either uncritical adulation or profound antipathy in those who work for him. [ ] vt. to corrupt, debase, or make impure by the addition of a foreign or inferior substance or element stickler stickler:approximation=purist:adulteration embellish:austere=adulterate:pure adulterate:purity=enervate:vigor adulterate:pure=bolster/brace:weak demanding:satisfactory=adulterate:pristine {closed-mind:sway} demanding:satisfy=closed-mind:sway dismantle:unity=adulterate:pristine unalloyed<>adulterated tainted<>unadulterated Synonyms: debase, doctor, dope (up), load, sophisticate Sample: It is a crime to adulterate foods without informing the buyer. [ ] vt. to suggest or disclose partially revelation<>adumbration Synonyms: SKETCH, block (out), chalk (out), characterize, draft, outline, rough (out), skeleton, skeletonize [ ] n. one that contends with, opposes, or resists:ENEMY supplicant:humility=adversary:resistance ally<>adversary Synonyms: OPPONENT, antagonist, anti, con, match, opposer, oppugnant Sample: Batman struggled to save Gotham City from the machinations of his wicked
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advert

advertise

advocate

aerate

aerial

aesthetic

affable

affected

adversary, the Joker. [ ] vi. to turn the mind or attention advertent<>inattentive Sample: Since you advert to this matter so frequently, you must regard it as important. [ ] vt. to announce publicly especially by a printed notice or a broadcast advertising:commercial=publishing:journal Synonyms: DECLARE, announce, annunciate, blazon, broadcast, bruit (about), proclaim, promulgate Sample: When we advertised the position, we received a deluge of applications. [ ] vt. to plead in favor of exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass Synonyms: EXPONENT, champion, expounder, proponent, supporter Sample: And Walzer advocates as the means of eliminating this tyranny and of restoring genuine equality "the abolition of the power of money outside its sphere" [ ] v. to supply (the blood) with oxygen by respiration aerate:oxygen=hydrate:water aerate<>remove air from [ ] adj. of, relating to, or occurring in the air or atmosphere aerial:air=aquatic:water Synonyms: AIRY, atmospheric, pneumatic, skyscraping, soaring, ethereal, vaporous, vapory Sample: The airplane did aerial tricks such as flying upside-down. [ ] n. a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste and with the creation and appreciation of beauty aesthetics:beauty=epistemology:knowledge gourmet:food=aesthetic:art Sample: The eradication of pollution is not merely a matter of aesthetics, though the majestic beauty of nature is indeed an important consideration. [ ] adj. characterized by ease and friendliness affable<>irascible testy<>affable Synonyms: GRACIOUS, congenial, cordial, genial, sociable,sonsy, amiable, genial Sample: Although he held a position of responsibility, he was an affable individual and could be reached by anyone with a complaint. [ ] adj. assumed artificially or falsely:PRETENDED disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction officious:meddle=disaffected:rebel posturer:unaffected=bigot:tolerant disaffected<>content/contented affected<>natural
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affection

affidavit

affiliation

affinity

afflict

affluent

Sample: His affected mannerisms irritated may of us who had known him before his promotion. [ ] n. tender attachment:FONDNESS terror:apprehension=adoration:affection embrace:affection=frown:displeasure=shrug:indifference scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection swagger:bravado=caress:affection mercurial:mood=fickle:affection obeisant:esteem=embrace:affection antipathy<>affection adulation<>somber affection Synonyms: INTERESTED, concerned, implicated, involved, assumed, feigned, conscious Sample: The old man could not have been accused of stinting his affection; his conduct toward the child betrayed his adoration of her. [ ] n. a sworn statement in writing made especially under oath or on affirmation before an authorized magistrateor officer affidavit:statement=wedding:ceremony Sample: The court refused to accept his statement unless he presented it in the form of an affidavit. [ ] n to bring or receive into close connection as a member or branch affiliation<>dissociation Synonyms: ASSOCIATION, alliance ,combination ,conjointment ,conjunction , partnership Sample: His affiliation with the political party was of short duration for he soon disagreed with his colleagues. [ ] n. likeness based on relationship or causal connection affinity<>aversion repugnance<>affinity affinity<>antipathy Synonyms: alikeness, analogy, comparison, resemblance, semblance, similarity, simile, similitude Sample: Although Georgia OKeeffe is best known for her affinity with the desert landscape, her paintings of urban subjects attest to her longtime residency in New York City. [ ] vt. a:to distress so severely as to cause persistent suffering or anguish b:TROUBLE, INJURE Synonyms: TRIAL, calvary, cross, crucible, ordeal, tribulation, visitation Sample: The "impostor syndrome" often afflicts those who fear that true self-disclosure will lower them in others' esteem; rightly handled, however, candor may actually enhance one's standing. [ ] adj. having a generously sufficient and typically increasing supply of material possessions
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agenda

aggrandize

aggravate

aggregate

aggressive

aggrieve

affluent<>needy impecunious<>wealthy/prosperous/affluent Synonyms: RICH, moneyed, opulent, wealthy [ ]n a list or outline of things to be considered or done minute:agenda=log:itinerary syllabus:course=agenda:meeting:itinerary:trip=program:concert Synonyms: PROGRAM, calendar, card, docket, programma, schedule, sked, timetable Sample: We had so much difficulty agreeing upon an agenda that there was very little time for the meeting. [ ] vt. to make appear great or greater:praise highly aggrandize<>disparage aggrandize<>relegate efface<>aggrandize Synonyms: INCREASE, augment, boost, enlarge, expand, extend, heighten, magnify, sublime, uprear Sample: The history of the past quarter century illustrates how a President may aggrandize his power to act aggressively in international affairs without considering the wishes of Congress. [ ] vt. to make worse, more serious, or more severe:intensify unpleasantly aggravate<>alleviate console<>aggravate grief allay<>increase the intensity of/aggravate/intensify succor<>aggravate Synonyms: INTENSIFY, deepen, enhance, heighten, intensate, magnify Sample: I hurt my foot, then aggravated it by trying to walk too soon. [ ] v. to collect or gather into a mass or whole coalesce<>disaggregate disaggregate/disintegrate<>join together aggregate<>isolated units aggregate<>disperse Synonyms: agglomerate, agglomeration, aggregation, conglomerate, conglomeration Sample: The aggregate wealth of this country is staggering to the imagination. [ ] adj. Inclined to behave in a hostile fashion. aggressive<>even-meaning Synonyms: assertive, assertory, militant, pushful, pushing, pushy, self-assertive Sample: Current data suggest that, although transitional states between fear and aggression exist, fear and aggression are as distinct physiologically as they are psychologically. [ ] vt. to give pain or trouble to:DISTRESS aggrieve<>gratify Synonyms: DISTRESS, constrain, grieve, hurt, injure, pain, outrage, persecute Sample: She is the aggrieved person whose fianc did not show up for their wedding.
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agony

airtight

alacrity

albino

alchemy

alibi

align

allay

[ ] n. intense pain of mind or body:ANGUISH, TORTURE painful:agonizing=important:paramount agonized:distress=obsessed:concern Synonyms: DISTRESS, dolor, misery, passion, suffering Sample: She burned herself on the stove and was in agony. [ ] adj. impermeable to air or nearly so foolproof:fail=airtight:leak Sample: The fish is packed in airtight cans. [ ] n. promptness in response:cheerful readiness alacrity:prompt=acumen:shrewd alacrity:apathetic=temerity:timid husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate alacrity<>dilatoriness/hesitance alacrity<>recalcitrance alacrity<>hesitance and reluctance alacrity<>reluctant alacrity<>sluggish Synonyms: dispatch, expedition, goodwill, promptitude, readiness Sample: He demonstrated his eagerness to serve by his alacrity in executing the orders of his master. [ ] n. r albinism an organism exhibiting deficient pigmentation albino:pigment=prairie:tree [ ] n. a medieval chemical science and speculative philosophy aiming to achieve the transmutation of the base metals into gold, the discovery of a universal cure for disease, and the discovery of a means of indefinitely prolonging life alchemy:chemistry=false drug:treatment Sample: The changing of baser metals into gold was the goal of the students of alchemy. [ ] n. an excuse usually intended to avert blame or punishment alibi:exculpatory=warning:admonishery alibi:exculpate=sophism:deceive) Synonyms: EXCUSE, plea, pretext, right Sample: Though her alibi seemed implausible, it in fact turned out to be true. [ ] v. to bring into line or alignment aligned<>improperly adjusted aligned<>irregular/{curved }/askew aligned<>warped aligned<>awry Synonyms: LINE, allineate, line up, range Sample: The worker aligned the chairs in straight rows in the meeting hall. [ ] vt.
15

allegiance

allegory

alleviate

alliterate

allowance

allude

to subdue or reduce in intensity or severity:ALLEVIATE allay<>increase the intensity of/aggravate/intensify allay<>excite {compel } Synonyms: RELIEVE, alleviate, assuage, lighten, mitigate, mollify, lull, tranquilize [ ] n devotion or loyalty to a person, group, or cause pundits:authoritativeness=partisans:allegiance renegade:allegiance=apostate:faith Synonyms: FIDELITY, ardor, devotion, faithfulness, fealty, loyalty, piety Sample: The allegiance of our allies is held by rather tenuous ties; let us hope they will remain loyal. [ ] n. the expression by means of symbolic fictional figures and actions of truths or generalizations abouthuman existence allegory:fiction=?? Synonyms: figuration, symbolism, symbolization, typification, apologue, fable, myth, parable Sample: When Mrs. Malaprop criticizes Lydia for being "as headstrong as an allegory on the banks of the Nile," she confuses "allegory" and "allegator" in a typical malapropism. [ ] v RELIEVE, LESSEN abate:tax=alleviate:distress alleviate:intensity=abate:tax alleviate:strength=dampen:ardor alleviate:power=attenuate:force alleviate:intensity=console:grief alleviate<>exacerbate Synonyms: RELIEVE, allay, assuage, ease, lighten, mitigate, mollify Sample: This should alleviate the pain; if it does not, we shall have to use stronger drugs. [ ] v. the repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables alliterate:remove=blazon:efface Sample: The sentence, "Happy Harry hates to hurry" uses alliteration. [ ] n. a share or portion allotted or granted pittance:allowance=rivulet:stream Synonyms: RATION, allotment, apportionment, measure, meed, part, portion, quantum, quota, share Sample: Despite some allowances for occupational mobility, the normal expectation of seventeenth-century English society was that the child's vocation would develop along familial lines; divergence from the career of one's parents was therefore limited. [ ] vi. to make indirect reference; broadly:REFER intimate:communicate=allude:refer allude<>mention explicitly
16

aloft

aloof

Synonyms: REFER , advert, bring up, point (out) Sample: Although scientists claim that the seemingly literal language of their reports is more precise than the figurative language of fiction, the language of science, like all language, is inherently allusive. [ ] adv. at or toward the upper rigging. founder<>stay aloft grounded<>aloft founder<>keep aloft Sample: The sailor climbed aloft into the rigging. [ ] adj. removed or distant either physically or emotionally politic:offend=aloof:associated gregarious<>aloof Synonyms: UNSOCIABLE ,cool,reserved,solitary,standoffish,unapproachable,unbending,uncompanionable Sample: Although some girls were attracted by Mark's reserve, Judy was put off by it, for she felt his aloofness indicated a lack of openness. List 2 alphabetical --- arresting

alphabetical

altruism

amalgamate

amass

ambiguous

[ ] adj. arranged in the order of the letters of the alphabet dictionary:alphabetical=annals:chronological Sample: He put the words in the list in alphabetical order. [ ] n. unselfish regard for or devotion to the welfare of others altruist:selflessness=connoisseur:expertise altruism<>egocentric Synonyms: CHARITABLE, benevolent, eleemosynary, good, humane, humanitarian, philanthropic Sample: That rich woman is altruistic; she pays the expenses for poor students to go to college. [ ] v. to merge into a single body amalgamate<>separate amalgamate<>isolate amalgamate<>disintegration Synonyms: MIX , admix, compound, fuse, interfuse, intermingle, intermix, meld, merge, mingle Sample: The unions will attempt to amalgamate their groups into one national body. [ ] v. to collect for oneself:ACCUMULATE Synonyms: ACCUMULATE, cumulate, garner, hive, lay up, roll up, stockpile, store (up), uplay Sample: The miser's aim is to amass and hoard as much gold as possible. [ ] adj. doubtful or uncertain especially from obscurity or indistinctness equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal
17

ambivalent

amble

ambrosial

ameliorate

amenity

amiable

ambiguous:understand=blatant:ignore ambiguous:clarity=mendacious:truth equivocation:ambiguous=oxymoron:incongruous watershed<>routine { ambiguity } Synonyms: OBSCURE,amphibological,equivocal,opaque,uncertain, unclear, unexplicit, unintelligible Sample: His ambiguous instructions misled us; we did not know which road to take. [ ] adj. continual fluctuation (as between one thing and its opposite) Sample: The senators remark that she is ambivalent about running for a second term is persuasive given the extremely apathetic fund-raising activities of her campaign committee. [ ] vi. to walk slowly or leisurely; stroll amble:walk=chat:talk tint:suffuse=amble:wander walk:amble=draw:doodle amble<>step quickly Synonyms: SAUNTER, bummel, drift, linger, mope, mosey, muck, stroll Sample: When she first mounted the horse, she was afraid to urge the animal to go faster than a gentle amble. [ ] adj. something extremely pleasing to taste or smell mellifluous:music=ambrosial:food Synonyms: luscious, yummy ,aromal, aromatic, balmy, fragrant, perfumed Sample: ambrosia was supposed to give immortality to any human who ate it. [ ] vt. to make better or more tolerable ameliorate:promote=?? amelioration:improve=?? ameliorate<>aggravate demoralize<>invigorate { ameliorate } damper<>ameliorate Synonyms: IMPROVE, amend, better, help, meliorate Sample: Many social workers have attempted to ameliorate the conditions of people living in the slums. [ ] n. something that conduces to comfort, convenience, or enjoyment amenity:comfortable=honorarium:grateful ameniable<>inimical Synonyms: agreeability, agreeableness, amiability, cordiality, enjoyableness, geniality, gratefulness, pleasance, pleasantness, sweetness and light Sample: The host of the party began with the usual amenities of introducing himself and his guests. [ ] adj. being friendly, sociable, and congenial inimical<>friendly/amiable/amicable Synonyms: complaisant, easy, good-humored, good-natured, good-tempered, lenient,
18

amicable

amiss

amorphous

amphibian

amplify

amplitude

amulet

anaerobic

analgesic

mild, obliging Sample: His amiable disposition pleased all who had dealings with him. [ ] adj. characterized by friendly goodwill:PEACEABLE inimical<>friendly/amiable/amicable Synonyms: HARMONIOUS , amical, congenial, friendly Sample: The dispute was settled in an amicable manner with no harsh words. [ ] adj. in a faulty way:IMPERFECTLY Synonyms: faultily, incorrectly, wrongly Sample: Seeing her frown, he wondered if anything were amiss. [ ] adj. having no definite form:SHAPELESS amorphous:shape=errant:course amorphous:shape=wandering:course Synonyms: FORMLESS, inchoate, shapeless, unformed, unshaped Sample: John was subject to panic attacks that left him prey to vague, amorphous fears:he knew he was terrified, but could neither define nor explain the cause of his terror. [ ] n. any of a class (Amphibia) of cold-blooded vertebrates (as frogs, toads, or salamanders) intermediate in many characters between fishes and reptiles and having gilled aquatic larvae and air-breathing adults eaglet:bird=fawn:mammal {frog:amphibian} Sample: Frogs are classified as amphibian. [ ] vt. to make larger or greater (as in amount, importance, or intensity):INCREASE mute<>amplify Synonyms: EXPAND , dilate, distend, inflate, swell Sample: Her attempts to amplify her remarks were drowned out by the jeers of the audience. [ ] n. the quality or state of being ample:FULLNESS amplitude<>meagerness Synonyms: BREADTH , comprehensiveness, fullness, scope, wideness Sample: The football stadium has seating space of great amplitude. [ ] n. a charm (as an ornament) often inscribed with a magic incantation or symbol to protect the wearer against evil (as disease or witchcraft) or to aid him amulet:evil=helmet:injury Synonyms: CHARM, fetish, juju, luck, mascot, periapt, phylactery, talisman, zemi Sample: Around her neck she wore the amulet that the witch doctor had given her. [ ] adj. living, active, occurring, or existing in the absence of free oxygen anaerobic<>living in oxygen anaerobic<>{respiration} [ ] n. insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness
19

analogy

analysis

anarchist

anathema

ancestor

anecdote

analgesic:pain=anesthetic:sensation aseptic:disinfections=anesthetic:numbs pain:analgesic=sensation:anesthetic pain:analgesic=symptom:palliative analgesia:pain=simplify:complexity tonic:invigorate=analgesic:deaden Synonyms: ANODYNE , anesthetic, pain-killer Sample: The analgesic qualities of his lotion will provide temporary relief. [ ] n. a resemblance in some particulars between things otherwise unlike:SIMILARITY b:comparison based on such resemblance disparate<>analogous Synonyms: LIKENESS, affinity, alikeness, comparison, resemblance, semblance, similarity, simile, similitude Sample: Your analogy is not a good one because the two situations are not similar. [ ] n. separation of a whole into its component parts measure:dimension=analyze:nature synthesis<>analysis Synonyms: breakdown, breakup, dissection, resolution Sample: Though it would be unrealistic to expect Barnard to have worked out all of the limitations of his experiment, he must be criticized for his neglect of quantitative analysis. [ ] n. one who rebels against any authority, established order, or ruling power anarchist:government=abolitionist:slavery anarchist:rebel=apologist:defend apologist:defend=anarchist:rebel anarchy<>order Synonyms: REBEL, anarch, insurgent, insurrectionist, malcontent, mutineer, revolter Sample: Only the total overthrow of all governmental regulations would satisfy the anarchist. [ ] n. the denunciation of something as accursed panegyric<>anathema Synonyms: CURSE , commination, imprecation, malediction, malison Sample: He heaped anathema upon his foe. [ ] n. one from whom a person is descended and who is usually more remote in the line of descent than a grandparent heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator scion<>ancestor Synonyms: antecedent(s), ascendant, forebear, forefather, primogenitor, progenitor Sample: He was proud of his genealogy and constantly referred to the achievements of his ancestors.. [ ] n. a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident anecdote:amusement=lecture:instruction={caption:illustration}
20

anemic

anesthetic

anhydrous

animation

animus

annals

annoy

annul

skit:play=anecdote:narrative Synonyms: narration, narrative, tale, yarn Sample: The anecdote was in execrable taste and shocked the audience. [ ] adj. lacking force, vitality, or spirit anemic<>strong/hale Synonyms: PALE, bloodless, pallid, waterish, watery [ ] n. lacking awareness or sensitivity analgesic:pain=anesthetic:sensation aseptic:disinfections=anesthetic:numbs pain:analgesic:sensation:anesthetic soporific:alertment=anesthetic:pain sensation<>anesthesia Synonyms: ANODYNE, analgesic, pain-killer Sample: His monotonous voice acted like an anesthetic; his audience was soon asleep. [ ] adj. free from water and especially water of crystallization anhydrous<>wet [ ] n. possessing or characterized by life:ALIVE lassitude<>vim/animation Sample: Her animated expression indicated a keenness of intellect. [ ] n. a usually prejudiced and often spiteful or malevolent ill will animus<>friendly Synonyms: ENMITY, animosity, antagonism, antipathy, hostility, rancor Sample: The animus of the speaker became obvious to all when he began to indulge in sarcastic and insulting remarks. [ ] n. a record of events arranged in yearly sequence dictionary:alphabetical=annals:chronological Synonyms: chronicle Sample: In the annals of this period, we find no mention of democratic movements. [ ] vt. to disturb or irritate especially by repeated acts testy:annoy=tractable:control mawkish:sentimental=peeve:annoy hidebound:conservative=peeved:annoyed maudlin:sentimental=peeved:annoyed patronizing:condescending=peeved:annoyed testy:annoy=hesitate:balk Synonyms: abrade, bother, chafe, exercise, fret, gall, irk, provoke, ruffle, vex Sample: Although Tom was aware that it would be impolitic to display annoyance publicly at the sales conference, he could not hide his irritation with the client's unreasonable demands. [ ] v. to declare or make legally invalid or void
21

anodyne

anomalous

anonymous

antagonize

antediluvian

anterior

anthology

annul<>make legal annul<>reaffirm Synonyms: ABOLISH, abate, abrogate, annihilate, invalidate, negate, nullify, quash, undo, vitiate Sample: The parents of the eloped couple tried to annul the marriage. [ ] n. something that soothes, calms, or comforts Synonyms: analgesic, anesthetic, pain-killer Sample: His pain was so great that no anodyne could relieve it. [ ] adj. inconsistent with or deviating from what is usual, normal, or expected:IRREGULAR, UNUSUAL anomaly:paradigmatic=blemish:flawless anomalous<>typical/conformity to norms Synonyms: ABNORMAL, aberrant, atypical, deviant, deviative, heteroclite, preternatural, unrepresentative, untypical Sample: He was placed in the anomalous position of seeming to approve procedures that he despised. [ ] adj. not named or identified anonymous:identify=nonchalant:excite Synonyms: innominate, nameless, undesignated, unnamed Sample: The donor of the gift asked the college not to mention him by name; the dean readily agreed to respect his anonymity. [ ] vt. to incur or provoke the hostility of cowardice:intimidate=choler:antagonize placate<>antagonize synergic<>antagonistic propitiate<>antagonize mollify<>antagonize/{ire} Sample: Marshall's confrontational style could alienate almost anyone:he even antagonized a board of directors that included a number of his supporters and that had a reputation for not being easily provoked. [ ] adj. made, evolved, or developed a long time ago antediluvian:age=colossal:size Synonyms: ANCIENT, aged, age-old, antique, hoary, Noachian, old, timeworn, venerable Sample: The antediluvian customs had apparently not changed for thousands of years. [ ] adj. coming before in time or development anterior<>ensuing Synonyms: PRECEDING, antecedent, foregoing, former, past, precedent, previous, prior Sample: The head of an insect is located on the anterior part of its body. [ ] n. a collection of selected literary pieces or passages or works of art or music compendium:summary=anthology:collection
22

antic

anticipatory

antidote

antipathy

antiquated

antiseptic

anvil

apathy

Synonyms: album, ana, analects, florilegium, garland, miscellany, omnibus, posy Sample: She received an anthology of the works of 20th century American poets as a gift for her birthday. [ ] adj characterized by clownish extravagance or absurdity facetious:speech=antic:behavior Synonyms: PRANK, caper, dido(es), frolic, lark, monkeyshine(s), shenanigan, shine(s), tomfoolery, trick Sample: I can watch the Marx brothers' zany antics for hours. [ ] adj. to give advance thought, discussion, or treatment to retrospective<>anticipatory Synonyms: EXPECTANT, anticipant, anticipative, atiptoe, expecting Sample: The skeleton of a primitive. bird that was recently discovered indicated that this ancient creature anticipated todays birds in that, unlike earlier birds and unlike reptilian ancestors, it had not a tooth in its head. [ ] n. a remedy to counteract the effects of poison antidote:poisoning=balm:irritation remedy:disease=antidote:poisoning Synonyms: REMEDY, corrective, counteractant, counteractive, counteragent, countermeasure, counterstep, cure Sample: We must seek an antidote for whatever toxic substance he has eaten. [ ] n. settled aversion or dislike:DISTASTE antipathy<>affection affinity<>antipathy Synonyms: ENMITY, animosity, animus, antagonism, hostility, rancor Sample: No one is neutral about Stephens; he inspires either uncritical adulation or profound antipathy in those who work for him. [ ] adj existing since or belonging to earlier times:ANCIENT Synonyms: ANCIENT , aged, age-old, antediluvian, hoary, Noachian, old, timeworn, venerable Sample: Contrary to the antiquated idea that the eighteenth century was a tranquil island of elegant assurance, evidence reveals that life for most people was filled with uncertainty and insecurity. [ ] n. opposing sepsis, putrefaction, or decay; oil:lubricate=antiseptic:disinfect Sample: It is advisable to apply an antiseptic to any wound, no matter how slight or insignificant. [ ] n. a heavy usually steel-faced iron block on which metal is shaped hammer:anvil=pestle:mortar :=:() Sample: After heating the iron horseshoe in the forge, the blacksmith picked it up with his tongs and set it on the anvil. [ ] n.
23

apex

aphorism

apiary

apocalyptic

apocrypha

apologist

apophasis

lack of feeling or emotion:IMPASSIVENESS ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic Synonyms: impassivity, insensibility, phlegm, stoicism, stolidity, unresponsiveness Sample: The senators remark that she is ambivalent about running for a second term is persuasive given the extremely apathetic fund-raising activities of her campaign committee. [ ] n. the highest or culminating point Synonyms: TOP, crest, crown, fastigium, peak, roof, summit, vertex Sample: He was at the apex of his career. [ ] n. a terse formulation of a truth or sentiment:ADAGE brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature euphemism:offensive=aphorism:diffusive pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature Synonyms: MAXIM, apothegm, axiom, brocard, dictum, gnome, moral, rule, truism Sample: In response to the follies of today's commercial and political worlds, the author does not express inflamed indignation, but rather affects the detachment and smooth aphoristic prose of an eighteenth-century wit. [ ] n. a place where bees are kept; especially:a collection of hives or colonies of bees kept for their honey apiary:bee=cage:pet Sample: Although he spent many hours daily in the apiary, he was very seldom stung by a bee. [ ] adj. forecasting the ultimate destiny of the world:PROPHETIC apocalyptic:prophetic=inconsequential:illogical apocalyptic<>inconsequential Synonyms: PROPHETIC, Delphian, fatidic, mantic, oracular, prophetical, sibylline, vatic, vaticinal Sample: His apocalyptic remarks were dismissed by his audience as wild surmises. [ ] n. writings or statements of dubious authenticity apocryphal:authentic=?? Sample: To impress his friends, Tom invented apocryphal tales of his adventures in the big city. [ ] n. one who speaks or writes in defense of someone or something saboteur:disrupt=apologist:defend apologist:defend=anarchist:rebel disciple:follow=apologist:defend heretic:unconformity=apologist:defend patron:support=apologist:defend apologist<>critic/detractor Sample: The woman accepted his apology for spilling coffee on her dress. [ ] n. Allusion to something by denying that it will be mentioned, as in I will not bring up my
24

apoplectic

apostasy

apostrophe

apothecary

appall

apparel

appeal

appealing

opponent's questionable financial dealings apophasis:claim=oxymoron:paradox apophasis:claim={caprice:deliberate} [ ] adj. greatly agitated apoplectic:angry=emaciated:thin apoplectic:calmness=callow:mature apoplectic<>calm Sample: When he heard the bad news, he became apoplectic. [ ] n. renunciation of a religious faith apostasy:faith=recantation:heresy apostasy<>fidelity Synonyms: DEFECTION, desertion, falseness, recreancy, tergiversation Sample: Because he switched from one party to another, his former friends shunned him as an apostate. [ ]n a mark ' used to indicate the omission of letters or figures, the possessive case, or the plural of letters or figures apostrophes:word=ellipsis:sentence Sample: An apostrophe is used in contractions ("isn't," "doesn't") and in possessives ("that man's wife"). [ ]n one who prepares and sells drugs or compounds for medicinal purposes apothecary:medicine=butcher:meat {librarian:book } Sample: In Holland, apothecaries still sell spices as well as ointments and pills. [ ] vt. to overcome with consternation, shock, or dismay appall<>embolden/nerve encourage<>appall Synonyms: DISMAY , consternate, daunt, horrify, shake Sample: We were appalled by the horrifying conditions in the city's jails. [ ] vt. to put clothes on:DRESS gaudy:apparel=grandiloquent:speak tonsorial:hair=sartorial:apparel Synonyms: CLOTHE, array, attire, clad, dress, enclothe, garb, garment, raiment Sample: XYZ Company is a manufacturer of ladies' apparel. [ ] vi. to make an earnest request remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal Synonyms: BEG, beseech, brace, crave, entreat, implore, importune, plead, pray, supplicate Sample: This poetry is not provincial; it is more likely to appeal to an international audience than is poetry with strictly regional themes. [ ] adj. having appeal:PLEASING noisome<>appealing
25

appease

appellation

appetite

applause

applicant

appoint

apposite

appreciable

Synonyms: ATTRACTIVE , alluring, attracting, bewitching, captivating, charming, enchanting, fascinating, seductive, siren [ ] vt. to bring to a state of peace or quiet:CALM roil<>appease roil<>clarify vex<>pacify/appease/soothe appease<>rile Synonyms: PACIFY, assuage, conciliate, mollify, placate, propitiate, sweeten Sample: We have discovered that, when we try to appease our enemies, we encourage them to make additional demands. [ ] n. A name, title, or designation. foreword:introductory=appellation:designate Synonyms: NAME ,appellative, cognomen, compellation, denomination, designation, nomen, style, title Sample: He was amazed when the witches hailed him with his correct appellation. [ ] n. an inherent craving appetite:indulge=?? voracity<>lack of appetite Synonyms: DESIRE , appetition, craving, itch, lust, passion, urge Sample: A lack of appetite may be indicative of a major mental or physical disorder. [ ] n. approval publicly expressed mirth:laughter=approval:applause approve:applause=?:? Synonyms: acclaim, acclamation, plaudit(s) Sample: The speaker was shocked at the lack of applause from the audience. [ ] n. one who applies remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal Synonyms: CANDIDATE, aspirant, hopeful, seeker Sample: We have 10 applicants for the position of secretary.. [ ] vt. to name officially appoint:official=cast:actor Synonyms: DESIGNATE, finger, make, name, nominate, tap Sample: After his appointment to this emiment position, he seldom had time for his former friends. [ ] adj. highly pertinent or appropriate:APT apposite<>extraneous Synonyms: RELEVANT, ad rem, applicable, applicative, applicatory, apropos, germane, material, pertinent, pointful Sample: He was always able to find the apposite phrase, the correct expression for every occasion. [ ] adj.
26

apprehension

apprentice

approbation

appropriate

appropriate

approve

capable of being perceived or measured appreciable<>imperceptible ponderable<>inappreciable Synonyms: PERCEPTIBLE, detectable, discernible, observable, palpable, sensible, tangible Sample: I can find no appreciable differences in the witnesses' descriptions of the accident; they seem the same. [ ] n. suspicion or fear especially of future evil:FOREBODING apprehension:terror=affection:adoration Synonyms: apprehensiveness, foreboding, misgiving, premonition, prenotion, presage, presentiment Sample: The parents were filled with apprehension about letting their 19-year-old daughter drive across country alone. [ ] n. an inexperienced person:NOVICE Synonyms: NOVICE, beginner, colt, freshman, neophyte, newcomer, novitiate, rookie, tenderfoot, tyro Sample: It was not the change in office technology but rather the separation of secretarial workpreviously seen as an apprenticeship for beginning managersfrom administrative work that in the 1880s created a new class of "dead-end" jobsthenceforth considered "womens work." n. COMMENDATION, PRAISE praise:approbation=demur:objection censure:blameless=approbation:reprehensible endorse:approbation=?? execration<>approbation Synonyms: approval, benediction, blessing, favor, OK (or okay) Sample: A number of writers who once greatly disparaged the literary critic have recently recanted, substituting approbation for their former criticism. [ ] adj. especially suitable or compatible:FITTING meet<>inappropriate/unsuitable apt<>extremely inappropriate measured<>inappropriate Synonyms: FIT , applicable, apt, befitting, felicitous, fitting, just, meet, proper, suitable Sample: The demise of the rigorous academic curriculum in high school resulted, in part, from the progressive rhetoric that sanctioned the study of subjects previously thought inappropriate as part of school learning. [ ] v. to take or make use of without authority or right lurk:wait=abscond:depart/{purloin:appropriate} lurk:concealment=purloin:appropriation Synonyms: STEAL , annex, filch, lift, pilfer, pinch, purloin, snitch, swipe Sample: The ranch owners appropriated the lands that had originally been set aside for the Indians' use. [ ] vt.
27

approximate

apropos

apt

aquatic

aqueduct

aquifer

arachnid

to have or express a favorable opinion of mirth:laughter=approval:applause approve:applause=?:? substantiate<>disapprove Synonyms: accept, approbate, countenance, favor, go (for), hold (with) Sample: The public approved the condign punishment for the crime. [ ] adj. nearly correct or exact paraphrase:verbatim=approximate:precise stickler:approximation/imprecision=purist:adulteration Sample: Thusfor instanceit may come as a shock to mathematicians to learn that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is not a literally correct description of this atom but only an approximation to a somewhat more correct equation taking account of spin magnetic dipole and relativistic effects and that this corrected equation is itself only an imperfect approximation to an infinite set ofquantum fieldtheoretical equations. [ ] adj. being both relevant and opportune apropos<>irrelevant { straight, uniform, symmetrical } Synonyms: RELEVANT, ad rem, applicable, applicative, applicatory, apposite, germane, material, pertinent, pointful Sample: I find your remarks apropos of the present situation timely and pertinent. [ ] adj. unusually fitted or qualified:READY apt<>extremely inappropriate apt<>unlikely aptness<>unsuitability Synonyms: given, inclined, liable, likely, prone, FIT , appropriate, befitting, felicitous, fitting, happy, just, meet, proper, suitable Sample: Aptly enough, this work so imbued with the notion of changing times and styles has been constantly revised over the years, thereby reflecting its own mutability. [ ] adj. growing or living in or frequenting water aerial:air=aquatic:water Sample: We have been able to explore the terrestrial regions much more thoroughly than the aquatic or celestial regions. [ ] n. a conduit for water aqueduct:water=pipeline:gas=vessel:blood Synonyms: CHANNEL , canal, conduit, course, duct, watercourse Sample: Many aqueducts from ancient Roman times still stand today near the Mediterranean Sea. [ ] n. a water-bearing stratum of permeable rock, sand, or gravel shale:lode=well:aquifer [ ] n. any of a class (Arachnida) of arthropods comprising chiefly terrestrial invertebrates, including the spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks, and having a segmented body divided
28

arbor

arboreal

archaic

archetype

archipelago

architect

archive

into two regions of which the anterior bears four pairs of legs but no antennae spider:arachnid=orange:fruit [ ] n. a shelter of vines or branches or of latticework covered with climbing shrubs or vines arbor:shelter=hedgerow:fence Sample: The rose arbor was beautiful when the roses were in bloom. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or resembling a tree arboreal:trees=sidereal:stars finch:bird=arboretum:tree Sample: Note how well the somewhat greenish coat of the sloth enables it to blend in with its arboreal surroundings. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or characteristic of an earlier or more primitive time:ANTIQUATED evanescent:permanence=archaic:currency meteoric:constancy=archaic:currency archaic<>current Synonyms: OLD-FASHIONED, antiquated, antique, bygone, dated, old, old-timey, outdated, out-of-date Sample: "Methinks," "thee," and "thou" are archaic words that are no longer part of our normal vocabulary. [ ] n. the original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are representations or copies:PROTOTYPE; also:a perfect example harbinger:presage=archetype:exemplify Synonyms: MODEL , beau ideal, ensample, example, exemplar, ideal, mirror, paradigm, pattern, standard Sample: The Brooklyn Bridge was the archetype of the many spans that now connect Manhattan with Long Island and New Jersey. [ ] n. an expanse of water with many scattered islands range:mountain=chain:link={archipelago:island } glade:wood=oasis:desert=archipelago:ocean grove:trees=archipelago:islands galaxy:stars=archipelago:islands Sample:When he looked at the map and saw the archipelagoes in the South Seas, he longed to visit them. [ ] n. a person who designs buildings and advises in their construction choreographer:movement=architect:building {sculptor:statue} choreographer:To plan out or oversee the movement, development, or details of; orchestrate Sample: Though one cannot say that Michelangelo was an impractical designer, he was, of all nonprofessional architects known, the most adventurous in that he was the least constrained by tradition or precedent. (9510) [ ] n. a place in which public records or historical documents are preserved archive:manuscript=arsenal:weapon archive:records=museum:artifacts
29

arctic

ardor

arduous

argot

arid

armory

arrest

arresting

book:library=file:archive {performance:theatre} Synonyms: LIBRARY, athenaeum Sample: The National Archives contain information so seductive that researchers have been known never to publish because they cannot bear to bring their studies to an end. [ ] adj. bitter cold:FRIGID torrid<>arctic Synonyms: COLD , chill, chilly, cool, freezing, frosty, gelid, glacial, icy, nippy Sample: In part of the Arctic, the land grades into the landfast ice so imperceptibly that you can walk off the coast and not know you are over the hidden sea. [ ] n. extreme vigor or energy:INTENSITY assuage:sorrow=dampen:ardor alleviate:strength=dampen:ardor torpor<>ardor Synonyms: PASSION , calenture, enthusiasm, fervor, fire, hurrah, zeal Sample: He is full of ardor for her. [ ] adj. hard to accomplish or achieve:DIFFICULT arduous<>facile Synonyms: HARD, difficult, effortful, labored, laborious, operose, rough, strenuous, toilsome, uphill Sample: There is something incongruous about the way the building of monasteries proliferated in eighteenth-century Bavaria, while in the rest of the Western world religious ardor was diminishing and church building was consequently declining. [ ] n. an often more or less secret vocabulary and idiom peculiar to a particular group argot<>standard language/common verbalism Synonyms: DIALECT , cant, jargon, lingo, patois, patter, slang, vernacular Sample: In the argot of the underworld, she "was taken for a ride." [ ] adj. excessively dry marsh:sodden=desert:arid arid<>damp Synonyms: DRY , bone-dry, droughty, moistureless, sere, thirsty, unwatered, waterless Sample: The cactus had adapted to survive in an arid environment. [ ] n. a place where arms and military equipment are stored pantry:food=armory:weapons Synonyms: arsenal, depot, dump, magazine Sample: An armory often serves as a military headquarters. [ ] vt. to make inactive arrest<>vitalize Synonyms: check, halt, interrupt, stall, stay Sample: medicine brought an arrest to the spread of his cancer. [ ] adj. catching the attention:STRIKING, IMPRESSIVE
30

blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting arresting<>banal Synonyms: NOTICEABLE, arrestive, conspicuous, marked, outstanding, pointed, prominent, remarkable, salient, signal Sample: It has thus generally been by way of the emphasis on oral literary creativity that these Chicano writers whose English language works are sometimes uninspired developed the powerful and arresting language that characterized their Spanish-language works. List 3 arrhythmic --- bigot arrhythmic [ ] adj. lacking rhythm or regularity arrhythmic<>regular [ ] n a feeling or an impression of superiority manifested in an overbearing manner or presumptuous claims mean:prodigality=meek:arrogance confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory intentional:accidental=arrogant:humble arrogance:defer=lassitude:stir Synonyms: PRIDE , disdain, disdainfulness, haughtiness, hauteur, loftiness, morgue, superbity, superciliousness Sample: The arrogance of the nobility was resented by the middle class. [ ] n. a brook; a creek a water-carved gully or channel grotto:cavern=arroyo:channel Synonyms: RAVINE, chasm, cleft, clough, clove, gap, gorge, gulch Sample: Until the heavy rains of the past spring, this arroyo had been a dry bed. [ ] n. a:an establishment for the manufacture or storage of arms and military equipment b:a collection of weapons archive:manuscript=arsenal:weapon Synonyms: ARMORY, depot, dump Sample: The military maintains arsenals all over the country. [ ] vt. to give clear and effective utterance to:put into words ratiocination:thinking=articulation:talking Synonyms: VOCAL , eloquent, fluent, smooth-spoken Sample: Her articulate presentation of the advertising campaign impressed her employers. [ ] n. something created by humans usually for a practical purpose; especially:an object remaining from a particular period archive:records=museum:artifacts Sample: Archaeologists debated the significance of the artifacts discovered in the ruins of Asia Minor and came to no conclusion. [ ] n. false or insincere behavior
31

arrogance

arroyo

arsenal

articulate

artifacts

artifice

artless

ascendant

ascent

ascetic

aseptic

askew

artifice<>candor Synonyms: CUNNING, art, artfulness, cageyness, canniness, craft, craftiness, foxiness, slyness, wiliness Sample: The Trojan War proved to the Greeks that cunning and artifice were often more effective than military might. [ ] adj. free from guile or craft:sincerely simple blemish:impeccable=guile:artless artless<>cunning/guileful artlessness<>urbanity sly<>artless artless<>disingenuous Synonyms: NATURAL, ingenuous, naive, simple, unaffected, unartful, unartificial, unschooled, unsophisticated, unstudied Sample: Early critics of Emily Dickinson's poetry mistook for simplemindedness the surface of artlessness that in fact she constructed with such cunning. [ ] n. governing or controlling influence:DOMINATION ascendant<>having no influence ascendant<>having no power Synonyms: SUPREMACY, ascendancy, dominance, domination, dominion, masterdom, preeminence, preponderance, prepotence, sovereignty Sample: In an age without radio or recordings, an age dominated by print, fiction gained its greatest ascendancy. [ ] n. an upward slope or rising grade:ACCLIVITY Synonyms: ascension, rise, rising Sample: The ascent of the hummock is not difficult and the view from the hilltop is ample reward tor the effort. [ ] adj. austere in appearance, manner, or attitude glutton:overindulgence=ascetic:self-denial ascetic:self-denial=busybody:intrusive sybarite<>ascetic voluptuary<>ascetic indulgent<>ascetic ascetic<>voluptuary ascetic<>sumptuous hedonist<>ascetic Synonyms: SEVERE, astringent, austere, mortified, stern Sample: The wealthy young man could not understand the ascetic life led by the monks. [ ] adj. preventing infection aseptic:disinfections=anesthetic:numbs Sample: Hospitals succeeded in lowering the mortality rate as soon as they introduced asceptic conditions. [ ] adj.
32

aspect

asperity

aspirant

aspiration

assert

assess

asset

out of line:AWRY aligned<>askew{curve} Sample: When he placed his hat askew upon his head, his observers laughed. [ ] n. a position facing a particular direction:EXPOSURE transfigure:aspect=transfer:location {transfix:attention} Synonyms: APPEARANCE, look, mien, seeming Sample: The prospects of discovering new aspects of the life of a painter as thoroughly studied as Vermeer are not, on the surface encouraging. [ ] n. roughness of manner or of temper:HARSHNESS asperity:optimistic=?? asperity<>mildness of temper asperity<>soothingness Sample: These remarks, spoken with asperity, stung the boys to whom they had been directed. [ ] n. One who aspires, as to advancement, honors, or a high position. aspirant:quarry=hunter:prey Synonyms: CANDIDATE, applicant, hopeful, seeker Sample: Although I am as aspirant for public office, I am not willing to accept the dictates of the party bosses. [ ] n a strong desire to achieve something high or great Synonyms: DIFFICULTY , hardness, hardship, rigor, vicissitude Sample: Youth's aspirations should be as lofty as the stars. [ ] vt. to state or declare positively and often forcefully or aggressively calumny:assertion=perjury:testimony obsequious:servile=belligerent:assertive assert:belabor=tend:fuss brassy<>unassertive Synonyms: affirm, aver, avouch, avow, constate, declare, depose, predicate, profess, protest Sample: If the theory is self-evidently true, as its proponents assert, then why does opposition to it still exist among well-informed people? [ ] v. to determine the importance, size, or value of assess:value=plumb:depth Synonyms: estimate, appraise, evaluate, value, rate Sample: I would like to have your assessment of the situation in South Africa. [ ] n. the entire property of a person, association, corporation, or estate applicable or subject to the payment of debts asset<>liability Synonyms: capital, resources, wealth Sample: That company's assets are $1 million, and it owes $700,000, so its net assets are $300,000.
33

assiduous

assuage

assume

astounding

astute

asymmetrical

asylum

[ ] adj marked by careful unremitting attention or persistent application rakish:restraint=slothful:assiduity assiduous<>remiss assiduous<>remiss/desultory assiduous<>slipshod Synonyms: busy, industrious, diligent, sedulous Sample: The Chinese, who began systematic astronomical and weather observations shortly after the ancient Egyptians, were assiduous record-keepers, and because of this, can claim humanity's longest continuous documentation of natural events. [ ] vt. to lessen the intensity of (something that pains or distresses):EASE assuage:sorrow=dampen:ardor gall<>calm/assuage assuage/subdue<>inflame assuage<>intensify Synonyms: relieve, alleviate, lighten, assuage, mitigate, allay Sample: The king assuaged the fears of his nobles about a war. [ ] vt. to take to or upon oneself:UNDERTAKE abdicate<>assume assume<>refuse/reject unassuming<>overbearing usurp<>assume rightfully Synonyms: affect, pretend, simulate, feign, counterfeit, sham Sample: Belying his earlier reputation for intransigence as a negotiator, Morgan had recently assumed a more conciliatory stance for which many of his erstwhile critics praised him. [ ] adj. causing astonishment or amazement indelible:forget=astounding:expect Sample: I was astounded at how high the repair bill was. [ ] adj. having or showing shrewdness and perspicacity fatuous<>astute Synonyms: shrewd, sagacious, perspicacious Sample: She is an astute investor in the stock market and always knows which stocks to avoid. [ ] adj. not of equal size or similar shape: circular:asymmetrical=protean:rigid Sample: Most striking among the many asymmetries evident in an adult flatfish is eye placement:before maturity one eye migratesso that in an adult flatfish both eyes are on the same side of the head. [ ] n. an inviolable place of refuge and protection giving shelter to criminals and debtors:SANCTUARY refugee:asylum=??
34

atone

atrocious

attenuate

attorney

audacious

audible

Synonyms: REFUGE , harborage, sanctuary, shelter Sample: The refugees sought asylum from religious persecution in a new land. [ ] v. to supply satisfaction for:EXPIATE guilt:expiation/atonement=fatigue:repose (take a rest) Sample: He knew no way in which he could atone for his brutal crime. [ ] adj. extremely wicked, brutal, or cruel:BARBARIC atrocious:bad=momentous:important Synonyms: OUTRAGEOUS, monstrous, shocking Sample: The most technologically advanced societies have been responsible for the greatest atrocities; indeed, savagery seems to be in direct proportion to development. [ ] v. to lessen the amount, force, magnitude, or value of:WEAKEN attenuate:force=decelerate:speed attenuate:thickness=enervate:vitality collapse:volume=attenuate:thickness debase:value=attenuate:force abate:force=attenuate:thickness abridge:length=attenuate:thickness attenuate:force/thickness=simplify:complexity attenuate:thickness=cool:temperature alleviate:power=attenuate:force attenuate:force=retrenchment:money attenuate<>intensify Synonyms: WEAKEN, blunt, cripple, debilitate, disable, enfeeble, sap, unbrace, undermine, unstrengthen Sample: The two people argued so much that their friendship was attenuated. [ ]n A person legally appointed by another to act as his or her agent in the transaction of business, specifically one qualified and licensed to act for plaintiffs and defendants in legal proceedings attorney:defendant=?? :=?? Sample: The prosecutor presented a well-reasoned case, but the defense attorney's compelling arguments for leniency won over the jury. [ ] adj. intrepidly daring:ADVENTUROUS audacious:trepidation=laconic:volubility audacious:caution=inedible:food circumspect<>audacious/reckless/direct encounter audacious<>timid audacious<>circumspect { meticulous } Synonyms: bold, courageous, adventuresome, daredevil, daring Sample: Audiences cheered as Luke Skywalker and Princess Leia made their audacious, death-defying leap to freedom and escaped Darth Vader's troops. [ ] adj. heard or capable of being heard audible:stentorian=discernable:obvious
35

augur

auspicious

austere

authenticity

authority

audible:stentorian=discernible:manifest Synonyms: aural, auricular Sample: music and laughter were audible from the street outside the nightclub. [ ] n. to foretell especially from omens intercessor:mediate=translator:interpret/augur:prediction augur:predict=pundit:opine pundit:opinion=augur:prediction maven:experience=luminary:eminence/augur:prediction worship:sacrifice=prediction:augury augury:appearance=?? Synonyms: prophet, auspex, forecaster, foreseer, foreteller, haruspex, Nostradamus, predictor Sample: Although a change in management may appear to augur a shift in a companys fortunes, more often than not its impact is inconsiderable. [ ] adj. affording a favorable auspice:PROPITIOUS auspicious<>boding ill {ill-bred} auspicious<>untoward auspicious<>unfavorable inauspicious<>propitious auspicious<>ominous Synonyms: favorable, benign, bright, dexter, fortunate, propitious Sample: With favorable weather conditions, it was an auspicious moment to set sail. [ ] adj. markedly simple or unadorned abstemious:indulge=austere:decorate laconic:speech=austere:design baroque<>austere lavish<>austere Synonyms: severe, stern, ascetic Sample: His austere demeanor prevented us from engaging in our usual frivolous activities. [ ] n. not false or imitation:REAL, ACTUAL genuine:authenticity=entire:integrity { honest:trust } discompose:pacific=fabricate:authentic specious:authenticity=?? apocryphal:authentic=?? spuriousness<>authenticity semblance<>authentic article Synonyms: genuine, undoubted, undubitable, unquestionable, veritable Sample: The authenticity of the painting as one of Picasso's was proven by an expert. [ ] n. power to influence or command thought, opinion, or behavior authoritative:acceptance=conspicuous:attention authoritativeness:pundits=allegiance:partisans
36

autocracy

avarice

aversion

avid

avulse

awash

awe

contumacious:authority=reactionary:change=hidebound:innovation=conservative:novelt y recalcitrant/refractory:authority=reactionary:change impostor:identity=usurper:authorization {barbarian:property } Synonyms: EXPERT, master, professional, proficient, virtuoso, wizard Sample: By forcing our surrender to the authority of the clock systematic timekeeping has imposed a form of tyranny on society. [ ] n. government in which one person possesses unlimited power pundit:??=autocracy:power Synonyms: TYRANNY, despotism, dictatorship, totalitarianism Sample: He ran his office like an autocrat, giving no one else any authority. [ ] n. excessive or insatiable desire for wealth or gain:GREEDINESS, CUPIDITY avarice:money=gluttony:food stoic:perturb=avaricious:satisfy avarice<>generosity {sobriety} contented<>avaricious Synonyms: CUPIDITY, avariciousness, avidity, greed, rapacity [ ] n. a feeling of repugnance toward something with a desire to avoid or turn from aversion:disinclination=adulation:admiration aversion:inclination=?? affinity<>aversion aversion<>court penchant<>aversion propensity/proclivity<>aversion proclivity<>aversion Synonyms: ANTIPATHY , allergy, dyspathy Sample: Their mutual aversion was so great that they refused to speak to one another. [ ] adj. characterized by enthusiasm and vigorous pursuit reverence:respect=avidity:enthusiasm avid<>indifferent Synonyms: EAGER, anxious, appetent, ardent, athirst Sample: He was avid for learning and read everything he could get. [ ] vt to separate, cut, or tear off by avulsion avulse<>link avulse<>suture [ ] adj. covered with water:FLOODED awash<>dry Sample: After the flood, the ground floors of houses were awash with water and mud. [ ] n. an emotion variously combining dread, veneration, and wonder that is inspired by authority or by the sacred or sublime redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard
37

awkward

awl

awning

awry

babble

backhanded

backset

badge

awe<>irreverence Synonyms: REVERENCE , fear Sample: Their piety was expressed in quotidian behavior:they worshipped regularly, according all the regenerative processes of nature respect, and even awe.. [ ] adj. lacking dexterity or skill craven:admirable=deft:awkward dexterous:awkward=?? lithe<>awkward svelte<>paunchy and awkward Synonyms: CLUMSY , lumbering, lumpish, ungainly Sample: Martha Graham introduced a form of choreography that seemed awkward and alien to those who had been brought up on classic ballet. [ ] n. a pointed tool for marking surfaces or piercing small holes (as in leather or wood) awl:pierce=pestle:hash Sample: She used an awl to punch additional holes in the leather belt she had bought. [ ] n. a rooflike cover extending over or in front of a place (as over the deck or in front of a door or window) as a shelter awning:sun=umbrella:rain Sample: Not wanting to get wet, they waited under the awning for a lull in the rain. [ ] adj. in a turned or twisted position or direction:ASKEW awry<>orderly/aligned Synonyms: cockeyed Sample: He held his head awry, giving the impression that he had caught cold in his neck during the night. [ ] vt. to utter meaningless or unintelligible sounds babble:sense=parrot:originality babble/waffle<>express succinctly Synonyms: gabble, prate, prattle, twaddle, waffle Sample: None of these translations to screen and stage however dramatize the anarchy at theconclusion of A Connecticut Yankeewhich ends with the violent overthrow of Morgans three-year-old progressive order and his return to the nineteenth centurywhere he apparently commits suicide after being labeled a lunatic for his incoherent babblings about drawbridges and battlements. [ ] adj. INDIRECT, DEVIOUS; especially:SARCASTIC backhanded<>forthright [ ] n. SETBACK backset<>hike Synonyms: SETBACK, check, reversal, reverse [ ] n. a device or token especially of membership in a society or group chevron:badge=caisson:cart V
38

badger

badinage

baffle

bait

baleful

balk

balky

ballad

Synonyms: INSIGNIA, emblem Sample: The military officer wore a badge showing his rank. [ ] vt. to harass or annoy persistently badger:bother=belabor:mention Synonyms: BAIT , heckle, hector, hound, ride Sample: She was forced to change her telephone number because she was badgered by obscene phone calls. [ ] n. playful repartee:BANTER badinage<>serious conversation badinage<>sincere conversation Synonyms: BANTER, backchat Sample: Her friends at work greeted the news of her engagement with cheerful badinage. [ ] vt. to check or break the force or flow of by or as if by a baffle Synonyms: FRUSTRATE, balk, beat, bilk, circumvent, dash, disappoint, foil, ruin, thwart Sample: The new code baffled the enemy agents. [ ] n. ENTICE, LURE. to attack in speech or writing as by derision or insult; to gall or exasperate by repeated wanton attacks bait<>disarm bait<>mollify Synonyms: MOLEST, heckle, persecute, torment Sample: The soldiers baited the prisoners, terrorizing them. [ ] adj. deadly or pernicious in influence baneful<>salubrious bale<>mirth Synonyms: sinister, malefic, maleficent, malign Sample: Casting a baleful eye at his successful rival, the rejected suitor stole off, vowing to have his revenge. [ ] n. to check or stop by or as if by an obstacle:BLOCK balk<>move ahead willingly Synonyms: FRUSTRATE , baffle, circumvent, foil, thwart Sample: The chief of police balked at sending his officers into the riot-torn area. [ ] adj. refusing or likely to refuse to proceed, act, or function as directed or expected balky<>tractable Synonyms: cross-grained, ornery, perverse, restive, wrongheaded [ ] n. a narrative composition in rhythmic verse suitable for singing ballad:song=lyric:poem=comedian:actor Sample: n a most impressive demonstration, Pavarotti sailed through Verdi's "Celeste Aida," normally a tenor's nightmare, with the casual enthusiasm of a folk singer
39

ballast

ballet

balm

balmy

bamboozle

ban

banal

baneful

banish

performing one of his favorite ballads. [ ] n. Heavy material that is placed in the hold of a ship or the gondola of a balloon to enhance stability. ballast:stability=truss:support Sample: The ship was listing badly to one side; it was necessary to shift the ballast in the hold to get her back on an even keel. [ ] n. a theatrical art form using dancing, music, and scenery to convey a story, theme, or atmosphere instrumentalist:symphony=dancer:ballet Sample: Martha Graham introduced a form of choreography that seemed awkward and alien to those who had been brought up on classic ballet. [ ] n. a balsamic resin, especially:one from small tropical evergreen trees antidote:poisoning=balm:irritation balm<>piquant Sample: Friendship is the finest balm for the pangs of disappointed love. [ ] adj. having the qualities of balm:SOOTHING inclement<>balmy balmy<>piquant Synonyms: GENTLE , bland, faint, lenient, mild, smooth, soft Sample: A balmy breeze refreshed us after the sultry blast. [ ] v. to deceive by underhanded methods:DUPE, HOODWINK Synonyms: DUPE, befool, fool, gull, hoax, hoodwink, trick Sample: I was bamboozled when I bought that bad used car. [ ] n. to prohibit especially by legal means ban:protect Sample: The government put a ban on the sale of that drug. [ ] adj. lacking originality, freshness, or novelty:TRITE arresting<>banal banality<>freshness banality<>original Synonyms: insipid, vapid, flat, jejune Sample: Although Harry, Stack Sullivan is one of the most influential social scientists of this century, his ideas are now so commonplace in our society that they seem almost banal. [ ] adj. productive of destruction or woe:seriously harmful salubrious<>baneful Synonyms: pernicious, noxious, deleterious Sample: A bad, aching back is the bane of her existence. [ ] vt. to drive out or remove from a home or place of usual resort or continuance, especially compulsory removal from a country not necessarily one's own
40

banister

banquet

barb

barbarous

barefaced

bargain

baroque

barren

evict:residence=banish:country Synonyms: exile, deport, transport Sample: The king banished the murderer from the land. [ ] n. a handrail with its supporting posts staircase:banister=garden:fence Synonyms: RAILING, balustrade, rail Sample: Children like to slide down a banister. [ ] n. a sumptuous feast; especially:an elaborate and often ceremonious meal for numerous people often in honor of a person writer/author:novel=chef:banquet recluse:banquet=?? Sample: He was famous for his felicitous remarks and was called upon to serve as master-of-ceremonies at many banquet. [ ] n. a biting or pointedly critical remark or comment barb:caustic=pan:harsh Sample: The barb from the fishhook caught in his finger as he grabbed the fish. [ ] adj. mercilessly harsh or cruel barbarous<>quiescent barbarous<>civilized barbarize<>civilize Synonyms: barbaric, barbarian, Gothic, Hunnic, Hunnish, rude, savage, uncivil, uncivilized, uncultivated, wild Sample: Some people think capital punishment is barbarous. [ ] adj. OPEN, UNCONCEALED barefaced/aboveboard<>surreptitious Synonyms: SHAMELESS, arrant, brassy, brazen, brazenfaced, impudent, overbold, unabashed, unblushing Sample: Shocked by Huck Finn's barefaced lies, Miss Watson prayed the good Lord would give him a sense of his unregenerate wickedness. [ ] n. to negotiate over the terms of a purchase, agreement, or contract:HAGGLE debate:issue=bargain:price Sample: Her stay in the hospital cost her $30,000, which was a lot more than she bargained for. [ ] n./adj. characterized by grotesqueness, extravagance, complexity, or flamboyance baroque<>austere Synonyms: ORNATE, flamboyant, florid, luscious, rich Sample: Accustomed to the severe, angular lines of modern skyscrapers, they found the flamboyance of baroque architecture amusing. [ ] adj. lacking vegetation, especially useful vegetation barren<>prolific
41

barter

base

baseboard

bathetic

bedeck

bedlam

belabor

beleaguer

Synonyms: STERILE, effete, impotent, infecund, infertile, unfruitful Sample: Agronomists are increasingly worried about "desertification," the phenomenon that is turning many of the world's fertile fields and pastures into barren wastelands, unable to support the people living on them. [ ] n. to trade by exchanging one commodity for another jog:exercise=barter:trade correspond:letters=barter:commodities Synonyms: TRADE , bargain, exchange, swap, traffic, truck Sample: Years ago, hunters bartered furs for guns. [ ] adj. being of comparatively low value and having relatively inferior properties debase:value=attenuate:force base<>virtuous base<>noble sublime<>base/common base<>patrician Synonyms: low, vile Sample: It is almost impossible to protect oneself from such a base canard. [ ] n. a molding covering the joint of a wall and the adjoining floor veneer:furniture=baseboard:wall [ ] adj. exceptional commonplaceness:TRITENESS offbeat<>bathetic offbeat<>hackneyed Synonyms: TRITE, commonplace, hack, hackneyed, stale, stereotyped, stereotypical, tired [ ] vt. to clothe with finery:DECK bedeck<>strip Synonyms: ADORN, beautify, deck, decorate, dress (up), embellish, garnish, ornament, prank, trim Sample: The walls were bedecked with flags and the tables with flowers. [ ] n. a place, scene, or state of uproar and confusion tumultuous:bedlam=active:hive tumult/bedlam/riot<>serenity Synonyms: LUNATIC , dement, loon, loony, madling, maniac Sample: With three children, our house is bedlam sometimes. [ ] vt. to explain or insist on excessively badger:bother=belabor:mention assert:belabor=tend:fuss Synonyms: BEAT , baste, drub, lambaste, pound, pummel, wallop Sample: The debate coach warned her student not to bore the audience by belaboring his point. [ ] vt.
42

belie

belittle

bellicose

belligerence

bellwether

bemoan

bend

TROUBLE, HARASS beleaguer<>delight Synonyms: BESIEGE, beset, blockade, invest Sample: Many industries are so beleaguered by the impact of government sanctions, equipment failure, and foreign competition that they are beginning to rely on industrial psychologists to salvage what remains of employee morale. [ ] v. to show (something) to be false or wrong belie<>affirm belie<>confirm Synonyms: MISREPRESENT, color, distort, falsify, garble, miscolor, misstate, pervert, twist, warp Sample: It is disappointing to note that the latest edition of the bibliography belies its long-standing reputation for exhaustiveness by omitting some significant references to recent publications. [ ] vt. to speak slightingly of:DISPARAGE Synonyms: derogate, detract (from), diminish, discount, disparage, minimize, write off Sample: Parents should not belittle their children's early attempts at drawing, but should encourage their efforts. [ ] adj. favoring or inclined to start quarrels or wars imperious:servile=bellicose:peaceable bellicose<>appeasing bellicose<>incline to peace bellicose<>peaceful Synonyms: belligerent, pugnacious, quarrelsome, contentious Sample: His bellicose disposition alienated his friends. [ ] n. an aggressive or truculent attitude, atmosphere, or disposition obsequious:servile=belligerent:assertive belligerent<>peaceful belligerent<>conciliatory Synonyms: ATTACK , aggression, aggressiveness, combativeness, fight, pugnacity Sample: Whenever he had too much to drink, he became belligerent and tried to pick fights with strangers. n. One that serves as a leader or as a leading indicator of future trends bellwether:leadership=advisor:consultant [ ] vt. to express deep grief or distress over Synonyms: deplore, lament, bewail Sample: She bemoans the fact that she did not finish high school. [ ] vi. to make submissive:SUBDUECOMPROMISE bend:rigid=submerge:buoyant=dissolve:insoluble Synonyms: CURVE, bow, crook, round Sample: The director of personnel bends over backwards to help each new employee.
43

benediction

beneficent

benign

bent

bequest

berate

beseech

besmirch

[ ] n. the invocation of a blessing curse<>benediction Synonyms: BLESSING , benison Sample: Scrooge later became Tiny Tim's benefactor and gave him a benediction. [ ] adj. doing or producing good; especially:performing acts of kindness and charity beneficent:harm=tenacious:yield philanthropist:beneficence=comedian:humor noxious<>beneficial toxic<>beneficial Sample: Certainly Murray's preoccupation with the task of editing the Oxford English Dictionary begot a kind of monomania, but it must be regarded as a beneficent or at least an innocuous one. [ ] adj a:showing kindness and gentleness b:FAVORABLE, WHOLESOME benignant<>vicious Synonyms: FAVORABLE , auspicious, bright, dexter, fortunate, propitious, white Sample: The old man was well liked because of his benign attitude toward friend and stranger alike. [ ] n. a strong inclination or interest:BIAS Synonyms: LEANING, disposition, inclination, inclining, penchant, predilection, predisposition, proclivity, propensity, tendency Sample: Because the high seriousness of their narratives resulted in part from their metaphysics, Southern writers were praised for their philosophical bent.(9504) [ ] n. something bequeathed:LEGACY heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator Synonyms: LEGACY , devise, inheritance Sample: Though many medieval women possessed devotional books that had belonged to their mothers, formal written evidence of women bequeathing books to their daughters is scarce, which suggests that such bequests were customary and required no documentation. [ ] v. to scold or condemn vehemently and at length berate<>commend berate<>praise Synonyms: SCOLD, bawl out, chew out, jaw, rail, rate, revile, tongue-lash, upbraid, vituperate [ ] v. to request earnestly:IMPLORE supplicant:beseeching=coquette=flirtatious Synonyms: beg, appeal, crave, entreat, implore, importune, invoke, plead, pray, supplicate Sample: In his will, Father bequeathed his watch to Phillip; the bequest meant a great deal to the boy. [ ] v.
44

betray

bibliophile

bigot

SULLY, SOIL besmirch<>honor Synonyms: taint, besmear, defile, discolor, smear, soil, stain, sully, tar, tarnish Sample: The scandalous remarks in the newspaper besmirch the reputations of every member of the society. [ ] vt. to deliver to an enemy by treachery Synonyms: reveal, disclose, divulge Sample: The actual rigidity of Wilson's position was always betrayed by his refusal to compromise after having initially agreed to negotiate a settlement. [ ] n. a lover of books especially for qualities of format; also:a book collector bibliophile:books=gourmet:food {calligrapher:handwriting} [ ]n a person obstinately or intolerantly devoted to his or her own opinions and prejudices bigot:tolerance=turncoat:constancy bigot:dedication=rage:anger bigoted:advice=conservative:change posturer:unaffected=bigot:tolerant bigot:tolerant=provincial:cosmopolitan {servile:domination} Synonyms: ENTHUSIAST, bug, fanatic, fiend, freak, maniac, nut, zealot Sample: Brought up in a democratic atmosphere, student was shocked by the bigotry and narrowness expressed by several of his classmates. List 4 bit --- canvas [ ] n. the jaws of tongs or pincers bit:drill=blade:razor Sample: I lost one of the bits for my drill. [ ] adj not irritating, stimulating, or invigorating:SOOTHING tangy<>bland Synonyms: GENTLE , balmy, faint, lenient, mild, smooth, soft Sample: The Thai restaurant offered an unusual gustatory experience for those used in a bland cuisine. [ ] n. something that tends to coax or cajole:ALLUREMENT blandishment:coax=medal:honor blandishment<>threat Synonyms: FLATTERY, adulation, blarney, incense, oil, soft soap Sample: Despite the salesperson's blandishments, the customer did not buy the outfit. [ ] adj. apathetic to pleasure or excitement as a result of excessive indulgence or enjoyment miser:munificent=zealot:blase Synonyms: SOPHISTICATED, disenchanted, disentranced, disillusioned, mondaine, sophisticate, worldly Sample: Your blase attitude gives your students an erroneous impression of the joys of scholarship.
45

bit

bland

blandishment

blase

blaspheme

blast

blatant

blazon

bleach

blemish

blight

bliss

[ ] vt.vi. to speak of or address with irreverence Sample: The people in the room were shocked by his his blasphemous language. [ ] n. a violent gust of wind blast:whiff=gush:trickle Sample: The blast furnace had a special opening at the bottom to allow the workers to remove the worthless slag. [ ] adj. completely obvious, conspicuous, or obtrusive especially in a crass or offensive manner:BRAZEN ambiguous:understand=blatant:ignore blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting blatant<>inconspicuous/unimpressive/unobtrusive blatant<>subtle Synonyms: VOCIFEROUS, boisterous, obstreperous, vociferant, SHAMELESS, barefaced, brazen, brazenfaced, impudent, overbold, unabashed, unblushing Sample: Caught in a blatant lie, the scoundrel had only one regret:he wished that he had lied more subtly. [ ] vt. to publish widely:PROCLAIM alliterate:remove=blazon:efface blazon:adorn=pillar:support blazon<>efface diffidence<>blazonness Sample: The company name is emblazoned in big letters on their office building. [ ] vt. to remove color or stains from Synonyms: WHITEN, blanch, blench, decolor, decolorize, white Sample: The sun bleached the curtains hanging out to dry. [ ] v. to spoil by a flaw blemish:impeccable=guile:artless anomaly:paradigmatic=blemish:flawless pristine:blemish=?? Synonyms: INJURE, damage, harm, hurt, impair, mar, prejudice, spoil, tarnish, vitiate Sample: That report was so poor it will certainly leave a blemish on his record. [ ] n. a disease or injury of plants resulting in withering, cessation of growth, and death of parts without rotting blighted<>hale/sound Sample: Far from undermining the impression of permanent decline, the tawdry statue seemed emblematic of its blighted surroundings. [ ] n. complete happiness dislike:loathing=pleasure:bliss Synonyms: HAPPINESS, beatitude, blessedness Sample: Their dreams of conjugal bliss were shattered as soon as their temperaments
46

blunder

blunt

blurb

blurt

bluster

boding

boggle

boisterous

bolster

clashed. [ ] v. a gross error or mistake resulting usually from stupidity, ignorance, or carelessness protocol:blunder=bumper:damage Synonyms: ERROR, boner, bungle, lapse, mistake, slip, trip Sample: The criminal's fatal blunder led to his capture. [ ] adj. to make less sharp or definite blunt<>whet Synonyms: DULL, disedge, obtund Sample: Although he was blunt and gruff with most people, he was always gentle with children. [ ] n. A brief publicity notice, as on a book jacket. blurb:notice=gloss:explanation gloss:a brief explanation blurb:notice=cameo:appearance A brief but dramatic appearance of a prominent actor, as in a single scene of a motion picture. Synonyms: PUFF , plug, write-up Sample: The famous writer wrote a blurb about the new author to put on the book jacket. [ ] vt. to utter abruptly and impulsively ? usually used with out flit:move=blurt:utter Synonyms: EXCLAIM, blat, bolt, cry out, ejaculate Sample: Before she could stop him, he blurted out the news. [ ] vt. to talk or act with noisy swaggering threats blustering:speak=swaggering:walk pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless Synonyms: ROAR, bawl, bellow, clamor, rout [ ] n. an omen, prediction, or presentiment especially of coming evil:PORTENT ,FOREBODING auspicious<>boding ill Synonyms: OMINOUS, baleful, baneful, fateful, ill-omened, inauspicious, unlucky, unpropitious [ ] vi. to hesitate because of doubt, fear, or scruples boggle<>embolden Synonyms: DEMUR, balk, gag, jib, scruple, shy, stickle, stumble Sample: The U.S. government's debt is so huge that it boggles the mind. [ ] adj. noisily turbulent:ROWDY boisterous<>quiet Synonyms: VOCIFEROUS, blatant, clamorous Sample: The unruly crowd became even more boisterous when he tried to quiet them. [ ] n. a structural part designed to eliminate friction or provide support or bearing
47

bombast

bonhomie

bonus

boo

boon

boor

bootless

bore

bolster:support=tackle:hoist adulterate:pure=bolster/brace:weak Synonyms: SUPPORT, bear up, brace, buttress, carry, prop, shore (up), sustain, upbear, uphold Sample: The debaters amassed file boxes full of evidence to bolster their arguments. [ ] n. pretentious inflated speech or writing nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast bombast:pompous=tirade:critical pompous:bombast=exaggerated:hyperbole bombast<>down to earth language/understated Synonyms: fustian, highfalutin, rant, rhapsody, rhetoric, rodomontade Sample: Filled with bombast, the orator's speech left the audience more impressed with his pomposity than with his logic. [ ] n. good-natured easy friendliness congenial:bonhomie=?? bonhomie:good natured=?? [ ] n. something in addition to what is expected or strictly due bonus:employee={decoration:soldier} Sample: I didn't think anyone would remember my birthday, so when all my friends sent cards it was a real bonus. [ ] v. to deride especially by uttering boo snare<>boo [ ] n. BENEFIT, FAVOR boon<>misfortune Synonyms: GIFT , benevolence, compliment, favor, largess, present Sample: Having a good library at the school is a boon for the students. [ ] n. a rude or insensitive person insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp sensitive:boor=sagacity:simpleton Synonyms: chuff, churl, clodhopper, clown Sample: Though Mr. Potts constantly interrupted his wife, she ignored his boorish behavior, for she had lost hope of teaching him courtesy. [ ] adj. USELESS, UNPROFITABLE bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence interesting:intriguing=bootless:futile bootless:futility=void:empty Synonyms: FUTILE, abortive, fruitless, ineffective, ineffectual, unavailable, unavailing, unproductive, useless, vain [ ] vt. to make a hole by or as if by boring die:shaping=drill:boring
48

bottleneck

bough

bound

box

bracing

bracket

brackish

braggadocio

braid

entrance<>disappoint/disgust/repel/repulse/bore food:hunger=stimulation:boredom Synonyms: ENNUI, pall, tire, weary, PERFORATE, drill, prick, punch, puncture Sample: The debate coach warned her student not to bore the audience by belaboring his point. [ ] n. NARROW {bottleneck:indefinite=??:??} Sample: An accident on the road caused a bottleneck in traffic. [ ] n. a branch of a tree; especially:a main branch Synonyms: LIMB, branch [ ] n. a:to make secure by tying b:to confine, restrain, or restrict as if with bonds c:to put under an obligation d:to constrain with legal authority boundless<>limited boundary<>unrestrained Sample: bough of the pine tree broke and fell to the ground. [ ] vi. to fight with the fists:engage in boxing box:fight=debate:argue Synonyms: SLAP, blip, buffet, cuff, smack, spank [ ] adj. giving strength, vigor, or freshness bracing<>vapid denounce<>bracing Synonyms: INVIGORATING, animating, exhilarating, exhilarative, quickening, stimulating, stimulative, tonic, vitalizing Sample: The cold air of autumn is bracing. [ ] n. an overhanging member that projects from a structure (as a wall) and is usually designed to support a vertical load or to strengthen an angle buttress:wall=bracket:shelf Synonyms: JOIN , associate, combine, conjoin, connect, couple, link, relate, unite, wed Sample: That doctor's salary is in the top tax bracket. [ ] adj. REPULSIVE brackish:repulse=?? Sample: He found the only wells in the area were brackish; drinking the water made him nauseous. [ ] n. a:empty boasting b:arrogant pretension:COCKINESS Synonyms: BRAGGART, blower, blowhard, boaster, bragger, puckfist, vaunter Sample: He was disliked because his manner was always full of braggadocio. [ ] v. made by intertwining three or more strands grooved:striated=braided:stranded Sample: She wears her hair in a braid.
49

brake

brash

brassy

brattish

bravura

bray

brazen

breach

[ ] n. to retard or stop by a brake divert:shunt=retard:brake brake:decelerate=clamp:compression Synonyms: HINDER, bar, block, dam, impede, obstruct Sample: The public put the brakes on using coins instead of paper money. [ ] adj. done in haste without regard for consequences frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion candor:subterfuge=brash:deliberate Synonyms: RASH, hasty, hot-headed, ill-advised, incautious, inconsiderate, madbrained, madcap, reckless, thoughtless Sample: The brash insurance salesman invaded the sacrosanct privacy of the office of the president of the company. [ ] adj. being shamelessly bold diffident<>brassy furtive<>open/forthright/brassy brassy<>humble brassy<>unassertive Synonyms: SHAMELESS, arrant, barefaced, blatant, brazen, brazenfaced, impudent, overbold, unabashed, unblushing Sample: New Yorkers have a stereotype as being loud and brassy, but I find them to be very friendly. [ ] adj. an ill-mannered annoying child tightfisted:parsimonious=brattish:mischievous [ ] adj. marked by an ostentatious display of skill bravura:performance=resplendent:appearance [ ] v. to emit (an utterance or a sound) loudly and harshly Sample: The donkey brayed and would not move. [ ] adj. marked by contemptuous boldness impudence:brazen=deadpan:impassive brazen<>modest brazen<>self effacing Synonyms: SHAMELESS, arrant, barefaced, blatant, brassy, brazenfaced, impudent, overbold, unabashed, unblushing, brassy Sample: We could see by his brazen attitude that he was impenitent. [ ] v. to make a breach in breach<>solder solder<>breach Synonyms: GAP , break, discontinuity, hole, opening, fissure, fracture, rent, rift, rupture, schism, split, hiatus, interim, interruption, interval Sample: They found a breach in the enemy's fortifications and penetrated their lines.
50

breezeway

brevity

bribe

bridle

brisk

bristle

brittle

broach

bromide

[ ] n. a roofed often open passage connecting two buildings (as a house and garage) or halves of a building breezeway:building=stairway:floor [ ] n. shortness or conciseness of expression brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram Synonyms: shortness ,conciseness Sample: brevity is essential when you send a telegram or cablegram; you are charged for every word. [ ] v. & n. to induce or influence by or as if by bribery bribe:incorruptible=affect:insensible {hear:uncommunicative} Sample: Although competitors offered him bribes, he refused to disclose any information about his company's forthcoming product. [ ] v. to restrain, check, or control with or as if with a bridle bridled<>without restraint Sample: She bridled at the idea of spending so much money. [ ] adj. keenly alert:LIVELY ponderous<>lively/vibrant/brisk Synonyms: AGILE, active, lively, nimble, sprightly, spry, yare, zippy Sample: brisk wind blew through our hair. [ ] n. to take on an aggressive attitude or appearance (as in response to a slight) bristle<>cower bristle:anger=vacillate:unresolution { condone:mercy} {condemn:warning} Synonyms: ANGER, blow up, boil, boil over, burn, flare (up), fume, rage, seethe Sample: The dog bristled at the sight of the cat. [ ] adj. easily broken, cracked, or snapped manifest:perceive=brittle:break Synonyms: SHORT, crisp, crumbly, crump, crunchy, friable Sample: The brittle fronds of the Boston fern break easily and become brown, so that the overall appearance of the plant is ruined unless the broken fronds are cut off. [ ] v. to open for the first time broach<>close off Synonyms: BROOCH, clip, pin, bring up, introduce, moot, ventilate Sample: He did not even try to broach the subject of poetry. [ ] n. a commonplace or hackneyed statement or notion equivocation:misleading=bromide:hackneyed bromide<>unhackneyed Synonyms: COMMONPLACE, banality, platitude, rubber stamp, shibboleth, tag, truism
51

browbeat

bruit

buck

bucolic

budge

buffer

buffoon

bulge

Sample: "Have a nice day" is a bromide. [ ] vt. to intimidate or disconcert by a stern manner or arrogant speech : BULLY instigator:incite=bully:browbeat Synonyms: INTIMIDATE, bludgeon, bluster, bulldoze, bully, cow, dragoon, hector Sample: Billy resisted Ted's attempts to browbeat him into handing over his lunch money. [ ] vt. to noise abroad:REPORT bruit<>keep secret Synonyms: DECLARE, advertise, announce, annunciate, blaze (abroad), blazon, broadcast, proclaim, promulgate, publish [ ] n. to refuse assent:BALK buck<>assent to Synonyms: RESIST, combat, contest, dispute, duel, fight, oppose, repel, traverse, withstand Sample: She bucks making changes in her way of doing things. [ ] adj. relating to or typical of rural life hovel:palatial=city:bucolic palatial:hovel=bucolic:city bucolic<>urban bucolic<>sophisticated Synonyms: RURAL, agrestic, campestral, countrified, country, out-country, outland, pastoral, provincial, rustic Sample: The meadow was the scene of bucolic gaiety. [ ] vi. to give way:YIELD palter:candor=diehard:budge vagary:predict=diehard:budge Sample: Negotiations between the union and the employers have reached a stalemate; neither side is willing to budge from previously stated positions. [ ] v. to lessen the shock of:CUSHION buffer:impact=?? :=?? Sample: The mountains are a <n.> buffer against the storms from the sea. [ ] n. a ludicrous figure:CLOWN ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag Synonyms: CLOWN, harlequin, zany Sample: His strut as he marched about the parade ground revealed him for what he was:a pompous buffoon. [ ] n. a protuberant or swollen part or place bulge<>depressed region Synonyms: PROJECTION, jut, outthrust, protrusion, protuberance Sample: A ganglionic cyst is a fluid-filled tumor (generally benign) that develops near a
52

bully

bumper

bumptious

bungle

buoy

buoyant

burgeon

joint membrane or tendon sheath, and that bulges beneath the skin, forming a protuberance. [ ] n. one habitually cruel to others who are weaker instigator:incite=bully:browbeat bully:intimidate=stupid:gullibility { dupe:duplicity } sabotage:subvertness=bull:intimidation { dupe:duplicity } bully:scare=?? underdog<>bully Synonyms: browbeater, bulldozer, harasser, harrier, hector, intimidator Sample: The bully mistreated everyone in the class with impunity for he felt that no one would dare retaliate. [ ] n. a device for absorbing shock or preventing damage protocol:blunder=bumper:damage Sample: The car bumper hit the wall. [ ] adj. presumptuously, obtusely, and often noisily self-assertive:OBTRUSIVE dour:geniality=bumptious:humbleness impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness bumptious<>humble [ ] vt.vi. to act or work clumsily and awkwardly bungle<>bring off Synonyms: ERROR, blooper, blunder, boner, bull, fluff, lapse, mistake, slip Sample: I was afraid you would bungle his assignment but I had no one else to send. [ ] vt. SUPPORT, UPLIFT buoyed<>unsupported Synonyms: SUPPORT, bolster, prop, sustain, uphold Sample: The coach used all the tricks at his command to buoy up the enthusiasm of his team, which I had become dispirited at the loss of the star player. [ ] adj a:capable of floating b:CHEERFUL, GAY bend:rigid=submerge:buoyant=dissolve:insoluble buoyant:float=heavy:drop hangdog<>buoyant buoyant<>sink Synonyms: ELASTIC, airy, bouncy, effervescent, expansive, resilient, volatile Sample: She has a buoyant personality. [ ] v. to grow and expand rapidly:FLOURISH burgeon<>wither burgeon<>subdue burgeoning<>waning Synonyms: INCREASE , augment, build, enlarge, expand, heighten, mount, multiply, run up, snowball Sample: With the burgeoning of scientific knowledge, work on the new edition of a
53

burial

burlesque

burnish

burrow

busybody

butt

buttress

buttress

bygone

textbook begins soon after completion of the original. [ ] n. the act or process of burying inter:burial=obliterate:removal Synonyms: GRAVE, sepulcher, sepulture, tomb, entombment, inhumation, interment, sepulture Sample: The mortician prepared the corpse for burial. [ ] n. mockery usually by caricature diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery doggerel:verse=burlesque:play Sample: The caricatures he drew always emphasized personal weaknesses of the people he burlesqued. [ ] v. to make shiny or lustrous especially by rubbing numb:insensible=burnish:lustrous burnish:dull=mar:flawless Synonyms: POLISH, buff, furbish, glance, glaze, gloss, rub, shine Sample: The maid burnished the brass fixtures until they reflected the lamplight. [ ] n. to construct by tunneling ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern Synonyms: LAIR, couch, den, lodge, HOVEL, hole, SNUGGLE, cuddle, nestle, nuzzle Sample: Some animals burrow with their paws. [ ] n. an officious or inquisitive person ascetic:self-denial=busybody:intrusive Synonyms: butt-in, intermeddler, meddler, nose, nosey Parker, prier (or pryer), snoop Sample: Like a gadfly, he irritated all the guests at the hotel; within forty eight hours, everyone regarded him as an annoying busybody. [ ] v. to thrust or push head foremost:strike with the head or horns butt:head=nudge:elbow Sample: Two goats butted each other. [ ] n. a projecting structure of masonry or wood for supporting or giving stability to a wall or building strut:wing=buttress:wall buttress:wall=bracket:shelf buttress:edifice=splint:limb Sample: Just as architects buttress the walls of cathedrals with flying buttresses, debates buttress their arguments with facts. [ ] vt. to furnish or shore up with a buttress; also:SUPPORT, STRENGTHEN contravene<>buttress Synonyms: SUPPORT, bear up, bolster, brace, carry, prop, sustain, uphold Sample: Workers buttressed the weak wall with steel beams. [ ] n.
54

byline

cabal

cacophony

cadet

cadge

caisson

cajole

calamity

gone by:PAST; especially:OUTMODED Synonyms: OLD-FASHIONED, antiquated, antique, archaic, belated, dated, oldfangled, old-time, out-of-date Sample: We used to argue all the time, but now we have let bygones be bygones and are friends. [ ] n. a line at the beginning of a news story, magazine article, or book giving the writer's name article:byline=movie:credits [ ] n. the artifices and intrigues of a group of persons secretly united to bring about an overturn or usurpation especially in public affairs cabal:association=plot:plan cabal:association=spat:quarrel Synonyms: PLOT , conspiracy, intrigue, machination, practice, scheme Sample: The cabal was defeated when its scheme was discovered. [ ] n. harsh or discordant sound:DISSONANCE cacophony:sound=malodor:scent fetid:smell=cacophonous:sound cacophony:voice=gaucherie:skill malodorous:smell=cacophony/jarring:sound cacophony:melody=genteel:churl cacophonous<>dulcet/euphonious Synonyms: DISSONANT, cacophonic, discordant, disharmonic, disharmonious, inharmonic, inharmonious, unharmonious, unmusical Sample: Some people seem to enjoy the cacophony of an orchestra that is tuning up. [ ] n. one in training for a military or naval commission; especially:a student in a service academy cadet:veteran=tadpole:frog Sample: The West Point cadets were immaculate as they lined up for inspection. [ ] v. BEG, SPONGE cadge<>earn Synonyms: BEGGAR, bummer, moocher, panhandler [ ] n. a usually 2-wheeled vehicle for artillery ammunition attachable to a horse-drawn limber chevron:badge=caisson:cart V [ ] v. to persuade with flattery or gentle urging especially in the face of reluctance:COAX blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede wheedle:cajolery=extort:coercion { scourge:possession} cajole:reluctant=?? Synonyms: COAX, blandish, blarney, con, soft-soap, sweet-talk, wheedle Sample: I will not be cajoled into granting your wish. [ ] n. An event that brings terrible loss, lasting distress, or severe affliction; a disaster:
55

calcify

calibrate

calligrapher

callous

callow

callus

calorie

calumniate

Synonyms: FATAL, cataclysmic, catastrophic, disastrous, fateful, ruinous Sample: As news of the calamity spread, offers of relief poured in to the stricken community. [ ] vi. to make inflexible or unchangeable calcification<>flexibility [ ] vt. to determine, rectify, or mark the graduations of measure:dimensions:calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:depth calibrated<>unstandardized Sample: The worker calibrated a cutting tool. [ ] n. one who writes a beautiful bibliophile:books=gourmet:food {calligrapher:handwriting} [ ] adj. a:feeling no emotion b:feeling no sympathy for others callous:impassive=dupe:duplicity callous:compassion=?? callous<>sympathetic Synonyms: UNFEELING, coldhearted, hardhearted, heartless, obdurate, stony, stonyhearted, uncompassionate, unemotional, unsympathetic Sample: Our young people, whose keen sensitivities have not yet become calloused, have a purer and more immediate response than we do to our environment. [ ] adj lacking adult sophistication:IMMATURE frank:secretiveness=callow:maturity apoplectic:calm=callow:mature callow<>behaving with adult sophistication Synonyms: INEXPERIENCED, fresh, green, raw, unexperienced, unpracticed, unseasoned, untried, unversed, young [ ] n. a thickening of or a hard thickened area on skin or bark gully:erosion=callus:friction Sample: In that youthful movement, the leaders were only a little less callow than their immature followers. [ ] n. the amount of heat required at a pressure of one atmosphere to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius that is equal to about 4.19 joules power:watt=calorie:heat=decibel:sound=volt:electricity Sample: Coal is much more calorific than green wood. [ ] v. to utter maliciously false statements, charges, or imputations about corroborate:evidence=calumniate:falsehood calumny:assertion=perjury:testimony calumny:representation=perjury:testimony calumniate<>vindicate calumnious<>flattering calumny<>approbation
56

camaraderie

cameo

camouflage

candidate

candor

cane

canon

Synonyms: MALIGN, asperse, defame, denigrate, libel, scandalize, slander, traduce, vilify, villainize Sample: He could endure his financial failure, but he could not bear the calumny that his foes heaped upon him. [ ] n. a spirit of friendly good-fellowship camaraderie<>enmity Synonyms: comradery, good-fellowship Sample: What he loved best about his job was the sense of camaraderie he and his coworkers shared. [ ] n. a:a small piece of sculpture on a stone or shell cut in relief in one layer with another contrasting layer serving as background b:A brief but dramatic appearance of a prominent actor, as in a single scene of a motion picture. peccadillo:offense=cameo:sculpture blurb:notice=cameo:appearance blurb:A brief publicity notice, as on a book jacket. Sample: Tourists are advised not to purchase cameos from the street peddlers of Rome who sell poor specimens of the carver's art. [ ] n. behavior or artifice designed to deceive or hide malinger:duty=camouflage:detection Sample: Soldiers camouflaged themselves to blend in with the jungle by wearing green uniforms. [ ] n. one that aspires to or is nominated or qualified for an office, membership, or award roster:personnel=slate:candidate ballot:candidates=?? Synonyms: applicant, aspirant, hopeful, seeker Sample: Candidates who oppose the present state income tax must be able to propose alternate ways to continue the financing of state operations. [ ] n. unreserved, honest, or sincere expression:FORTHRIGHTNESS palter:candor=diehard:budge candor:subterfuge=brash:deliberate artifice<>candor mendacity<>candor Sample: The "impostor syndrome" often afflicts those who fear that true self-disclosure will lower them in others' esteem; rightly handled, however, candor may actually enhance one's standing. [ ] n. A stick used as an aid in walking or carried as an accessory cane:walk=glasses:see Sample: The old man walks with the aid of a cane. [ ] n. a regulation or dogma decreed by a church council religion:devoutness=canon:orthodoxy canon<>apocrypha canonical<>nontraditional
57

canopy

cantankerous

canvas

Synonyms: LAW, assize, decree, decretum, edict, ordinance, precept, regulation, rule, statute Sample: His bad behavior violates the canons of good conduct. [ ] n. a cover (as of cloth) fixed or carried above a person of high rank or a sacred object:BALDACHIN canopy:cover=tag:identify Sample: The canopy over the bed is made of red cloth. [ ] adj difficult or irritating to deal with Synonyms: bearish, cankered, cranky, cross-grained, crotchety, ornery, vinegarish, vinegary, waspish, waspy Sample: Constantly complaining about his treatment and refusing to cooperate with the hospital staff, he was a cantankerous patient. [ ] n. a piece of cloth backed or framed as a surface for a painting canvas:painter=marble:sculptor Sample: Because the painter Albert Pinkham Ryder was obsessed with his quest for perfection, he was rarely satisfied with a painting, creating endless variations of a scene on one canvas, one on top of another. List 5 canvass --- cogent

canvass

canyon

capitulate

caprice

[ ] v. to seek orders or votes:SOLICIT exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass Synonyms: DISCUSS, agitate, argue, debate, dispute, moot, thrash out, toss (around) Sample: After canvassing the sentiments of his constituents, the congressman was confident that he represented the majority opinion of his district. [ ] n. a deep narrow valley with steep sides and often with a stream flowing through it ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern Sample: The company was forced to retreat through the barrage of heavy canyons. [ ] v. to cease resisting:ACQUIESCE acquiesce:yield={ capitulate:categorical} capitulate<>resist capitulation<>resistance capitulate<>oppose Synonyms: YIELD, bow, buckle (under), cave, defer, knuckle(under), submit, succumb [ ] n. a sudden, impulsive, and seemingly unmotivated notion or action caprice:whimsical=stealth:furtive=discontent:unsatisfied apophasis:claim=caprice:deliberate caprice:whimsical=insight:discerning caprice:predict=?? capricious:change=?? capricious<>steadfast caprice<>confirmation
58

caption

captivate

careworn

caricature

carouse

carp

cartographer

capricious<>constant capricious<>pertinacious Synonyms: bee, conceit, crank, crotchet, fancy, freak, humor, maggot, megrim, notion, vagary, whim, whimsy Sample: Employees had become so inured to the caprices of top management's personnel policies that they greeted the announcement of a company-wide dress code with impassivity. [ ] n. the part of a legal document that shows where, when, and by what authority it was taken, found, or executed Synonyms: legend, underline Sample: I find the captions that accompany these cartoons very clever and humorous. [ ] vt. to influence and dominate by some special charm, art, or trait and with an irresistible appeal captivate<>repulse Synonyms: ATTRACT, allure, bewitch, charm, draw, enchant, fascinate, magnetize, take, wile Sample: Her beauty and intelligence have captivated many men. [ ] adj. showing the effect of grief or anxiety careworn<>lighthearted Synonyms: HAGGARD, drawn, pinched, worn [ ] n. exaggeration by means of often ludicrous distortion of parts or characteristics brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature caricature:presentation=?? exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature Synonyms: MOCKERY, burlesque, farce, mock, sham, travesty, burlesque, parody, takeoff, travesty Sample: The caricatures he drew always emphasized personal weaknesses of the people he burlesqued. [ ] vi. to drink liquor deeply or freely roisterer:carouse=recluse:withdraw Synonyms: BINGE, bat, bender, booze, drunk, jag, spree, tear, REVEL , frolic, hell, riot, roister, spree, wassail Sample: They caroused all night, going from one bar to another. [ ] vi. to find fault or complain querulously caviler:carping=libertine:licentious complain:carp=drink:guzzle Synonyms: NAG, fuss, henpeck, peck (at) Sample: Welcoming constructive criticism, Lexy appreciated her editor's comments, finding them free of carping. [ ] n. one that makes maps
59

cast

castigate

catalyze

cataract

catastrophe

categorical

cater

cartographer:map=tailor:clothing=lexicographer:dictionary Sample: Though not a professional cartographer, Tolkien was able to construct a map of the fictional world. [ ] n. the set of actors in a dramatic production; to assign a certain role to (an actor) appoint:official=cast:actor letter:signature=playbill:cast Sample: The director cast a famous actress in the leading role. [ ] v. to subject to severe punishment, reproof, or criticism castigation:disapproval=crime:misbehave castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial{ glorification:merit } peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation castigation:reproof=loathing:dislike castigation:reproof=soaking:damp Synonyms: LAMBASTE, blister, excoriate, flay, lash (into), scarify, scathe, scorch, scourge, slash Sample: Sensitive even to mild criticism, Woolf could not bear castigation that she found in certain reviews. [ ] vt. BRING ABOUT, INSPIRE catalyze<>retard catalyst<>prevent Synonyms: STIMULUS, goad, impetus, impulse, incentive, incitation, incitement, motivation, spur, stimulant Sample: Many chemical reactions cannot take place without the presence of a catalyst. [ ] n. WATERFALL; especially:a large one over a precipice Synonyms: WATERFALL, cascade, chute, fall(s), spout, cataclysm, deluge, flooding, overflow, pour, torrent Sample: She gazed with awe at the mighty cataract known as Niagara Falls. [ ] n. a momentous tragic event ranging from extreme misfortune to utter overthrow or ruin catastrophe:mishap=humiliation:embarrassment oxymoron:contradictory=mishap:catastrophic Synonyms: DISASTER, calamity, cataclysm, misadventure, tragedy, woe(s) Sample: People frequently denigrate books about recent catastrophes as morally despicable attempts to profit, from misfortune, but in my view our desire for such books, together with the venerable tradition to which they belong, legitimizes them. [ ] adj. ABSOLUTE, UNQUALIFIED acquiesce:yield={ capitulate:categorical} categorical<>qualified/conditional Synonyms: ULTIMATE, absolute ,EXPLICIT, clean-cut, clear-cut, definite, definitive, express, specific, unambiguous Sample: Though the captain claimed he was never, never sick at sea, he finally qualified his categorical denial; he was hardly ever sick at sea. [ ] vi.
60

catholic

caustic

cavalier

caveat

cavern

cavil

to supply what is required or desired Synonyms: BABY, cocker, coddle, cosset, cotton, humor, indulge, mollycoddle, pamper, spoil, INDULGE, gratify, humor Sample: If those large publishers that respond solely to popular literary trends continue to dominate the publishing market, the initial publication of new writers will depend on the writers' willingness to cater to popular tastes. [ ] adj. COMPREHENSIVE, UNIVERSAL; especially:broad in sympathies, tastes, or interests catholic<>narrow Synonyms: UNIVERSAL, cosmic, cosmopolitan, ecumenical, global, planetary, worldwide Sample: He was extremely catholic in his taste and read everything he could find in the library. [ ] adj marked by incisive sarcasm barb:caustic=pan:harsh caustic:eat away=desiccant:dry caustic:smoothing=?? caustic<>palliating/genial caustic<>smooth Synonyms: SARCASTIC, acerb, acerbic, corrosive Sample: The critic's caustic remarks angered the hapless actors who were the subjects of his sarcasm. [ ] n. A gallant or chivalrous man, especially one serving as escort to a woman of high social position; a gentleman rapscallion:mischievous=sluggard:lazy {cavalier:arrogant} Sample: Sensitive about having her ideas taken lightly, Marcia felt insulted by Mark's cavalier dismissal of her suggestion. [ ] n. a warning enjoining one from certain acts or practices overture/preamble:introductory=caveat:warning/ cautionary Synonyms: WARNING, admonition, caution, forewarning, monition [ ] n. CAVE; especially:one of large or indefinite extent ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern cavern:spelunker=ocean:diver Synonyms: CAVE, grotto, subterranean Sample: In the darkness of the cavern, the glowworms hanging from the cavern roof glimmered like distant stars. [ ] v to raise trivial and frivolous objection cavil:criticize=probe:investigate caviler:carping=libertine:licentious encomiast:eulogize=quibble:cavil nitpick:criticize=cavil:object nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil faultfinding:criticize=quibble:cavil
61

cavort

cede

celebrity

cement

censor

censorious

censure

Synonyms: QUIBBLE, chicane, hypercriticize Sample: I respect your sensible criticisms, but I dislike the way you cavil about unimportant details. [ ] vi. to walk or move in a spirited manner:PRANCE dodder:unsteady=cavort:sprightly cavort<>trudge Synonyms: GAMBOL, caper, frisk, frolic, rollick, romp Sample: At the end of the school year, children cavorted on their way home. [ ] vt. to yield or grant typically by treaty cede<>possess Synonyms: RELINQUISH, abandon, give up, hand over, leave, resign, surrender, waive, yield Sample: I intend to cede this property to the city. [ ] n. the state of being celebrated celebrity<>obscurity Synonyms: FAME, notoriety, renown, reputation, repute luminary, name, notability, notable, somebody Sample: Hamlet resented his mother's celerity in remarrying within a month after his father's death. [ ] n. a binding element or agency:as a substance to make objects adhere to each other cement<>fracture Sample: That sidewalk is made of cement. [ ] vt. to examine in order to suppress or delete anything considered objectionable censorship:communication=preservative:decay censorship:information=sanitation:disease vendor:purvey=censor:expurgate Synonyms: blip, bowdlerize, expurgate, screen Sample: Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened intellectual, historians of the 1960's portrayed him as a doctrinaire thinker, eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censoring ideas he did not like. [ ] adj. marked by or given to censure pliable:influenced=censorious:condemn censorious<>eulogistic Synonyms: CRITICAL, captious, carping, caviling, cavillous, critic, faultfinding, hypercritical, overcritical Sample: censorious people delight in casting blame. [ ] n./v. to find fault with and criticize as blameworthy lamentable:pity=reprehensible:censure remonstrance:dissuade=reprehensible:censure censure:blameless=approbation:reprehensible exonerate<>censure
62

census

centrifuge

ceramic

ceremony

certitude

cessation

chaff

chagrin

extol<>censure Synonyms: CRITICIZE, blame, condemn, denounce, denunciate, knock, rap, reprehend, reprobate, skin Sample: During the 1960's assessments of the family shifted remarkably, from general endorsement of it as a worthwhile, stable institution to widespread censure of it as an oppressive and bankrupt one whose dissolution was both imminent and welcome. [ ] n. a count of the population census:population=inventory:stock Sample: The census is taken in the USA every ten years. [ ] n. a machine using centrifugal force for separating substances of different densities, for removing moisture, or for simulating gravitational effects centrifuge:separate=colander:drain Sample: At the dairy, we employ a centrifuge to separate cream from milk. [ ] n. of or relating to the manufacture of any product (as earthenware, porcelain, or brick) made essentially from a nonmetallic mineral (as clay) by firing at a high temperature shard:ceramic=crumb:cake Sample: Square ceramic tiles cover the bathroom walls. [ ] n. a formal act or series of acts prescribed by ritual, protocol, or convention affidavit:statement=wedding:ceremony Synonyms: RITE, ceremonial, formality, liturgy, observance, ritual, service Sample: Their nuptial ceremony was performed in Golden Gate Park. [ ] n. the state of being or feeling certain certitude<>obscurity Synonyms: CERTAINTY, assurance, assuredness, confidence, conviction, sureness, surety Sample: I can say with certitude that the man has died. [ ] n. a temporary or final ceasing (as of action):STOP cessation<>commencement cessation<>start cessation<>continuation Synonyms: END , cease, close, conclusion, desistance, ending, finish, period, stop, termination Sample: The workers threatened a cessation of all activities if their demands were not met. [ ] n. the seed coverings and other debris separated from the seed in threshing grain winnow:chaff=filter:impurities Synonyms: BANTER, fun, jest, joke, jolly, josh, kid, rag, razz, rib Sample: When you separate the wheat from the chaff, be sure you throw out the chaff. [ ] n. disquietude or distress of mind caused by humiliation, disappointment, or failure chagrin:mind=grimace:face
63

chameleon

champion

charade

charlatan

chary

chasm

check

chagrin<>elated chagrin<>cheerful Sample: He made a bad mistake, much to his chagrin. [ ] n. any of a family (Chamaeleontidae) of chiefly arboreal Old World lizards with prehensile tail, independently movable eyeballs, and unusual ability to change the color of the skin salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist Sample: He's a real chameleon; when he's with liberal friends he says he's a liberal, but when he's with conservative friends, he tells them he's conservative. [ ] vt. to act as militant supporter of:UPHOLD, ADVOCATE champion<>disparage impugn<>champion Synonyms: SUPPORT, advocate, back, backstop, side (with), uphold Sample: He championed the civil rights movement in the 1960s. chaotic[ :a state of utter confusion b:a confused mass or mixture chaotic<>strictly structured chaotic<>strictly featured Sample: He tried to bring order into the chaotic state of affairs. [ ] n. a word represented in riddling verse or by picture, tableau, or dramatic action charade:word=mime:story charade:dissimulate=void:emptiness Sample: The couple pretended to be happy, but it was just a charade. [ ] n. one making usually showy pretenses to knowledge or ability:FRAUD, FAKER Sample: When they realized that the Wizard didn't know how to get them back to [ ] adj. discreetly cautious:as a:hesitant and vigilant about dangers and risks b:slow to grant, accept, or expend chary<>rash Synonyms: CAUTIOUS, calculating, careful, circumspect, considerate, discreet, gingerly, guarded, safe, wary Sample: A prudent, thrifty New Englander, DeWitt was as chary of investing money in junk bonds as he was chary of paying people unnecessary compliments. [ ] n. a deep cleft in the surface of a planet (as the earth):GORGE cleft:chasm=cut:gash Sample: They could not see the bottom of the chasm. [ ] n. to block the progress of jolt:move=check:stop propagate<>check goad<>check check<>hasten Synonyms: arrest, buck, foil, thwart, frustrate Sample: Thrusting out her arm, Grandma checked Bobby's lunge at his sister. "Young man," she said, "you'd better check your temper."
64

chef

cherubic

chevron

chiaroscuro

chic

chicanery

chide

chip

choke

choleric

[ ] n. a skilled cook who manages the kitchen (as of a restaurant) author:novel=chef:banquet chef:kitchen=chemist:laboratory Sample: How did the inventive chef ever concoct such strange dish? [ ] adj. innocent-looking usually chubby and rosy cherubic<>somber Sample: With her cheerful smile and rosy cheeks, she was a particularly cherubic child. [ ] n. a sleeve badge that usually consists of one or more chevron-shaped stripes that indicates the wearer's rank and service (as in the armed forces) chevron:badge=caisson:cart [ ] n. the interplay or contrast of dissimilar qualities, pictorial representation in terms of light and shade without regard to color chiaroscuro:contrast=filigree:delicacy/intricacy={tapestry:intricacy } [ ] adj. smart elegance and sophistication especially of dress or manner:STYLE Synonyms: FASHION, craze, cry, dernier cri, fad, furore, mode, rage, style, vogue [ ] n deception by artful subterfuge or sophistry:TRICKERY chicanery:clever=tactlessness:truthful gullible:chicanery=servile:domination chicanery<>forthrightness {deep conviction/firm opposition} Synonyms: DECEPTION, chicane, dishonesty, double-dealing, fourberie, fraud, hankypanky, highbinding, sharp practice, trickery Sample: Your deceitful tactics in this case are indications of chicanery. [ ] v. to voice disapproval to:reproach in a usually mild and constructive manner:SCOLD chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle Synonyms: REPROVE, admonish, call down, lesson, monish, rebuke, reprimand, reproach, tick off Sample: Grandma began to chide Steven for his lying. [ ] n. a small usually thin and flat piece (as of wood or stone) cut, struck, or flaked off chip:stone=shard:glass chip:a small usually thin and flat piece shard:a piece or fragment of a brittle substance Sample:After the glass is annealed, it will be less subject to chipping and cracking. [ ] vt. to check normal breathing of by compressing or obstructing the trachea or by poisoning or adulterating available air smother:choke=?? Synonyms: strangle, throttle; compare SUFFOCATE Sample: The murderer choked his victim to death. [ ] adj. easily moved to often unreasonable or excessive anger:hot-tempered cowardice:intimidate=choler:antagonize
65

chord

choreography

chronic

chronicle

chronological

churlish

cipher

circuitous

choleric<>difficult to provoke choleric<>pacific Synonyms: choleric, crabbed, cranky, irascible, irritable, testy Sample: His flushed, angry face indicated a choleric nature. [ ] n. three or more musical tones sounded simultaneously constellation:star=chord:note{ queue:person} chord:note=grove:tree { table:index river:stream,flower:stem } Sample: The sound of her voice on the telephone struck a chord (of love) with him. [ ] n. the composition and arrangement of dances especially for ballet choreography:dance=plot:story choreographer:movement=architect:building {sculptor:statue} Sample: Martha Graham introduced a form of choreography that seemed awkward and alien to those who had been brought up on classic ballet. [ ] adj. always present or encountered; especially:constantly vexing, weakening, or troubling chronic<>sporadic Synonyms: USUAL, accepted, accustomed, customary, habitual, routine, wonted Sample: The doctors were finally able to attribute his chronic headaches and nausea to traces of formaldehyde gas in his apartment. [ ] n. a usually continuous historical account of events arranged in order of time without analysis or interpretation Sample: The gossip columnist was paid to chronicle the latest escapades of the socially prominent celebrities. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or arranged in or according to the order of time dictionary:alphabetical=annals:chronological Sample: A television reporter gave a chronological description of the football game. [ ] adj. marked by a lack of civility or graciousness:SURLY uncouth:churl=conspiratorial:conniver cacophony:melody=genteel:churl complaisance<>churlishness genteel<>churlish Synonyms: BOORISH, cloddish, clodhopping, clownish, coarse, loutish, lowbred, uncivilized, uncultured, unpolished Sample: Dismayed by his churlish manners at the party, the girls vowed never to invite him again. [ ] n. a method of transforming a text in order to conceal its meaning cipher:cryptic=precis:concise Sample: Lacking his code book, the spy was unable to decode the message sent to him [ ] adj. not being forthright or direct in language or action immaterial:relevance=circuitous:directness Synonyms: INDIRECT, circular, collateral, oblique, roundabout
66

Sample: Lacking his code book, the spy was unable to decode the message sent to him [ ] n. the perimeter of a circle border:country=circumference:circle Sample: Washington Irving emphasized the rotundity of the governor by describing his height and circumference. circumlocutory adj. the use of an unnecessarily large number of words to express an idea circumlocutory<>direct encounter circumlocution<>pithy utters/utter concisely/straightforword utter circumlocutory<>straightforward circumscribe [ ] vt. to construct or be constructed around (a geometrical figure) so as to touch as many points as possible circumscribed<>unlimited Synonyms: LIMIT, bar, confine, delimit, delimitate, prelimit, restrict Sample: By identifying scientific rigor with a quantitative approach, researchers in the social sciences may often have limited their scope to those narrowly circumscribed topics that are well suited to quantitative methods. circumspect [ ] adj. careful to consider all circumstances and possible consequences:PRUDENT circumspect<>audacious/reckless temerity<>circumspection rash<>circumspective Synonyms: CAUTIOUS, calculating, careful, chary, considerate, discreet, gingerly, guarded, safe, wary Sample: Investigating before acting, she tried always to be circumspect. circumvent [ ] vt. to manage to get around especially by ingenuity or stratagem circumvent<>confront circumvention<>direct encounter Synonyms: SKIRT, bypass, circumnavigate, detour Sample: Although fiction assuredly springs from political circumstances its authors react to those circumstances in ways other than ideologicaland talking about novels and stories primarily as instruments of ideology circumvents much of the fictional enterprise. cistern [ ] n. an artificial reservoir (as an underground tank) for storing liquids and especially water (as rainwater) cistern:liquids=landfill:refuse Sample: A cistern in the village catches and holds rainwater. citation [ ] n. an official summons to appear (as before a court) summons:citation=?? :citation:an official summons to appear (as before a court) Sample:The police officer received a citation for saving a man's life. civility [ ] n. COURTESY, POLITENESS civility<>rudeness circumference
67

clairvoyant

[ ] adj. unusually perceptive:DISCERNING dexterous:manipulate=prescient:predict { clairvoyant:oversee } Sample: Cassandra's clairvoyant warning was not heeded by the Trojans. clandestine [ ] adj. marked by, held in, or conducted with secrecy:SURREPTITIOUS clandestine:secretly=overt:openly clandestine<>open Synonyms: SECRET, covert, furtive, hugger-mugger, hush-hush, stealthy, surreptitious, undercover, underneath, under-the-table Sample: After avoiding their chaperon, the lovers had a clandestine meeting. clarion [ ] n. loud and clear clarion<>soft and undistinct Synonyms: FAIR, clear, cloudless, fine, pleasant, rainless, sunny, sunshiny, unclouded, undarkened Sample: We woke to the clarion to muffle its striking. clarity [ ] n. the quality or state of being clear:LUCIDITY ambiguous:clarity=mendacious:truth consensus:factionalism=clarity:confusion equivocation:clarity=prevarication:truth equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation clarity misunderstood:clarify=erroneous:retract ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity roil<>clarify/appease obfuscate<>clarify equivocation<>clarity muddy<>clarity clarity<>opaque Synonyms: clearness, limpidity, lucidity, perspicuity, plainness Sample: Harry Levin explicated James Joyce's novels with such clarity that even Finnegan's Wake seemed comprehensible to his students. clasp [ ] n. a device (as a hook) for holding objects or parts together lathe:shape=clasp:fasten Sample: She fastened the clasp on her necklace. claustrophobia [ ] n. abnormal dread of being in closed or narrow spaces recluse:crowd=claustrophobia:enclosure Sample: His fellow classmates laughed at his claustrophobia and often threatened to lock him in his room. cleft [ ] n. a usually V-shaped indented formation:a hollow between ridges or protuberances cleft:chasm=cut:gash Synonyms: RAVINE, arroyo, chasm, clough, clove, gap, gorge, gulch Sample: Erosion caused a cleft in the huge boulder. clement [ ] adj.
68

inclined to be merciful:LENIENT clement<>pitiless Synonyms: FORBEARING, charitable, easy, indulgent, lenient, merciful, tolerant Sample: I like to read a good book in inclement weather. cliche [ ] adj. a trite phrase or expression hodgepodge:uniformity=cliche:original equivocate:misleading=cliched:hackneyed Synonyms: COMMONPLACE, banality, bromide, platitude, prosaicism, prosaism, rubber stamp, shibboleth, tag, truism Sample: High school compositions are often marred by such cliches as "strong as an ox." clique [ ] n. a narrow exclusive circle or group of persons; especially one held together by common interests, views, or purposes clique:intimates=flock:sheep Synonyms: cabal, camarilla, camp, circle, clan, coterie, in-group, mafia, mob, ring Sample: She charged that a clique had assumed control of school affairs. clog [ ] n. something that shackles or impedes:ENCUMBRANCE clog:drainage=stalemate:negotiations Synonyms: ENCUMBRANCE, cumbrance, hindrance, impedance, impediment Sample: The wine did not flow because the air vent in the barrel was clogged. closed-minded [ ] adj. not easily subdued, remedied, or removed demanding:satisfactory=adulterate:pristine {closed-mind:sway} :demanding:satisfy=closed-mind:sway Synonyms: OBSTINATE, bullheaded, deaf, hardheaded, intractable, pigheaded, selfwilled, unpliable, unpliant, unyielding closet [ ] n. a cabinet or recess for especially china, household utensils, or clothing pantry:food=closet (wardrobe):clothes freeze:water=clot:blood Sample: In their incommodious quarters, they had to improvise for closet space. clot [ ] n. a coagulated mass produced by clotting of blood clot:dissolved=crowd:dispersed Sample: The nibs of fountain pens often become clotted and corroded. cloudburst [ ] n. a sudden copious rainfall gust:wind=cloudburst:rainfall clout [ ] n. PULL, INFLUENCE clout<>impuissance clout<>{ impotent } Synonyms: PULL, influence Sample: Gatsby wondered whether he had enough clout to be admitted to the exclusive club.
69

cloying

clumsy

coagulant

coalesce

coarse

coax

coda

coerce

[ ] adj. excessively sweet or sentimental garrulous:talkative=cloying:sweet loquacious:talkative=cloying:sweet Synonyms: SATIATE, fill, glut, gorge, jade, pall, sate, stodge, surfeit Sample: Disliking the cloying sweetness of standard wedding cakes, Jody and Tom chose a homemade carrot cake for their reception. [ ] adj. lacking dexterity, nimbleness, or grace Synonyms: awkward, gawky, lumbering, lumpish, splathering, splay, ungainly; Sample: Although his attempts to appear psychotic were so clumsy as to be almost ludicrous, there is evidence that Ezra Pound was able to avoid standing trial for treason merely by faking symptoms of mental illness. [ ] n. something that produces coagulation coagulant:thicken=solvent:dissolve coagulate<>liquefy/dissolve Sample: Blood coagulates and closes a cut. [ ] v. to unite into a whole:FUSE coalesce<>disaggregate polarize<>coalesce Synonyms: JOIN, associate, bracket, combine, conjoin, connect, link, relate, unite, wed Sample: The brooks coalesce into one large river. [ ] adj. not precise or detailed with respect to adjustment or discrimination coarse:surface=?? fastidious<>coarse Synonyms: crass, crude, gross, incult, inelegant, low, raw, rough, rude, uncouth, uncultivated, uncultured, unrefined, vulgar Sample: homespun wit, like homespun cloth, was often coarse and plain. [ ] vt. to manipulate with great perseverance and usually with considerable effort toward a desired state or activity equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten blandishment:coax=medal:honor/prevarication:deceive Synonyms: blandish, blarney, cajole, con, soft-soap, sweet-talk, wheedle Sample: The mother coaxed her child to take some bad-tasting medicine. [ ] n. a concluding musical section that is formally distinct from the main structure dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata coda<>overture Sample: The piece concluded with a distinctive coda that strikingly brought together various motifs. [ ] vt. to bring about by force or threat wheedle:cajolery=extort:coercion { scourge:possession} Synonyms: FORCE, compel, concuss, constrain, make, oblige, shotgun
70

coeval

cogent

Sample: They forced him to obey, but only by great coercion. [ ] adj. of the same or equal age, antiquity, or duration congruent:dimension=coeval:age Sample: coeval with the dinosaur, the pterodactyl flourished during the Mesozoic era. [ ] adj. appealing forcibly to the mind or reason:CONVINCING cogent:convince=repugnant:repel cogent<>unconvincing Synonyms: VALID, convincing, satisfactory, satisfying, solid, sound, telling Sample: She presented cogent arguments to the jury. List 6 cognizant --- convert [ ] adj. knowledgeable of something especially through personal experience incognizance:knowledgeable=penury:wealthy cognizant<>oblivious Synonyms: AWARE, alive, apprehensive, au courant, awake, conscious, knowing, sensible, sentient, witting Sample: The pressure of populating on available resources is the key to understanding history; consequently, any historical writing that takes no cognizance of demographic facts is intrinsically flawed. [ ] n. a perforated utensil for washing or draining food centrifuge:separate=colander:drain Sample: Before serving the spaghetti, place it in a colander to drain it. [ ] vt. to fall or shrink together abruptly and completely collapse:implode=divide:sunder collapse:volume=attenuate:thickness Synonyms: bend, break, cave, crumple, fold up, yield Sample: While the delegate clearly sought to dampen the optimism that has emerged recently, she stopped short of suggesting that the conference was near collapse and might produce nothing of significance. [ ] v. CONSPIRE, PLOT collude:cooperate=smuggle:convey collude:cooperate=stalk:follow Synonyms: PLOT, cogitate, connive, conspire, contrive, devise, intrigue, machinate, scheme (out) [ ] n. a series of columns set at regular intervals and usually supporting the base of a roof structure colonnade:pillar=queue:person [ ] adj. of a bulk, extent, power, or effect approaching or suggesting the stupendous or incredible antediluvian:age=colossal:size
71

cognizant

colander

collapse

collude

colonnade

colossal

Synonyms: HUGE, behemothic, cyclopean, elephantine, gargantuan, gigantic, mammoth, monstrous, titanic, vast Sample: Radio City Music Hall has a colossal stage. coma [ ] n. a state of profound unconsciousness caused by disease, injury, or poison coma:unconsciousness=delirium:confusion Synonyms: FAINT, blackout, swoon, syncope Sample: If the doctor's prognosis is correct, the patient will be in a coma for at least twenty-four hours. combustible [ ] adj. capable of combustion impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible Sample: After the recent outbreak of fires in private homes, the fire commissioner ordered that all combustible materials be kept in safe containers. comely [ ] n. having a pleasing appearance:not homely or plain comeliness<>unattractiveness Synonyms: BEAUTIFUL, attractive, beauteous, bonny, fair, good-looking, handsome, lovely, pretty, pulchritudinous Sample: I would rather have a poor and comely wife than a rich and homely one. comity [ ] n. friendly social atmosphere:social harmony comity<>enmity Synonyms: GOODWILL, amity, benevolence, friendliness, friendship, kindliness Sample: A spirit of comity should exist among nations. commencement [ ] n. an act, instance, or time of beginning cessation<>commencement cease<>inaugurate/commencement Synonyms: BEGINNING, alpha, birth, dawn, dawning, genesis, onset, opening, outset, outstart Sample: Although the commencement speaker had some good things to say, we had to laugh at his pomposity and general air of parading his own dignity. commencement [ ] n. the ceremonies or the day for conferring degrees or diplomas commencement<>matriculation Sample: Her exemplary behavior was praised at commencement. commend [ ] vt. to mention with approbation:PRAISE berate<>commend execrable<>commendable/laudable deplore<>commend Sample: The young woman was so sedulous that she received a commendation for her hard work. commensurate [ ] adj. equal in measure or extent:COEXTENSIVE preponderant<>commensurate tantamount<>incommensurate
72

commercial

commitment

committed

commodious

commonsense

commotion

compendium

compensate

parity<>uncommensurateness Sample: The powers and satisfactions of primeval people, though few and meager, were commensurate with their few and simple desires. [ ] n. an advertisement broadcast on radio or television advertising:commercial=publishing:journal Sample: Television programs are often interrupted by commercials. [ ] n. an engagement to assume a financial obligation at a future date crime:misdemeanor=commitment:decision dilettante:commitment=nonentity:consequence disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction ambivalent<>commitment noncommittal<>confirm Sample: The technical know-how, if not the political commitment appears already at hand to feed the world's exploding population and so to eradicate at last the ancient scourges of malnutrition and famine. [ ] adj. OBLIGATE, BIND profligate:solvent=mercurial:committed Sample: A radical committed to social change, Reed had no patience with the conservative views prevalent in the America of his day. [ ] adj. comfortably or conveniently spacious:ROOMY taut:commodious=extraordinary:purlieu commodious<>constricted/cramped commodious<>constringed Synonyms: SPACIOUS, ample, capacious, roomy, wide Sample: In their incommodious quarters, they had to improvise for closet space. [ ] adj. sound and prudent but often unsophisticated judgment preposterous<>commonsensical [ ] n. an agitated disturbance:TO-DO squall:commotion=flash:illumination Sample: After the commotion and excitement of the city, I appreciate the tranquillity of these fields and forests. [ ] n. a brief summary of a larger work or of a field of knowledge:ABSTRACT compendium:summary=anthology:collection encyclopedia:compendious=abstract:concise {pertinacity:changeable} {recapitulation:lengthy} Synonyms: digest, pandect, sketch, survey, syllabus Sample: Because the report contained much more information than the reviewers needed to see, the author was asked to submit a compendium instead. [ ] vt.vi. to offset an error, defect, or undesired effect Synonyms: atone (for), balance, counterbalance, counterpoise, countervail, make up,
73

complacency

complaisance

compliant

compliment

comply

composed

compress

offset, outweigh, redeem, set off Sample: In small farming communities, accident victims rarely sue or demand compensation:transforming a personal injury into a claim against someone else is viewed as an attempt to elude responsibility for one's own actions. [ ] n. COMPLACENCE; especially:self-satisfaction accompanied by unawareness of actual dangers or deficiencies complacency<>anxiety Synonyms: CONCEIT, amour propre, complacence, conceitedness, consequence, egoism, egotism, narcissism, pride, vainglory Sample: The accusations we bring against others should bewarnings to ourselves; they should not justify complacency and easy judgments on our part concerning our own moral conduct. [ ] n. disposition to please or comply:AFFABILITY complaisance:intractable=adeptness:maladroit complaisance<>obstinacy complaisance<>churlishness Sample: Their air of cheerful self-sacrifice and endless complaisance won them undeserved praise, for their seeming gallantry was wholly motivated by a craven wish to avoid conflict of any sort. [ ] adj. ready or disposed to comply:SUBMISSIVE compliant:servile=trusting:gullible obsequious:fawn=compliant:yield Sample: The design for the new school had to be in compliance with the local building code. [ ] vt. expressing or containing a compliment apologize:contrite=compliment:impressed vituperative<>complimentary Synonyms: COMMEND, acclaim, applaud, hail, kudize, praise, recommend Sample: Complimented on her appearance, Stella self-consciously simpered. [ ] vi. to conform or adapt one's actions to another's wishes, to a rule, or to necessity mandatory:comply=forbidden:abstain Synonyms: OBEY, conform, follow, keep, mind, observe Sample: Nothing that few employees showed any enthusiasm for complying with the corporation's new safety regulations, Peterson was forced to conclude that acceptance of the regulations would be grudging, at best. [ ] adj. free from agitation:CALM; especially:SELF-POSSESSED distraught<>composed discombobulate<>compose Synonyms: COOL, collected, disimpassioned, imperturbable, nonchalant, unflappable, unruffled Sample: We must comply with the terms of the covenant. [ ] vt.
74

compromise

compromise

compunction

concatenate

concede

concentrate

concerted

to reduce in size or volume as if by squeezing compression<>increase in volume distention<>compression Sample: She compressed the package under her arm. [ ] n. to come to agreement by mutual concession mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction implacable:compromise=honest:swindle intransigent<>open to compromise polemical<>compromising Sample: Schlesinger has recently assumed a conciliatory attitude that is not commended. by his colleagues, who continue to disparage compromise. [ ] v. to cause the impairment of Synonyms: ENDANGER, hazard, imperil, jeopard, jeopardize, jeopardy, menace, peril, risk Sample: The academic education offered to university students is essential and must not be compromised, but that does not mean universities should neglect the extracurricular, yet still important, aspects of university life. [ ] n. anxiety arising from awareness of guilt compunction<>absence of misgiving { animosity } Synonyms: PENITENCE, attrition, contriteness, contrition, penance, penitency, remorse, repentance, rue, ruth Sample: The judge was especially severe in this sentencing because he felt that the criminal had shown no compunction for his heinous crime. [ ] v. to link together in a series or chain concatenate<>separate Synonyms: INTEGRATE, articulate Sample: It is difficult to understand how these events could concatenate as they did without outside assistance. [ ] v. to grant as a right or privilege concede<>refuse to grant Synonyms: ACKNOWLEDGE, admit, allow, avow, confess, fess (up), grant, let on, own, own up Sample: While Parker is very outspoken on issues she cares about, she is not fanatical; she concedes the strength of opposing arguments when they expose weaknesses inherent in her own. [ ] v. to bring or direct toward a common center or objective:FOCUS dilute:concentrated=?? concentrate<>dilute solution deploy<>concentrate Sample: For the two weeks before the examination, the student immureed himself in his room and concentrated upon his studies. [ ] adj.
75

concerto

conciliate

concise

concord

concur

condemn

mutually contrived or agreed on concerted<>individually devised Sample: The girl scouts in the troop made a concerted effort to raise funds for their annual outing, and emitted a concerted sigh when their leader announced that they had reached their goal. [ ] n. a piece for one or more soloists and orchestra with three contrasting movements Sample: We listened to a wonderful violin concerto. [ ] v. APPEASE:to cause to subside:ALLAY especially:to buy off (an aggressor) by concessions usually at the sacrifice of principles sop:conciliatory=subsidy:supportive conciliate<>vex vex<>conciliation contentious<>conciliatory conciliate<>nettle discontent<>conciliate rile<>conciliate belligerent<>conciliatory Synonyms: PACIFY, appease, assuage, mollify, placate, propitiate, sweeten Sample: Schlesinger has recently assumed a conciliatory atti-tude that is not commended. by his colleagues, who continue to disparage compromise. [ ] adj. marked by brevity of expression or statement:free from all elaboration and superfluous detail synopsis:conciseness=distillate:purity Synonyms: breviloquent, brief, compendiary, compendious, curt, laconic, short, short and sweet, succinct, summary, terse Sample: When you define a new word, be concise; the shorter the definition, the easier it is to remember. [ ] n a state of agreement:HARMONY concord<>dissension dissonance<>concord schism<>concord concord<>enmity/rancor Sample: Watching Tweediedum and Tweedledee battle, Alice wondered why the two brothers could not manage to life in concord. [ ] vi. to act together to a common end or single effect concur<>naysay concur<>dissent Synonyms: AGREE, coincide, concert, concur, harmonize Sample: Did you concur with the decision of the court or did you find it unfair? [ ] vt. to declare to be reprehensible, wrong, or evil usually after weighing evidence and without reservation bristle:anger=vacillate:unresolution { condone:mercy} {condemn:warning}
76

pliable:influenced=censorious:condemn countenance<>condemn exaltation<>condemnation extol<>condemn/impugn/detract panegyric<>condemnation Synonyms: CRITICIZE, blame, censure, denounce, denunciate, knock, rap, reprehend, reprobate, skin Sample: The criminal was condemned to be flayed alive. condescending [ ] adj. showing or characterized by condescension:PATRONIZING condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn patronize:condescension=deride:mockery patronizing:condescending=peeved:annoyed Sample: The action and charades in a melodrama can be so immediately classified that all observers can hiss the villain with an air of smug but enjoyable condescension. condign [ ] adj. deserved, appropriate condign<>undeserved/unmerited Synonyms: JUST, appropriate, deserved, due, merited, requisite, rhadamanthine, right, rightful, suitable Sample: The public approved the condign punishment for the crime. condole [ ] v. to express sympathetic sorrow condolence:sympathy/compassion=gibe:derision Sample: He apologized for his belated note of condolence to the widow of his friend and explained that he had just learned of her husband's untimely death. condone [ ] vt. to pardon or overlook voluntarily; especially:to treat as if trivial, harmless, or of no importance bristle:anger=vacillate:unresolution { condone:mercy} {condemn:warning} condone<>denounce condone<>exact Synonyms: excuse pardon forgive Sample: Unlike Widow Douglass, who condoned Huck's minor offenses, Miss Watson did nothing but scold. conducive [ ] adj. tending to promote or assist conducive:foment=tonic:invigorate Sample: The state is a network of exchanged benefits and beliefs, a reciprocity between rulers and citizens based on those laws and procedures that are conducive to the maintenance of community. confess [ ] v. to disclose one's faults; specifically:to unburden one's sins or the state of one's conscience to God or to a priest recantation:error=confession:crime Synonyms: ACKNOWLEDGE, admit, allow, avow, concede, fess (up), grant, let on, own, own up Sample: The bank teller confessed his embezzlement of the funds.
77

confidant

confident

confine

confluence

conform

confront

congeal

congenial

[ ] n. one to whom secrets are entrusted Sample: He had no confidants with whom he could discuss his problems at home. [ ] adj. characterized by assurance; especially:SELF-RELIANT confident:timid=open:shy confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory Synonyms: assured, sanguine, secure, self-assured, self-confident, undoubtful Sample: I know I am fallible, but I feel confident that I am right this time. [ ] vt. something that restrains loose:confinement=disabuse:misconception Synonyms: LIMIT, bar, circumscribe, delimit, delimitate, prelimit, restrict Sample: How could words, confined as they individually are to certain precise meanings specified in a dictionary, eventually come, when combined in groups, to create obscurity and actually to prevent thought from being communicable? [ ] n. a coming or flowing together, meeting, or gathering at one point confluence<>divergence Synonyms: CONCOURSE, concursion, gathering, junction, meeting Sample: They built the city at the confluence of two rivers. [ ] vt. to be similar or identical; also:to be in agreement or harmony incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey heretic:unconformity=generous:liberality { authority:superiority } dissent<>conform Synonyms: ADAPT, accommodate, adjust, fit, quadrate, reconcile, square, suit, tailor, tailor-make Sample: In conformity with our rules and regulations, I am calling a meeting of our organization. [ ] vt. to face especially in challenge:OPPOSE craven:confront=honest:deceive circumvent<>confront Synonyms: affront, encounter, face, meet Sample: Despite the contingencies of time, space, and history, human societies the world over have confronted the same existential problems and have come to remarkably similar solutions, differing only in superficial details. [ ] v. to make viscid or curdled:COAGULATE congeal<>melt/disintegrated congeal<>fail to solidify Synonyms: COAGULATE, clot, gel, gelate Sample: His blood congealed in his veins as he saw the dread monster rush toward him. [ ] adj. OCIABLE, GENIAL congenial:bonhomie=??:?? dour<>congenial/genial
78

congruent

conjecture

connive

connoisseur

conquest

conscientious

consensus

Synonyms: CONSONANT , agreeable, compatible, congruous, consistent, sympathetic Sample: Even those siblings whose childhood was dominated by familial feuding and intense rivalry for their parents' affection can nevertheless develop congenial and even intimate relationships with each other in their adult lives. [ ] adj. superposable so as to be coincident throughout congruent:dimension=coeval:age incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey variance<>congruity congruence<>disagreeable Synonyms: harmonious , corresponding Sample: The author did not see the incongruity inherent in her scathing criticism of a writing style so similar to her own. [ ] n./v. inference from defective or presumptive evidence conjecture<>restrain from the speculation conjecture<>fact Synonyms: guess, presume, pretend, suppose, surmise, think Sample: The development of containers, possibly made from bark or the skins of animals, although this is a matter of conjecture, allowed the extensive sharing of forage foods in prehistoric human societies. [ ] vi to cooperate secretly or have a secret understanding connive:cooperate=pry:watch uncouth:churl=conspiratorial:conniver Synonyms: PLOT, cogitate, collude, conspire, contrive, devise, intrigue, machinate, scheme (out) Sample: With the connivance of his friends, he plotted to embarrass the teacher. [ ] n. EXPERT; especially:one who understands the details, technique, or principles of an art and is competent to act as a critical judge connoisseur:art=gourmet:cuisine Synonyms: aesthete, cognoscente, dilettante Sample: She had developed into a connoisseur of fine china. [ ] n. the act or process of conquering inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest Synonyms: VICTORY, triumph, win Sample: In his conquest of Europe, Hitler was aided by the quislings who betrayed their own people and served in the puppet governments established by the Nazis. [ ] adj. Thorough and assiduous conscientious<>careless Synonyms: UPRIGHT , honest, honorable, just, right, scrupulous, true Sample: She does all her work in a conscientious manner. [ ] n. group solidarity in sentiment and belief consensus:factionalism=clarity:confusion
79

conservative

conservatory

conserve

considerable

consign

console

law:criminality=consensus:factionalism {lesson:falsehood} expedition:foot dragging=consensus:factionalism schism:consensus=interruption:continuity Synonyms: consent , unison , accord , agreement Sample: Congress is having great difficulty developing a consensus on energy policy, primarily because the policy objectives of various members of Congress rest on such divergent assumptions. [ ] adj. tending or disposed to maintain existing views, conditions, or institutions:TRADITIONAL bigoted:advice=conservative:change contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty hidebound:conservative=peeved:annoyed hidebound:conservative=manic:interested/excited {peeved:annoyed } conserve<>exhaust Synonyms: die-hard, fogyish, old-line, orthodox, reactionary, right, tory, traditionalistic Sample: The conservative father viewed his daughter's radical boyfriend with disapprobation. [ ] n a school specializing in one of the fine arts conservatory:music=seminary:theology=observatory:astronomy Sample: A gifted violinist, Marya was selected to study at the conservatory. [ ] n.vt. to keep in a safe or sound state conserve<>waste/squander/exhaust Synonyms: preserve , save ,maintain Sample: In winter, some people conserve energy by lowering the heat at night. [ ] adj. worth consideration:SIGNIFICANT restive:calmness=piddling:considerable Synonyms: IMPORTANT, big, consequential, material, meaningful, momentous, significant, substantial, weighty Sample: Islamic law is a phenomenon so different from all other forms of law notwithstandingof courseaconsiderable and inevitable number of coincidences with one or the other of them as far as subject matter and positive enactments are concernedthat its study is indispensable in order to appreciate adequately the full range ofpossible legal phenomena. [ ] vt. to give, transfer, or deliver into the hands or control of another; also:to commit especially to a final destination or fate consignment:invoice=?? Synonyms: COMMIT , commend, confide, entrust, hand over, relegate, turn over Sample: The court consigned the child to her paternal grandmother's care. [ ] vt. to alleviate the grief, sense of loss, or trouble of:COMFORT embarrass:shame=console:comfort disturb:serenity=console:grief alleviate:intensity=console:grief
80

consolidate

consonance

conspicuous

conspiracy

constellation

constitute

constrained

Synonyms: COMFORT, buck up, cheer, solace, upraise Sample: When her father died, Marius did his best to console Cosette. [ ] vt. to join together into one whole:UNITE consolidation<>fragmentation consolidate<>dissolve Synonyms: UNIFY , compact, concentrate, integrate Sample: I had so many bank accounts at different banks that I consolidated them all into one. [ ] n. harmony or agreement among components consonant<>dissonant consonant<>discrepant Synonyms: HARMONY, accord, agreement, chime, concord, concordance, tune Sample: Her agitation seemed out of consonance with her usual calm. [ ] adj obvious to the eye or mind authoritative:acceptance=conspicuous:attention conspicuous:see=transparent:understand hermitage:secluded=landmark:conspicuous conspicuous:sheltered=?? blatant<>inconspicuous nondescript<>conspicuous salient<>unconspicuous prominent<>inconspicuous Synonyms: NOTICEABLE, arresting, arrestive, marked, outstanding, pointed, prominent, remarkable, salient, striking Sample: Everyone at the wedding was well-dressed, but she was conspicuous in jeans and a cowboy hat. [ ] n. An agreement to perform together an illegal, wrongful, or subversive act. uncouth:churl=conspiratorial:conniver infiltrate:enter=conspire:plan spy:watch=conspire:cooperate Synonyms: PLOT , cabal, covin, intrigue, machination, practice, scheme Sample: Any language is a conspiracy against experience in the sense that it is a collective attempt to manage experience by reducing it into discrete parcels. [ ] n. the configuration of stars. constellation:star=chord:note{ queue:person} Sample: Big Dipper and Little Dipper are constellations that we see in the sky at night. [ ] vt. to appoint to an office, function, or dignity abdicate<>constitute Synonyms: FOUND , create, establish, institute, organize, set up, start Sample: Having sufficient income of her own constituted for Alice a material independence that made possible a degree of security in her emotional life as well. [ ] adj.
81

constringe

consult

consummate

contagious

contaminate

contemplate

contempt

to appoint to an office, function, or dignity constrain<>release intemperate<>constrained Synonyms: RESERVED, incommunicable, noncommittal, restrained Sample: The role those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behavior but one of imposing constraintsways of feelingthinkingand acting that"come naturally" in archetypal situations in any culture. [ ] vt. to cause to contract; constrict. commodious<>constringed Synonyms: CONSTRICT, narrow [ ] v. COUNCIL, CONFERENCE; specifically:a deliberation between physicians on a case or its treatment bellwether:leadership=advisor:consultant Synonyms: CONFER, advise, collogue, confab, confabulate, huddle, parley, powwow, treat Sample: I advise you to consult a dermatologist about your acne. [ ] adj. Complete in every detail; of the highest degree; extremely skilled and accomplished. Synonyms: accomplished, finished, perfected, ripe, virtuosic Sample: I have never seem anyone who makes as many stupid errors as you do; you must be a consummate idiot. [ ] adj. communicable by contact:CATCHING sprain:injure=cold:contagion contagious<>incommunicable Synonyms: INFECTIOUS, catching, communicable Sample: Wang's zeal was contagious; soon all his fellow students were busily making posters, inspired by his ardent enthusiasm for the cause. [ ] vt. to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect by contact or association hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident Synonyms: defile, pollute, soil, taint Sample: The sewage system of the city so contaminated the water that swimming was forbidden. [ ] vt. to view or consider with continued attention:meditate on consider Synonyms: CONSIDER, excogitate, mind, perpend, ponder, study, think (out or over), weigh Sample: The acts of vandalism that these pranksters had actually perpetrated were insignificant compared with those they had contemplated but had not attempted. (9510) [ ] n. the act of despising:the state of mind of one who despises:DISDAIN measly:contemptibly=puny:weakly paragon:admire=pariah:contempt redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard
82

content

contentious

contingent

contort

contradictory

contravene

wince:pain=smile:pleasure=pout:displeasure=sneer:contempt despicable:contempt=reprehensible:censure scoff:contempt=thankful:gratitude hilarious:laughter=contemptible:distain estimable<>contemptible deify<>watch with contempt Synonyms: DESPITE, despisal, despisement, disdain, disparagement, scorn Sample: Marshal Philippe Pertain, unlike any other French citizen of this century, has been, paradoxically, the object of both great veneration and great contempt. [ ] adj. feeling or manifesting satisfaction with one's possessions, status, or situation disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction gripe:discontent=praise:admiration disaffected<>content restiveness<>contentment contented<>avaricious Synonyms: satisfied , pleased , contented , complacent Sample: The nation was seething with discontent as the nobleman continued their arrogant ways. [ ] adj. exhibiting an often perverse and wearisome tendency to quarrels and disputes meddlesome:pry=contentious:argue contentious<>conciliatory contention<>general agreement Synonyms: BELLIGERENT, bellicose, combative, gladiatorial, militant, pugnacious, quarrelsome, truculent, warlike Sample: We heard loud and contentious noises in the next room. [ ] adj. likely but not certain to happen:POSSIBLE Synonyms: ACCIDENTAL, casual, chance, fluky, fortuitous, incidental, odd Sample: Manipulating laboratory tissue cultures with hormones is one thing; using hormones to treat human beings, however, is contingent on whether hormones that work in the laboratory can affect whole organisms, and in predictable ways. [ ] v. to twist into or as if into a strained shape or expression contortion:body=grimace:face Synonyms: DEFORM, distort, misshape, torture, warp, wind Sample: As the effects of the opiate wore away, the contortions of the patient became more violent and demonstrated how much pain she was enduring. [ ] adj. involving, causing, or constituting a contradiction paradox:contradictory=epigram:wise oxymoron:contradictory=mishap:catastrophic Synonyms: OPPOSITE, antipode, antipole, antithesis, contra, contrary, converse, counter, counterpole, reverse Sample: The detective was stymied by the contradictory evidence in the robbery investigation. [ ] v.
83

contrite

contrived

control

contumacious

conundrum

convalesce

convenience

to oppose in argument:CONTRADICT contravene<>support contravene<>buttress Synonyms: VIOLATE, breach, break, infract, infringe, offend, transgress Sample: By idiosyncratically refusing to dismiss an insubordinate member of his staff, the manager not only contravened established policy, but he also jeopardized his heretofore good chances for promotion. [ ] adj. grieving and penitent for sin or shortcoming apologize:contrite=compliment:impressed penitent:contrition=?? impenitent<>contrite Synonyms: REMORSEFUL, apologetic, attritional, compunctious, penitent, penitential, regretful, repentant, sorry Sample: Her contrite tears did not influence the judge when he imposed sentence. [ ] adj. ARTIFICIAL, LABORED contrived:design=?? Synonyms: artificial , labored Sample: It is difficult to distinguish between the things that charismatic figures do spontaneously and those that are carefully contrived for effect. [ ] n. an individual or group used as a standard of comparison in a control experiment control<>group experimented on [ ] adj. stubbornly disobedient:REBELLIOUS contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty contumacious<>obedient Synonyms: INSUBORDINATE, factious, insurgent, mutinous, rebellious, seditious Sample: The contumacious mob shouted defiantly at the police. [ ] n. a:a question or problem having only a conjectural answer b:an intricate and difficult problem conundrum:solve=?? Synonyms: MYSTERY, Chinese puzzle, closed book, enigma, mystification, puzzle, puzzlement, riddle, why Sample: During the long car ride, she invented conundrums to entertain the children. [ ] vi. to recover health and strength gradually after sickness or weakness recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce Synonyms: IMPROVE , ameliorate, gain, look up, mend, perk (up), recuperate Sample: After his heart attack, he went through a long convalescence at home. [ ] n. something (as an appliance, device, or service) conducive to comfort or ease opportune:convenience=impermanent:transience opportune<>inconvenient Synonyms: AMENITY , comfort, facility Sample: In spite of the fact that it is convenient to divide the life span of animals into
84

convention

conventional

convergent

conversant

convert

separate stages such as prenatal, adolescent, and senescent, these periods are not really distinct. [ ] n. usage or custom especially in social matters overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention reactionary:convention=?? ossify<>transcend conventions Synonyms: CONTRACT, agreement, bargain, bond, compact, covenant, pact, transaction Sample: Once Renaissance painters discovered how to render volume and depth, they were able to replace the medieval convention of symbolic, two-dimensional space with the more realistic illusion of actual space. [ ] adj. lacking originality or individuality:TRITE hero:admirable=eccentric:unconventional eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated offbeat<>conventional Sample: George Bernard Shaw's iconoclastic plays often startled more conventional people. [ ] adj. tending to move toward one point or to approach each other:CONVERGING convergent<>moving apart discrepancy<>convergence converge<>spread out Synonyms: converging , confluent Sample: Marchers converged on Washington for the great Save Our Cities-Save Our Children Marc [ ] adj. having frequent or familiar association conversant<>unfamiliarity conversant<>ignorant Synonyms: FAMILIAR , abreast, acquainted, au courant, au fait, informed, up, versant, versed Sample: The lawyer is conversant with all the evidence. [ ] vt. to bring over from one belief, view, or party to another veer:direction=convert:belief hunter:quarry=proselytizer:convert Synonyms: TRANSFORM, change, commute, metamorphose, transfigure, translate, transmogrify, transmute, transpose, transubstantiate Sample: On his trip to Japan, though the President spoke at length about the merits of American automobiles, he made few converts to his beliefs. List 7 convex --- deference

convex

[ ] adj. curved or rounded like the exterior of a sphere convex<>dent Sample: He polished the convex lens of his telescope.
85

convey

conviction

conviction

convivial

convoke

convoluted

convulsion

coop

copious

[ ] vt. to transfer or deliver to another collude:cooperate=smuggle:convey splint:immobilize=duct:convey Sample: The appreciation of traditional oral American Indian literature has been limited hampered by poor translations and by the difficulty even in the rare culturally sensitive and aesthetically satisfying translation of completely conveying the originals verse structuretoneand syntax. [ ] n. a strong persuasion or belief disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment /conviction cogent<>unconvincing Synonyms: CERTAINTY, assurance, assuredness, certitude, confidence, sureness, surety Sample: Few of us take the pains to study our cherished convictions; indeed, we almost have a natural repugnance to doing so. [ ] n. the act or process of convicting of a crime especially in a court of law mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction Sample: The warden will incarcerate the felon after conviction. [ ] adj. relating to, occupied with, or fond of feasting, drinking, and good company convivial:sociability=?? Synonyms: SOCIAL , companionable, sociable Sample: The convivial celebrators of the victory sang their college songs. [ ] v. to call together to a meeting convoke<>adjourn Synonyms: assemble, call, convene, summon Sample: Congress was convoked at the outbreak of the emergency. [ ] adj. INVOLVED, INTRICATE convoluted:complexity=ephemeral:transience convoluted:complexity=transient:evanescence Synonyms: complex , winding , intricate, complicated Sample: A misconception frequently held by novice writers is that sentence structure mirrors thought:the more convoluted the structure, the more complicated the ideas. [ ] n. an abnormal violent and involuntary contraction or series of contractions of the muscles convulsion:contraction=frenzy:emotion Synonyms: COMMOTION, clamor, ferment, outcry, tumult, upheaval, upturn Sample: He began to choke and went into convulsions. [ ] n. a cage or small enclosure (as for poultry) corral:horses=coop:chickens Sample: Mr. Jones obtained a watchdog to prevent the nocturnal raids on his chicken coops. [ ] adj.
86

coquette

cord

cordon

cornucopia

coronation

corporeal

corral

corroborate

present in large quantity:taking place on a large scale copious<>sparse Synonyms: PLENTIFUL, abundant, ample, bounteous, bountiful, generous, liberal, plenteous, plenty Sample: She had copious reasons for rejecting the proposal. [ ] n. a woman who endeavors without sincere affection to gain the attention and admiration of men supplicant:beseeching=coquette:flirtatious Sample: Because she refused to give him an answer to his proposal of marriage, he called her a coquette. [ ] n. a unit of wood cut for fuel equal to a stack 4 x 4 x 8 feet or 128 cubic feet ream:paper=cord:wood Sample: She bought a cord of wood for use in her fireplace. [ ] n. a line of persons or objects around a person or place levee:river=cordon:crowd Sample: The police cordon was so tight that the criminals could not leave the area. [ ] n an inexhaustible store:ABUNDANCE cornucopia<>lack/pittance Sample: American farmers grow a cornucopia of food for people. [ ] n. the act or occasion of crowning; also:accession to the highest office coronation:reign=wedding:marriage Sample: When Princess Elizabeth became Queen Elizabeth II, England celebrated her coronation. [ ] adj. having, consisting of, or relating to a physical material body:as a:not spiritual b:not immaterial or intangible:SUBSTANTIAL corporeal<>intangible/disembodied spiritual<>corporeal incorporeal<>incarnate Synonyms: MATERIAL, gross, objective, phenomenal, physical, sensible, substantial, tangible Sample: He was not a churchgoer; he was interested only in corporeal matters. [ ] vt. a pen or enclosure for confining or capturing livestock corral:horses=coop:chickens Sample: Cowboys leave their horses in the corral after work. [ ] vt. to support with evidence or authority:make more certain corroborate:evidence=calumniate:falsehood corroboration<>lessening of certainty Synonyms: CONFIRM, authenticate, bear out, justify, substantiate, validate, verify Sample: Unless we find a witness to corroborate your evidence, it will not stand up in court.
87

corrosive

cosmopolitan

cosset

coterie

countenance

counterfeit

counterpart

court

[ ] adj. tending or having the power to corrode etch:corrosive=glue:adhesive Synonyms: SARCASTIC, acerb, acerbic, archilochian, caustic Sample: The corrosive effect of air pollution on great buildings and statues eventually turns them to powder. [ ] n. having worldwide rather than limited or provincial scope or bearing bigot:tolerant=provincial:cosmopolitan {servile:domination insularity<>cosmopolitanism insular<>cosmopolitan Synonyms: UNIVERSAL, catholic, cosmic, ecumenical, global, planetary, worldwide Sample: Hong Kong is a cosmopolitan city with people from all over the world. [ ] v. to treat as a pet:PAMPER cosset<>slight cosseted<>unspoiled Synonyms: BABY, cater (to), cocker, coddle, humor, indulge, mollycoddle, pamper, spoil Sample: Cosseted Child, Convincing Bohemian, Robert Louis Stevenson Was Also, a New Book Shows, the Star of an Extraordinary Life. [ ] n. an intimate and often exclusive group of persons with a unifying common interest or purpose coterie:group=?? Synonyms: CLIQUE, cabal, camarilla, camp, circle, clan, in-group, mafia, mob, ring Sample: After his book had been published, he was invited to join the literary coterie that lunched daily at the hotel. [ ] n. to extend approval or toleration to:SANCTION countenance<>condemn Synonyms: APPROVE, accept, approbate, favor, go (for), hold (with) Sample: While many people utilize homeopathic remedies to treat health problems, other people do not countenance such alternative treatments, relying on conventional medical treatments instead. [ ] n. made in imitation of something else with intent to deceive:FORGED sophism:reasoning=counterfeit:money Synonyms: ASSUME, act, affect, bluff, fake, feign, pretend, put on, sham, simulate Sample: Criminals counterfeited the $20 bills by printing them secretly. [ ] n. one of two corresponding copies of a legal instrument:DUPLICATE Synonyms: PARALLEL, analogue, correlate, correspondent, countertype, match Sample: As early as the seventeenth century, philosophers called attention to the problematic character of the issue, and their twentieth-century counterparts still approach it with uneasiness. (9504) [ ] n.vt. to seek the affections of; especially:to seek to win a pledge of marriage from
88

courtesy

coven

covetous

cow

cowardice

cower

craft

aversion<>court court<>repel intentionally/repulse intentionally/snub spurn<>court ,crave, embrace Synonyms: ADDRESS, make up (to), pursue, spark, sue, sweetheart, woo Sample: Jones was unable to recognize, the contradictions in his attitudes that were obvious to everyone else; even the hint of an untruth was repugnant to him, but he courted serious trouble by always cheating on his taxes. [ ] n. a courteous act or expression Synonyms: amenity, attention, gallantry Sample: A firm believer in old-fashioned courtesy, Miss Post deprecated the modern tendency to address new acquaintances by their first names. [ ] n. an assembly or band of usually 13 witches retainer:retinue=witch:coven Sample: A coven of witches beside a tree is a possible rebus for the town Coventry. [ ] adj. marked by inordinate desire for wealth or possessions or for another's possessions troubled:distraught=covetous:rapacious Synonyms: acquisitive, desirous, grabby, greedy Sample: The child was covetous by nature and wanted to take the toys belonging to his classmates. [ ] v. to destroy the resolve or courage of cowed<>undaunted embolden<>abash/faze/cow Synonyms: INTIMIDATE, bludgeon, bluster, browbeat, bulldoze, bully, bullyrag, dragoon, hector, strong-arm Sample: The little boy was so cowed by the hulking bully that he gave up his lunch money without a word of protest. [ ] n. lack of courage or resolution cowardice:intimidate=perplexed:obfuscate cowardice:intimidate=choler:antagonize pluck<>cowardice pluckish<>coward Sample: When the boat turned over, the man showed cowardice by saving himself while leaving his wife to drown. [ ] vi. to shrink away or crouch especially for shelter from something that menaces, domineers, or dismays fear:cower=anger:rant bristle<>cower Synonyms: FAWN, apple-polish, bootlick, cringe, grovel, honey (up), kowtow, toady, truckle Sample: The frightened child cowered in the corner of the room. [ ] n. skill in planning, making, or executing:DEXTERITY
89

cramp

crass

craven

craving

credence

credulous

creek

Synonyms: ART, adroitness, cunning, dexterity, expertise, know-how, skill Sample: His desk was cluttered with paper, pen, ink, dictionary and other paraphernalia of the writing craft. [ ] adj. CONFINE, RESTRAIN commodious<>constricted/cramped Synonyms: RESTRICTION , circumscription, limitation, stint, stricture Sample: She lives in a cramped little apartment. [ ] adj. having or indicating such grossness of mind as precludes delicacy and discrimination crass<>refined Synonyms: COARSE, crude, gross, inelegant, raw, rough, rude, uncouth, unrefined, vulgar Sample: The philosophers deplored the crass commercialism. [ ] adj lacking the least bit of courage:contemptibly fainthearted craven:admirable=deft:awkward craven:hero=parsimonious:spendthrift craven:heroic=volatile:constant heroic:craven=erratic:permanent craven:confront=honest:deceive dastard:craven=?? Synonyms: COWARDLY, coward, gutless, lily-livered, poltroonish, poor-spirited, pusillanimous, spunkless, unmanly Sample: Their air of cheerful self-sacrifice and endless complaisance won them undeserved praise, for their seeming gallantry was wholly motivated by a craven wish to avoid conflict of any sort. [ ] n. an intense, urgent, or abnormal desire or longing terror:fear=craving:desire exult:satisfaction=crave:longing spurn<>court/crave/embrace Synonyms: LONG, ache, dream, hanker, hunger, lust, pine, sigh, suspire, thirst Sample: Although he wished to break the nicotine habit, he found himself impotent in resisisting the craving for a cigarette. [ ] n. acceptance as true or valid; belief credence<>skeptic/doubt Synonyms: BELIEF, credit, faith Sample: Do not place any credence in his promises. [ ] adj. ready to believe especially on slight or uncertain evidence penitent:obdurate=skeptic:credulous Synonyms: unsuspecting, unsuspicious, unwary Sample: When Jack claimed he hadn't eaten the jelly doughnut, Jill took an incredulous look at his smeared face and laughed. [ ] n. a natural stream of water normally smaller than and often tributary to a river
90

creep

crescendo

crest

crestfallen

criterion

crockery

cronyism

croon

crouch

hill:mountain=creek:river Sample: We went fishing in the creek. [ ] vi. to move slowly,quietly and carefully, esp so as not to attract attention creep<>move swiftly Synonyms: crawl, slide, snake Sample: The husband came home very late and he crept by his wife so he would not wake her up. [ ] n. a gradual increase; specifically:a gradual increase in volume of a musical passage crescendo<>decrease in volume Synonyms: APEX, acme, apogee, climax, crest, culmination, peak Sample: The overture suddenly changed from a quiet pastoral theme to a crescendo featuring blaring trumpets and clashing cymbols. [ ] n. the top of a wave crest:wave=summit/peak:mountain acme:mountain=crest:wave Synonyms: TOP, apex, crown, fastigium, peak, roof, summit, vertex [ ] adj. feeling shame or humiliation:DEJECTED crestfallen<>exultant Synonyms: DOWNCAST, blue, cast down, dejected, depressed, disconsolate, dispirited, down, downhearted, low Sample: We were surprised at his reaction to the failure of his project; instead of being crestfallen, he was busily engaged in planning new activities. [ ]n a standard on which a judgment or decision may be based Synonyms: STANDARD, benchmark, gauge, measure, touchstone, yardstick Sample: The primary criterion for judging a school is its recent performance:critics are reluctant to extend credit for earlier victories. [ ] n. EARTHENWARE crockery:earthenware=?? [ ] n. partiality to cronies especially as evidenced in the appointment of political hangers-on to office without regard to their qualifications nepotism:relative=cronyism:friend [ ] v. to sing or speak in a gentle murmuring manner; especially:to sing in a soft intimate manner adapted to amplifying systems croon:sing=murmur:speak Sample: When Desi crooned, "Baby, light my fire," literal-minded Lucy looked around for some paper to ignite. [ ] v. to bend or bow servilely:CRINGE Synonyms: huddle, hunch, scrooch Sample: The earthquake shattered his usual stolidity; trembling, he crouched on the no
91

crown

crucial

crude

crutch

crux

cryptic

cuisine

culpable

longer stable ground. [ ] vt. to place a crown or wreath on the head of; specifically:to invest with regal dignity and power inaugurate:president=install:official=crown:king Sample: The prophet Samuel anointed David with oil, crowning him king of Israel. [ ] adj. important or essential as resolving acrisis:DECISIVE relevant:crucial=perceptible:obvious crucial<>inconsequential Synonyms: ACUTE, climacteric, critical, desperate, dire Sample: Despite its virtues, the book deals inadequately with a number of crucial issues. [ ] adj. marked by the primitive, gross, or elemental or by uncultivated simplicity or vulgarity delicacy<>crudity Synonyms: COARSE, crass, gross, inelegant, raw, rough, rude, uncouth, unrefined, vulgar Sample: Unenlightened authoritarian manage rarely recognize a crucial reason for the low levels of serious conflict among members of democratically run work groups:a modicum of tolerance for dissent often prevents schism. [ ] n. a support typically fitting under the armpit for use by the disabled in walking crutch:walk=glasses:see crutch:support=?? Sample: He broke his foot and is on crutches now. [ ] n. an essential point requiring resolution or resolving an outcome crux<>peripheral element Synonyms: SUBSTANCE core, gist, kernel, matter, meat, nub, pith, purport Sample: This is the crux of the entire problem. [ ] adj. having or seeming to have a hidden or ambiguous meaning:MYSTERIOUS cipher:cryptic=precis:concise cryptic:perplex=?? cryptic<>self explain cryptic<>self explanatory Synonyms: dark, Delphian, enigmatic, mystifying Sample: His cryptic remarks could not be interpreted. [ ] n. manner of preparing food:style of cooking; also:the food prepared connoisseur:art=gourmet:cuisine Sample: He likes French cuisine and his wife enjoys Mexican cuisine. [ ] adj. meriting condemnation or blame especially as wrong or harmful exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame culpable<>innocent Synonyms: BLAMEWORTHY, blamable, blameful, demeritorious, guilty,
92

cultivated

cumbersome

cunning

curator

curmudgeon

curriculum

cursory

reprehensible Sample: Corrupt politicians who condone the activities of the gamblers are equally culpable. [ ] adj. REFINED, EDUCATED feral<>cultivated cultivate<>cause to wither Synonyms: GENTEEL, cultured, polished, refined, urbane, well-bred Sample: The cultivation of the emotion of natsukashii, interpretable as "pleasant sorrow," brings Japanese to Kyoto in the spring, not to savor the cherry blossoms in full bloom but to grieve over the fading, falling flowers. [ ] adj. unwieldy because of heaviness and bulk cumbersome<>easy to handle Synonyms: UNWIELDY, cumbrous, ponderous, unhandy Sample: He was burdened down with cumbersome parcels. [ ] adj. characterized by wiliness and trickery watchful:waylaid=cunning:gulled artless<>cunning/guileful ingenuous<>cunning Synonyms: CLEVER, adroit, canny, dexterous, ingenious, slim, sly Sample: Early critics of Emily Dickinson's poetry mistook for simplemindedness the surface of artlessness that in fact she constructed with such cunning. [ ] n. one that has the care and superintendence of something; especially:one in charge of a museum, zoo, or other place of exhibit ranger:forest=curator:museum Sample: The members of the board of trustees of the museum expected the new curator [ ] n. a crusty, ill-tempered, and usually old man curmudgeon<>agreeable person Sample: Although he was regarded by many as a curmudgeon, a few of us were aware of the many kindnesses and acts of charity that he secretly performed. [ ] n. A group of related courses, often in a special field of study: curriculum:course=menu:dish { agenda:meeting } :menu:a list of the dishes that may be ordered (as at a restaurant) or that are to be served (as at a banquet) Sample:Unfortunately, since courses in nutrition are often neglected in medical school curriculums. a family physician is unlikely to be an enlightening source of general information about diet. [ ] adj. rapidly and often superficially performed or produced:HASTY cursory<>painstakingly thorough fastidious<>easygoing/cursory/uncritical Synonyms: SUPERFICIAL, depthless, shallow, sketchy, uncritical Sample: A cursory examination of the ruins indicates the possibility of arson; a more extensive study should be undertaken.
93

curt

curtail

cyclone

cynical

dabble

daft

dally

[ ] adj. sparing of words:TERSE curt:words=parsimonious:resource Synonyms: CONCISE, breviloquent, brief, compendiary, compendious, laconic, short, succinct, summary Sample: He asked his boss a question, but got a curt reply, "I have no time for you now!" [ ] vt. to make less by or as if by cutting off or away some part curtail:period=enervate:energy curtail:duration=abase:strength protract<>curtail Synonyms: SHORTEN, abbreviate, abridge, cut, cut back, retrench, slash Sample: To avoid annihilation by parasites, some caterpillars are able to curtail periods of active growth by prematurely entering a dormant state, which is characterized by the suspension of feeding. [ ] n. a storm or system of winds that rotates about a center of low atmospheric pressure, and often brings heavy rain snow:precipitation=hurricane:cyclone Synonyms: TORNADO, twister Sample: A cyclone tore up trees and houses. [ ] adj. having or showing the attitude or temper of a cynic; especially:contemptuously distrustful of human nature and motives ingenue:sophistication=cynic:trustfulness Synonyms: SARDONIC, ironic, wry Sample: For some time now, disinterestedness has been presumed not to exist:the cynical conviction that everybody has an angle is considered wisdom. [ ] vi. to work or involve oneself superficially or intermittently especially in a secondary activity or interest martinet:leniency=dabbler:dedication dabble<>dedicate/devote dabbler<>specialist dabble<>specialize Synonyms: AMATEUR, abecedarian, dilettante, nonprofessional, smatterer, tyro, uninitiated Sample: That she seemed to prefer dabbling to concentrated effort is undeniable; nevertheless, the impressive quality of her finished paintings suggests that her actual relationship to her art was anything but- superficial. [ ] adj. SILLY, FOOLISH daft:saint=?? daft<>judicious Synonyms: INSANE, bedlamite, cracked, crazed, crazy, demented, deranged, mad, unbalanced, unsound [ ] vi.
94

damp

damper

dandy

dank

dapper

dappled

daredevil

a:to act playfully; especially:to play amorously b:to deal lightly:TOY Synonyms: TRIFLE, coquet, flirt, fool, lead on, string along, toy, wanton Sample: Laertes told Ophelia that Hamlet could only dally with her affections. [ ] n. & adj. v. MOISTURE,HUMIDITY, DAMPNESS tint:suffuse=damp:quench assuage:sorrow=dampen:ardor alleviate:strength=dampen:ardor sere<>lush/damp dampen<>scorch Synonyms: dampish, dank, moist, moisty, wettish Sample: While the delegate clearly sought to dampen the optimism that has emerged recently, she stopped short of suggesting that the conference was near collapse and might produce nothing of significance. [ ] n. a dulling or deadening influence damper<>ameliorate Sample: Their child is sick, and that puts a damper on their vacation plans. [ ] n a man who gives exaggerated attention to personal appearance miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion Synonyms: FOP, Beau Brummel, blood, buck, coxcomb, dude, exquisite, lounge lizard, macaroni, popinjay Sample: That man is quite a dandy; he always wears expensive new clothes. [ ] adj. unpleasantly moist or wet dank:moisture=?? Synonyms: DAMP, dampish, moist, moisty, wettish Sample: The walls of the dungeon were dank and slimy. [ ] adj. neat and trim in appearance dapper:fastidious=?? indulge:adherent=slovenly:dapper dapper<>frowsy unkempt<>dapper slovenly<>dapper Synonyms: bandbox, doggish, doggy, natty, sassy, sparkish, spiffy, spruce, sprucy, wellgroomed Sample: In "The Odd Couple," Tony Randall played Felix Unger, an excessively dapper soul who could not stand to have a hair out of place. [ ] adj. marked with small spots or patches contrasting with the background striated:groove=mottled/dappled:spot Synonyms: VARIEGATED, discolor, motley, multicolor, multicolored, multihued, parti-colored, varicolored, versicolor, versicolored Sample: The sunlight filtering though the screens created a dappled effect on the wall. [ ] n. a recklessly bold person
95

dart

dastard

daunt

dawdle

deactivate

deaden

deadpan

dearth

prudence:daredevil=sagacity:simpleton daredevil:??=malcontent:dissatisfaction Synonyms: ADVENTUROUS, adventuresome, audacious, daring, foolhardy, rash, reckless, temerarious, venturesome, venturous Sample: The daredevil rode his motorcycle over 15 parked cars. [ ] vi. to move suddenly or rapidly fall descend:plummet=move:dart Synonyms: FLY, float, sail, scud, shoot, skim Sample: child darted out in front of the car. [ ] n. a person who acts treacherously or underhandedly dastard:craven=?? Synonyms: COWARD, chicken, craven, funk, funker, poltroon, quitter, yellowbelly [ ] vt. to lessen the courage of:COW, SUBDUE dauntless:trepidation=footloose:attachment dauntless:intimidate=irrepressible:restrain cowed<>undaunted daunt<>embolden/make resolute daunting<>meek dauntless<>craven/easily discouraged/pusillanimous dauntless<>trepid Synonyms: DISMAY, appall, consternate, horrify, shake Sample: He was timid and cowardish; always backing up at daunting situations. [ ] vi. &vt. to move lackadaisically hie<>dawdle Synonyms: IDLE, bum, diddle-daddle, laze, lazy, loaf, loiter, loll, lounge Sample: Inasmuch as we must meet a deadline, do not dawdle over this work. [ ] vt. to make inactive or ineffective deactivate<>potentiate Sample: deactivated that military unit and sent the soldiers home. [ ] vt. to impair in vigor or sensation:BLUNT tonic:invigorate=analgesic:deaden Synonyms: benumb, blunt, desensitize, dull, mull, numb Sample: We put soundproofing in the walls to deaden the noise from the road outside. [ ] adj. marked by an impassive matter-of-fact manner, style, or expression impudence:brazen=deadpan:impassive Synonyms: EXPRESSIONLESS, blank, empty, inexpressive, unexpressive, vacant Sample: We wanted to see how long he could maintain his deadpan expression. [ ] n. an inadequate supply:LACK plethora<>dearth spate<>dearth
96

debark

debilitate

debonair

debris

debunk

debut

Synonyms: ABSENCE, default, defect, lack, miss, privation, want Sample: The dearth of skilled labor compelled the employers to open trade schools. [ ] vt. To unload, as from a ship or an airplane. debark:ship=dismount:horse { unload:truck } dismount:To get off or down, as from a horse or vehicle. Sample: The passengers debarked at noon. debase[ to lower in status, esteem, quality, or character debase:value=attenuate:force/intensity enervate:vitality=debase:value debase:value=simplify:complexity debase:status=lower:height debased<>ennobled deification<>debasement Synonyms: animalize, bastardize, bestialize, brutalize, canker, corrupt, debauch, demoralize, deprave, pervert, poison, rot, stain, vitiate, warp Sample: Do not debase youself by becoming maudlin. [ ] vt. to impair the strength of:ENFEEBLE attenuate:thickness=debilitate:strength debilitate<>invigorate/fortify Synonyms: WEAKEN, attenuate, blunt, cripple, disable, enfeeble, sap, unbrace, undermine, unstrengthen Sample: Overindulgence debilitates character as well as physical stamina. [ ] adj. LIGHTHEARTED, NONCHALANT Sample: The debonair youth was liked by all who met him, because of his cheerful and obliging manner. [ ] n. the remains of something broken down or destroyed debris:destroy=ash:burn Synonyms: REFUSE, garbage, junk, litter, offal, riffraff, rubbish, spilth, trash, waste Sample: A full year after the earthquake in Mexico City, workers were still carting away the debris. [ ] v to expose the sham or falseness of debunk<>perpetuate to sham debunk<>unexposure Synonyms: EXPOSE, discover, show up, uncloak, undress, unmask, unshroud Sample: Pointing out that he conhsistently had voted afainst strenghtening antipollution legislation, reporters debunked the candidate's claim that he was a fervent environmentalist. [ ] n a first appearance debut:career=embarkment:journey debut<>farewell performance Sample: As a debutante, she was often mentioned in the society columns of the newspapers.
97

decadence

decant

decelerate

decibel

decipher

decode

decorum

decrepit

[ ] n. the process of becoming decadent:the quality or state of being decadent decadence<>wholesomeness Synonyms: DETERIORATION, declension, declination, decline, degeneracy, degeneration, devolution, downfall, downgrade Sample: The moral decadence of the people was reflected in the lewd literature of the period. [ ] vt. to pour out, transfer, or unload as if by pouring subterfuge:deceive=decant:pour Sample: Be sure to decant this wine before serving it. [ ] v. to reduce the speed of:slow down retrench:expense=decelerate:speed attenuate:force=decelerate:speed Synonyms: DELAY, bog (down), detain, embog, hang up, mire, retard, set back, slacken, slow (up or down) Sample: Although sales have continued to increase since last April, unfortunately the rate of increase has decelerated. [ ] n. a unit for expressing the relative intensity of sounds on a scale from zero for the average least perceptible sound to about 130 for the average pain level decibel:sound=volt:electricity=watt:power=lumen:light Sample: A sound level of 90 decibels is extremely loud. [ ] vt. a:to make out the meaning of despite indistinctness or obscurity b:to interpret the meaning of legible:decipher=?? decipher:hieroglyph=separate:component Synonyms: DECODE, break, crack, cryptanalyze, decrypt Sample: I could not decipher the doctor's handwriting. [ ] vt. to convert (as a coded message) into intelligible form tacit:infer=encoded:decode Synonyms: break, crack, cryptanalyze, decipher, decrypt Sample: Lacking his code book, the spy was unable to decode the message sent to him in cipher. [ ] n. propriety and good taste in conduct or appearance miscalculation:judgment=gaffe:decorum decorum<>impropriety indecorous<>proper mangy<>decorous Synonyms: decency, dignity, etiquette, propriety, seemliness Sample: Many philosophers agree that the verbal aggression of profanity in certain radical newspapers is not trivial or childish, but an assault on decorum essential to the revolutionaries purpose. [ ] adj.
98

dedication

default

deference

wasted and weakened by or as if by the infirmities of old age decrepit<>vigorous decrepit<>sturdy decrepit<>sound Synonyms: WEAK, feeble, flimsy, fragile, frail, infirm, insubstantial, unsound, unsubstantial, weakly Sample: I was unprepared for the state of decrepitude in which I had found my old friend; he seemed to have aged twenty years in six months. [ ] n. a devoting or setting aside for a particular purpose bigot:dedication=rage:anger martinet:leniency=dabbler:dedication zeal:dedication=mesmerism:interest dabble<>dedicate/devote Synonyms: DEVOTE, consecrate, hallow Sample: Let us memorialize his great contribution by dedicating this library in his honor. [ ] n. & v. a failure to pay financial debts default:pay=yield:resist Synonyms: FAILURE, delinquency, dereliction, neglect, oversight Sample: As a result of her husband's failure to appear in court, she was granted a divorce by default. [ ] n. respect and esteem due a superior or an elder; also:affected or ingratiating regard for another's wishes defer:leader=admire:hero deferential:offend=scornful:respect acquiesce:yield={ capitulate:categorical} frugal:penurious=deference:sycophant emulation:exemplar=deference:authority maudlin:sentimental=obsequious:deferential arrogance:defer=lassitude:stir exemplary:imitation=reverent:deference impudent<>deferential/respectful deferential<>imperious impudent<>reverence/deference Synonyms: HONOR, homage, obeisance, reverence Sample: The deference with which the French aristocracy greeted the middle-class Rousseau was all the more remarkable because he showed so little respect for them. List 8 deficiency --- disarm

deficiency

[ ] n. an amount that is lacking or inadequate:SHORTAGE surfeit<>deficiency Synonyms: FAILURE, defalcation, deficit, inadequacy, insufficience, insufficiency, lack, scantiness, shortage, underage Sample: Yet Waizers argument however deficient does point to one of the most
99

defile

definitive

defoliate

deforest

defraud

deft

defuse

defy

serious weak-nesses of capitalism-namelythat it brings to predominant positions in a society people who no matter how legitimately they have earned their material rewardsoften lack thoseother qualities that evoke affection or admiration. [ ] v a narrow passage or gorge precipice:steepness=defile:narrowness Synonyms: CONTAMINATE, pollute, soil, taint Sample: The hoodlums defiled the church with their scurrilous writing. [ ] adj. serving to provide a final solution or to end a situation definitive<>provisional Synonyms: EXPLICIT, categorical, clean-cut, clear-cut, definite, express, specific, unambiguous Sample: Vaillant, who has been Particularly interested in the means by which people attain mental health, seems to be looking for definitive answers:a way to close the book on at least a few questions about human nature. [ ] vt. &vi. to deprive of leaves especially prematurely defoliants:leave=insecticide:insect Synonyms: contort, distort, misshape, torture, warp, wind Sample: In Vietnam the army made extensive use of chemical agents to defoliate the woodlands. [ ] vt. the action or process of clearing of forests; also:the state of having been cleared of deforest:tree=insecticide:insect Sample: Loggers deforested a valley by cutting its trees. [ ] vt. to deprive of something by deception or fraud Synonyms: CHEAT, beat, bilk, chouse, cozen, do, flimflam, gyp, swindle, take Sample: As you gloat over your ill-gotten wealth, do you think of the many victims you have defrauded? [ ] adj. characterized by facility and skill craven:admirable=deft:awkward maladroit:deft=voluble:terse deft<>maladroit ham-handed<>deft/adroit Synonyms: DEXTEROUS, adroit, clever, handy, neat-handed, nimble Sample: The deft waiter uncorked the champagne without spilling a drop. [ ] vt. to make less harmful, potent, or tense defuse<>foment Synonyms: DEAD, asleep, cold, deceased, departed, exanimate, extinct, inanimate, late, lifeless Sample: They defused the bomb, so it couldn't explode. [ ] vt. to challenge to do something considered impossible:DARE acquiesce<>defy
100

dehydrate

deify

deject

deleterious

deliberate

defy<>obey Synonyms: FACE, beard, brave, challenge, dare, double-dog dare, front, outdare, outface, venture Sample: Mr. Barrett never expected his meek daughter would dare to defy him by eloping with her suitor. [ ] vt. to remove bound water or hydrogen and oxygen from (a chemical compound) in the proportion in which they form water abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration dehydrate:water=wither:vitality=fade:brightening fatigue:rest=dehydration:water descent:altitude=dehydrate:moisture dehydrate:water=repose/rest:fatigue dehydrate:moisture=desertification:vegetation reconstitute<>dehydrate Synonyms: DRY, desiccate, exsiccate, parch, sear Sample: Vigorous dancing quickly dehydrates the body; between dances, be sure to drink more water than normal. [ ] v. To worship or revere as a god deification<>debasement deify<>watch with contempt Sample: Admire the rock star all you want; just don't deify him. [ ] vt. to make gloomy mollify:anger=hearten:dejection dejected<>exultant deject<>gladden Synonyms: DISCOURAGE, chill, demoralize, dishearten, disparage, dispirit Sample: A man with a dejected look sat waiting for a bus. [ ] adj. harmful often in a subtle or unexpected way wholesome<>deleterious deleterious<>salutary/salubrious Synonyms: HARMFUL, damaging, detrimental, hurtful, injurious, mischievous, nocent, nocuous, prejudicial, prejudicious Sample: It is a great advantage to be able to transfer useful genes with as little extra gene material as possible, because the donor's genome may contain, in addition to desirable genes, many genes with deleterious effects. [ ] adj. to think about or discuss issues and decisions carefully apophasis:claim=caprice:deliberate headlong:deliberation=?? candor:subterfuge=brash:deliberate hasty<>characterized by deliberation hasty<>deliberate impetuous<>deliberate Synonyms: advised, aforethought, considered, designed, premeditated, prepense,
101

delicacy

delinquent

delirium

delude

deluge

delve

demagogue

studied, studious, thought-out Sample: The President reached a decision only after lengthy deliberation, painstakingly weighing the divergent opinions expressed by cabinet members. [ ] n. the quality or state of being dainty:FINENESS chiaroscuro:contrast={ tapestry:intricacy } filigree:delicacy delicacy<>crudity husky<>delicate Synonyms: bonne bouche, dainty, goody, kickshaw, morsel, treat Sample: The diplomat, selected for her demonstrated patience and skill in conducting such delicate negotiations, declined to make a decision during the talks because any sudden commitment at that time would have been inopportune. [ ] n. offending by neglect or violation of duty or of law Synonyms: NEGLIGENT, behindhand, careless, derelict, disregardful, lax, neglectful, regardless, remiss, slack Sample: The juvenile delinquent is a potential murderer. [ ] n a mental disturbance characterized by confusion, disordered speech, and hallucinations coma:unconsciousness=delirium:confusion Synonyms: frenzy, furor Sample: The drunkard in his delirium saw strange animals. [ ] vt. to mislead the mind or judgment of:DECEIVE, TRICK delusion:thought=hallucination:perception {mirage:imagination} transparent<>delusive Synonyms: DECEIVE, beguile, betray, bluff, double-cross, humbug, illude, juggle, mislead, take in Sample: Do not delude yourself into believing that he will relent. [ ] n. adj. an overflowing of the land by water b:a drenching rain rain:deluge=wind:hurricane droplet:deluge=pebble:landslide deluge<>drizzle Synonyms: FLOOD, cataclysm, cataract, flooding, inundation, niagara, overflow, pour, spate, torrent Sample: When we advertised the position, we received a deluge of applications. [ ] vt. & vi. to make a careful or detailed search for information quaff:sip=delve:skim scrutinize:gloss=delve:skim Synonyms: DIG, excavate, grub, shovel, spade Sample: Delving into old books and manuscripts is part of a researcher's job. [ ] n. a leader who makes use of popular prejudices and false claims and promises in order to gain power demagogue:instruct=?? Synonyms: rabble-rouser
102

demanding

demise

demography

demolition

demoralize

demotic

demur

denigrate

Sample: He was accused of being a demogogue because he made promises that aroused futile hopes in his listeners. [ ] adj. requiring much time, effort, or attention:EXACTING demanding:satisfactory=adulterate:pristine {closed-mind:sway} Synonyms: ONEROUS, burdensome, exacting, exigent, grievous, oppressive, taxing, tough, trying, weighty [ ] n.vt. DIE, DECEASE Synonyms: DEATH, curtains, decease, defunction, dissolution, passing, quietus, silence, sleep Sample: The demise of the rigorous academic curriculum in high school resulted, in part, from the progressive rhetoric that sanctioned the study of subjects previously thought inappropriate as part of school learning. [ ] n. the statistical study of human populations especially with reference to size and density, distribution, and vital statistics demography:population=meteorology:weather Sample: In conducting a survey, one should take into account demographic trends in the region. [ ] n. the act of demolishing; especially:destruction in war by means of explosives recycle:disposal=rehabilitate:demolition Sample: One of the major aims of the air force was the complete demolition of all means of transportation by the bombing of rail lines and the terminals. [ ] vt. a:to weaken the morale of:DISCOURAGE, DISPIRIT b:to upset or destroy the normal functioning of c:to throw into disorder demoralize<>invigorate/cheer { ameliorate } Synonyms: DEBASE, bastardize, bestialize, brutalize, corrupt, debauch, deprave, pervert, vitiate, warp Sample: Poor leadership demoralized the workers. adj. Of or relating to the common people; popular demotic<>profound Sample: He lamented the passing of aristocratic society and maintained that a demotic society would lower the nation's standards. [ ] v to take exception:OBJECT praise:approbation=demur:objection demur<>accept accede<>demur Synonyms: balk, boggle, gag, jib, scruple, shy, stick, stickle, strain, stumble Sample: To demur at this time will only worsen the already serious situation; now is the time for action [ ] vt. to cast aspersions on:DEFAME denigrate<>honor
103

denouement

denounce

dent

denude

denunciate

depart

depict

Synonyms: MALIGN, asperse, calumniate, defame, libel, scandalize, slander, tear down, traduce, vilify Sample: The current penchant for touting a product by denigrating a rival, named in the advertisement by brand name, seems somewhat foolhardy:suppose the consumer remembers only the rival's name? [ ] n. the final outcome of the main dramatic complication in a literary work joke:punch line=plot:denouement Sample: The play was childishly written; the denouement was obvious to sophisticated theatergoers as early as the middle of the first act. [ ] v. to pronounce especially publicly to be blameworthy or evil admonish:denounce=punish:pillory {persuade:convince} :=: (/:) condone<>denounce denounce<>bracing Synonyms: CRITICIZE, blame, censure, condemn, denunciate, knock, rap, reprehend, reprobate, skin Sample: Although it is unusual to denounce museum-goers for not painting, it is quite common, even for those. who are unenthusiastic about sports, to criticize spectators for athletic inactivity. [ ] n. a depression or hollow made by a blow or by pressure convex<>dent Sample: The accident left a dent in my car door. [ ] v to strip of all covering or surface layers denude<>cover Synonyms: STRIP, bankrupt, bare, denudate, deprive, dismantle, disrobe, divest Sample: The hurricane denuded the trees of their leaves. [ ] vt. to pronounce especially publicly to be blameworthy or evil castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial{ glorification:merit } execrate:denunciate=?? panegyric<>denunciation accolade<>denunciation Synonyms: CRITICIZE, blame, censure, condemn, denounce, knock, rap, reprehend, reprobate, skin Sample: The government issued a denunciation of the terrorist group. [ ] vi. to go away:LEAVE abscond:depart=pilfer:take lurk:wait=abscond:depart Synonyms: GO, blow, exit, get away, get off, leave, pull out, quit, retire, withdraw Sample: Because the order in which the parts of speech appear in the sentences of a given language is decided merely by custom, it is unjustifiable to maintain that every departure from that order constitutes a violation of a natural law. [ ] vt.
104

despise

deplete

deplore

deploy

deportation

depose

deposit

depravity

to represent by or as if by a picture Synonyms: REPRESENT, delineate, describe, image, interpret, limn, picture, portray, render Sample: The artist depicted a landscape in bright colors. [ ] vt. to look down on with contempt or aversion reverence<>despise Synonyms: abhor, contemn, disdain, look down, scorn, scout Sample: He was placed in the anomalous position of seeming to approve procedures that he despised. [ ] vt. to lessen markedly in quantity, content, power, or value enrich<>deplete Synonyms: bankrupt, drain, draw, draw down, exhaust, impoverish, use up Sample: country has depleted its natural resources completely. [ ] vt. to feel or express strong disapproval of; condemn. deplore<>laud deplore<>accolade/extol deplore<>commend Synonyms: bemoan, bewail, grieve, lament, moan, weep Sample: Every citizen must deplore the poor housing conditions in the city. [ ] v. to extend (a military unit) especially in width deploy<>concentrate Sample: That the Third Battalion's fifty-percent casualty rate transformed its assault on Hill 306 from a brilliant stratagem into a debacle does not gainsay eyewitness reports of its commander's extraordinary cleverness in deploying his forces. [ ] n. the removal from a country of an alien whose presence is unlawful or prejudicial deportation:country=eviction:dwelling Synonyms: EXILE, banishment, displacement, expulsion, ostracism, relegation Sample: Prison officials took her to the airport for deportation. [ ] vt. to testify to under oath or by affidavit perjure<>deposition Synonyms: dethrone, discrown, disenthrone, displace, disthrone, uncrown, unmake Sample: A lawyer deposed a witness in her office. [ ] vt. a natural accumulation (as of iron ore, coal, or gas) deposit<>process of eroding Sample: Sediment deposits slowly on the ocean bottom. [ ] n. a corrupt act or practice doldrums:energy=depravity:virtue Synonyms: VICE, corruption, immorality, wickedness Sample: In many science fiction films, the opposition of good and evil is portrayed as a conflict between technology, which is beneficent, and the errant will of a depraved
105

deprecate

depreciate

depress

deprivation

deracinate

derelict

deride

intellectual. [ ] vt. BELITTLE, DISPARAGE deprecate:value=restrict:diameter deprecate<>extol vaunt<>deprecate deprecate<>endorse Synonyms: DISAPPROVE, discommend, discountenance, disesteem, disfavor, frown, object Sample: She is a modest person, so she responds to praise with self-deprecating remarks. [ ] v. to lower the price or estimated value of fawn:hauteur=self depreciate:swagger imperious:fawn=swagger:self depreciate imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger depreciation:value=ossification:flexible Synonyms: cheapen, decry, devalorize, devaluate, devalue, downgrade, lower, mark down, soften, underprize, underrate, undervalue, write down, write off Sample: The boss depreciated the abilities of a worker. [ ] vt. to press down despondent:depressed=saturnine:gloomy/masterful:skilled depressant:mood=??:?? protuberant<>depressed Synonyms: LOWER, couch, demit, droop, let down, sink Sample: I feel depressed in bad weather. [ ] n. the state of being deprived:PRIVATION; especially:removal from an office, dignity, or benefice deprivation<>surfeit/fecundity Synonyms: PRIVATION, deprivement, dispossession, divestiture, loss Sample: The people of that country live in a state of deprivation without freedom or enough food. [ ] vt. UPROOT deracinate<>plant [ ] n. a destitute homeless social misfit:VAGRANT, BUM stickler:derelict=poseur:unaffected derelict<>pillar of society Synonyms: OUTCAST, castaway, Ishmael, Ishmaelite, leper, offscouring, pariah, untouchable Sample: Derelicts often beg on the streets. [ ] vt. to subject to usually bitter or contemptuous ridicule patronize:condescension=deride:mockery pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless
106

derivative

derogatory

descent

descendant

desecrate

desert

desiccate

smirk:smugness=sneer:derision ridicule:derision=?? apologize:regret=gibe:derision condolence:sympathy/compassion=gibe:derision deride<>praise veneration<>derision Synonyms: RIDICULE, lout, mock, quiz, rally, razz, scout, taunt, twit Sample: That newspaper columnist derides the mayor whenever she can. [ ] adj. lacking originality:BANAL precursory<>derivative Synonyms: SECONDARY, derivate, derivational, derived Sample: Her first concert appearance was disappointingly perfunctory and derivative, rather than the inspired performance in the innovative style we had anticipated. [ ] adj. expressive of a low opinion:DISPARAGING Synonyms: depreciative, depreciatory, detracting, disadvantageous, disparaging, dyslogistic, pejorative, slighting, uncomplimentary Sample: The two candidates for mayor criticized each other's ideas, but without making derogatory remarks. [ ] v. n. an inclination downward:SLOPE descent:altitude=dehydrate:moisture Synonyms: decline, declivity, dip, drop, fall Sample: The airplane made a long descent before landing. [ ] n one deriving directly from a precursor or prototype forbears<>descendants Synonyms: OFFSPRING, begats, brood, children, issue, posterity, progeniture, progeny, scions, seed Sample: That sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have andhence the number of gene copiestransmitted. [ ] vt. to violate the sanctity of:PROFANE desecrate<>sanctify/revere hallowed<>desecrate Synonyms: RAVAGE, depredate, desolate, despoil, devastate, devour, pillage, sack, spoliate, waste Sample: The invading army desecrated this holy place when they camped here. [ ] vt. to withdraw from or leave usually without intent to return Synonyms: ABANDON, chuck, forsake, quit, renounce, throw over Sample: The father's desertion of the family left them with no support. [ ] vt. to preserve (a food) by drying:DEHYDRATE abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration caustic:eat away=desiccant:dry desiccate:moisture=detoxify:poison
107

designate

despair

despicable

despondent

dessert

desultory

detach

detain

cleanser:dirt=desiccant:moisture desiccation:moisture=deceleration:velocity {disintoxication:immunity } Synonyms: DRY, dehydrate, exsiccate, parch, sear Sample: My stereo was shipped with little bags of desiccant to keep it dry. [ ] adj. vt. foreword:introductory=appellation:designate Synonyms: NAME, baptize, call, christen, denominate, dub, entitle, style, term, title Sample: An official designated his aide to represent him at the conference. [ ] n. to lose all hope or confidence abandon:inhibition=despair:hope Synonyms: despond, give up Sample: Ironically, Carver's precision in sketching lives on the edge of despair ensures that his stories will sometimes be read too narrowly, much as Dickens' social-reformer role once caused his broader concerns to be ignored. [ ] adj. deserving to be despised:so worthless or obnoxious as to rouse moral indignation redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard venerable:reverence=despicable:scorn despicable:value=mulish:flexible despicable:contempt=reprehensible:censure Synonyms: CONTEMPTIBLE, beggarly, cheap, despisable, mean, pitiable, scummy, scurvy, shabby, sorry Sample: He was drunk and his behavior at the party was despicable. [ ] adj. feeling or showing extreme discouragement, dejection, or depression despondent:depressed=saturnine:gloomy/masterful:skilled elated<>despondent sanguine<>despondent Synonyms: despairing, desperate, desponding, forlorn, hopeless Sample: He is despondent over his inability to find a job. [ ] n. a usually sweet course or dish (as of pastry or ice cream) served at the end of a meal dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata Sample: We had apple pie and coffee for dessert. [ ] adj. disappointing in progress or performance:SLUGGISH desultory:plan=languid:energy desultory:plan=facile:profundity assiduous<>remiss/desultory Sample: She works in a desultory way and completes nothing. [ ] vt. to separate especially from a larger mass and usually without violence or damage tether<>detach Synonyms: abstract, disassociate, disconnect, disengage, dissociate, uncouple, unfix Sample: The Board of Directors tried to detach themselves from the company president and his illegal actions. [ ] v.
108

deter

detestable

detour

detract

detritus

deviation

devise

devoted

to hold or keep in or as if in custody detain<>manumit Synonyms: ARREST, apprehend, nab, pick up, pinch, pull in, run in Sample: The police detained a man for questioning in the crime. [ ] vt. to turn aside, discourage, or prevent from acting intrepid:deter=rapt:distract inducement<>deterrent deter<>spur Synonyms: DISSUADE, disadvise, discourage, divert Sample: A woman deterred a criminal from attacking her by yelling for the police. [ ] adj. arousing or meriting intense dislike:ABOMINABLE Synonyms: HATEFUL, abhorrent, abominable, hateable, horrid, odious Sample: He deserves life in prison for his detestable act. [ ] vi. to send by a circuitous route detour:route=digress:topic Synonyms: SKIRT, bypass, circumnavigate, circumvent Sample: We could not appreciate the beauty of the many cascades as we made detours around each of them to avoid getting wet. [ ] vt. & vi. to diminish the importance, value, or effectiveness of something extol<>condemn/impugn/detract Synonyms: DECRY, belittle, depreciate, derogate, diminish, discount, disparage, dispraise, minimize, write off Sample: Her heavy makeup detracts from her good looks. [ ] n. a product of disintegration, destruction, or wearing away detritus<>valuable product Synonyms: DEBRIS Sample: The road was blocked by the detritus from a rock slide. [ ] n. noticeable or marked departure from accepted norms of behavior Synonyms: aberration, deflection, departure, divergence, diversion, turning Sample: Rousseau's short discourse, a work that was generally consistent with the cautious, unadorned prose of the day, deviated from that prose style in its unrestrained discussion of the physical sciences. [ ] vt. to form in the mind by new combinations or application of and ideas or principles Synonyms: LEGACY , bequest, inheritance Sample: The methods that a community devises to perpetuate itself come into being to preserve aspects of the cultural legacy that that community perceives as essential. [ ] adj. devote:to give over or direct (as time, money, or effort) to a cause, enterprise, or activity devoted:zealous=careful:fastidious fanatic:devoted=prude:proper elegiac:sorrow=devotional:reverence
109

devout

dew

dexterous

diabolic

diagnose

diaphanous

diatribe

didactic

dabble<>dedicate/devote Synonyms: LOVING, affectionate, dear, doting, fond, lovesome Sample: The president's secretary and his chief aide adored him, and both wrote obsessively devoted personal memoirs about him; unfortunately, however, idolatry does not make for true intimacy. [ ] adj. devoted to religion or to religious duties or exercises religion:devoutness=canon:orthodoxy impiety<>devoutness Synonyms: godly, holy, pietistic, pious, prayerful, religious Sample: She is a devout Catholic [ ] n. moisture condensed upon the surfaces of cool bodies especially at night dew:condensation=rust:corrosion Sample: You'll wet your shoes walking through the morning dew. [ ] adj. mentally adroit and skillful:CLEVER dexterous:awkward=?? dexterous:manipulate=prescient:predict { clairvoyant:oversee } Synonyms: adroit, clever, deft, handy, neat-handed, nimble Sample: His fingers are very dexterous in carving figures out of wood. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or characteristic of the devil:DEVILIS diabolic<>benefict diabolical<>seraphic Synonyms: FIENDISH, demoniac, demonian, demonic, devilish, diabolonian, satanic, serpentine, unhallowed Sample: He has a diabolic mind, always making evil plans. [ ] vt.vi. to recognize (as a disease) by signs and symptoms diagnose:treat=proofread:correct Synonyms: IDENTIFY, determinate, diagnosticate, distinguish, finger, pinpoint, place, recognize, spot Sample: Doctors diagnose illnesses. [ ] adj characterized by such fineness of texture as to permit seeing through diaphanous<>opaque diaphanous<>substantial diaphanous<>impermeable of light Synonyms: FILMY, flimsy, gauzy, gossamer, sheer, tiffany, transparent Sample: The movie star wore a diaphanous gown. [ ] n. a bitter and abusive speech or writing diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery lullaby:song=diatribe:discourse Synonyms: TIRADE, harangue, jeremiad, philippic Sample: The politician launched into a diatribe against the government policy. [ ] adj
110

die

diehard

diffident

diffuse

digit

dignity

digress

designed or intended to teach didactic:teach=hortatory:urge=exhortative:urge { generous:liberality } didactic:teach=fantastic:amaze Synonyms: moral, moralizing, preachy, schoolmasterish, sermonic, sermonizing, teachy Sample: The didactic qualities of his poetry overshadow its literary qualities; the lesson he teaches is more memorable than the lines. [ ] v. any of various tools or devices for imparting a desired shape, form, or finish to a material or for impressing an object or material reel:winding=die:shaping=drill:boring Sample: A die is used to make pennies with President Lincoln's image on them. [ ] adj. strongly or fanatically determined or devoted palter:candor=budge:diehard vagary:predict=diehard:budge Synonyms: CONSERVATIVE, fogyish, old-line, orthodox, reactionary, right, tory, traditionalistic Sample: He's a diehard who always votes Conservative even though the party keeps losing. [ ] adj. hesitant in acting or speaking through lack of self-confidence diffident<>brassy expansive<>reserved/diffident nervy<>diffident diffidence<>braveness expansive<>reserved/diffident/taciturn/withdrawn diffidence<>blazonness Synonyms: SHY, bashful, coy, demure, modest, retiring, self-effacing, timid, unassertive, unassured Sample: Although normally diffident, Alison felt so strongly about the issue that she put aside her reserve and spoke up at the committee meeting. [ ] adj. being at once verbose and ill-organized euphemism:offensive=aphorism:diffuse Synonyms: WORDY, long-winded, palaverous, prolix, redundant, verbose, windy Sample: The sea was not an obstacle to the diffusion of the windmill; on the contrary, while the concept of the new invention passed quickly from seaport to seaport, it made little headway inland. [ ] n. A human finger or toe. fang:tooth=finger:digit Sample: The hand has five digits. [ ] n. quality or state of being worthy, honored, or esteemed Synonyms: DECORUM, decency, etiquette, propriety, seemliness Sample: My doctor is a woman of great dignity. [ ] v. to turn aside especially from the main subject of attention or course of argument
111

dilapidate

dilate

dilatory

dilettante

diligent

dilute

dimension

digress:excursive=reiterate:redundant digressive:topic/subject=stray:group digressive:topic=random:pattern aberrant:standard=digressive:topic digressive:topic=errant:standard detour:route=digress:topic aside:digression=summary:excerpt Synonyms: depart, divagate, diverge, excurse, ramble, stray, wander Sample: The speaker talked about modern art, then digressed into a discussion of a painter from 500 years ago. [ ] vi.vt. to bring into a condition of decay or partial ruin dilapidated<>restored dilapidated<>still in use Synonyms: RUIN, bankrupt, do in, shipwreck, wreck Sample: Those poor people live in a dilapidated house with holes in the roof and broken windows. [ ] vt. to enlarge or expand in bulk or extent:DISTEND, WIDEN dilate<>contract Synonyms: EXPAND, amplify, distend, inflate, swell Sample: When there is less light, the pupils in our eyes dilate. [ ] adj. characterized by procrastination:TARDY dilatory:procrastinate=malcontent:complain alacrity<>dilatoriness/hesitance precipitate<>retard/dilatory Synonyms: SLOW, deliberate, laggard, leisurely, unhasty, unhurried Sample: The company has no patience for employees with dilatory work habits. [ ] n. a person having a superficial interest in an art or a branch of knowledge:DABBLER dilettante:commitment=nonentity:consequence Synonyms: AMATEUR, abecedarian, dabbler, nonprofessional, smatterer, tyro, uninitiate Sample: His occasional trips to the opera show he is a dilettante in the arts. [ ] adj. characterized by steady, earnest, and energetic effort:PAINSTAKING malign:ill will=diligent:effort satire:lampoon=diligence:effort procrastination<>diligence Synonyms: ASSIDUOUS, industrious, operose, sedulous Sample: He raised his grades by being a very diligent student. [ ] v. to diminish the strength, flavor, or brilliance of by admixture slacken:tautness=dilute:strength/concentration dilute:concentrated=?? Sample: My tea was too strong, so I diluted it with more water. [ ] n.
112

diminish

din

dingus

dingy

diocesan

diplomatic

dire

dirge

MAGNITUDE, SIZE ,SCOPE, ASPECT congruent:dimension=coeval:age measure:dimensions=calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:depth Sample: The dimensions of a room (package, building lot, etc.) are its length, width, and depth (or height). [ ] v. a: to make less or cause to appear less b: to lessen the authority, dignity, or reputation of : BELITTLE diminish<>increase/escalate Synonyms: DECREASE, abate, close, drain (away), dwindle, lessen, reduce, taper, taper off Sample: The company's reputation for quality has diminished; it has a <adj.> diminished reputation. [ ] n. a loud continued noise; especially:a welter of discordant sounds stench:nose=din:ear Synonyms: babel, brouhaha, clamor, hubbub, hullabaloo, jangle, music, pandemonium, racket, racketry, tintamarre, tumult, uproar Sample: There was a terrible din made by the crowd waiting for the rock concert. [ ] n. an ornamental attachment or decoration:DOODAD Synonyms: DOODAD, doohickey, gadget, jigger, thingumbob [ ] adj. SHABBY, SQUALID dingy:glisten=slippery:adhere Synonyms: SHABBY, broken-down, dilapidated, down-at-heel, faded, run-down, seedy, tacky, threadbare, tired Sample: He could find only a dingy room in an old rundown hotel. [ ] adj. a bishop having jurisdiction over a diocese diocesan<>ecumenical [ ] adj. a: of, relating to, or concerned with diplomacy or diplomats b: employing tact and conciliation especially in situations of stress xenophobic:diplomatic=?? Synonyms: TACTFUL, delicate, politic, tactical, SUAVE Sample: She gave a diplomatic response to a hostile question and brought calm to the situation. [ ] adj. DISMAL, OPPRESSIVE dire<>pleasant Synonyms: DEPLORABLE, afflictive, calamitous, distressing, grievous, heart breaking, lamentable, regrettable, unfortunate, woeful Sample: His business is bankrupt and he is in dire trouble. [ ] n. a song or hymn of grief or lamentation; especially:one intended to accompany funeral or memorial rites Sample: A band played a funeral dirge at the service for the dead President.
113

disabuse

disaffected

disagreeable

disarm

[ ] v. to free from error, fallacy, or misconception disabuse:fallacy=cure:disease loose:confinement=disabuse:misconception mislead<>disabuse Synonyms: purge, undeceive, undelude Sample: Although he attempted repeatedly to disabuse her of her conviction of his insincerity, he was not successful; she remained adamant in her judgment. [ ] adj discontented and resentful especially against authority REBELLIOUS disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction officious:meddle=disaffected:rebel disaffected<>contented/win over disaffect<>mollify Sample: She has become disaffected by her work (situation, pay, etc.). [ ] adj. causing discomfort:UNPLEASANT, OFFENSIVE disagreeable:hateful=harmful:lethal oppression:disagreement:?? Synonyms: BAD, displeasing, rotten, sour, unhappy, unpleasant Sample: She is so disagreeable that no one will work with her. [ ] vi. to deprive of means, reason, or disposition to be hostile bait<>disarm Synonyms: PARALYZE, cripple, disable, immobilize, incapacitate, prostrate Sample: She disarmed her opponent with her friendly manner. List 9 disavow --- earshot

disarray

disavow

discard

discernible

[ ] n. a: a lack of order or sequence : CONFUSION, DISORDER b : disorderly dress : DISHABILLE shipshape:disarray=squalid:cleanliness Synonyms: CONFUSION, chaos, clutter, disorder, huddle, muddle, snarl, topsyturviness Sample: Her hair and clothes were in disarray after she fell. [ ] vt. to deny responsibility for:REPUDIATE disavow<>affirm Synonyms: DISCLAIM, deny, disacknowledge, disallow, disown, repudiate Sample: He disavows any further connection with what we now know is a criminal organization. [ ] vt. to get rid of especially as useless or unpleasant retain<>discard Synonyms: abdicate, cashier, cast, chuck, ditch, dump, jettison, junk, lay aside, reject, scrap, shed, shuck (off), slough, throw away, throw out, wash out Sample: We must discard this trash (those old ideas, etc.). [ ] adj.
114

discern + ible audible:stentorian=discernable:obvious audible:stentorian=discernible:manifest Sample: Though historically there is a discernible break between Jewish law of the sovereign state of ancient Israel and of the Diaspora (the dispersion of Jewish people after the conquest of Israel) the spirit of the legal matter in later parts of the Old Testament is very close to that of the Talmud one of the primary codifications of Jewish law in the Diaspora. discerning [ ] adj. showing insight and understanding:DISCRIMINATING palatable:savory=discernible:manifest perspicacious:discerning=ravishing:attractive caprice:whimsical=insight:discerning myopic<>discerning Synonyms: WISE, gnostic, insighted, insightful, knowing, knowledgeable, perceptive, sagacious, sage, wisehearted Sample: She has a discerning mind and quickly understood how to solve our problem. discharge [ ] vt. to dismiss from employment discharge<>hire Synonyms: EXEMPT, absolve, dispense, excuse, let off, privilege (from), relieve, spare Sample: Management discharged 100 workers. disciple [ ] n. one who accepts and assists in spreading the doctrines of another disciple:follow=apologist:defend Sample: She is a disciple of the British school of economics. discipline [ ] n. a rule or system of rules governing conduct or activity stickler:exacting=martinet:disciplinal coltish:discipline=loutish:grace obstreperous<>disciplined Synonyms: PUNISHMENT, castigation, chastisement, correction, punition, rod Sample: The student disrupted the class, so the teacher disciplined him by giving him extra work to do. disclaim [ ] vt.vi. to renounce a legal claim to Synonyms: deny, disacknowledge, disallow, disavow, disown, repudiate Sample: The defendant disclaimed his right to trial by jury and chose instead trial before a judge. discography [ ] n. a descriptive list of phonograph records by category, composer, performer, or date of release list:discography=tool:hoe discombobulate [ ] v. UPSET, CONFUSE discombobulated:order=erratic:consistency discombobulate<>compose Synonyms: DISCOMPOSE, agitate, bother, disquiet, disturb, flurry, fluster, perturb,
115

discomfit

discommode

discompose

disconcert

discord

discourse

discredit

discrepancy

unhinge, upset Sample: The noise discombobulates him so that he can't think. [ ] v. to put into a state of perplexity and embarrassment:DISCONCERT discomfit:blush=contemptuous:sneer discomfit<>mollify Sample: The king was discomfitted by the loss of the battle. [ ] v. to cause inconvenience to:TROUBLE discommode<>assist discommode<>convenience/pacificate/ease/mollify discommode<>oblige [ ] vt. to destroy the composure of discompose:pacific=fabricate:authentic discompose:placid=fabricate:ingenuous discompose<>pacificate Synonyms: agitate, bother, discombobulate, dismay, disquiet, disturb, flurry, fluster, perturb, unhinge, unsettle, untune, upset Sample: The novice square dancer became so discomposed that he wandered into wrong set. [ ] vt. to throw into confusion disconcert<>placate Synonyms: EMBARRASS, abash, confound, confuse, discomfit, discountenance, faze, rattle Sample: I was disconcerted by the sight of a strange man at my door. [ ] n. lack of agreement or harmony (as between persons, things, or ideas) discordant:sound=anachronistic:time harmony<>discord Synonyms: conflict, contention, difference, disaccord, disharmony, dispeace, dissension, dissent, dissidence, dissonance, disunion, disunity, division, inharmony, mischief, strife, unpeace, variance Sample: The children trying out musical instruments produced a terrible discord. [ ] n. formal and orderly and usually extended expression of thought on a subject lullaby:song=diatribe:discourse Synonyms: SPEECH, speaking, talk, utterance, verbalization Sample: College students become familiar with academic discourse. [ ] v. to deprive of good repute:DISGRACE exhortation:motivate=invective:discredit Synonyms: blow up, disprove, explode, puncture, shoot Sample: Scientists have discredited many popular beliefs, like the belief the world was flat. [ ] n. Divergence or disagreement, as between facts or claims; difference.
116

discrete

discretion

discretionary

discriminate

discursive

discrepancy<>converge consonant<>discrepant Synonyms: DISSIMILARITY, alterity, difference, dissemblance, dissimilitude, distinction, divergence, divergency, otherness, unlikeness Sample: Calculations of the density of alloys based on Bernal-type models of the alloys metal component agreed fairly well with the experimentally determined values from measurements on alloys consisting of a noble metal together with a metalloidsuch as alloys of palladium and silicon or alloys consisting of iron phosphorus and carbonalthough small discrepancies remained. [ ] adj. constituting a separate entity : individually distinct infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap Synonyms: DISTINCT, different, diverse, separate, several, various Sample: That company is a discrete entity from the others, which are all owned by the parent company. [ ] n. the quality of being discreet:CIRCUMSPECTION; especially:cautious reserve in speech frivolous frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion foolish:discretion=impecunious:money overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention Synonyms: PRUDENCE, canniness, caution, discreetness, foresight, forethought, precaution, providence Sample: Lawyers and doctors must act with discretion and not speak about their clients. [ ] adj. left to discretion:exercised at one's own discretion discretionary<>obligatory discretionary<>mandatory discretionary<>preordain Synonyms: OPTIONAL, elective, facultative, nonobligatory Sample: A discretionary account is one where the owner allows a stockbroker to make and act on decisions to trade. [ ] vt.vi. to mark or perceive the distinguishing or peculiar features of epicure:discriminating=spectator:watching liken:similarity=discriminate:difference sentinel:watchful=epicure:discriminating hilarious:laughter=contemptible:distain equitable<>discriminatory/unfair Synonyms: KNOW, difference, differentiate, discern, discrepate, distinguish, extricate, separate, sever, severalize Sample: This doctrine has broadened the application of the Fourteenth Amendment to other nonracial forms of discrimination for while some justices have refused to find any legislative classification other than race to be constitutionally disfavored most have been receptive to arguments that at least some nonracial discriminations. sexual Discrimination in particular are "suspect" and deserve this heightened scrutiny by the courts. [ ] adj.
117

disdain

disembody

disengage

disentangle

disgorge

disgruntle

disguise

disgust

moving from topic to topic without order:RAMBLING discursive<>keen on title discursive<>succinct discursive<>concentrate Sample: Her writing is discursive but thorough. [ ] v. a feeling of contempt for what is beneath one:SCORN snub:disdain=double-cross:disloyalty adulation<>disdain Synonyms: DESPITE, contempt, despisal, despisement, disparagement, scorn Sample: Some artists immodestly idealize or exaggerate the significance of their work; yet others, disdaining to exalt the role of the artist, reject a transcendent view of art [ ] v. to divest of a body, of corporeal existence, or of reality disembodied<>corporeal Sample: Many people believe that at the moment of death, a person's soul becomes disembodied. [ ] vt. to release from something that engages or involves disengage<>mesh :mesh:to cause (as gears) to engage Synonyms: DETACH, abstract, disassociate, disconnect, dissociate, uncouple, unfix Sample: Be sure to disengage the gears when you park the car. [ ] v. to free from entanglement : UNRAVEL disentangle:snarl=?? Synonyms: EXTRICATE, discumber, disembroil, disencumber, unentangle, unscramble, untangle, untie, untwine Sample: The bookkeeper disentangled the records and cleared up mistakes. [ ] v. to discharge by the throat and mouth:VOMIT vomit:disgorge=?? disgorge<>swallow disgorge/excrete<>ingest Synonyms: ERUPT, belch, eject, eruct, expel, irrupt, spew Sample: A mother bird disgorged food for her young. [ ] vt. to make ill-humored or discontented ? usually used as a participial adjective disgruntle<>refresh disgruntled<>contented Synonyms: DISCONTENTED, discontent, dissatisfied, malcontent, malcontented, uncontent, uncontented, ungratified Sample: He is disgruntled about not receiving an increase in pay. [ ] vi. to furnish with a false appearance or an assumed identity padding:damage=disguise:recognition Synonyms: camouflage, cloak, dissemble, dissimulate, dress up, mask Sample: She disguised her evil intentions by pretending to be friendly. [ ] n.
118

dishevel

disinclination

disinfect

disinterested

disjunctive

dismantle

disparage

marked aversion aroused by something highly distasteful:REPUGNANCE blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting odious:disgust=menacing:fear scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection{ hurl:disgust} entrancing<>disappoint/disgust/repel/repulse/bored Synonyms: nauseate, reluct, repel, repulse, revolt, sicken Sample: For many young people during the Roaring Twenties, a disgust with the excesses of American culture combined with a wanderlust to provoke an exodus abroad. [ ] vt. to throw into disorder or disarray Sample: After falling down, he was all disheveled. [ ] n. a preference for avoiding something:slight aversion aversion:disinclination=adulation:admiration aversion:inclination=?? disinclination:bent=?? leaning<>disinclination Synonyms: DISLIKE, aversion, bad books, disfavor, disliking, displeasure, disrelish, dissatisfaction, distaste, indisposition Sample: She is disinclined to accept the job offer because the pay is too low. [ ] vt. to free from infection especially by destroying harmful microorganisms oil:lubricate=antiseptic:disinfect aseptic:disinfection=anesthetic:numbness Sample: He disinfected the bathroom with a germicide. [ ] adj. free from selfish motive or interest:UNBIASED factional<>disinterested iniquity<>disinterestedness Synonyms: INDIFFERENT, aloof, casual, detached, incurious, remote, unconcerned, uncurious, uninterested, withdrawn Sample: Whereas biologists must maintain a disinterested attitude toward the subjects of their research, social scientists must, paradoxically, combine personal involvement and scholarly detachment. [ ] adj. marked by breaks or disunity nominal:significance=disjunctive:unity Sample: A disjunction in computer logic caused the problem. [ ] vt. to take to pieces; also:to destroy the integrity or functioning of dismantle:unity=adulterate:pristine Synonyms: STRIP, bankrupt, bare, denudate, denude, deprive, disrobe, divest Sample: A mechanic dismantled the engine to replace one part. [ ] v. to depreciate by indirect means (as invidious comparison):speak slightingly about scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore aggrandize<>disparage champion<>disparage
119

disparate

dispassionate

dispatch

disposal

disquiet

disregard

extol<>disparage kudos<>disparage adulate<>disparage revere<>disparage Synonyms: DECRY, abuse, belittle, depreciate, derogate, detract (from), dispraise, downcry, minimize, write off Sample: A number of writers who once greatly disparaged the literary critic have recently recanted, substituting approbation for their former criticism. [ ] adj. containing or made up of fundamentally different and often incongruous elements disparate<>like disparate<>analogous Synonyms: DIFFERENT, dissimilar, distant, divergent, diverse, unalike, unequal, unlike, unsimilar, various Sample: Anthropologists and others are on much firmer ground when they attempt to describe thecultural norms for a small homogeneous tribe or village than when they undertake the formidable task of discovering the norms that exist in a complex modern nation state composed of many disparate groups. [ ] adj. not influenced by strong feeling; especially:not affected by personal or emotional involvement dispassionate:biased=?? dispassionate<>responsive dispassionate<>partial Synonyms: NEUTRAL, abstract, colorless, detached, disinterested, impersonal, pokerfaced, unpassioned Sample: The judge takes a dispassionate attitude toward matters before her. [ ] v. promptness and efficiency in performance or transmission dispatch<>leisureliness Sample: He performs his duties with dispatch by quickly doing what his boss asks. [ ] n. systematic destruction; especially:destruction or transformation of garbage recycle:disposal=rehabilitate:demolition Synonyms: discarding, disposition, dumping, jettison, junking, relegation, riddance, scrapping, throwing away Sample: I was at her disposal whenever she needed my advice. [ ] n./v. to take away the peace or tranquillity of:DISTURB, ALARM disquiet<>put at ease Synonyms: DISCOMPOSE, agitate, bother, disturb, flurry, fluster, perturb, unhinge, untune, upset Sample: City life disquieted the poet, so she returned to the countryside. [ ] v. to pay no attention to : treat as unworthy of regard or notice redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard flout:disregard=taunt:challenge disregard<>nurture
120

disrupt

dissect

dissemble

disseminate

dissension

dissent

dissertation

Synonyms: NEGLECT, blink (at or away), discount, fail, forget, ignore, omit, overlook, overpass, slight Sample: Please disregard my last letter, as I now have new information for you. [ ] vt. to throw into disorder saboteur:disrupt=apologist:defend Synonyms: DISORDER, disarray, discompose, disorganize, disturb, mess (up), muddle, rummage, unsettle, upset Sample: Although providing wild chimpanzees with food makes them less shy and easier to study, it is also known to disrupt their normal social patterns. [ ] vt.vi. to analyze and interpret minutely specimen:dissect=sentence:parse Synonyms: SEPARATE, break up, dichotomize, disjoin, disjoint, dissever, divide, part, sever, sunder Sample: The biology student dissected a frog in the laboratory. [ ] v. to put on a false appearance:conceal facts, intentions, or feelings under some pretense dissemble:honesty=snub:politeness dissemble:information=masquerade:feeling ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub Synonyms: DISGUISE, camouflage, cloak, dissimulate, dress up, mask Sample: He dissembled about his past employment history. [ ] vt. to spread abroad as though sowing seed disseminate:information=foment:discontentment disseminate<>garner nucleate<>disseminate Synonyms: SPREAD, circulate, diffuse, disperse, distribute, propagate, radiate, strew Sample: Those who fear the influence of television deliberately underplay its persuasive power, hoping that they might keep knowledge of its potential to effect social change from being widely disseminated. (9504) n. DISAGREEMENT; especially:partisan and contentious quarreling concord<>dissension Synonyms: DISCORD, conflict, contention, difference, disaccord, dissent, dissidence, disunity, strife, variance Sample: There was a great deal of noisy dissension among the arguing committee members. [ ] vi. to withhold assent dissenter:orthodox=maverick:group dissent<>conform Synonyms: DIFFER, disaccord, disagree, discord, divide, vary Sample: Unenlightened authoritarian manage rarely recognize a crucial reason for the low levels of serious conflict among members of democratically run work groups:a modicum of tolerance for dissent often prevents schism. [ ] n.
121

dissipate

dissociate

dissolute

dissolve

dissonance

an extended usually written treatment of a subject; specifically:one submitted for a doctorate Synonyms: DISCOURSE, disquisition, memoir, monograph, monography, thesis, tractate, treatise Sample: After years of writing it, her doctoral dissertation was accepted and she received her Ph.D. [ ] vt. a: to break up and drive off (as a crowd) b: to cause to spread thin or scatter and gradually vanish c: to lose (as heat or electricity) irrecoverably d:to spend or use up wastefully or foolishly husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate dissipation:temperation=fecundity:sterility accumulation<>dissipation dissipate<>accumulate dissipate<>gather amass<>dissipate Synonyms: WASTE, blow, blunder (away), consume, fool (away), fritter, frivol away, squander, throw away, trifle (away) Sample: Ever prey to vagrant impulses that impelled him to squander his talents on a host of unworthy projects, his very dissipation nonetheless enhanced his reputation, for the sheer energy of his extravagance dazzled observers. [ ] vt.vi. to separate from association or union with another affiliation<>dissociation Synonyms: DETACH, abstract, disassociate, disconnect, disengage, uncouple, unfix Sample: The candidate tried to dissociate himself in the minds of the voters from the past failures of his party. [ ] adj lacking restraint; especially:marked by indulgence in things libertine:dissolute=sycophant:obsequious ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag voluble:speech=licentious:dissoluteness Synonyms: ABANDONED, licentious, profligate, reprobate, self-abandoned, unprincipled Sample: He is dissolute; he cheats on his taxes every year. [ ] vt.vi. to cause to pass into solution. to separate into component parts:DISINTEGRATE clot:dissolved=crowd:dispersed coagulant:thicken=solvent:dissolve bend:rigid=submerge:buoyant=dissolve:insoluble consolidate<>dissolve coagulant<>liquefy/dissolve Sample: The powder dissolved in water. [ ] n lack of agreement; especially:inconsistency between the beliefs one holds or between one's actions and one's beliefs dissonance<>concord Synonyms: DISCORD, conflict, contention, difference, disaccord, disharmony,
122

dissuade

distention

distillation

distinction

distinguished

distort

distract

dissension, dissidence, strife, variance Sample: They ended their marriage because of the dissonance in their relationship. [ ] vt. to advise (a person) against something remonstrance:dissuade=reprehension:censure remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest protest:dissuade=supplicate:entreaty dissuade<>abet dissuade<>enhance Synonyms: deter, disadvise, discourage, divert Sample: My father dissuaded me from taking a job in another city. [ ] n. the act of distending or the state of being distended especially unduly or abnormally distention<>compression [ ] n. the process of purifying a liquid by successive evaporation and condensation synopsis:conciseness=distillate:purity distill:purity=leaven:volume liquefy:fluid=distill:pure Sample: Vodka is a distillate of wheat, corn, or potatoes. [ ] n. the quality or state of being distinguishable nuance:distinction=hint:suggestion nicety:distinction=spoof:parody nebulous<>distinct repute<>lack of distinction eclipse<>make distinctive Synonyms: DISSIMILARITY, alterity, difference, discrepancy, dissemblance, dissimilitude, divergence, divergency, otherness, unlikeness Sample: The necessity of establishing discrete categories for observations frequently leads to attempts to make absolute distinctions. when there are in reality only gradations. [ ] adj. marked by eminence, distinction, or excellence nicety:indistinguishable=?? eminent<>undistinguished Synonyms: FAMOUS, celebrated, celebrious, eminent, famed, great, illustrious, notable, prominent, renowned Sample: She is a distinguished novelist. [ ] vt. to twist out of the true meaning or proportion brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature Synonyms: MISREPRESENT, belie, color, falsify, garble, miscolor, misstate, pervert, twist, warp Sample: Literature is inevitably a distorting rather than a neutral medium for the simple reason that writers interpose their own vision between the reader and reality. [ ] vt.
123

distraught

distress

district

ditch

ditty

diurnal

diverge

to draw or direct (as one's attention) to a different object or in different directions at the same time intrepid:deter=rapt:distract rapt<>distracted Synonyms: CONFUSE, addle, ball up, befuddle, bewilder, fluster, fuddle, mix up, throw off Sample: To list Reilly's achievements in a fragmentary way is misleading, for it distracts our attention from the integrating themes of her work. [ ] adj. agitated with doubt or mental conflict troubled:distraught=covetous:rapacious distraught<>composed Synonyms: distracted, distrait, distressed, harassed, tormented, troubled, worried Sample: The distraught parents frantically searched the ravine for their lost child. [ ] n. DISTRESS, SUFFERING, MISERY, AGONY abate:tax=alleviate:distress agonized:distress=obsessed:concern Synonyms: aggrieve, constrain, grieve, hurt, injure, pain Sample: I am afraid you will have to alter your roseate views in the light of the distressing news that has just arrived. [ ] n. a : a territorial division (as for administrative or electoral purposes) b : the basic administrative unit for local government in Northern Ireland gerrymander:district=rig:contest Synonyms: LOCALITY, area, neighborhood, vicinage, vicinity Sample: Because of the prisoner's record, the district attorney refused to reduce the charge from grand larceny to petit larceny. [ ] n. a long narrow excavation dug in the earth ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern Synonyms: TRENCH, cut Sample: I fell into the ditch that runs by the side of the road. [ ] n. an especially simple and unaffected song fable:tale=ditty:song Sample: We sang little ditties last night. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or occurring in the daytime diurnal<>nocturnal Synonyms: DAILY, quotidian Sample: A farmer cannot neglect his diurnal tasks at any time; cows, for example, must be milked regularly. [ ] vi. to move or extend in different directions from a common point:draw apart ad-lib:impromptu=aside:divergent diverge:apart=traverse:across confluence<>divergence
124

diver

divert

divestiture

divulge

doctrine

dodder

doff

dogged

Synonyms: DIGRESS, depart, divagate, excurse, ramble, stray, wander Sample: Hardys weakness derived from his apparent inability to control the comings and goings of these divergent impulses and from his unwillingness to cultivate and sustain the energetic andrisky ones. [ ] n. a person who stays underwater for long periods by having air supplied from the surface or by carrying a supply of compressed air cavern:spelunker=ocean:diver Sample: He is a deep-sea diver (or) skydiver. [ ] vt. to turn from one course or use to another:DEFLECT divert:shunt=retard:brake Synonyms: TURN, avert, deflect, pivot, sheer, veer, volte-face, wheel, whip, whirl Sample: A loud noise diverted everyone's attention from their work.. [ ] n. the act of divesting divestiture<>acquisition Synonyms: PRIVATION, deprivation, deprivement, dispossession, loss Sample: They advised the divestiture of real-estate holdings. [ ] vt. to make known (as a confidence or secret) divulge<>keep secret Synonyms: REVEAL, betray, blab (out), disclose, discover, give away, mouth, spill, tell, unclose Sample: I will not tell you this news because I am sure you will divulge it prematurely. [ ] n. a principle or position or the body of principles in a branch of knowledge or system of belief:DOGMA doctrine:heretical=course:errant doctrine:heterodoxy=spontaneous:studied {adaptability:stable} Synonyms: canon, dogma, tenet Sample: While the new doctrine seems almost certainly correct the one papyrus fragment raises the specter that another may be unearthed showing for instancethatit was a posthumous production of theDanaid tetralogy which bested Sophoclesand throwing the date oncemore into utter confusion. [ ] vi. to progress feebly and unsteadily dodder:unsteady=cavort:sprightly Sample: Although he is not as yet a doddering and senile old man, his ideas and opinions no longer can merit the respect we gave them years ago. [ ] vt. to remove (an article of wear) from the body doff<>don [ ] adj. marked by stubborn determination dogged<>yielded dogged<>easily discouraged Synonyms: INFLEXIBLE, adamant, brassbound, inexorable, obdurate, relentless, rigid,
125

doggerel

doggo

dogma

doldrums

dolorous

dolt

domicile

domination

single-minded, steadfast, unbending Sample: Les Miserables tells of Inspector Javert's long, dogged pursuit of the criminal Jean Valjean. [ ] adj. loosely styled and irregular in measure especially for burlesque or comic effect; also:marked by triviality or inferiority doggerel:verse=burlesque:play doggerel:poem=sketch:draw Sample: Although we find occasional snatches of genuine poetry in her work, most of her writing is mere doggerel. [ ] adv. in hiding doggo:instability=?? Sample: The man doffed his hat to the woman. [ ] n. something held as an established opinion;especially:a definite authoritative tenet dogma<>heresy Synonyms: DOCTRINE, canon, tenet [ ] n. state or period of inactivity, stagnation, or slump doldrums:energy=depravity:virtue Synonyms: TEDIUM, boredom, ennui, yawn [ ] adj. causing, marked by, or expressing misery or grief dolorous<>jubilant/happy Synonyms: DEPLORABLE, afflictive, calamitous, dire, distressing, grievous, heartbreaking, lamentable, regrettable, woeful Sample: He found the dolorous lamentations of the bereaved family emotionally disturbing and he left as quickly as he could. [ ] n. a stupid person wag:humorous=dolt:stupid Synonyms: DUNCE, boob, booby, chump, dolthead, oaf Sample: I thought I was talking to a mature audience; instead, I find myself addressing a pack of dolts. [ ] n. a dwelling place:place of residence:HOME nomad:domicile=freelancer:employer Synonyms: HABITATION, abode, commorancy, dwelling, home, house, residence, residency Sample: Althoughhis legal domicile was in New York City, his work kept him away from his residence for many years. [ ] n. supremacy or preeminence over another gullible:chicanery=servile:domination impervious:damaged=indomitable:subdued inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest indomitable:control=exacting:satisfy
126

don

donor

doodle

dour

downpour

doyen

doze

draconian

indominatable<>easly subdued Synonyms: SUPREMACY, ascendancy, dominance, dominion, masterdom, preeminence, preponderancy, prepotence, prepotency, sovereignty Sample: The legendary Colossus of Rhodes, bronze statue of the sun god that dominated the harbor of the Greek seaport, was one of the Seven Wonders of the World. [ ] vt. to put on (an article of clothing) doff<>don Synonyms: assume, draw on, get on, huddle (on), put on, slip (on), throw Sample: When Clark Kent had to don his Superman outfit, he changed clothes in a convenient phone booth. [ ] n. one that gives, donates, or presents something legacy:predecessor=gift:donor Synonyms: bestower , conferror ,donator ,presenter Sample: Not only are liver transplants never rejectedbut they even induce a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness in which subsequent transplants of other organssuch as skinfrom thatdonor are accepted permanently. [ ] n. v. an aimless or casual scribble, design, or sketch draw:doodle=travel:ramble walk:amble=draw:doodle Synonyms: FIDDLE , mess, mess around, potter, puddle, putter, tinker Sample: Her school notebook is covered with doodles that look like flowers. [ ] adj. STERN, HARSH dour:geniality=bumptious:humbleness dour<>congenial/genial dour<>jocund Synonyms: SULLEN, crabbed, gloomy, glum, morose, saturnine, sulky, surly, ugly Sample: A man with a dour look on his face lives alone in that house. [ ] n. a pouring or streaming downward; especially:a heavy rain downpour:flooding=wind:erosion wind:erosion=downpour:flooding Sample: We were caught in a downpour and ran for cover under a tree. [ ] n. a:the senior member of a body or group b:a person considered to be knowledgeable or uniquely skilled as a result of long experience in some field of endeavor eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated Synonyms: EXPERT, artist, authority, master, master-hand, maven, passed master, proficient, virtuoso Sample: She is the doyenne of Washington society. [ ] vi. to fall into a light sleep doze:sleep=nudge:prod Sample: Its hunger sated, the lion dozed. [ ] adj.
127

drain

drawl

dreary

drench

drivel

drizzle

droll

CRUEL; also:SEVERE palmy:prosperity=draconian:severity draconian:inclemency=fret:vexation draconian<>indulgent/mild draconian<>genial Synonyms: RIGID, ironhanded, rigorist, rigorous, strict, stringent, unpermissive Sample: The invading army used draconian measures to control the people; they cut off the hands and feet of anyone who opposed them. [ ] vt. to exhaust physically or emotionally ripen:mature=drain:empty tonic<>draining { nagging } Synonyms: DEPLETE, bankrupt, draw, draw down, exhaust, impoverish, use up Sample: Before serving the spaghetti, place it in a colander to drain it. [ ] v. to utter in a slow lengthened tone inch:move=drawl:speak pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless Sample: He drawls when he speaks; he speaks with a southern drawl. [ ] adj. having nothing likely to provide cheer, comfort, or interest:GLOOMY, DISMAL jocund<>dreary Synonyms: GLOOMY, black, bleak, depressing, depressive, dismal, dispiriting, funereal, oppressive, somber Sample: During his checkered career he had lived in palatial mansions and in dreary boardinghouses. [ ] v. to wet thoroughly (as by soaking or immersing in liquid) drenched:wet=antithetic:different Synonyms: WET, deluge, douse, drown, soak, sop, souse Sample: The heavy rain drenched our clothes. [ ] vi. to utter in an infantile or imbecilic way nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast Synonyms: DROOL, dribble, salivate, slabber, slaver, slobber Sample: What he says is drivel; don't believe him. [ ] n./v. a fine misty rain deluge<>drizzle Synonyms: sprinkle Sample: There is a fine drizzle this morning. [ ] adj. having a humorous, whimsical, or odd quality grisly:flinch=droll:laugh droll<>grave droll<>serious droll<>somber Synonyms: LAUGHABLE, comic, comical, farcical, funny, gelastic, ludicrous,
128

droplet

drudgery

dubious

dulcet

dull

dullard

dune

dupe

ridiculous, risible Sample: He was a popular guest because his droll anecdotes were always entertaining. [ ] n. a tiny drop (as of a liquid) droplet:deluge=pebble:landslide Synonyms: DROP , drib, driblet, globule, gobbet Sample: I felt a few droplets of rain on my shoulder. [ ] n. dull, irksome, and fatiguing work:uninspiring or menial labor drudgery<>rewarding work Synonyms: donkeywork, grind, labor, plugging, toil, travail Sample: Cinderella's fairy godmother rescued her from a life of drudgery. [ ] adj. questionable or suspect as to true nature or quality disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction dubious<>certain Synonyms: DOUBTFUL, dubitable, equivocal, fishy, open, problematic, suspect, uncertain, unclear, undecided Sample: It is his dubious distinction to have proved what nobody would think of denying, that Romero at the age of sixty-four writes with all the characteristics of maturity. [ ] adj pleasing to the ear cacophonous<>dulcet/euphonious Synonyms: MELODIOUS , euphonic, euphonious, mellisonant, melodic, sweet, tuneful Sample: The dulcet sounds of the birds at dawn were soon drowned out by the roar of traffic passing our motel. [ ] adj. lacking brilliance or luster tarnish:dull=vitrify:smooth brilliance<>dullness perspicuous<>dull resplendent<>dull trenchant<>vague/dull perspicacious<>dull { awkard } Synonyms: RETARDED, backward, dim-witted, feebleminded, half-witted, imbecile, moronic, simple, simpleminded, slow dim, fade, muddy, pale, tarnish Sample: We need more inquisitive students in this school; lectures are dull. [ ] n. a stupid or unimaginative person wit<>dullard Synonyms: DUNCE, dullhead,, dummy, idiot, ignoramus, moron, simpleton, stupid [ ]n a hill or ridge of sand piled up by the wind sand:dune=word:sentence { water:canal} Sample: The sand dunes on the desert are formed by the wind. [ ] n. one that is easily deceived or cheated:FOOL
129

dwelling

dyspeptic

eaglet

earnest

earplug

earshot

reverent:idolater=trusting:dupe callous:impassive=dupe:duplicity Synonyms: FOOL ,butt, chump,fall,guy,gudgeon,gull,mark,pigeon, sap, sucker Sample: While the gullible Watson often was made a dupe by unscrupulous parties, Sherlock Holmes was far more difficult to fool. [ ] n. a shelter (as a house) in which people live deportation:country=eviction:dwelling potable:beverage=habitable:dwelling Synonyms: HABITATION abode, commorancy, domicile, home, house, residence, residency Sample: She lives in an old dwelling on the edge of town. [ ] adj. INDIGESTION genial<>dyspeptic Synonyms: ILL-TEMPERED, bad-tempered, hot-tempered, ill-humored, ill-natured, rusty, tempersome Sample: All the talk about rich food made him feel dyspeptic. [ ] n. a young eagle eaglet:bird=fawn:mammal {frog:amphibian} [ ] adj. characterized by or proceeding from an intense and serious state of mind facetious<>earnest Synonyms: intentness, serious-mindedness, seriousness Sample: They began to work in earnest when the boss arrived. [ ] n. device of pliable material for insertion into the outer opening of the ear (as to keep out water or deaden sound) earplug:noise=shield:impact Sample: She wears earplugs when she swims. [ ] n. the range within which the unaided voice may be heard earshot:hear=ken:see Synonyms: hearing Sample: I called to him, but he could not hear me because he was out of earshot. List 10 earsplitting --- espouse

earsplitting

eavesdrop

[ ] adj. distressingly loud or shrill earsplitting:voice=?? earsplitting:loud=heartrending:sad Synonyms: blaring, full-mouthed, piercing, roaring, stentorian, stentorious, stentorophonic Sample: The rock music was earsplitting and gave me a headache. [ ] v. to listen secretly to the private conversation of others hear:eavesdrop=follow:shadow
130

ebullience

eccentric

echelon

eclat

eclectic

eclipse

ecstasy

Sample: He liked to eavesdrop on his neighbors' conversations. [ ] n. the quality of lively or enthusiastic expression of thoughts or feelings:EXUBERANCE ebullience<>impassiveness ebullience<>torpor ebullient<>torpid ebullience<>lifelessness Synonyms: buoyancy, effervescence, exuberance, exuberancy Sample: His ebullient nature could not be repressed. [ ] adj. deviating from conventional or accepted usage or conduct especially in odd or whimsical ways hero:admirable=eccentric:unconventional eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated Synonyms: STRANGE curious, erratic, idiosyncratic, odd, oddball, peculiar, queer, singular, weird Sample: In Germany her startling powers as a novelist are widely admired, but she is almost unknown in the English-speaking world because of the difficulties of translating her eccentric prose. [ ] n. an arrangement of a body of troops with its units each somewhat to the left or right of the one in the rear like a series of steps echelon:hierarchy=?? Synonyms: LINE file, queue, rank, row, string, tier Sample: That news reporter interviews people in the highest echelons of government. [ ] n. brilliant or conspicuous success eclat<>fiasco Synonyms: FAME, celebrity, notoriety, renown, rep, reputation, repute [ ] n. selecting what appears to be best in various doctrines, methods, or styles Synonyms: discriminating, select, selective Sample: Despite claims that his philosophy can be traced to a single source, the philosophy in fact draws liberally on several traditions and methodologies and so could justifiably be termed eclectic. [ ]n a falling into obscurity or decline; also:the state of being eclipsed eclipse:prestige=(enervation)enfeeble:vigor eclipse<>make distinctive eclipse<>make more prominent/bring to more prominent Synonyms: OBSCURE, adumbrate, becloud, bedim, darken, dim, murk, overcloud, overshadow, shadow Sample: The new stock market high eclipsed the previous record set in 1985. [ ] n. a state of overwhelming emotion; especially:rapturous delight ecstatic<>persevered Synonyms: heaven, rapture, rhapsody, seventh heaven, transport Sample: The announcement that the war had ended brought on an ecstasy that resulted
131

ecumenical

edifice

efface

effervesce

effete

effluvia

in many uncontrolled celebrations. [ ] adj. worldwide or general in extent, influence, or application ecumenical:generality=entire:integrity diocesan<>ecumenical ecumenical<>factionalism/provincial Synonyms: UNIVERSAL catholic, cosmic, cosmopolitan, global, planetary, worldwide Sample: Reading the epigrams of Pope, I admire the economy of his verse:in few words he conveys worlds of meaning. [ ] n. BUILDING; especially:a large or massive structure tower:edifice=rampart:barrier buttress:edifice=splint:limb Synonyms: erection, pile, structur Sample: The addition of a second tower will give this edifice the symmetry that it now lacks. [ ] v. to make (oneself) modestly or shyly inconspicuous alliterate:remove=blazon:efface blazon<>efface efface<>emboss efface<>bring to preeminent efface<>aggrandize effacing<>institute Synonyms: ERASE, annul, black (out), blot out, cancel, delete, expunge, obliterate, wipe (out), x (out) Sample: Although retiring, almost self-effacing in his private life, he displays in his plays and essays a strong penchant for publicity and controversy. [ ] vi. to show liveliness or exhilaration effervescence:feeling=fury:anger effervesce<>be flat effervescent<>still effervesce<>droop Synonyms: EBULLIENCE, buoyancy, exuberance, exuberancy Sample: Nothing depressed her for long; her natural effervescence soon reasserted itself. [ ] adj. having lost character, vitality, or strength effete<>hale/sound Synonyms: STERILE, barren, impotent, infecund, infertile, unfruitful depleted, done, done in, drained, exhausted, far-gone, spent, used up, washed-out, worn-out decadent, decayed, degenerate, overripe Sample: The literature of the age reflected the effete condition of the writers; no new ideas were forthcoming. [ ] n. pl. a by-product especially in the form of waste
132

effulgent

effusive

egalitarian

egocentric

elaborate

elastic

elated

effluvia<>desired products Sample: Air pollution has become a serious problem in our major cities; the effluvium and the poisons in the air are hazards to life. [ ] adj radiant splendor:BRILLIANCE bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence Synonyms: BRIGHT ,beaming,brilliant,fulgent,incandescent, lambent, lucent, luminous, radiant, refulgent [ ] adj. characterized or formed by a nonexplosive outpouring of lava gush:effusive=rage:irate emotion:effusive=liberty:licentious{ manner:grandious} effusive<>lack of emotion effusive<>reticent Synonyms: gushing, gushy, slobbering, slobbery, sloppy Sample: Her effusive manner of greeting her friends finally began to irritate them. [ ] n. a belief in human equality especially with respect to social, political, and economic rights and privileges meliorism:progress=egalitarian:equity Sample: He is an egalitarian, not an elitist. [ ] adj concerned with the individual rather than society altruism<>egoism Synonyms: individualist, individualistic Sample: His egoism prevented him from seeing the needs of his colleagues. [ ] adj. marked by complexity, fullness of detail, or ornateness fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness=elaborate:sketchy abstract<>elaborate Synonyms: complicated, fancy, intricate Sample: The crude typewriter on display in this museum is the prototype of the elaborate machines in use today. [ ] adj. capable of being easily stretched or expanded and resuming former shape:FLEXIBLE ephemeral:endure=inelastic:stretch elastic:expand=viable:live Synonyms: flexible, resilient, springy, stretch, stretchy, supple, whippy Sample: With a bifurcated branch and a piece of elastic rubber, he made a crude but effective slingshot. [ ] adj. marked by high spirits:EXULTANT elated<>despondent elation<>dejection elate<>depress {reprobate} hangdog<>elated Synonyms: excited, exhilarated, turned-on
133

eleemosynary

elegant

elegy

elephantine

elevate

elf

elicit

elitism ellipsis

Sample: Because they had expected the spacecraft Voyager 2 to be able to gather data only about the planets Jupiter and Saturn, scientists were elated by the wealth of information it sent back from Neptune twelve years after leaving Earth. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or supported by charity philanthropist:eleemosynary=?? Synonyms: CHARITABLE , altruistic, benevolent, good, humane, humanitarian, philanthropic [ ] adj. of a high grade or quality:SPLENDID insolent<>polite {elegant} Synonyms: CHOICE, dainty, delicate, exquisite, rare, select, superior Sample: Because early United States writers thought that the mark of great literature was grandiosity and elegance not to be found in common speech, they avoided the vernacular. [ ] n. a song or poem expressing sorrow or lamentation especially for one who is dead satire:ridicule=elegy:sorrow elegiac:sorrow=devotional:reverence hymn:praise=elegy:sorrow paean:song=elegy:poem Sample: On the death of Edward King, Milton composed the elegy "Lycidas." [ ] adj. having enormous size or strength:MASSIVE microscopic<>elephantine Synonyms: HUGE, behemothic, colossal, enormous, gargantuan, gigantic, mammoth, mastodonic, monstrous, prodigious [ ] vt. to raise in rank or status:EXALT debasement<>elevation Synonyms: LIFT , hoist, pick up, raise, rear, take up, uphold, uplift, upraise, uprear Sample: Mountain goats live in the higher elevations above the valley. [ ] n. a small lively creature; also:a usually lively mischievous or malicious person elf:imperious=?? [ ] vt. to draw forth or bring out evoke<>fail to elicit Synonyms: EDUCE , evince, evoke, extort, extract, milk Sample: The defense attorney claimed that the police had entrapped his client; that is, they had elicited the illicit action of which they now accuse of him. [ ] n. leadership or rule by an elite [ ]n the omission of one or more words that are obviously understood but that must be supplied to make a construction grammatically complete apostrophes:word=ellipsis:sentence Sample: Sometimes an ellipsis can lead to a dangling modifier, as in the sentence
134

elliptical

elongate

elucidate

emaciate

emanate

emancipate

embargo

embark

"Once dressed, you should refrigerate the potato salad. [ ] adj. of or relating to deliberate obscurity (as of literary or conversational style) elliptical<>palpable Sample: An elliptical billiad ball wobbles because it is not perfectly round; an elliptical remark baffles because it is not perfectly clear. [ ] v. to extend the length of Synonyms: EXTEND , draw, draw out, lengthen, prolong, prolongate, protract, spin (out), stretch Sample: The mirror was curved so that it elongated my image, making me look tall and thin. [ ] v. to give a clarifying explanation abet:encouragement=elucidate:clarity garble<>elucidate obfuscate<>elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly Synonyms: CLARIFY clear, clear up, explain, illuminate, illustrate Sample: He was called upon to elucidate the disputed points in his article. [ ] v. to cause to lose f unaffectlesh so as to become very thin apoplectic:angry=emaciated:thin firmness:obstinacy=supple:spineless/thin:emaciated emaciate<>invigorate Sample: His long period of starvation had left him emaciated. [ ] vi. to come out from a source Synonyms: SPRING , arise, birth, derive (from), flow, issue, originate, proceed, rise, stem Sample: A strong odor of sulfur emanated from the spring. [ ] v. to free from restraint, control, or the power of another; especially:to free from bondage emancipate<>shackle emancipation<>bondage Synonyms: FREE, discharge, liberate, loose, loosen, manumit, release, unbind, unchain, unshackle Sample: At first, the attempts of the Abolitioninst to emancipate the slaves were unpopular in New England as well as in the South. [ ] n. a legal prohibition on commerce embargo:commerce=quarantine:contact Sample: As a result of the embargo, trade with colonies was at a standstill. [ ] vi. to make a start debut:career=embarkment:journey dismount:horse=disembark:ship conclude<>embark on Synonyms: BOARD
135

embarrass

embed

embezzle

embolden

embrace

encompass

Sample: In devoting herself to the study of gorillas, Dian Fossey embarked on a course of action that was to cost her her life. [ ] vt. to place in doubt, perplexity, or difficulties catastrophe:mishap=humiliation:embarrassment embarrass:shame=console:comfort unabashed:embarrassment=unheralded:announcement blush:embarrassment=nod:agreement/bow:respect/shrug:indifference disembarrass:entanglement=?? Synonyms: abash, confound, confuse, discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze, rattle Sample: Crosby's colleagues have never learned, at least not in time to avoid embarrassing themselves, that her occasional bogus air of befuddlement presages a display of her formidable intelligence. [ ] vt. to enclose closely in or as if in a matrix embed<>extract Synonyms: ENTRENCH , fix, infix, ingrain, lodge, root Sample: As long as the nuclear family is embedded in a larger kinship group through contiguous residence on undivided land, the pressure to share and thus to get along with relatives is strong. [ ] vt. to appropriate (as property entrusted to one's care) fraudulently to one's own use embezzle:fraud=?? Synonyms: misappropriate, peculate Sample: The authorities did not discover the campaign manager's malfeasance until after he had spent most of the money he had embezzled. [ ] v. to instill with boldness or courage appall<>embolden/nerve embolden<>abash/faze/cow boggle<>embolden ( embolden<>daunt Sample: His early success emboldened him to take even greater risks. [ ] n.v. close encircling with the arms and pressure to the bosom especially as a sign of affection:HUG embrace:affection=shrug:indifference abrogate<>embrace/institute/uphold eschew<>embrace, greet , welcome abjure<>embrace/espouse ostracize<>include/embrace spurn<>court ,crave, embrace renounce<>embrace Synonyms: clasp, clinch, clip, enfold, hug, press, squeeze Sample: Having fully embraced the belief that government by persuasion is preferable to government by coercion, the leaders of the movement have recently repudiated most of their previous statements supporting totalitarianism. [ ] v.
136

emigrate

eminence

emphasis

emulate

enact

enamel

enclosure

to form a circle about:ENCLOSE encompass<>exclude Synonyms: SURROUND , beset, circle, compass, encircle, environ, gird, girdle, hem, ring Sample: Although we were encompassed by enemy forces, we were cheerful for we were well stocked and could withstand a siege until our allies joined us. [ ] vi.vt to leave one's place of residence or country to live elsewhere repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification Synonyms: MIGRATE, transmigrate Sample: The Roth family, whose progenitors emigrated from Germany early in the nineteenth century, settled in Peru, Illinois. [ ] n. one that is eminent, prominent, or lofty:as a person of high rank or attainments master:experience=luminary:eminence maven:experience=luminary:eminence eminent<>undistinguished Synonyms: distinction, illustriousness, kudos, preeminence, prestige, prominence, prominency, renown Sample: After his appointment to this emiment position, he seldom had time for his former friends. [ ] n. special consideration of or stress or insistence on something underscore:emphasis=brand:ownership Synonyms: accent, accentuation, stress Sample: But the plays complex view of Black self-esteem and human solidarity as compatible is no more "contradictory" than Du Bois famouswell-considered ideal of ethnic self-awareness coexisting with human unity or Fanons emphasis on an ideal internationalism that also accommodates national identities and roles. [ ] vt. strive to equal or excel emulate:exemplary=obviate:unnecessary emulation:exemplar=deference:authority Synonyms: RIVAL, compete, rivalize Sample: However original they might be, Roman poets were bound to have some favorite earlier author whom they would emulate. [ ] vt. to establish by legal and authoritative act; specifically:to make (as a bill) into law rescission<>enactment Synonyms: constitute, establish, make Sample: Because much is needed legislation had to be enacted, the governor ordered the legislature to convene in special session by January 15. [ ] n. a hard calcareous substance that forms a thin layer capping the teeth enamel:tooth=bark:tree Sample: The enamel protects the inside part of the tooth. [ ] n. something that encloses
137

encomium

encompass

encounter

encumber

encyclopedia

endorse

stockade:enclosure=pillar:support recluse:crowd=claustrophobia=enclosure Synonyms: COURT close, courtyard, artilage, quad, quadrangle, yard Sample: From the outset, the concept of freedom of the seas from the proprietary claims of nations was challenged by a contrary notion-that of the enclosure of the oceans for reasons of national security and profit. [ ] n. glowing and warmly enthusiastic praise; encomium:eulogize=quibble:cavil encomium:eulogy=discontent:complain encomium<>harsh criticism Synonyms: citation, eulogy, panegyric, salutation, tribute Sample: Uneasy with the encomiums expressed by his supporters, Tolkien felt unworthy of such high praise. [ ] v. to form a circle about:ENCLOSE obsolete:to go completely around Synonyms: SURROUND , beset, circle, compass, encircle, environ, gird, girdle, hem, ring Sample: Although we were encompassed by enemy forces, we were cheerful for we were well stocked and could withstand a siege until our allies joined us. [ ] n. v. to come upon face-to-face circumlocutory(circumlocution)<>direct encounter Synonyms: CONFRONT , affront, face, meet Sample: He had expected gratitude for his disclosure, but instead he encountered indifference bordering on hostility. [ ] v. to impede or hamper the function or activity of:HINDER encumber<>remove impediment Synonyms: BURDEN, charge, clog, cumber, lade, load, saddle, tax, weigh, weight Sample: Some people encumber themselves with too much luggage, when they take short trips. [ ] n. a work that contains information on all branches of knowledge or treats comprehensively a particular branch of knowledge usually in articles arranged alphabetically often by subject encyclopedia:compendious=abstract:concise/condensed {pertinacity:changeable} {recapitulation:lengthy} Synonyms: comprehensive, inclusive Sample: The encyclopedia salesman claimed the new edition was a veritable cornucopia of information, an inexhaustible source of knowledge for the entire family. [ ] vt. to approve openly especially:to express support or approval of publicly and definitely rider:bill=endorsement:policy endorse:approbation=?? endorse<>oppose publicly impugn<>endorse deprecate<>endorse
138

enduring

enervate

enfeeble

enfranchise

engender

Synonyms: APPROVE, accredit, certify, OK (or okay), sanction Sample: During the 1960's assessments of the family shifted remarkably, from general endorsement of it as a worthwhile, stable institution to widespread censure of it as an oppressive and bankrupt one whose dissolution was both imminent and welcome. [ ] adj. LASTING, DURABLE ephemeral:endure=inelastic:stretch ephemeral:enduring=inanimate:living transitory:endure=immutable:change transitory<>enduring Synonyms: CONTINUE , abide, carry through, last, perdure, persist Sample: Keats believed in the enduring power of great art, which outlast its creator's brief lives. [ ] vt. to lessen the vitality or strength of enervate:vitality=debase:value curtail:period=enervate:energy eclipse:prestige=enervation/enfeeble:vigor dispirit:morale=enervate:strength enervate<>invigorate enervate<>fortify/strengthen vitality<>enervation Synonyms: UNNERVE, castrate, emasculate, unman, unstring Sample: In the absence of any stimulation caused by danger, hardship, or even cultural difference, most utopian communities deteriorate into placid but enervating backwaters. [ ] vt. to make feeble:deprive of strength eclipse:prestige=enervation/enfeeble:vigor palliate:anger=enfeeble:vigor enfeeble<>invigorate tonic<>enfeebling Synonyms: WEAKEN , attenuate, blunt, cripple, debilitate, disable, sap, unbrace, undermine, unstrengthen Sample: His long illness enfeebled him. [ ] vt. to endow with a franchise:as to admit to the privileges of a citizen and especially to the right of suffrage enfranchise:vote=license:practice enfranchise<>enfetter enfranchise<>resubject enfranchise<>subjugate Synonyms: affranchise, franchise Sample: During periods of social and cultural stability, many art academies are so firmly controlled by dogmatists that all real creative work must be done by the disenfranchised. [ ] vt. to cause to exist or to develop:PRODUCE quash<>engender
139

engross

enigmatic

enlighten

enmity

ennoble

ennui

Synonyms: GENERATE , breed, cause, hatch, induce, muster (up), occasion, produce, provoke, work up Sample: To receive praise for real accomplishments engenders self-confidence in a child. [ ] vt to take or engage the whole attention of:occupy completely attentive:officious=refined:snobbish { absorbed:engrossed} engrossed:absorbed=intimate:close Synonyms: ENGAGE , busy, immerse, occupy, soak Sample: John was so engrossed in his studies that he did not hear his mother call. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or resembling an enigma:MYSTERIOUS juggernaut:unstoppable=enigma:impenetrable enigmatic:simplistic=?? enigmatic<>broadly known { wildly accepted} enigmatic<>readily understood Synonyms: CRYPTIC, dark, mystifying Sample: Many have sought to fathom the enigmatic smile of the Mona Lisa. [ ] vt. to furnish knowledge to:INSTRUCT equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten Synonyms: ILLUMINATE , edify, illume, illumine, improve, irradiate, uplift Sample: In the days before the mass marketing of books, censorship was a prime source of publicity, which helped the sale of the book and inspired Ralph Waldo Emerson to remark:"Every burned book enlightens the world". [ ] n. positive, active, and typically mutual hatred or ill will camaraderie<>enmity comity<>enmity concord<>enmity/rancor Synonyms: animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, hostility, rancor Sample: At Camp David President Carter labored to bring an end to the enmity that prevented Egypt and Israel from living in peace. [ ] vt. to make noble:ELEVATE debase<>ennoble Synonyms: EXALT , aggrandize, dignify, distinguish, erect, glorify, honor, magnify, sublime, uprear [ ] n. a feeling of weariness and dissatisfaction:BOREDOM ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic ennui:enthusiastic=somnolence:alert ennui<>energy/enthusiasm ennui<>keen interest ennui<>exuberance Synonyms: TEDIUM, boredom, doldrums, yawn Sample: The monotonous routine of hopital life induced a feeling of ennui which made him moody and irritable.
140

enrapture

enslave

ensue

entangle

enthusiasm

entice

[ ] vt. to fill with delight enraptured<>indifferent Synonyms: TRANSPORT, enravish, entrance, ravish, trance Sample: The audience was enraptured by the freshness of the voices and the excellent orchestration. [ ] vt. to reduce to or as if to slavery:SUBJUGATE manumit<>enslave Synonyms: enthrall, subjugate [ ] vi. to take place afterward or as a result anterior<>ensuing Synonyms: following, succeeding Sample: Because the potential hazards pollen grains are subject to as they are transported over long distances are enormouswindpollinated plants havein the view abovecompensated for theensuing loss of pollen through happenstance by virtue of producing an amount of pollen that is one to three orders of magnitude greater than the amount produced by species pollinated by insects. [ ] vt. to wrap or twist together:INTERWEAVE exoneration:blame=disentangle:snarl disembarrass:entanglement=?? disentangle<>snarl Synonyms: ensnarl, intertangle, perplex, snarl, tangle Sample: She entangled her friends in foolish schemes to get rich. [ ] n. strong excitement of feeling:ARDOR ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic ennui:enthusiastic=somnolence:alert enthusiasm:mania=suspicion:paranoia reverence:respect=avidity:enthusiasm madness:enthusiasm=?? ennui<>energy/enthusiasm halfhearted<>enthusiastic Synonyms: PASSION , ardor, fervor, fire, hurrah, zeal Sample: In spite of lackluster reviews in the press, the production of her play was rescued from almost certain oblivion by enthusiastic audiences whose acumen was greater than that of the critics. [ ] vt. to attract artfully or adroitly or by arousing hope or desire:TEMPT command:entreaty=goad:enticement entice:tempt=affectionate:love formidable<>enticing Synonyms: LURE, allure, bait, decoy, entrap, inveigle, lead on, seduce, tempt, toll Sample: Personnel experts say that attractive benefits alone will not always keep ambitious executives from changing jobs for better long-range opportunities, but they think the enticements may deter many executives from accepting routine offers from
141

entrance

entrap

entreaty

entry

enumerate

enunciate

envision

ephemeral

other companies. [ ] vt. to carry away with delight, wonder, or rapture entrancing(entrance vt.)<>disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore unprepossessing<>entrancing/winsome Synonyms: entry, ingress, ingression Sample: Shafts of sunlight on a wall could entrance her and leave her spellbound. [ ] vt. to catch in or as if in a trap vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied Synonyms: catch, benet, catch up, ensnare, entangle, snare, tangle, trap lure, allure, bait, decoy, entice, inveigle, lead on, seduce, tempt, toll Sample: The defense attorney claimed that the police had entrapped his client; that is, they had elicited the illicit action of which they now accuse of him. [ ] n. an act of entreating:PLEA command:entreaty=goad:enticement protest:dissuade=supplicate:entreat Synonyms: PRAYER, appeal, application, imploration, imprecation, orison, petition, plea, suit, supplication [ ] n. a descriptive record (as in a card catalog or an index) journal:entries=run:performance Sample: The clerk made an entry of the sale in the company books. [ ] vt. to specify one after another:LIST Synonyms: COUNT, number, numerate, tale, tally, tell Sample: Huck hung his head in shame as Miss Watson enumerated his many flaws. [ ] v. a:to make a definite or systematic statement of b:ANNOUNCE, PROCLAIM waffle:enunciate=embed:disinter enunciate<>mumble Synonyms: ARTICULATE, phonate, pronounce, say Sample: How will people understand you if you do not enunciate? [ ] vt. to picture to oneself Synonyms: THINK , conceive, envisage, fancy, feature, image, imagine, realize, vision, visualize Sample: What kind of career do you envision for yourself? [ ] adj. lasting a very short time convoluted:complexity=ephemeral:transience ephemeral:endure=inelastic:stretch ephemeral:endure=inert:react {ineffectual:proceed} ephemeral:transience=permanent:perpetually repellent:attract=ephemeral:endure ephemeral:longevity=grandiose:humility {xenophobia:diplomatic} ephemeral<>permanent/perpetual
142

epic

epicure

epigram

epilogue

epistemology

epitomize

ephemeral<>eternal ephemeral<>endured Synonyms: TRANSIENT, evanescent, fleeting, fugacious, fugitive, momentary, passing, short-lived, transitory, volatile Sample: Changes of fashion and public taste are often ephemeral and resistant to analysis, and yet they are among the most sensitive gauges of the state of the public's collective consciousness. [ ] n. extending beyond the usual or ordinary especially in size or scope epic<>modest Sample: Kurosawa's film Seven Samurai is an epic portraying the struggle of seven warriors to destroy a band of robbers. [ ] n. one with sensitive and discriminating tastes especially in food or wine epicure:discriminating=spectator:watching sentinel:watchful=epicure:discriminating Synonyms: bon vivant, gastronome, gastronomer, gastronomist, gourmand, gourmet Sample: epicures frequent this restaurant because it features exotic wines and dishes. [ ] n. a concise poem dealing pointedly and often satirically with a single thought or event and often ending with an ingenious turn of thought exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram paradox:contradictory=epigram:wise Sample: Reading the epigrams of Pope, I admire the economy of his verse:in few words he conveys worlds of meaning. [ ] n. a concluding section that rounds out the design of a literary work the final scene of a play that comments on or summarizes the main action the concluding section of a musical composition:CODA dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata terminus:stop=epilogue:story epilogue:prose=finale:music epilogue:prose=finale? preface<>epilogue Synonyms: afterword Sample: The audience was so disappointed in the play that many did not remain to hear the epilogue. [ ] n. the study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity aesthetics:beauty=epistemology:knowledge Sample: "What is more important, a knowledge of nature of the nature of knowledge?" the epistemologist asked the naturalist. [ ] vt. to serve as the typical or ideal example of Synonyms: condense, digest, inventory, nutshell, sum, summarize, summate, sum up, synopsize Sample: Many Americans believe that individual initiative epitomized the 1890's and
143

equable

equipoise

equity

equivocal

erect

erect

see the entrepreneur as the personification of that age. [ ] adj. marked by lack of noticeable, unpleasant, or extreme variation or inequality equable<>intemperate Synonyms: STEADY, constant, even, stabile, stable, unchanging, unfluctuating, uniform, unvarying Sample: After the hot summers and cold winters of New England, he found the climate of the West Indies equable and pleasant. [ ] n. a state of equilibrium equipoise:vacillate=?? Synonyms: BALANCE, equilibrium, poise, stasis Sample: Robins words were not without emotion:they retained their level tone only by a careful equipoise between imminent extremes. [ ] n. justice according to natural law or right; specifically:freedom from bias or favoritism illiteracy:education=inequity:redistribution equitable<>discriminatory/unfair Sample: My equity in my brokerage account is $15,000 because I have $20,000 in stock but owe $5,000 as a loan. [ ] adj. subject to two or more interpretations and usually used to mislead or confuse equivocation:clarity=prevarication:truth equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten equivocation:misleading=bromide:hackneyed equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity equivocate:commitment=procrastinate:action equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness grandstand:impress=equivocate:deceive rationalization:plausible=obfuscation:indiscernible {equivocation:definite} equivocate:misleading=cliched:hackneyed equivocation:ambiguous=oxymoron:incongruous waffle<>speak unequivocally equivocation<>clarity Synonyms: OBSCURE, ambiguous, amphibological, tenebrous, uncertain, unclear, unexplicit, unintelligible, vague Sample: One of archaeology's central dilemmas is how to reconstruct the intricacies of complex ancient societies from meager and often equivocal physical evidence. [ ] vt. SET UP, ESTABLISH suspend<>erect slouch<>stand erect Synonyms: BUILD, construct, put up, raise, rear, uprear Sample: They erected a lighthouse on the promontory to warn approaching ships of their nearness to the shore. [ ] adj. characterized by firm or rigid straightness in bodily posture
144

erode

errant

erratic

erudite

escalate

eschew

esoteric

prostrate<>erect Synonyms: arrect, raised, stand-up, straight-up, upright, upstanding Sample: She is elderly, but she stands erect. [ ] v. to diminish or destroy by degrees accrete:growth=erode:destruction downpour:flooding=wind:erosion gully:erosion=callus:friction wind:erosion=downpour:flooding singe:incinerate=erode:destruction deposit<>process of eroding Synonyms: EAT, bite, corrode, eat away, gnaw, scour, wear (away) Sample: The limestone was eroded by the dripping water [ ] adj. traveling or given to traveling amorphous:shape=errant:course doctrine:heretical=course:errant digress:topic=errant:standard Synonyms: ERRATIC, devious, stray, wandering Sample: Many a charming taerrantle has been written about the knights-errant who helped the weak and punished the guilty during the Age of Chivalry. [ ] adj. having no fixed course:WANDERING heroic:craven=erratic:permanent Synonyms: devious, errant, stray, wandering Sample: Experienced and proficient, Susan is a good, reliable trumpeter her music is often more satisfying than Carol's brilliant but erratic playing. [ ] adj possessing or displaying erudition:LEARNED erudite:fathom=oblivious:neglect erudite<>smattering of knowledge/ignorant/unlettered erudition<>illiteracy Synonyms: LEARNED, scholarly, scholastic Sample: His erudite writing was difficult to read because of the many allusions which were unfamiliar to most readers. [ ] v to increase in extent, volume, number, amount, intensity, or scope escalate<>diminish Synonyms: ASCEND, climb, escalade, mount, scale, upclimb, upgo Sample: What had started out as a mere spat escalated into a full-blown argument. [ ] v to avoid habitually especially on moral or practical grounds:SHUN eschew<>embrace/greet/welcome Synonyms: ESCAPE, avoid, bilk, double, duck, elude, evade, shun, shy Sample: He tried to eschew all display of temper. [ ] adj designed for or understood by the specially initiated alone esoteric<>common accepted
145

espouse

esoteric<>generally known Synonyms: RECONDITE, abstruse, acroamatic, deep, heavy, hermetic, occult, orphic, profound, secret Sample: In the appendix to the novel, the critic sought to annotate many of the more esoteric references. [ ] vt. to take up and support as a cause:become attached to lurk:concealment=espouse:marriage abjure<>embrace/espouse repudiate<>espouse/uphold Synonyms: ADOPT, embrace, take on, take up Sample: She was always ready to espouse a worthy cause. List 11 esteem --- filibuster

esteem

estimable

estrange

etch

eternal

[ ] n.v. to set a high value on:regard highly and prize accordingly obeisant:esteem=embrace:affection esteem:idolatrize=favor:bribe infuriate:rage=commend:esteem {scrounge:possession} stigma<>mark of esteem odium<>esteem Synonyms: REGARD, account, admiration, consideration, estimation, favor, respect Sample: I esteem Ezra Pound both for his exciting poetry and for his acute comments on literature. [ ] adj. worthy of esteem estimable<>contemptible Sample: She has an estimable reputation for choosing wise investments. [ ] vt. to arouse especially mutual enmity or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness:ALIENATE estrangement<>rapprochement Synonyms: ALIENATE, DISAFFECT Sample: The estranged wife sought a divorce. [ ] n. v. a chemical agent used in etching etch:corrosive=glue:adhesive Sample: Since it is now routine to build the complex central processing unit of a computer on a single silicon chip using photolithography and chemical etching, it seems plausible that other miniature structures might be fabricated in similar ways. [ ] adj. a:continued without intermission:PERPETUAL b:seemingly endless ephemeral<>eternal Synonyms: EVERLASTING, amaranthine, ceaseless, endless, immortal, never-ending, unending, world-without-end Sample: In sharp contrast to the intense idealism of the young republic, with its utopian faith in democracy and hopes for eternal human progress, recent developments suggest a mood of almost unrelieved cynicism.
146

ethereal

ethics

eulogize

euphemism

euphonious

euphoria

evacuate

[ ] adj. a:lacking material substance:IMMATERIAL, INTANGIBLE b:marked by unusual delicacy or refinement ethereal<>material/ponderous ponderous<>ethereal/gossamer/lively Synonyms: AIRY, aerial, vaporous, vapory Sample: Visitors were impressed by her ethereal beauty, her delicate charm. [ ] n. the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation logic:reasoning=ethics:behavior Sample: Forget about ethics! He's such an opportunist that he'll vote in favor of any deal that will give him a break. [ ] vt. to speak or write in high praise of:EXTOL encomiast:eulogize=quibbler:cavil panegyric:eulogize=lampoon:satirize encomium:eulogy=discontent:complain eulogy:speak=?? eulogize<>pan eulogy<>stricture Synonyms: PRAISE, bless, celebrate, cry up, extol, glorify, hymn, laud, magnify, panegyrize Sample: All the eulogies of his friends could not remove the sting of the calumny heaped upon him by his enemies. [ ] n. the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity euphemistic:offend=invulnerable:injure euphemism:offensive=aphorism:diffuse Synonyms: nice Nelly, nice-nellyism Sample: The modern age is a permissive one in which things can be said explicitly, but the old tradition of euphemism dies hard. [ ] adj. pleasing to the ear cacophonous<>dulcet/euphonious Synonyms: MELODIOUS, dulcet, euphonic, mellisonant, melodic, sweet, tuneful Sample: Noted for its euphony even when it is spoken, the Italian language is particularly pleasing to the ear when sung. [ ] n. a feeling of well-being or elation satisfaction:euphoria=?? Synonyms: elation, exaltation, intoxication Sample: "Jill's been on cloud nine ever since Jacj asked her out," said Betty, dismissing her friend's euphoria. [ ] v. a:to remove especially from a military zone or dangerous area b:to withdraw from military occupation of c:VACATE
147

evade

evanescent

evasive

everlasting

evict

evoke

ewe

evacuate<>conquer/occupy Sample: The people evacuated the town because of the flood. [ ] vt.vi. to avoid answering directly:turn aside evade:answer=goldbrick:work Synonyms: ESCAPE, AVOID, ELUDE, SHUN, ESCHEW Sample: Although internal Revenue Service agents are civil servants, they are not always civil to suspected tax evaders. [ ] adj. tending to vanish like vapor evanescent:permanence=archaic:currency evanescent:disappear=pliant:yield convoluted:complexity=transient:evanescence periodic:recur=evanescent:vanish abiding<>evanescent Synonyms: TRANSIENT, ephemeral, fleeting, fugacious, fugitive, momentary, passing, short-lived, transitory, volatile Sample: The natures of social history and lyric poetry are antithetical, social history always recounting the evanescent and lyric poetry speaking for unchanging human nature, that timeless essence beyond fashion and economics. [ ] adj. tending or intended to evade:EQUIVOCAL inclemency:evasion=?? Synonyms: equivocating, prevaricative, prevaricatory, shifty, shuffling [ ] adj. lasting or enduring through all time:ETERNAL countless/innumerable/myriad/untold:number=everlasting/interminable:duration Synonyms: amaranthine, ceaseless, endless, eternal, immortal, never-ending, unending, world-without-end Sample: Your evasive answers convinced the judge that you were witholding important evidence. [ ] vt. to force out:EXPEL deportation:country=eviction:dwelling evict:residence=banish:country harbor<>evict Synonyms: EJECT, boot (out), chase, chuck, dismiss, extrude, kick out, out, throw out Sample: They did not pay the rent on their apartment for three months, so the landlord evicted them. [ ] vt. to call forth or up evoke:hot-headed=?? evoke<>fail to elicit Synonyms: EDUCE, elicit, evince, extort, extract, milk Sample: Although my grandmother's china has intrinsically little value, I shall always cherish it for the memories it evokes. [ ] n. the female of the sheep especially when mature; also:the female of various related
148

exacerbate

exacting

exaggerate

exalt

exasperate

exceptional

animals sheep:ewe=swan:pen pen:A female swan. Sample: The architects of New York's early skyscrapers, hinting here at a twelfthcentury cathedral, there at a fifteenth-century palace, sought to legitimize the city's social strivings by evoking a history the city did not truly possess. [ ] vt. to make more violent, bitter, or severe palliate<>exacerbate Synonyms: acerbate, embitter, envenom Sample: It was her view that the country's problems had been exacerbated by foreign technocrats, so that to invite them to come back would be counterproductive. [ ] adj. tryingly or unremittingly severe in making demands vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied=wary:gulled indomitable:control=exacting:satisfy condone<>exact Synonyms: ONEROUS, burdensome, demanding, exigent, grievous, oppressive, taxing, tough, trying, weighty Sample: The colonies rebelled against the exacting financial claims of the mother country. [ ] vt.vi. to enlarge or increase especially beyond the normal:OVEREMPHASIZE anger:tirade=exaggeration:hyperbole exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram malicious:ill will=exaggerating:hyperbole pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature Synonyms: EMBROIDER, color, embellish, fudge, magnify, overcharge, overdraw, overpaint, overstate, pad Sample: In today's world, manufacturers' innovations are easily copied and thus differences between products are usually slight; advertisers, therefore, are forced to exaggerate these differences in order to suggest the uniqueness of their clients' products. [ ] v. to elevate by praise or in estimation:GLORIFY exaltation<>condemnation Synonyms: aggrandize, dignify, distinguish, ennoble, erect, glorify, honor, magnify, pedestal, stellify, sublime, uprear Sample: The actor Alec Guinness was exalted to the rank of knighthood by the Queen; he now is known as Sir Alec Guinness. [ ] vt. a:to excite the anger of:ENRAGE b:to cause irritation or annoyance to mollify<>exasperate mitigate<>exacerbate Synonyms: IRRITATE, aggravate, gall, get, huff, nettle, peeve, pique, rile, roil Sample: Johnny often exasperates his mother with his pranks. [ ] adj. deviating from the norm prosaic<>exceptional/imaginary/exciting commonplace<>exceptional
149

excerpt

exclamation

excoriate

excrete

excruciate

exculpate

excursive

execrate

Synonyms: extraordinary, phenomenal, rare, remarkable, singular, uncommon, uncustomary, unimaginable, unique, unordinary, unthinkable, unusual, unwonted [ ] n. to select (a passage) for quoting:EXTRACT aside:digression=summary:excerpt Synonyms: extract Sample: The cinematic equivalent of an excerpt from a novel is a clip from a film. [ ] n. a sharp or sudden utterance exclaim:utter=flare:shine Sample: He could not repress an ejaculation of surprise when he heard the news. [ ] v. to censure scathingly excoriate<>extol/praise lavishly accolade<>excoriate Synonyms: LAMBASTE, blister, castigate, flay, lash (into), scarify, scathe, scorch, scourge, slash Sample: These shoes are so ill-fitting that they will excoriate the feet and create blisters. [ ] vt. to separate and eliminate or discharge (waste) from the blood or tissues or from the active protoplasm excrete<>ingest excrete<>absorb Sample: Sweat is excreted through pores in the skin. [ ] vt. to subject to intense mental distress excruciate<>exult Sample: I have an excruciating stomachache (headache, back pain, etc.). [ ] vt. to clear from alleged fault or guilt exculpatory:absolve=motivational:stir hortative:encourage=exculpatory:absolve alibi:exculpatory=warning:admonitory exculpate<>inculpate Synonyms: absolve, acquit, clear, disculpate, exonerate, vindicate Sample: He was exculpated of the crime when the real criminal confessed. [ ] adj. constituting a digression:characterized by digression digress:excursive=reiterate:redundant Sample: We took an excursion to Alaska on a cruise ship. [ ] v. to declare to be evil or detestable:DENOUNCE execrate:denunciate=?? execrable<>commendable/laudable execration<>approbation execrate<>laud Synonyms: anathematize, curse, damn, objurgate
150

execute

exemplary

exempt

exert

exhaust

exhilarate

exhortation

exodus

Sample: The world execrates the memory of Hitler and hopes that genocide will never again be the policy of any nation. [ ] vt. to carry out fully:put completely into effect impossible:execute=adamant:moved vagary:predict=impossibility:execute Synonyms: ADMINISTER, administrate, carry out, govern, render Sample: Although the minuet appeared simple, its intricate steps had to be studied very carefully before they could be gracefully executed in public. [ ] adj. serving as a pattern emulate:exemplary=obviate:unnecessary exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame=redoubtable:regard corrective:amends=paradigm:exemplify exemplary:imitation=reverent:deference Synonyms: GOOD, blameless, guiltless, inculpable, innocent, irreprehensible, pure, righteous, unblamable, virtuous Sample: Her exemplary behavior was praised at commencement. [ ] adj. vt. n. free or released from some liability or requirement to which others are subject exempt:liability=pardon:penalty Synonyms: absolve, discharge, dispense, excuse, let off, privilege (from), relieve, spare Sample: The court exempted me from jury duty because I'm a minister. [ ] vt. to bring to bear especially with sustained effort or lasting effect Synonyms: exercise, ply, put out, throw, wield Sample: After two nights without sleep, she felt sluggish and incapable of exertion. [ ] vt. to consume entirely:USE UP infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap thirsty:imbibe=exhausted:rest Synonyms: DEPLETE, bankrupt, drain, draw, draw down, impoverish, use up Sample: There are, as yet, no vegetation types or ecosystems whose study has been exhausted to the extent that they no longer interest ecologists. [ ] vt. to make cheerful exhilarate<>sadden Synonyms: ELATE, commove, excite, inspire, set up, spirit (up), stimulate Sample: The cold autumn air exhilarates me. [ ] n. language intended to incite and encourage exhortation:motivate=invective:discredit exhortation:motivate=persiflage:incite exhortation:motivate=obloquy:discredit exhortative:urge=didactic:teach { risible:ridicule} Sample: The evangelist will exhort all sinners in his audience to reform. [ ] vt.
151

exonerate

exorbitant

exotic

expansive

expedite

expedition

a mass departure:EMIGRATION exodus<>influx Synonyms: DEPARTURE, egress, egression, exit, exiting, offgoing, setting-out, withdrawal Sample: For many young people during the Roaring Twenties, a disgust with the excesses of American culture combined with a wanderlust to provoke an exodus abroad. [ ] v. to relieve of a responsibility, obligation, or hardship exoneration:blame=disentangle/extricat:snarl exonerate<>censure exonerate<>inculpate incrimination<>exoneration exonerate<>incriminate Synonyms: EXCULPATE, absolve, acquit, clear, disculpate, vindicate Sample: I am sure this letter naming the actual culprit will exonerate you. [ ] adj. exceeding in intensity, quality, amount, or size the customary or appropriate limits exorbitant:moderation=perfidious:loyalty Synonyms: EXCESSIVE , dizzy, extravagant, extreme, immoderate, inordinate, towering, unconscionable, undue, unmeasurable Sample: The people grumbled at his exorbitant prices but paid them because he had a monopoly. [ ] adj. introduced from another country:not native to the place where found exotic<>indigenous Sample: Because of his exotic headdress, he was followed in the streets by small children who laughed at his strange appearance. [ ] adj. characterized by high spirits, generosity, or readiness to talk:OPEN intrude:expansive=?? expansive<>reserved/diffident/taciturn/withdrawn expansive<>malicious expansive<>limited Synonyms: DEMONSTRATIVE, outgoing, unconstrained, unreserved, unrestrained Sample: The father was in an expansive mood and gave presents to all of his children. [ ] vt. to accelerate the process or progress of:speed up expedite:process=accelerate:pace expedite<>retard Sample: We hope you will be able to expedite delivery because of our tight schedule. [ ] n. efficient promptness:SPEED expedition:foot dragging=consensus:factionalism expedition<>foot dragging Synonyms: HASTE, celerity, dispatch, expeditiousness, hurry, hustle, rustle, speed, speediness, swiftness Sample: Although the ostensible purpose of this expedition is to discover new lands, we are really interested in finding new markets for our products.
152

expiation

explicit

exponent

expurgate

exquisite

extant

extemporize

extenuate

[ ] n. the act of making atonement guilt:expiation=fatigue:repose Sample: He tried to expiate his crimes by a full confession to the authorities. [ ] adj. fully revealed or expressed without vagueness, implication, or ambiguity:leaving no question as to meaning or intent explicit<>obscure immanent<>explicit inchoate<>explicit Synonyms: categorical, clean-cut, clear-cut, definite, definitive, express, specific, unambiguous Sample: In certain forms of discourse such as the parable, the central point of a message can be effectively communicated even though this point is not explicit. [ ] n. one that expounds or interprets exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass Synonyms: advocate, champion, expounder, proponent, supporter Sample: She is an exponent of vegetarianism. [ ] v. to cleanse of something morally harmful, offensive, or erroneous; especially:to expunge objectionable parts from before publication or presentation vendor:purvey=censor:expurgate inexpurgate<>obliterate Synonyms: PURIFY, cleanse, lustrate, purge Sample: The editors felt that certain passages in the book had to be expurgated before it could be used in the classroom. [ ] adj. marked by flawless craftsmanship or by beautiful, ingenious, delicate, or elaborate execution tawdry<>exquisite Synonyms: CHOICE, dainty, delicate, elegant, rare, recherch, select, superior Sample: The detail on the watch face is exquisite. [ ] adj. currently or actually existing extant<>extinct/lost extant<>missing Synonyms: alive, around, existent, existing, living Sample: Although the authorities suppressed the book, many copies are extant and may be purchased at exorbitant prices. [ ] v. to do something extemporaneously:IMPROVISE; especially:to speak extemporaneously juggernaut:unstoppable=extemporization:spontaneous { boast:dishonest } Synonyms: IMPROVISE, ad-lib, improvisate Sample: Novice extemporaneous speakers often talk in a halting fashion as they grope for the right words. [ ] vt.
153

exterminate

extinct

extinguish

extol

extort

extraneous

to lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of by making partial excuses:MITIGATE moderate:intensity=extenuate:seriousness buffer:impact=?? Synonyms: THIN, attenuate, wiredraw Sample: It is easier for us to extenuate our own shortcomings than those of others. [ ] vt. to get rid of completely usually by killing off Synonyms: ANNIHILATE, abate, abolish, blot out, eradicate, extinguish, extirpate, root out, uproot, wipe (out) Sample: Some people exterminate garden insects by spraying poison on the plants. [ ] adj. no longer existing extant<>extinct extinct<>resuscitated extinction<>perpetuation Sample: If a species of parasite is to survive, the host organisms must live long enough for the parasite to reproduce ; if the host species becomes extinct , so do its parasites. (9504) [ ] vt. to cause to cease burning:QUENCH extinguish<>kindle ignite<>extinguish extinguish<>rekindle Synonyms: ANNIHILATE, abate, abolish, blot out, eradicate, exterminate, extirpate, root out, uproot, wipe (out) Sample: As a Scout, Marisa learned how to light a fire, how to stoke it if it started to die down, and how to extinguish it completely. [ ] v. to praise highly:GLORIFY deprecate<>extol excoriate<>extol/praise lavishly extol<>censure extol<>disparage extol<>condemn/impugn/detract extol<>malign extol<>vilify Synonyms: PRAISE, bless, celebrate, cry up, eulogize, glorify, hymn, laud, magnify, panegyrize Sample: The astronauts were extolled as the pioneers of the Space Age. [ ] vt. to obtain from a person by force, intimidation, or undue or illegal power:WRING sycophant:flattery=extortionist:intimidation extort:obtain= Synonyms: exact, gouge, pinch, screw, shake down, squeeze, wrench, wrest, wring Sample: The blackmailer extorted money from his victim. [ ] adj a:not forming an essential or vital part b:having no relevance
154

extravagant

extricate

extrinsic

extrovert

exuberant

exude

exultant

apposite<>extraneous extraneous<>essential extraneous<>intuitive Synonyms: IRRELEVANT, foreign, immaterial, impertinent, inapplicable, inapposite, irrelative Sample: Do not pad your paper with extraneous matters; stick to essential items only. [ ] adj a:spending much more than necessary b:PROFUSE, LAVISH frugality<>extravagancy Synonyms: EXCESSIVE, dizzy, exorbitant, extreme, immoderate, inordinate, towering, unconscionable, undue, unmeasurable Sample: Ever prey to vagrant impulses that impelled him to squander his talents on a host of unworthy projects, his very dissipation nonetheless enhanced his reputation, for the sheer energy of his extravagance dazzled observers. [ ] v. to free or remove from an entanglement or difficulty Synonyms: clear, clear away, discumber, disembarrass, disembroil, disencumber, disentangle, disentwine, unentangle, unscramble, untangle, untie, untwine Sample: He found that he could not extricate himself from the trap. [ ] adj. not forming an essential or inherent part of a thing; extraneous. extrinsic<>inherent immanent<>extrinsic Synonyms: alien, extraneous, foreign Sample: Do not be fooled by extrinsic causes. We must look for the intrinsic reason. [ ] n. a gregarious and unreserved person extrovert:outgoing=perfectionist:exacting Sample: A good salesperson in usually an extrovert, who likes to mingle with people. [ ] adj. joyously unrestrained and enthusiastic ennui<>exuberance soaking:wet=exuberant:happy=frigid:cool Synonyms: brash, ebullient, effervescent, high-spirited, vivacious Sample: His speeches were famous for his exuberant language and vivid imagery. [ ] vt.vi to undergo diffusion exude<>absorb Synonyms: bleed, ooze, percolate, strain, sweat, transude, weep Sample: The maple syrup is obtained from the sap that the trees exude in early spring. [ ] adj. filled with or expressing great joy or triumph:JUBILANT exult:satisfaction=crave:longing abject<>exultant dejected<>exultant exultant<>dejected crestfallen<>exultant Synonyms: cock-a-hoop, cock-a-whoop, exulting, jubilant, triumphal, triumphant
155

fabricate

facetious

facilitate

faction

fade

fail-safe

Sample: We exulted when our team won the victory. [ ] vt. CONSTRUCT, MANUFACTURE; specifically:to construct from diverse and usually standardized parts discompose:pacific=fabricate:authentic discompose:placid=fabricate:ingenuous Synonyms: MAKE, assemble, build, construct, fashion, form, frame, manufacture, produce, shape Sample: Scientists' pristine reputation as devotees of the disinterested pursuit of truth has been compromised by recent evidence that some scientists have deliberately fabricated experimental results to further their own careers. [ ] adj. joking or jesting often inappropriately:WAGGISH facetious:speech=antic:behavior facetious<>earnest facetious<>lugubrious Synonyms: WITTY, humorous, jocose, jocular Sample: Your facetious remarks are not appropriate at this serious moment. [ ] vt. to make easier:help bring about facilitate<>impeding obstruct<>facilitate hamper<>facilitate arduous<>facile facile<>profound Sample: Histocompatibility antigens that attack foreign tissue in the body cannot have been conserved through evolution expressly to foil organ transplantation; on the contrary, they have been found to facilitate many essential biological functions. [ ] n. a party or group (as within a government) that is often contentious or selfseeking:CLIQUE consensus:factionalism=clarity:confusion law:criminality=consensus:factionalism {lesson:falsehood} expedition:foot dragging=consensus:factionalism factional<>disinterested ecumenical<>factionalism/provincial faction<>unity Synonyms: COMBINATION, bloc, coalition, combine, part, ring Sample: The quarrels and bickering of the two small factions within the club disturbed the majority of the members. [ ] vi. to change gradually in loudness, strength, or visibility abate:force=fade:loudness abate:intensity=fade:loudness Synonyms: DULL, dim, muddy, pale, tarnish Sample: The horseman passed by me and faded into the distance. [ ] n. incorporating some feature for automatically counteracting the effect of an anticipated
156

faint

fainthearted

fallacy

falsehood

falter

fantasy

farce

fascinate

possible source of failure fail-safe:malfunction=?? Sample: As a fail-safe action, my computer automatically copies my work every two minutes, so almost nothing can be lost. [ ] adj. lacking strength or vigor:performed, offered, or accomplished weakly or languidly stentorian<>faint Synonyms: GENTLE, balmy, bland, lenient, mild, smooth, soft Sample: The radio signal is too faint to be heard clearly. [ ] adj. lacking courage or resolution:TIMID Sample: He was too faint-hearted to climb the mountain with the others. [ ] n. a:a false or mistaken idea b:erroneous character:ERRONEOUSNESS disabuse:fallacy=cure:disease verifiable<>fallacious fallacious<>sound/valid/veritable fallacy<>valid argument Synonyms: erroneousness, error, fallaciousness, falsehood, falseness, falsity, untruth Sample: There must be a fallacy in this syllogism; I cannot accept its conclusion. [ ] n. absence of truth or accuracy corroborate:evidence=calumniate:falsehood Synonyms: FALLACY, erroneousness, error, fallaciousness, falseness, falsity, untruth Sample: The boy's father punished him for telling a falsehood. [ ] vt. a:to hesitate in purpose or action:WAVER b:to lose drive or effectiveness falter:act=stammer:speak Synonyms: TEETER, lurch, stagger, stumble, topple, totter, wobble Sample: When told to dive off the high board, she did not falter, but proceeded at once. [ ] n. imaginative fiction featuring especially strange settings and grotesque characters nicety:precision=illusion:fantasy imperial:significant=grotesque:fantasy Synonyms: IMAGINATION, fancy, imaginativeness Sample: Sue knew so many computer programmers who spent their spare time playing fantasy games that she began to think that playing Dungeon & Dragons was a generic trait. [ ] n. ridiculous or empty show farce:performance=limerick:poem Synonyms: MOCKERY, burlesque, caricature, mock, sham, travesty Sample: Nothing went right; the entire interview degenerated into a farce. [ ] vt. to be irresistibly attractive fascination:interest=adoration:fondness Synonyms: ATTRACT, allure, bewitch, captivate, charm, draw, enchant, magnetize, take, wile
157

fast

fast

fasten

fastidious

fathom

fatigue

fatuous

Sample: Black Fiction surveys a wide variety of novelsbringing to our attention in theprocess some fascinating and little-known works like James Weldon Johnsons Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. [ ] n. the act to eat sparingly or abstain from some foods fast:eat=respite:labor fast:eat=moratorium:act Sample: From time to time, I fast for a day to lose weight. [ ] adv. in a firm or fixed manner fast<>loosely attach Synonyms: HARD, firm, firmly, fixedly, solidly, steadfastly, tight, tightly Sample: That door won't open; it is stuck fast. [ ] vt. to attach especially by pinning, tying, or nailing lathe:shape=clasp:fasten fastness<>unsecured palace Sample: The student fastened his attention on the teacher. [ ] adj showing or demanding excessive delicacy or care devoted:zealous=careful:fastidious dapper:fastidious=?? fastidious:outshine=recalcitrant:resist fastidious<>coarse fastidious<>easygoing/cursory/uncritical Synonyms: NICE, dainty, finical, finicking, finicky, fussy, particular, pernickety, persnickety, squeamish Sample: The waitresses disliked serving him dinner because of his very fastidious taste. [ ] v. to penetrate and come to understand erudite:fathom=oblivious:neglect measurable<>unfathomable occult<>bare/patent/readily fathomable measurable<>unfathomed Synonyms: KNOW, appreciate, apprehend, cognize, comprehend, grasp, have, understand Sample: Many have sought to fathom the enigmatic smile of the Mona Lisa. [ ] n. weariness or exhaustion from labor, exertion, or stress fatigue:rest=dehydration:water dehydrate:water=fatigue:repose/rest guilt:expiation=fatigue:repose indefatigable<>soon tired Synonyms: :exhaustion, lassitude, tiredness, weariness Sample: He is suffering from fatigue and wants to go to bed early. [ ] adj. complacently or inanely foolish:SILLY fatuous<>astute
158

fawn

faze

feckless

fecund

feeble

fender

Synonyms: simple, asinine, brainless, foolish, sheepheaded, silly, unwitty, weakheaded, weak-minded, witless. Sample: Everybody is always laughing behind his back at his fatuous statements. [ ] n to court favor by a cringing or flattering manner adulate:fawn=woo:adorn condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger=fawn:hauteur fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness=elaborate:sketchy miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion obsequious:fawn=compliant:yield parsimonious:spend=peremptory:fawn reprobate:misbehave=sycophant:fawn fawn:attentive=garish:colorful sycophant:fawn=malcontent:complaint Synonyms: apple-polish, bootlick, brownnose, cotton, slaver, toady, honey(up) Sample: Helen valued people who behaved as if they respected themselves; nothing irritated her more than an excessively obsequious waiter or a fawning salesclerk. [ ] vt. to disturb the composure of:DISCONCERT, DAUNT embolden<>abash/faze/cow fazed<>undisturbed Synonyms: embarrass, abash, confound, dumbfound, mystify, nonplus, perplex, puzzle; confuse, muddle; appall, daunt, dismay, horrify; annoy, bother, irritate, vex Sample: The bad news did not faze him at all. [ ] adj. WEAK, INEFFECTIVE feckless<>responsible Synonyms: fustian, good-for-nothing, meaningless, purposeless, unpurposed, useless, worthless Sample: If animal parents were judged by human standards, the cuckoo would be one of nature's more feckless creatures, blithely laying its eggs in the nests of other birds, and leaving the incubating and nurturing to them. [ ] adj. fruitful in offspring or vegetation:PROLIFIC deprivation<>fecundity Synonyms: fertile, childing, fruitful, productive, proliferant, prolific, rich, generating Sample: The Neoplatonists' conception of a deity, in which perfection was measured by abundant fecundity, was contradicted by that of the Aristotelians, in which perfection was displayed in the economy of creation. [ ] adj. markedly lacking in strength hardy<>tender/feeble Synonyms: weak, decrepit, flimsy, fragile, frail, infirm, insubstantial, unsubstantial, wanky, weakly Sample: His feeble attempts at solving the problem are worthless. [ ] n a device in front of locomotives and streetcars to lessen injury to animals or pedestrians
159

feral

fertilize

fervid

fervor

fetid

fetter

fiasco

fictitious

in case of collision fender:collision=?? Sample: The right front fender on my car needs to be repaired. [ ] adj. not domesticated or cultivated:WILD feral<>cultivated Synonyms: brutish, animal, beastly, bestial, brutal, brute, ferine, swinish [ ] vt. to make fertile fertilize:grow=immunize:resist Sample: Most farmers fertilize their farmland with chemicals. [ ] adj. marked by often extreme fervor fervid<>restrained Synonyms: impassioned, ardent, blazing, burning, fervent, fiery, glowing, hot-blooded, passionate, perfervid Sample: Her fervid enthusiasm inspired all of us to undertake the dangerous mission. [ ] n. intensity of feeling or expression ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic fervor:zealot=improvidence:spendthrift zealotry<>lack of fervor fervor<>indifferent fervor<>uninterested Synonyms: passion, ardor, calenture, enthusiasm, fire, hurrah, zeal Sample: On this solemn day, the congregation responded to the prayers of the priest during the litany with fervor and intensity. [ ] adj. having a heavy offensive smell grating:sound=fetid:smell fetid:smell:cacophonous:sound Synonyms: malodorous, fusty, noisome, putrid, rancid, rank, reeking, smelly, stinking, strong Sample: The neglected wound became fetid. [ ] n. to restrain from motion, action, or progress enfranchise<>enfetter liberalistic<>enfetterist fetter<>free management<>unfettered liberty Synonyms: shackle, bond(s), chain, gyve(s), iron(s) Sample: Liberty is not easy, but far better to be an unfettered fox, hungry and threatened on its hill, than a well-fed canary, safe and secure in its cage. [ ] n. a complete failure fiasco<>a notable success Sample: Our ambitious venture ended in a fiasco and we were forced to flee. [ ] adj.
160

fidelity

figurative

filibuster

of, relating to, or characteristic of fiction:IMAGINARY fictitious<>factual Synonyms: chimerical, fanciful, fantastic, fictional, fictive, illusory, imaginary, suppositious, supposititious, unreal; fake, mock, sham, simulated Sample: Although this book purports to be a biography of George Washington, many of the incidents are fictitious. [ ] n. the quality or state of being faithful respect:baseness=trust=infidelity {indistinct:observe}{unintelligible:grasp} apostasy<>fidelity Synonyms: allegiance, ardor, devotion, faithfulness, fealty, loyalty, piety Sample: A dog's fidelity to its owner is one of the reasons why that animal is a favorite household pet. [ ] adj. representing by a figure or resemblance:EMBLEMATIC Sample: Ironically, the proper use of figurative language must be based on the denotative meaning of the words, because it is the failure to recognize this literal meaning that leads to mixed metaphors and their attendant incongruity. [ ] n./v. the use of extreme dilatory tactics in an attempt to delay or prevent action especially in a legislative assembly filibuster:delay=hoax:deceive Sample: Even though we disapproved of Senator Foghorn's political goals, we were impressed by his ability to filibuster endlessly to keep an issue from coming to a vote. List 12 filigree --- genuine

filigree

filly

filter

finch

[ ] n. ornamental openwork of delicate or intricate design chiaroscuro:contrast=tapestry:intricacy={ filigree:delicacy } chiaroscuro:contrast=filigree:delicacy Sample:The pendant with gold filigree that she wore round her neck trembled with each breath she took. [ ] n. a young female horse usually of less than four years filly:horse=pullet:chicken Sample: There was a special race for fillies. [ ] vt. a porous article or mass (as of paper or sand) through which a gas or liquid is passed to separate out matter in suspension winnow:chaff=filter:impurities Sample: A very specialized feeding adaptation in zooplankton is that of the tadpolelike appendicularian who lives in a walnut-sized (or smaller) balloon of mucus equipped with filters thatcapture and concentrate phytoplankton. [ ] n. any of numerous songbirds (especially families Fringillidae, Estrildidae, and Emberizidae) having a short stout usually conical bill adapted for crushing seeds finch:bird=arboretum:tree finch:bird=aspen:tree=lizard:reptile=eagle:bird
161

finesse

finicky

flaccid

flagging

flamboyant

flange

flannel

flatter

[ ] n. skillful handling of a situation:adroit maneuvering finesse<>ineptitude Synonyms: manipulate, beguile, exploit, jockey, maneuver, play Sample: The finesse and adroitness of the surgeon impressed the observers in the operating room. [ ] adj. extremely or excessively nice, exacting, or meticulous in taste or standards fluent:glib=humorous:wry { meticulous:finicky } Synonyms: nice, dainty, fastidious, finical, finicking, fussy, particular, pernickety, persnickety, squeamish Sample: The old lady was finicky about her food and ate very little. [ ] n. not firm or stiff; also:lacking normal or youthful firmness flaccidity<>firmness Synonyms: limp, flabby, flimsy, floppy, sleazy Sample: Noting the murder victim's flaccid musculature and pearlike figure, she deduced that the unfortunate fellow had earned his living in some sedentary occupation. [ ] adj. LANGUID, WEAK flagging<>thriving flagging<>vibrant flag<>wax Sample: When the opposing hockey team scored its third goal only minutes into the first period, the home team's spirits flagged. [ ] adj. marked by or given to strikingly elaborate or colorful display or behavior furtive:openness=flamboyant:reserved flamboyant<>subdued flamboyant<>understate Synonyms: ornate, baroque, florid, luscious, rich, rococo Sample: Thomas Paine, whose political writing was often flamboyant, was in private life a surprisingly simple man:he lived in rented rooms, ate little, and wore drab clothes. [ ] n. a projecting edge of cloth used for decoration on clothing Sample: The flange on the metal wheel kept it on the track. [ ] n. outer garments of flannel; especially:men's trousers flannel:cloth=linen:fabric{ limerick:poem } Sample: He wears gray flannel suits. [ ] vt. to praise excessively especially from motives of self-interest flatter:praise=loquacious:talkative sabbatical:leave=flattering:infatuation scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore sycophant:flattery=extortionist:intimidation=toady:flatter querulous:complain=sycophant:flattery invective<>flatter
162

flaw

flax

fledge

flexible

flinch

flint

flippancy

flirt

Synonyms: become, enhance, suit Sample: He was always accompanied by several of his minions because he enjoyed their subservience and flattery. [ ] n. v. a defect in physical structure or form glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile Sample: It is puzzling to observe that Jone's novel has recently been criticized for its lack of structure, since commentators have traditionally argued that its most obvious flaw is its relentlessly rigid, indeed schematic, framework. [ ] n. any of a genus (Linum of the family Linaceae, the flax family) of herbs; especially:a slender erect annual (L. usitatissimum) with blue flowers commonly cultivated for its bast fiber and seed clay:porcelain=flax:linen vi. to acquire the feathers necessary for flight or independent activity fledge<>molt Sample: It is hard for an unfledged writer to find a sympathetic publisher. [ ] adj. capable of being flexed:PLIANT adamant:flexibility=refractory:control limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty static:move=pliable:inflexible inflexible:alternate=?? calcification<>flexibility flexible<>mulish Synonyms: elastic, resilient, springy, stretch, stretchy, supple, whippy Sample: She is flexible and always open to new ideas.. [ ] vn. to withdraw or shrink from or as if from pain:WINCE; also:to tense the muscles involuntarily in anticipation of discomfort grisly:flinch=droll:laugh stoic:flinch=?? Synonyms: recoil, blanch, blench, quail, shrink, squinch, start, wince Sample: He did not flinch in the face of danger but fought back bravely. [ ] n. a massive hard quartz that produces a spark when struck by steel pestle:grind=flint stone:sharpen [ ] n unbecoming levity or pertness especially in respect to grave or sacred matters flippancy<>seriousness flippancy<>sobriety flippancy<>gravity Synonyms: lightness, flightiness, frivolity, levity, light-mindedness, volatility Sample: Your flippancy at this serious moment is offensive. [ ] vi. to behave amorously without serious intent
163

flit

flock

flounder

flourish

flout

fluctuate

fluent

flirt:decency=?? supplicant:beseeching=coquette:flirtatious Synonyms: trifle, coquet, dally, fool, lead on, string along, toy, wanton Sample: He flirted with disaster when he bet a lot of money at the horseraces. [ ] n.vi. to move about rapidly and nimbly. flit:move=blurt:utter flit<>plod Sample: Like a bee flitting from flower to flower, Rose flitted from one boyfriend to the next. [ ] n. a group of birds or mammals assembled or herded together to gather or move in a flock clique:intimates=flock:sheep herd:animals=flock:birds flock<>segregate Synonyms: multitude, army, cloud, crowd, host, legion, rout, scores Sample: The flock of sheep was made up of dozens of ewes, together with only a handful of rams. [ ] vi to proceed or act clumsily or ineffectually flounder:process=?? flounder<>slide Synonyms: wallow, blunder, lurch, stumble Sample: When we asked him about his past, he floundered for a moment and then answered. [ ] vi. to grow luxuriantly:THRIVE flourish<>waste away flourish<>wither Synonyms: succeed, arrive, go, make out, prosper, score, thrive Sample: Although Irish literature continued to flourish after the sixteenth century, a comparable tradition is absent in the visual arts:we think about Irish culture in terms of the word, not in terms of pictorial images. [ ] v\n. to treat with contemptuous disregard:SCORN flout:disregard=taunt:challenge (challenge:to confront or defy boldly) Synonyms: scoff, fleer, gibe, jeer, jest, quip(at), scout(at), sneer Sample: The headstrong youth flouted all authority; he refused to be curbed. [ ] vi. to shift back and forth uncertainly pristine:decay=stable:fluctuation Sample: Until the current warming trend exceeds the range of normal climatic fluctuations, there will be, among scientists, considerable uncertainty about the possibility that increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 can cause long-term warming effects. [ ] adj. a:ready or facile in speech b:effortlessly smooth and rapid:POLISHED
164

plumage

flush

fluster

fluvial

foible

foil

foliage

folly

fluent:glib=humorous:wry fluent:glib=meticulous:nitpick/finicky fluent<>halting Synonyms: cursive, effortless, flowing, running, smooth Sample: She speaks fluent Japanese. [ ] n. the feathers of a bird plumage:bird=foliage:bush [ ] vi to pour liquid over or through; especially:to cleanse or wash out with or as if with a rush of liquid galvanize:stimulate=irrigate:flush Synonyms: rich, affluent, moneyed, opulent, wealthy Sample: His flushed, angry face indicated a choleric nature. [ ] v. to put into a state of agitated confusion:UPSET flustered<>calm Synonyms: discompose, agitate, bother, discombobulate, disquiet, disturb, flurry, perturb, unhinge, upset Sample: The teacher's sudden question flustered him and he stammered his reply. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or living in a stream or river fluvial:river=sidereal:star [ ] n a minor flaw or shortcoming in character or behavior:WEAKNESS squabble:dispute=foible:failing tiff:squabble=foible:failing squabble:quarrel=foible:failing Synonyms: fault, failing, frailty, vice Sample: We can overlook the foibles of our friends; no one is perfect. [ ] v. n. a thin piece of material (as metal) put under an inferior or paste stone to add color or brilliance foil:metal=veneer:wood Synonyms: frustrate, baffle, balk, beat, bilk, buffalo, circumvent, dash, disappoint, thwart Sample: In "Star Wars," dark, evil Darth Vader is a perfect foil for fair-haired, naive Luke Skywalker. [ ] n. the aggregate of leaves of one or more plants plumage:bird=foliage:bush Sample: Every autumn before the leaves fell he promised himself he would drive though the New England to admire the colorful fall foliage. [ ] n. a foolish act or idea folly<>sagacious Synonyms: foolishness, absurdity, craziness, dottiness, inanity, insanity, insanity, preposterousness, senselessness, silliness, witlessness
165

foment

fondness

foolhardy

footloose

forebear

ford

forestry

Sample: I am often impressed by my own tolerance of other peoples idiocies:what is harder to appreciate is that they, in their folly, are equally engaged in putting up with mine. [ ] vt. to promote the growth or development of:ROUSE, INCITE conducive:foment=tonic:invigorate disseminate:information=foment:discontentment defuse<>foment foment<>inhibit quell<>foment/instigate/rouse squelch<>foment foment<>quash/quell impede<>promote/foment placate<>foment Synonyms: incite, abet, instigate, provoke, raise, set, set on, stir(up), whip(up) Sample: This report will foment disssension in the club. [ ] n. tender affection fascination:interest=adoration:fondness Synonyms: love, affection, attachment, devotion, appetite, inclination, liking, soft spot, taste, weakness Sample: She had an inordinate fondness for candy. [ ] adj. foolishly adventurous and bold:RASH Synonyms: adventurous, adventuresome, audacious, daredevil, daring, rash, reckless, temerarious, venturesome, venturous Sample: Don't be foolhardy. Get the advice of experienced people before undertaking this venture. [ ] adj. having no ties:free to move about dauntless:trepidation=footloose:attachment footloose<>attached Sample: After military service, he was footloose and fancy-free, so he toured Europe. [ ] n. ANCESTOR, FOREFATHER; also : PRECURSOR forebears<>descendants Synonyms: ancestor, antecedent, ascendant, forefather, primogenitor, progenitor Sample: Reverence for one's forebears (sometimes referred to as ancestor worship) plays an important part in many Oriental cultures. [ ] n. A shallow place in a body of water, such as a river, where one can cross by walking or riding on an animal or in a vehicle ford:river=pass:mountain{ shore:lake } pass:A way, such as a narrow gap between mountains, that affords passage around, over, or through a barrier. Sample: Rather than risk using the shaky rope bridge, David walked a half-mile downstream until he came to the neartest ford. [ ] n. the management of growing timber
166

foreword

forgery

formidable

forthright

fortify

foster

tree:forestry=flower:horticulture Sample: Her son went to Yale University to study forestry. [ ] n. prefatory comments (as for a book) especially when written by someone other than the author foreword:introductory=appellation:designate Synonyms: INTRODUCTION, exordium, overture, preamble, preface, prelude, prelusion, proem, prolegomenon, prologue Sample: The author wrote a foreword to be used as the first page of her book. [ ] n. an act of forging; especially:the crime of falsely and fraudulently making or altering a document (as a check) plagiarism:ideas=forgery:documents Sample: The painting, which sold for $500,000, turned out to be a forgery; it was only really worth $10,000. [ ] adj. causing fear, dread, or apprehension formidable<>comforting formidable<>simple formidable<>enticing formidable<>reassuring formidable<>genial Synonyms: fearful, appalling, awful, dreadful, frightful, horrible, horrific, shocking, terrible, terrific; hard, arduous, difficult, effortful, labored, laborious, strenuous, toilsome, tough, uphill Sample: Even though formidable winters are the norm in the Dakotas, many people were unprepared for the ferocity of the blizzard of 1888. [ ] adj. free from ambiguity or evasiveness:going straight to the point acrid:gentleness=forthright:guile furtive<>open/forthright/brassy Synonyms: straightforward, aboveboard, plain dealing, straight, frank, candid, direct, open, openhearted, plain, single, undisguised, unvarnished Sample: In the midst of so many evasive comments, this forthright statement, whatever its intrinsic merit, plainly stands out as an anomaly. [ ] vt. to make strong:as to give physical strength, courage, or endurance to debilitated<>fortified vitiate<>fortify enervate<>fortify/strengthen Synonyms: strengthen, energize, invigorate, reinforce Sample: He fortified himself with a glass of whisky before going out in the cold weather. [ ] vt. to promote the growth or development of:ENCOURAGE foster<>stifle { retract } Synonyms: nurse, cherish, cultivate, nourish, nursle, nurture; advance, encourage, forward, further, promote, serve
167

founder

founder

fracture

fragile

fraudulent

freelancer

freewheel

frenzy

Sample: No one expected Foster to forsake his wife and children and run off with another woman. [ ] n. one that founds or establishes Synonyms: father, architect, author, creator, generator, inventor, maker, originator, patriarch, sire Sample: Among those drowned when the Titanic sank was the founder of the Abraham & Straus chain. [ ] vt. to become submerged:SINK founder<>stay aloft founder<>keep aloft founder<>afloat Synonyms: sink, go down, go under, submerge, submerse Sample: After hitting the submerged iceberg, the Titanic started taking in water rapidly and soon foundered. [ ] n. RUPTURE, TEAR cement<>fracture Synonyms: breach, break, fissure, rent, rift, rupture, schism, split Sample: They found a small fracture in the wing of the plane. [ ] adj. a:easily broken or destroyed b:constitutionally delicate:lacking in physical vigor fragile:break=porous:penetrate limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty hardness<>frailty Synonyms: breakable, frail, frangible, shatterable, shattery; weak, decrepit, feeble, flimsy, frail, infirm, insubstantial, unsound, unsubstantial, weakly Sample: That dish is fragile, so be careful. [ ] adj. characterized by, based on, or done by fraud:DECEITFUL authenticity:fraudulent=sincerity:hypocritical hoax:fraudulent=paragon:excellent Sample: The government seeks to prevent fraudulent and misleading advertising. [ ] n. a person who pursues a profession without a long-term commitment to any one employer nomad:domicile=freelancer:employer [ ] vi. to move, live, or play freely or irresponsibly Sample: It is assumed that scientists will avoid making fraudulent claims about the results of their experiments because of the likelihood that they will be exposed when other researchers cannot duplicate their findings. [ ] n. a violent mental or emotional agitation convulsion:contraction=frenzy:emotion energetic:frenetic=firm:obdurate Sample: As soon as they smelled smoke, the frenzied animals milled about in their
168

frequent

fresco

fret

friable

friction

frieze

frigid

frivolous

cages. [ ] v. to associate with, be in, or resort to often or habitually frequent<>shun { avoid } Synonyms: affect, hang around, hang out, haunt, resort Sample: He frequents the local restaurants often. [ ] n. the art of painting on freshly spread moist lime plaster with water-based pigments fresco:wall=parquetry:floor Sample: The cathedral is visited by many tourists who wish to admire the frescoes by Glotto. [ ]v an agitation of mind:IRRITATION draconian:inclemency=fret:vexation Synonyms: ANNOY, abrade, bother, chafe, exercise, gall, irk, provoke, ruffle, vex Sample: To fret over your poor grades is foolish; instead, decide to work harder in the future. [ ] adj. easily crumbled or pulverized friable:crumble=malleable:alter impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible friable:crumbed=lucid:comprehended friable<>not easily crumbled/resistance to be pulverized friable<>difficult to crumble Synonyms: short, brittle, crisp, orumbly, crump, crunchy Sample: The pages of the old book are yellowed and friable. [ ] n. the rubbing of one body against another abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration abraded:friction=vaporized:heat Sample: At this time when harmony is essential, we cannot afford to have any friction in our group. [ ] n. a heavy durable coarse wool and shoddy fabric with a rough surface frieze:building=illumination:manuscript Sample: The frieze of the church was adorned with sculpture. [ ] adj. a : intensely cold b : lacking warmth or ardor : INDIFFERENT c:lacking imaginative qualities : INSIPID sweltering<>frigid soaking:wet=exuberant:happy=frigid:cool soaking:damp=frigid:cool Synonyms: cold, arctic, chill, chilly, cool, freezing, frosty, gelid, glacial, icy; inhibited, passionless, undersexed, unresponsive Sample: Alaska is in the frigid zone. [ ] adj. intensely cold frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion
169

frothy

frowzy

frugal

frustrate

full-bodied

fulminate

fungi

grandeur<>frivolous frivolous<>sober temperance<>frivolous Synonyms: giddy, bird-witted, dizzy, empty-headed, featherbrained, flighty, harebrained, rattlebrained Sample: Though Nancy enjoyed Bill's frivolous, lighthearted companionship, she sometimes wondered whether he could ever be serious. [ ] adj. gaily frivolous or light in content or treatment:INSUBSTANTIAL frothy<>weighty [ ] adj. (frowsy) having a slovenly or uncared-for appearance dapper<>frowsy Synonyms: slatternly, blowsy, dowdy, draggletailed, slattern, sordid; malodorous, funky, fusty, musty, noisome, rank, reeking, smelly, stale, stinking [ ] adj. characterized by or reflecting economy in the use of resources parsimony:frugal=hubris:pride frugal:penurious=deference:sycophant frugal:impecunious=temperate:sober obsequious:attentiveness=parsimonious:frugality officious:attentive=parsimony:frugal frugality<>extravagancy prodigal<>frugal Synonyms: sparing, canny, chary, economical, saving, Scotch, stewardly, thrifty, unwasteful, wary Sample: She is most frugal in matters of business, but in her private life she reveals a streak of prodigality. [ ] v a:to balk or defeat in an endeavor b:to induce feelings of discouragement in frustrate<>abet Synonyms: baffle, balk, beat, bilk, buffalo, circumvent, dash, disappoint, foil, ruin, thwart; Sample: Eric was frustrated because, although he was adept at making lies sound plausible, when telling the truth, he lacked the power to make himself believed. [ ] adj. imparting to the palate the general impression of substantial weight and rich texture full-bodied:flavor=resonant:sound Synonyms: strong, concentrated, lusty, potent, robust Sample: That red wine has a full-bodied taste. [ ] v. to send forth censures or invectives fulminate:criticize=adulate:flatter Sample: The people against whom she fulminated were innocent of any wrongdoing. [ ] n. any of a major group (Fungi) of saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing organisms usually classified as plants that lack chlorophyll and include molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts
170

furnace

furor

furtive

fury

fussy

fusty

futility

gab

fungi:ecologist=motivation:psychologist [ ] n. an enclosed structure in which heat is produced furnace:heat=generator:electricity Sample: The blast furnace had a special opening at the bottom to allow the workers to remove the worthless slag. [ ] n. A general commotion; public disorder or uproar. furor<>serenity Synonyms: DELIRIUM, frenzy Sample: The story of her embezzlement of the funds created a furor on the stock exchange. [ ] adj. done by stealth:SURREPTITIOUS caprice:whimsical=stealth:furtive=discontent:unsatisfied furtive:openness=flamboyant:reserved furtive<>open/forthright/brassy furtively<>candidly sublime<>furtive Synonyms: secret, clandestine, covert, hugger-mugger, hush-hush, stealthy, sub-rosa, surreptitious Sample: The boy gave a furtive look at his classmate's test paper. [ ] n. intense, disordered, and often destructive rage effervescence:feeling=fury:anger Synonyms: ANGER, indignation, ire, mad, rage, wrath Sample: The storm attacked the coast with the fury of a hurricane. [ ] adj. Calling for or requiring great attention to sometimes trivial details assert:belabor=tend:fuss garrulous:talkative=fussy:careful Synonyms: CAREFUL, conscientious, conscionable, exact, heedful, meticulous, painstaking, punctilious, punctual, scrupulous Sample: Dentists criticize the practice of giving fussy children sweets to pacify them. [ ] adj. saturated with dust and stale odors:MUSTY fusty<>fresh [ ] n. the quality or state of being futile:USELESSNESS bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence interesting:intriguing=bootless:futile bootless:futility=void:empty futility<>effectiveness Sample: Give he previously expressed interest and the ambitious tone of her recent speeches, the senators attempt to convince the public that she is not interested in running for a second term is futile . [ ] n. to talk in a rapid or thoughtless manner:CHATTER
171

gadfly

gaffe

gainsay

gait

galaxy

gall

galvanize

Synonyms: CHAT, babble, chatter, clack, gabble, jaw, prate, prattle, yak, yakety-yak Sample: Students like to gab while they eat lunch. [ ] n. a person who stimulates or annoys especially by persistent criticism gadfly:goad=humorist:amuse Sample: Like a gadfly, he irritated all the guests at the hotel; within forty eight hours, everyone regarded him as an annoying busybody. [ ] n. a social or diplomatic blunder gaffe:tactless=?? miscalculation:judgment=gaffe:decorum illusion:perception=gaffe:judgment Synonyms: blooper, boner, impropriety, indecorum, solecism Sample: According to Miss Manners, to call your husband by your lover's name is worse than a mere gaffe; it is a tactical mistake. [ ] v. to declare to be untrue or invalid gainsay<>affirm Synonyms: deny, contradict, contravene, cross, disaffirm, impugn, negate, negative, traverse Sample: That the Third Battalion's fifty-percent casualty rate transformed its assault on Hill 306 from a brilliant stratagem into a debacle does not gainsay eyewitness reports of its commander's extraordinary cleverness in deploying his forces. [ ] n. a manner of walking or moving on foot gait:walk=parlance:speak Synonyms: speed, celerity, pace, quickness, rapidity, rapidness, swiftness, velocity Sample: The lame man walked with an uneven gait. [ ] n. an assemblage of brilliant or notable persons or things galaxy:stars=archipelago:island Sample: Unlike the easily studied neutral and ionized materials that compose the primary disk of the Milky Way itself, the components of the region surrounding our galaxy have proved more resistant to study. [ ] v. to fret and wear away by friction:CHAFE gall<>lull gall<>calm/assuage galling<>placating gall<>placate Synonyms: ANNOY , abrade, bother, chafe, exercise, fret, irk, provoke, ruffle, vex Sample: It galled me when my best friend stopped speaking to me. [ ] v. to stimulate or excite as if by an electric shock galvanize:stimulate=irrigate:flush galvanize<>lull galvanize<>allay Synonyms: provoke, excite, innervate, innerve, motivate, move, pique, prime, quicken,
172

gamble

gangling

garble

garish

garment

garner

garrulous

stimulate Sample: The entire nation was galvanized into strong military activity by the news of the attack on Pearl Harbor. [ ] v. to stake something on a contingency:take a chance adamant:yield=cautious:gamble Synonyms: bet, game, lay, play, put(on), set, stake, wager; chance, hazard, risk Sample: Corrupt politicians who condone the activities of the gamblers are equally culpable. [ ] adj. loosely and awkwardly built:LANKY Synonyms: gangly, lanky, rangy, spindling, spindly Sample: He is tall with gangling arms. [ ] v. to so alter or distort as to create a wrong impression or change the meaning correct:accurate=garble:unintelligible ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity garble<>elucidate garble<>report accurately Synonyms: misrepresent, belie, color, distort, falsify Sample: The mannual that came with my VCR was no masterpiece of expository prose:its explanations were so garbled that I couldn't even figure out how to rewind a tape. [ ] adj. clothed in vivid colors prying:inquisitive=garish:colorful fawn:attentive=garish:colorful Synonyms: gaudy, blatant, brazen, chintzy, flashy, glaring, loud Sample: She wore a garish rhinestone necklace. [ ] n. an article of clothing hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet lint:covering=tarpaulin:garment tarpaulin:covering=raincoat:garment Synonyms: clothe, apparel, array, attire, clad, dress, enclothe, garb, raiment Sample: She always discarded all garments that were no longer modish. [ ] n. a:GRANARY b:a grain bin Synonyms: reap, gather, harvest, ingather, clean, cull, extract, gather, pickup, accumulate, amass, cumulate, hive, lay up, roll up, stockpile, store(up), uplay Sample: She hoped to garner the world's literature in one library. [ ] adj given to prosy, rambling, or tedious loquacity:pointlessly or annoyingly talkative garrulous:talkative=cloying:sweet garrulous:talkative=fussy:careful garrulous/loquacious:words=prodigal:money Synonyms: talktive, babblative, chatty, loose-lipped, loose-tongued, loquacious, multiloquent, talky, tonguey
173

gash

gasification

gauche

gaudy

gauge

gear

genealogy

generality

Sample: Many club members avoided the company of the garrulous junior executive because his contant chatter bored them to tears. [ ] n. a deep long cut in flesh cleft:chasm=cut:gash Synonyms: cut, incise, pierce, slash, slice, slit Sample: The boy fell and gashed his cheek. [ ] n. conversion into gas; especially:conversion of coal into natural gas gasification/vaporization<>solidification Sample: Despite many decades of research on the gasification of coal, the data accumulated are not directly applicable to environmental questions; thus a new program of research specifically addressing such questions is warranted. [ ] adj. lacking social experience or grace; also:not tactful:CRUDE cacophony:voice=gaucherie:skill gaucheness<>polish Sample: Such remarks are gauche and out of place; you should apologize for making them. [ ] adj. ostentatiously or tastelessly ornamented gaudy:apparel=grandiloquent:speak Synonyms: blatant, brazen, chintzy, flashy, garish, glaring, loud, meretricious, tawdry, tinsel Sample: Her gaudy taste in clothes apalled us. [ ] n. a measurement (as of linear dimension) according to some standard or system gauge:pressure=scale:weight measure:dimensions:calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:depth Synonyms: standard, benchmark, criterion, measure, touchstone, yardstick Sample: Changes of fashion and public taste are often ephemeral and resistant to analysis, and yet they are among the most sensitive gauges of the state of the public's collective consciousness. [ ] n. a toothed wheel gear:tooth=screw:thread Synonyms: cog, cogwheel, pinion, toothed wheel, spurwheel, sprocket, ragwheel, lanternwheel. Sample: The car could not go up the acclivity in high gear. [ ] n. an account of the descent of a person, family, or group from an ancestor or from older forms Sample: He was proud of his genealogy and constantly referred to the achievements of his ancestors. [ ] n. the quality or state of being general ecumenical:generality=entire:integrity Sample: This report is filled with generalities; you must be more specific in your
174

genial

genteel

genuine

statements. [ ] adj. marked by or diffusing sympathy or friendliness resourceful:inventiveness=philanthropic:geniality genial<>dyspeptic caustic<>palliating/genial dour<>congenial/genial mordant<>genial genial<>truculent Synonyms: GRACIOUS, affable, congenial, cordial, sociable Sample: This restaurant is famous and popular because of the geniality of the proprietor, who tries to make everyone happy. [ ] adj. free from vulgarity or rudeness:POLITE genteel:vulgarity=intrepid:fear truculent:gentleness=unregenerate:remorse genteel<>loutish genteel<>churlish Synonyms: cultivated, cultured, polished, refined, urbane, well-bred Sample: We are looking for a man with a genteel apperance who can inspire confidence by his cultivated manner. [ ] adj. ACTUAL, TRUE genuine:authenticity=entire:integrity { honest:trust } spurious<>genuine Synonyms: AUTHENTIC, bona fide, indubitable, real, sure-enough, true, undoubted, unquestionable, veritable, very Sample: If you want to buy antiques, look for a reputable dealer; far too many dealers today pass off fakes as genuine antiques. List 13 germane --- helmet

germane

gesture

ghastly

[ ] adj. being at once relevant and appropriate:FITTING germane<>irrelevant Sample: The lawyer objected that the testimony being offered was not germane to the case at hand. [ ] n. a movement usually of the body or limbs that expresses or emphasizes an idea, sentiment, or attitude parody:style=mime:gesture Sample: Like many eighteenth-century scholars who lived by cultivating those in power, Winckelmann neglected to neutralize, by some propitiatory gesture of comradeship, the resentment his peers were bound to feel because of his involvement with the high and mighty. [ ] adj. intensely unpleasant, disagreeable, or objectionable ghastly:unpleasant=?? Synonyms: grim, grisly, gruesome, hideous, horrible, horrid, horrifying, lurid, macabre,
175

gibe

giddy

ginger

glacier

glade

glance

glaze

glib

terrible, terrifying Sample: The murdered man was a ghastly sight. [ ] v. to deride or tease with taunting words apologize:regret=gibe:derision condolence:sympathy/compassion=gibe:derision Synonyms: SCOFF, fleer, flout, gird, jeer, jest, quip (at), scout (at), sneer Sample: As you gibe at their superstitious beliefs, do you realize that you, too, are guilty of similarly foolish thoughts? [ ] adj. lightheartedly silly:FRIVOLOUS giddiness<>grave giddy<>serious Synonyms: bird-witted, dizzy, empty-headed, featherbrained, flighty, fribble, fribbling, frivolous, harebrained, hoity-toity, light, light-headed, rattlebrained, scatterbrained, silly, skittish, volage, yeasty Sample: He felt his giddy youth was past. [ ] n. a thickened pungent aromatic rhizome that is used as a spice and sometimes medicinally ginger:spice=?? [ ] n. a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope or valley or spreading outward on a land surface glacial:slow=?? glacier:ice=sea:water Sample: The glacier left many striated rocks. [ ] n. an open space surrounded by woods glade:wood=oasis:desert=archipelago:ocean [ ] n. a quick or cursory look peck:kiss=glance:look Sample: The blueprints for the new automobile were striking at first glance. But the designer had been basically too conservative to flout previous standards of beauty. [ ] n. to give a smooth glossy surface to glaze:porcelain=varnish:wood glaze:porcelain=veneer:furniture glaze<>rumple Sample: The freezing rain glazed the streets and made driving hazardous. [ ] adj. marked by ease and fluency in speaking or writing often to the point of being insincere or deceitful fluent:glib=humorous:wry { meticulous:finicky } maladroit:skill=glib:profundity glib<>labored glib<>taciturn Synonyms: silver-tongued, vocative, voluble, well-hung
176

glimmer

glisten

glitch

gloomy

glorify

gloss

glossary

glossy

Sample: He is a glib and articulate speaker. [ ] v. & n. a:to shine faintly or unsteadily b:to give off a subdued unsteady reflection Synonyms: FLASH, coruscate, glance, gleam, glint, glisten, glitter, shimmer, sparkle, twinkle Sample: In the darkness of the cavern, the glowworms hanging from the cavern roof glimmered like distant stars. [ ] v. to give off a sparkling or lustrous reflection of or as if of a moist or polished surface dingy:glisten=slippery:adhere Synonyms: FLASH, coruscate, glance, gleam, glimmer, glint, glitter, shimmer, sparkle, twinkle Sample: Her pendant earrings glistened in the light. [ ] n. a usually minor malfunction glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense Sample: A glitch in the computer is stopping the printer from working. Gloat vi. to observe or think about something with triumphant and often malicious satisfaction, gratification, or delight primp:vain=gloat:smug Sample: As you gloat over your ill-gotten wealth, do you think of the many victims you have defrauded? [ ] adj. low in spirits:MELANCHOLY despondent:depressed=saturnine:gloomy/masterful:skilled forthy<>gloomy Synonyms: SULLEN, crabbed, dour, glum, morose, saturnine, sulky, surly, ugly Sample: Do not be misled by his saturnine countenance; he is not as gloomy as he looks. [ ] vt. to make glorious by bestowing honor, praise, or admiration castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial {glorification:merit} Sample: Poets glorified the Roman emperors in their poems. [ ] n. a brief explanation (as in the margin or between the lines of a text) of a difficult or obscure word or expression blurb:notice=gloss:explanation Synonyms: PRAISE, bless, celebrate, cry up, eulogize, extol, hymn, laud, magnify, panegyrize Sample: No matter how hard he tried to talk around the issue, President Bush could not gloss over the fact that he had raised the taxes after all. [ ] n. a collection of textual glosses or of specialized terms with their meanings glossary:text=legend:map Sample: I have found the glossary in this book very useful; it has eliminated many trips to the dictionary. [ ] adj. having a surface luster or brightness
177

glut

glutinous

glutton

goad

gobble

goggle

goldbrick

gorge

gossamer

varnish:glossy=sand:smooth [ ] n. an excessive quantity:OVERSUPPLY glut<>dearth Synonyms: SATIATE, clog, fill, gorge, jade, pall, sate, stodge, surfeit Sample: I want this photograph printed on glossy paper, not matte. [ ] adj. having the quality of glue:GUMMY etch:corrosive=glue:adhesive glutinous<>non viscous Sample: Molasses is a glutinous substance. [ ] n. one given habitually to greedy and voracious eating and drinking avarice:money=gluttony:food glutton:overindulge=ascetic:self denial gluttonous<>abstentious Sample: When Mother saw that Bobby had eaten all the cookies, she called him a little glutton. [ ] vt. something that urges or stimulates into action:SPUR command:entreaty=goad:enticement gadfly:goad=humorist:amuse goad<>check Sample: He was goaded by his friends until he yielded to their wishes. [ ] vt. to swallow or eat greedily quaff:sip=gobble:nibble swill:sip=gobble:nibble Synonyms: GULP, bolt, cram, englut, guzzle, ingurgitate, slop, slosh, wolf Sample: He was so hungry that he gobbled his food up. [ ] n. to stare with wide or protuberant eyes goggles:eyes=gloves:hands=earmuff:ear Sample: In the laboratory, she wears goggles to protect her eyes from chemicals. [ ] vi. to shirk duty or responsibility evade:answer=goldbrick:work [ ] vi. to eat greedily or to repletion reticent:talk=abstemious:gorge Synonyms: SATIATE, cloy, fill, glut, jade, pall, sate, stodge, surfeit Sample: There have been attempts to explain these taboos in terms of inappropriate social relationships either between those who are involved and those who are not simultaneously involved in the satisfaction of a bodily needor between those already satiated andthose who appear to be shamelessly gorging. [ ] nadj something light, delicate, or insubstantial gossamer<>substance
178

gourmet

grandeur

grandiloquent

grandiose

grandstand

grant

gratify

gossamer<>ponderous Synonyms: FILMY, diaphanous, flimsy, gauzy, sheer, tiffany, transparent Sample: Nylon can be woven into gossaner or thick fabrics. [ ] n. a connoisseur of food and drink; broadly:CONNOISSEUR bibliophile:books=gourmet:food {calligrapher:handwriting} connoisseur:art=gourmet:cuisine gourmet:food=aesthetic:art Sample: The gourmet stated that this was the best onion soup she had ever tasted. [ ] n. the quality or state of being grand:MAGNIFICENCE grandeur=mean=?? grandeur<>frivolous Sample: No matter how often he hiked through the mountains, David never failed to be struck by the grandeur of the Sierra Nevada range. [ ] adj a lofty, extravagantly colorful, pompous, or bombastic style, manner, or quality especially in language gaudy:apparel=grandiloquent:speak grandiloquent<>secretive Synonyms: RHETORICAL, aureate, bombastic, declamatory, euphuistic, flowery, magniloquent, overblown, sonorous, swollen Sample: The politician could bever speak simply; she was always grandiloquent. [ ] adj. characterized by affectation of grandeur or splendor or by absurd exaggeration ephemeral:longevity=grandiose:humility grandiose<>trivial Synonyms: GRAND, august, imposing, lordly, magnificent, majestic, noble, princely, royal, stately Sample: Because early United States writers thought that the mark of great literature was grandiosity and elegance not to be found in common speech, they avoided the vernacular. [ ] v. to play or act so as to impress onlookers grandstand:impress=equivocate:deceive Sample: We sat in the grandstand to watch the baseball game. [ ] vt. to bestow or transfer formally specifically:to give the possession or title of by a deed concede<>refuse to grant withhold<>grant Synonyms: ACKNOWLEDGE, admit, allow, avow, concede, confess, fess (up), let on, own, own up Sample: Everyone took his probity for granted; his defalcations, therefore, shocked us all. [ ] vt. to be a source of or give pleasure or satisfaction to gratify:desire=slake:thirsty aggrieve<>gratify
179

grating

gratuitous

grave

green

gregarious

grievous

irk<>gratify gratify<>displease Synonyms: PLEASE, arride, delectate, delight, gladden, happify, pleasure Sample: Her parents were gratified by her success. [ ] adj noisily,rasping,harsh grating:sound=acrid:odor==fetid:smell Synonyms: IRRITATE, aggravate, burn (up), gall, get, nettle, peeve, pique, provoke, rile Sample: That singer has a grating voice. [ ] adj. not involving a return benefit, compensation, or consideration gratuitous<>merited/warranted Synonyms: FREE, chargeless, complimentary, costless, gratis Sample: Quit making gratuitous comments about my driving; no one asked you for your opinion. [ ] adj. having a serious and dignified quality or demeanor frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion droll<>grave giddiness<>gravity grave<>insignificant flippancy<>gravity Synonyms: ENGRAVE, etch, incise Sample: Robert Louis Stevenson's grave is on a knoll in Samoa; to reach the grave site, you must climb uphill and walk a short distance along a marked path. [ ] adj. a:deficient in training, knowledge, or experience b:deficient in sophistication and savoir faire:NAIVE c:not fully qualified for or experienced in a particular function inexperience:green=pertinacity:refractory pelf:impecunious=experience:green Synonyms: INEXPERIENCED, callow, fresh, raw, unconversant, unpracticed, unseasoned, untried, unversed, young Sample: The general sent the green soldiers for more training. [ ] adj. tending to associate with others of one's kind:SOCIAL poseur:sincerity=recluse:gregariousness gregarious:reserved=?? gregarious<>aloof Synonyms: SOCIAL, sociable Sample: Typically, party-throwers are gregarious; hermits are not. [ ] adj causing or characterized by severe pain, suffering, or sorrow smart:pain=grieve:sorrow solace:grief=pacification:anger grievous<>slight joyous<>grievous Synonyms: ONEROUS, burdensome, demanding, exacting, exigent, oppressive,
180

grimace

grin

gripe

grisly

groove

grotesque

grotto

grove

grovel

superincumbent, taxing, tough, weighty Sample: The death of her brother was a grievous loss. [ ] n. a facial expression usually of disgust or disapproval contortion:body=grimace:face chagrin:mind=grimace:face Sample: Even though he remained silent, his grimace indicated his displeasure. [ ] vi. to draw back the lips so as to show the teeth especially in amusement or laughter; broadly:SMILE pout<>grin Synonyms: SMILE, beam Sample: Grinning from ear to ear, Bonnie Blair was clearly elated by her Olympic victory. [ ] v. to complain with grumbling gripe:discontent=praise:admiration Synonyms: fuss, squawk, yammer, yawp (or yaup) Sample: He gripes all the time about the bad weather. [ ] adj. inspiring horror or intense fear grisly:flinch=droll:laugh Synonyms: GHASTLY, gruesome, hideous, horrible, horrid, horrifying, lurid, macabre, terrible, terrifying Sample: She shuddered at the grisly sight. [ ] adj. a long narrow channel or depression grooved:striated=braided:strand striated:groove=dappled:spot [ ] adj. FANCIFUL, BIZARRE imperial:significant=grotesque:fantasy Synonyms: FANTASTIC, antic, bizarre Sample: The gargoyles adorning the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris are amusing in their grotesqueness. [ ] n. A small cave or cavern grotto:cavern=arroyo:channel Sample: The Blue Grotto in Capri can be entered only by small boats rowed by natives through a natural opening in the rocks. [ ] n. a planting of fruit or nut trees grove:trees=archipelago:islands Sample: A pine grove grows near the farmhouse. [ ] vi. to lie or creep with the body prostrate in token of subservience or abasement minion:dependent=groveler:petitioner imperious:grovel=??
181

grumble

guarantee

guffaw

guile

guilt

gullible

Synonyms: FAWN, apple-polish, bootlick, cower, cringe, honey (up), kowtow, toady, truckle Sample: Even though we have been defeated, we do not have to grovel before our conquerors. [ ] n. to mutter in discontent Synonyms: croak, grouch, grouse, murmur, mutter, scold Sample: The cross old lady has a proclivity to grumble. [ ] vt. to engage for the existence, permanence, or nature of:undertake to do or secure vouch<>refuse to guarantee Synonyms: bail, bond, guaranty, security, surety, warranty Sample: The constitutional guarantee of free speech may have been aimed at protecting native speakers of English from censorship, but it is not a great extension to interpret it as protecting the right to express oneself in any natural language or dialect. [ ] vi.vt. a loud or boisterous burst of laughter Synonyms: LAUGH, chortle, chuckle, giggle, hee-haw, snicker, tehee, titter Sample: The remark was only slightly humorous, inviting a chuckle, perhaps, but certainly not a guffaw. [ ] n. deceitful cunning:DUPLICITY acrid:gentleness=forthright:guile blemish:impeccable=guile:artless impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile guile:artless=blemish:flawless gullible:chicanery=servile:domination guile:naif=tardy:prompt artless<>cunning/guile manipulate<>guileless Synonyms: DECEIT, cunning, dissemblance, dissimulation, duplicity Sample: His imperturbability in the face of evidence indicating his deliberate fraud failed to reassure supporters of his essential probity; instead, it suggested a talent for guile that they had never suspected. [ ] n. feelings of culpability especially for imagined offenses or from a sense of inadequacy:SELF-REPROACH narcissism:love=guilt:blame guilt:expiation=fatigue:repose Synonyms: BLAME, culpability, fault, onus Sample: This salesman is guilty of hyperbole in describing his product; it is wise to discount his claims. [ ] adj. easily duped or cheated compliant:servile=trusting:gullible gullible:artless=?? gullible:chicanery=servile:domination vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied=wary:gulled
182

gully

gum

gush

gust

guzzle

habitable

hack

hackneyed

bully:intimidate=stupid:gullibility mawkish:sentimental=gullible:trust Synonyms: EASY, fleeceable, naive, susceptible Sample: She was gullible and trusting, an easy victim for the first swindler who came along. [ ] n. a trench which was orig. worn in the earth by running water and through which water often runs after rains gully:erosion=callus:friction Sample: Steeper than a gully, less precipitous than a canyon, a ravine is, like them, the product of years of erosion. [ ] n. any of numerous colloidal polysaccharide substances of plant origin that are gelatinous when moist but harden on drying and are salts of complex organic acids resin:tree=gum:rubber plant [ ] n. a sudden outpouring blast:whiff=gush:trickle gush:effusive=rage:irate Sample: It is imperative that we stanch the gushing wound before we attend to the other injuries. [ ] n. a sudden brief rush of wind gust:wind=cloudburst:rainfall {flare:light} Synonyms: OUTBURST, access, burst, eruption, explosion, flare-up, sally Sample: The gusty weather made sailing precarious. [ ] vi.vt. to drink especially liquor greedily, continually, or habitually complain:carp=drink:guzzle Synonyms: DRINK, booze, imbibe, liquor (up), soak, swig, swill, swizzle, tank up, tipple Sample: He guzzled all the beer at the party before he left. [ ] adj. capable of being lived in:suitable for habitation potable:beverage=habitable:dwelling Synonyms: LIVABLE, inhabitable, lodgeable, occupiable, tenantable Sample: Their old cabin in the woods is habitable but not very comfortable. [ ] n. a writer who aims solely for commercial success mercenary:soldier=hack:writer Synonyms: drudge, grub, grubber, hireling, mercenary, slavey [ ] adj. lacking in freshness or originality windy:concise=hackneyed:original equivocation:misleading=bromide:hackneyed equivocate:misleading=cliched:hackneyed offbeat<>hackneyed bromide<>unhackneyed
183

halcyon

hale

half-baked

hallow

hallucination

halting

ham-handed

Synonyms: TRITE, bathetic, cliche, commonplace, hack, stale, timeworn, tired, wellworn, worn-out Sample: The English teacher criticized her story because of its hackneyed and unoriginal plot. [ ] adj. CALM, PEACEFUL halcyon<>tempestuous halcyon<>stormy Synonyms: CALM, hushed, placid, quiet, still, stilly, untroubled Sample: In those halcyon days, people were not worried about sneak attacks and bombings. [ ] adj. free from defect, disease, or infirmity:SOUND; also:retaining exceptional health and vigor effete<>hale hale<>infirm labyrinth blighted<>hale anemic<>strong/hale wan<>hale Synonyms: HEALTHY, fit, right, sane, sound, well, well-conditioned, well-liking, wholesome Sample: After a brief illness, he was soon hale. [ ] adj. a:lacking adequate planning or forethought b:lacking in judgment, intelligence, or common sense half-baked<>well thought of Sample: She has these half-baked ideas on how to make money. [ ] vt. to make holy or set apart for holy use hallowed<>desecrate Synonyms: BLESS, consecrate, sanctify Sample: She was laid to rest in hallowed ground. [ ] n. perception of objects with no reality usually arising from disorder of the nervous system or in response to drugs (as LSD) delusion:??=hallucination:perception {mirage:imagination} Synonyms: DELUSION, ignis fatuus, illusion, mirage, phantasm Sample: I think you were frightened by a hallucination that you created in you own mind. [ ] adj. marked by a lack of sureness or effectiveness fluent<>halting Synonyms: AWKWARD, bumbling, clumsy, gauche, inept, lumbering, maladroit, unhandy, unhappy, wooden Sample: Novice extemporaneous speakers often talk in a halting fashion as they grope for the right words. [ ] adj. lacking dexterity or grace:HEAVY-HANDED
184

hamper

hamstring

handle

hangdog

hankering

haphazard

hapless

harangue

ham-handed<>deft/adroit Synonyms: AWKWARD, bumbling, clumsy, gauche, halting, heavy-handed, inept, maladroit, unhandy, wooden [ ] vt. to restrict the movement of by bonds or obstacles:IMPEDE seminal<>hampering further development hamper<>facilitate Synonyms: clog, curb, entrammel, fetter, hobble, hog-tie, leash, shackle, tie, tie up, trammel Sample: The minority party agreed not to hamper the efforts of the leaders to secure a lasting peace. [ ] vt. to make ineffective or powerless:CRIPPLE hamstring:effectiveness=?? Sample: The student president tried to hamstring the school senate because she didn't agree with its decision. [ ] vt. to act, behave, or feel in a certain way when handled or directed cumbersome<>easy to handle Synonyms: dispense, maneuver, manipulate, ply, swing, wield Sample: The personnel department handles the procurement of new employees. [ ] adj. SAD, DEJECTED hangdog<>buoyant hangdog<>elated hangdog<>sprightly [ ] n. to have a strong or persistent desire:YEARN hankering<>odium hankering<>lack of desire Sample: Europeans in America often hanker for a good cup of coffee. [ ] n.,adj.&adv. marked by lack of plan, order, or direction methodical<>haphazard systematic<>haphazard Synonyms: RANDOM, aimless, designless, desultory, hit-or-miss, indiscriminate, irregular, unaimed, unconsidered, unplanned Sample: His haphazard reading left him unaquainted with the authors of the books. [ ] adj. having no luck:UNFORTUNATE hapless<>fortunate Synonyms: UNLUCKY, ill-fated, ill-starred, luckless, misfortunate, star-crossed, unfortunate, unhappy, untoward Sample: No work illustrated his disdain for a systematic approach to research better than his dissertation, which was rejected primarily because his bibliography constituted, at best, a haphazard survey of the major texts in his field. [ ] n. to address in a ranting way
185

harass

harbinger

harbor

hard-bitten

hardheaded

harebrained

harmonious

harness

harp

harangue<>speak temperately Synonyms: ORATE, bloviate, declaim, mouth, perorate, rant, rave, soapbox Sample: In her lengthy harangue, the principal berated the offenders. [ ] v to annoy persistently haunt:familiar=harass:irritating Synonyms: RAID, foray, harry, maraud [ ] n. one that presages or foreshadows what is to come harbinger:presage=archetype:exemplify Synonyms: ANNOUNCE , forerun, foreshow, herald, preindicate, presage Sample: Kagan maintains that an infant's reactions to its first stressful experiences are part of a natural process of development, not harbingers of childhood unhappiness or prophetic signs of adolescent anxiety. [ ] n. to give shelter or refuge to harbor<>evict Synonyms: chamber, haven, house, roof, shelter, shield Sample: The church harbored illegal aliens who were political refugees. [ ] adj. seasoned or steeled by difficult experience:TOUGH hard-bitten<>tender Sample: She is a hard-bitten fighter against crime. [ ] adj. STUBBORN, WILLFUL Synonyms: OBSTINATE, bullheaded, headstrong, intractable, mulish, pertinacious, perverse, pigheaded, self-willed, stubborn Sample: The boss is hardheaded about office policies; she will not change the rules for anyone. [ ] adj. FOOLISH Synonyms: GIDDY, dizzy, empty-headed, featherbrained, flighty, frivolous, rattlebrained, scatterbrained, silly, skittish Sample: He has these harebrained ideas for getting rich that always fail. [ ] adj. marked by accord in sentiment or action acrimonious<>harmonious harmony<>discord Synonyms: blending, chiming, consonant, harmonic, musical, symphonic, symphonious Sample: Edith Wharton sought in her memoir to present herself as having achieved a harmonious wholeness by having reconciled the conflicting elements of her life. [ ] vt. UTILIZE harness<>failed to utilize harness<>not able to utilize Sample: When we built a dam across the river, we harnessed the river's power to produce electricity. [ ] n.
186

harry

harsh

hasten

hasty

haunt

a plucked stringed instrument consisting of a resonator, an arched or angled neck that may be supported by a post, and strings of graded length that are perpendicular to the soundboard horn:blow=harp:pluck Sample: She plays the harp in a symphony orchestra. [ ] v. to make a pillaging or destructive raid on:ASSAULT harry<>comfort harried<>untroubled Synonyms: RAVAGE, depredate, desecrate, desolate, despoil, devastate, havoc, pillage, sack, spoliate Sample: The guerrilla band harried the enemy nightly. [ ] adj. a:causing a disagreeable or painful sensory reaction:IRRITATING b:physically discomforting:PAINFUL barb:caustic=pan:harsh encomium<>harsh criticism mollycoddle<>treat harshly paean<>harshly lampoon harshen<>soften Synonyms: ROUGH, asperous, craggy, jagged, rugged, scabrous, scraggy, uneven, unlevel, unsmooth Sample: We asked the gardening expert to recommend particularly hardy plants that could withstand our harsh New England winters. [ ] vt. to move or act quickly hasten<>slow the progress of hasten<>check hasten<>retard check<>hasten Synonyms: SPEED, accelerate, hurry, quicken, shake up, step up, swiften Sample: His mother said she is ill, so he hastened to her house to help. [ ] adj. done or made in a hurry hasty<>characterized by deliberation hasty<>well considered hasty<>deliberate Synonyms: FAST, breakneck, expeditious, expeditive, fleet, harefooted, quick, rapid, speedy, swift Sample: Donald had planned to kill his wife for months; clearly, her death was a case of deliberate, willful murder, not a crime of passion committed by a hasty, willful youth unable to foresee the consequences of his deeds. [ ] vt. to visit often:FREQUENT haunt:familiar=harass:irritating persecute:injure=haunt:remember haunt<>shun Synonyms: FREQUENT, affect, hang around, hang out, resort
187

hauteur

havoc

heart

headlong

hearken

heartrending

hedge

hedonic

heinous

[ ] n ARROGANCE, HAUGHTINESS fawn:hauteur=self depreciate:swagger hauteur<>humility hauteur<>humbleness Synonyms: PRIDE, arrogance, disdain, disdainfulness, haughtiness, loftiness, morgue, superbity, superciliousness [ ] n. great confusion and disorder havoc<>serenity Synonyms: RUIN, confusion, destruction, devastation, loss, ruination [ ] vt. to give heart to:CHEER:HEARTEN mollify:anger=heart:dejection dismay<>hearted [ ] adj. Impetuous; rash. headlong<>deliberate Synonyms: PRECIPITATE, abrupt, hasty, hurried, impetuous, precipitant, precipitous, rushing, subitaneous, sudden Sample: The slave seized the unexpected chance to make a headlong dash across the border to freedom. [ ] vi. to give respectful attention hearken<>ignore Synonyms: LISTEN, attend, hark, hear, heed [ ] adj. causing intense sorrow or distress earsplitting:loud=heartrending:sad heartrending:sad=deafening:loud Synonyms: DEPLORABLE, afflictive, calamitous, dire, distressing, grievous, heartbreaking, lamentable, regrettable, unfortunate Sample: The death of their child is a heart-rending tragedy. [ ] nvt. a means of protection or defense (as against financial loss) hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident Synonyms: EQUIVOCATE, dodge, evade, pussyfoot, shuffle, sidestep, tergiversate, tergiverse, weasel Sample: Buying real estate is a hedge against bad times. [ ] adj. n. of, relating to, or characterized by pleasure hedonist<>ascetic Sample: Hedonism is a way of life for many people. [ ] adj hatefully or shockingly evil:ABOMINABLE heinous<>commendable Synonyms: OUTRAGEOUS, atrocious, crying, desperate, monstrous, scandalous, shocking
188

heirloom

helmet

Sample: Hitler's heinous crimes will never be forgotten. [ ] n. something of special value handed on from one generation to another heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator Sample: She treasured the brooch because it was an heirloom. [ ] n. any of various protective head coverings usually made of a hard material to resist impact amulet:evil=helmet:injury Sample: Bicyclists wear helmets to protect their heads. List 14 hem --- inane

hem

herald

herbicide

hereditary

heresy

heretical

[ ] n. a border of a cloth article doubled back and stitched down hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet Sample: The hem on her skirt needs sewing. [ ] vt. to give notice of:ANNOUNCE unabashed:embarrassment=unheralded:announcement unherald<>proclaim Synonyms: ANNOUNCE, forerun, foreshow, harbinger, preindicate, presage Sample: For many years an unheralded researcher, Barbara McClintock gained international renown when she won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. [ ] n. an agent used to destroy or inhibit plant growth insect:pesticide=plant:herbicide Sample: Though environmentalists have targeted some herbicides as potentially dangerous, the manufacturers, to the environmentalists' dismay, defend the use of these herbicides on lawns. [ ] adj. characteristic of or fostered by one's predecessors Sample: Natural selection tends to eliminate genes that cause inherited diseases, acting most strongly against the most severe diseases; consequently, hereditary diseases that are lethal would be expected to be very rare, but, surprisingly, they are not. [ ] n. an opinion or doctrine contrary to church dogma apostasy:faith=recantation:heresy dogma<>heresy Synonyms: dissent, dissidence, heterodoxy, misbelief, nonconformism, nonconformity, schism, unorthodoxy Sample: The Salem witch trials were a misguided attempt to extirpate superstition and heresy. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards:UNORTHODOX doctrine:heretical=course:errant heretic:unconformity=apologist:defend heretic:unconformity=generous:liberality { authority:superiority }
189

hermit

herpetologist

hesitance

heterodox

hidebound

hideous

hie

hierarchy

Synonyms: dissident, heterodox, nonconformist, schismatic, sectarian, unorthodox Sample: She was punished by the Spanish Inquisition because she was a heretic. [ ] n. one that retires from society and lives in solitude especially for religious reasons:RECLUSE vegetarian:meat=hermit:society hermitage:secluded=landmark:conspicuous Synonyms: RECLUSE, solitary Sample: We thought the hermit was a miantrope because he shunned our society. [ ] n. one that a branch of zoology dealing with reptiles and amphibians salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist [ ] n. the quality or state of being hesitant:as a:INDECISION b:RELUCTANCE impetuous:hesitate=irrepressible:servile parsimonious:profligacy=impetuous:hesitance hesitation:reluctance=hubris:pride alacrity<>dilatoriness/hesitance impetuosity<>hesitance/vacillation Sample: She hesitated to intrude on their conversation. [ ] adj. Not in agreement with accepted beliefs, especially in church doctrine or dogma heterodox:nonconformity=authority:superiority doctrine:heterodoxy=spontaneous:studied {adaptability:stable} Sample: To those who upheld the belief that the earth did not move, Galileo's theory that the earth circled the sun was disturbingly heterodox. [ ] adj. having an inflexible or ultraconservative character contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/ conservative:change/innovation/novelty hidebound:conservative=peeved:annoyed hidebound:conservative=manic:interested/excited {peeved:annoyed } Synonyms: ILLIBERAL, bigoted, brassbound, intolerant, narrow, narrow-minded, small-minded, unenlarged [ ] adj. offensive to the senses and especially to sight:exceedingly ugly pulchritudinous<>hideous affinity<>aversion/hideousness Synonyms: UGLY, ill-favored, ill-looking, unbeautiful, uncomely, unsightly Sample: The horror film was about a hideous monster. [ ] v. to go quickly:HASTEN hie<>dawdle Synonyms: GO, fare, journey, pass, proceed, push on, repair, travel, wend [ ] n. the classification of a group of people according to ability or to economic, social, or professional standing echelon:hierarchy=??
190

hieroglyph

hike

hilarity

hint

histrionic

hive

hoard

hoary

hoax

Sample: Their hierarchy of loyalties is first to oneself, next to kin, then to fellow tribe members, and finally to compatriots. [ ] n. a character used in a system of hieroglyphic writing decipher:hieroglyph=separate:component Sample: Whereas the art critic Vasari saw the painting entitled the Mona Lisa as an original and wonderful technical feat, the reproduction of a natural object, the aesthetes saw it as a hieroglyph that required deciphering. [ ] v. to rise up; especially:to work upward out of place backset<>hike Sample: No matter how often he hiked through the mountains, David never failed to be struck by the grandeur of the Sierra Nevada range. [ ] n. high spirits that may be carried to the point of boisterous conviviality or merriment hilarious:laughter=contemptible:distain Synonyms: MIRTH, glee, jocularity, jocundity, jollity, joviality, merriment Sample: The hilarity is improper on this solemn day of mourning. [ ] n. a slight indication of the existence, approach, or nature of something:CLUE nuance:distinction=hint:suggestion Sample: The architects of New York's early skyscrapers, hinting here at a twelfthcentury cathedral, there at a fifteenth-century palace, sought to legitimize the city's social strivings by evoking a history the city did not truly possess. [ ] adj. of or relating to actors, acting, or the theater pedantic:scholar=histrionic:actor Synonyms: DRAMATIC, dramaturgic, theatral, theatric, theatrical, thespian Sample: He was proud of his histrionic ability and wanted to paly the role of Hamlet. [ ] n. a place swarming with activity tumultuous:bedlam=active:hive Sample: The stock exchange is a hive of activity. [ ] n./v. to keep (as one's thoughts) to oneself miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opine hoard:miser=shirk:malinger lavish<>hoard Synonyms: squirrel, stash Sample: Plants store a hoard of water in their leaves, stems, or understock to provide themselves with a form of insurance that will carry them through the inevitable drought they must suffer in the wild. [ ] adj. extremely old:ANCIENT hoary:old=?? Synonyms: ANCIENT, aged, age-old, antediluvian, antique, Noachian, old, timeworn, venerable [ ] n.
191

hodgepodge

homage

homely

homily

homogenize

hone

honorarium

horn

an act intended to deceive or trick filibuster:delay=hoax:deceive hoax:fraudulent=paragon:excellent Synonyms: IMPOSTURE, fake, flimflam, fraud, gyp, humbug, phony, put-on, sell, spoof Sample: Embarrassed by the hoax, he reddened and left the room. [ ] n. a heterogeneous mixture:JUMBLE hodgepodge:uniformity=cliche:originality items:hodgepodge=people:rabble hodgepodge:??=interpreter:translate/illuminati(illuminator):instruct Synonyms: MISCELLANY, gallimaufry, hash, hotchpotch, jumble, medley, mishmash, patchwork, potpourri Sample: His ideas are a hodgepodge of unproved theories. [ ] n. expression of high regard:RESPECT counsel:advice=laud:homage homage<>disrespect Synonyms: honor, reverence, deference Sample: In her speech she tried to pay homage to a great man. [ ] adj. Not attractive or good-looking pulchritude<>homeliness Sample: I would rather have a poor and comely wife than a rich and homely one. [ ] n. a lecture or discourse on or of a moral theme parable:story=homily:lecture Sample: His speeches were always homilies, advising his listeners to repent and reform. [ ] v. to blend (diverse elements) into a uniform mixture stratify<>homogenize Sample: Many educators try to put pupils of similar abilities in the same class because they believe that his homogeneous grouping is advisable. [ ] v. n. to make more acute, intense, or effective:WHET hone<>blunt Sample: To make shaving easier, he honed his razor with great care. [ ] n a payment for a service (as making a speech) on which custom or propriety forbids a amenity:comfortable=honorarium:grateful Sample: The company paid the teacher an honorarium for the speech she gave to its workers. [ ] n. a wind instrument used in a jazz band; especially:TRUMPET horn:blow=harp:pluck Sample: The habitat of the horned viper, a particularly venomous snake, is in sandy regions like the Sahara or the Sinai peninsula.
192

hortative

horticulture

hovel

hub

hubris

humanitarian

humble

humor

hurdle

[ ] adj. giving exhortation:ADVISORY didactic:teach=hortatory:urge hortative:encourage=exculpatory:absolve Sample: The peroration was largely hortatory and brought the audience to its feet clamoring for action at its close. [ ] n. the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants tree:forestry=flower:horticulture Sample: The city's botanical garden is a center of horticulture. [ ] n. a small, wretched, and often dirty house:HUT palatial:hovel=bucolic:city Sample: He wondered how poor people could stand living in such a hovel. [ ] n. the central part of a circular object (as a wheel or propeller) spoke:hub=radius:center Sample: The spokes of the wheel diverge from the hub. [ ] n. exaggerated pride or self-confidencehubristic parsimony:frugal=hubris:pride hesitation:reluctance=hubris:pride Sample: Filled with hubris, Lear refused to heed his friends' warnings. [ ] n. a person promoting human welfare and social reform:PHILANTHROPIST Sample: It is difficult for humanity with its finite existence to grasp the infinite. [ ] adj. ranking low in a hierarchy or scale:INSIGNIFICANT, UNPRETENTIOUS dour:geniality=bumptious:humbleness impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness supercilious<>humble bumptious<>humble hauteur<>humility panache<>humility Synonyms: IGNOBLE, base, baseborn, low, lowborn, lowly, mean, plebeian, unennobled, unwashed Sample: Constantly fawning on his employer, humble Uriah Heap was a servile creature. [ ] v. to soothe or content by indulgence chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle Synonyms: BABY, cater (to), cocker, coddle, cosset, cotton, indulge, mollycoddle, pamper, spoil Sample: The humor of cartoonists Gary Trudeau often is satirical; though the comments of the Doonesbury characters, Trudeau ridicules political corruption and folly. [ ] n. to leap over especially while running (as in a sporting competition) Synonyms: CLEAR, leap, negotiate, over, overleap, surmount, vault
193

hurricane

husbandry

husk

husky

hybrid

hymn

hypnotic

hyperbole

[ ] n. a tropical cyclone with winds of 74 miles (118 kilometers) per hour or greater that occurs especially in the western Atlantic, that is usually accompanied by rain, thunder, and lightning, and that sometimes moves into temperate latitudes fire:inferno=storm:hurricane rain:deluge=wind:hurricane snow:precipitation=hurricane:cyclone Sample: Titanic waves beat aginst the shore during the hurricane. [ ] n. the control or judicious use of resources:CONSERVATION husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate husband<>squander husbandry<>prodigality husbandry<>waste Synonyms: ECONOMY, forehandedness, frugality, providence, prudence, thrift, thriftiness Sample: He accumulated his small fortune by diligence and husbandry. [ ]n a usually dry or membranous outer covering (as a pod or hull or one composed of bracts) of various seeds and fruits; also:one of the constituent parts corn:husk=?? seed:husk=orange:rind Sample: You shuck the corn's husks before cooking it. [ ] adj. hoarse with or as if with emotion husky<>delicate Synonyms: HOARSE, croaking, croaky, gruff Sample: He is a husky boy. [ ] adj. something heterogeneous in origin or composition:COMPOSITE hybrid<>of unmixed extraction Synonyms: bastard, cross, crossbred, crossbreed, half blood, half-breed, mongrel, mule Sample: The attempt to breed suitable varieties of jojoba by using hybridization to reinforce favorable traits was finally abandoned in favor of a simpler and much faster method:the domestication of flourishing wild strains. [ ] n. a song of praise or joy hymn:praise=elegy:sorrow Synonyms: SONG, aria, descant, ditty, lay, lied [ ] adj. tending to produce sleep:SOPORIFIC hypnotic<>conscious hypnotic<>stimulant Synonyms: SOPORIFIC, narcotic, opiate, sleepy, somnifacient, somniferous, somnific, somnolent, somnorific, soporiferous Sample: The mother's voice had a hypnotic effect on her baby. [ ] n. extravagant exaggeration
194

hypercritical

hypocritical

ichthyologist

idiosyncratic

idolatrize

ignite

ignominy

ignorant

anger:tirade=exaggeration:hyperbole malicious:ill will=exaggerating:hyperbole Synonyms: EXAGGERATION, coloring, embellishment, embroidering, overstatement Sample: Rhetoric often seems to triumph over reason in a heated debate, with both sides engaging in hyperbole. [ ] a meticulously or excessively critical Synonyms: critical, faultfinding, captious, carping, censorious Sample: You are hypercritical in your demands for perfection; we all make mistakes. [ ] adj. characterized by hypocrisy; also:being a hypocrite authenticity:fraudulent=sincerity:hypocritical hypocritical<>ingenuous/honest Synonyms: canting, pecksniffian, pharisaic, pharisaical, sanctimonious, self-righteous Sample:I resent his hypocritical posing as a friend for I know he is interested only in his own advancement. [ ] n. one that study a branch of zoology that deals with fishes salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist Sample: Jacques Cousteau's rpograms about sea life have advanced the cause of ichthyology. [ ] adj. a peculiarity of constitution or temperament:an individualizingcharacteristic or quality Sample: One of his personal idiosyncrasies was his habit of rinsing all cutlery given him in a restaurant. [ ] v. admires intensely and often blindly reverent:idolater=trusting:dupe esteem:idolatrize=favor:bribe Sample: James had idolized the professor so much for so long that even after lunching with her several times he remained quite inhibited in her presence, and as a result, he could not really be himself. [ ] v. to set afire; also:KINDLE ignite<>extinguish Synonyms: LIGHT, enkindle, fire, inflame, kindle Sample: When Desi crooned, "Baby, light my fire," literal-minded Lucy looked around for some paper to ignite. [ ] n. deep personal humiliation and disgrace ignominious<>lofty ignominy<>glory, honor; esteem, respect Synonyms: DISGRACE, discredit, disesteem, dishonor, disrepute, infamy, obloquy, odium, opprobrium, shame Sample: The country smarted under the ignominious defeat and dreamed of the day when it would be victorious. [ ] adj. destitute of knowledge or education also lacking knowledge or comprehension of the
195

ignore

illiteracy

illuminati

illumination

illusory

illustrate

thing specified Synonyms: benighted, empty-headed, illiterate, know-nothing, rude, uneducated, uninstructed, unlettered, unschooled, untaught, untutored Sample: I am totally ignorant of what happened at home while I was on vacation. [ ] v. to reject (a bill of indictment) as ungrounded scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore subtle:ignore=salient:observe erudite<>smattering of knowledge/ignorant/unlettered Synonyms: NEGLECT, blink (at or away), discount, disregard, fail, forget, omit, overlook, overpass, slight Sample: She would have liked to ignore the minutiae of daily living. [ ] n. the quality or state of being illiterate; especially:inability to read or write illiteracy:education=inequity:redistribution erudition<>illiteracy [ ] n. persons who are or who claim to be unusually enlightened interpreter:translate=illuminati:instruct hodgepodge:??=interpreter:translate/illuminati(illuminator):instruct [ ] n. one of the decorative features used in the art of illuminating or in decorative lighting frieze:building=illumination:manuscript stylus:mark=lamp:illumination squall:commotion=flash:illumination therapeutic:hospital=illuminating:school apron:protected=lamp:illuminate obfuscate<>elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly Sample: Historians such as Le Roy Laduriehave used the documents to extract case histories which have illuminated the attitudes of different social groups (these attitudes include but are not confined to attitudes toward crime and the law)and have revealed how the authorities administered justice. [ ] adj. based on or producing illusion:DECEPTIVE maelstrom:turbulent=mirage:illusory nicety:precision=illusion:fantasy illusion:perception=gaffe:judgment Synonyms: FICTITIOUS, chimerical, fanciful, fantastic, fictional, fictive, imaginary, suppositious, supposititious, unreal Sample: The trick for Michael was to conjure for his son an illusory orderliness; only alone at night, when the boy was asleep, could Michael acknowledge the chaos he kept hidden from his son. [ ] v. to provide with visual features intended to explain or decorate illustrate:pictures=particularize:details Synonyms: CLARIFY, clear, clear up, elucidate, explain, illuminate Sample: Numerous historical examples illustrate both the overriding influence that scientists' prejudices have on their interpretation of data and the consequent impairment
196

imbibe

imbroglio

imitation

immaculate

immanent

immaterial

immemorial

imminent

of their intellectual objectivity. [ ] v. to absorb or take in as if by drinking thirsty:imbibe=exhausted:rest Sample: The dry soil imbibed the rain quickly. [ ] n. a violently confused or bitterly complicated altercation:EMBROILMENT Synonyms: QUARREL, altercation, bickering, dispute, embroilment, falling-out, miff, row, spat, squabble Sample: He was called in to settle the imbroglio but failed to bring harmony into the situation. [ ] n. the quality of an object in possessing some of the nature or attributes of a transcendent idea exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame paragon/paradigm:imitate=reverence:regard exemplary:imitation=reverent:deference Synonyms: ARTIFICIAL, dummy, ersatz, false, mock, sham, simulated, spurious, substitute Sample: Certain weeds that flourish among rice crops resist detection until maturity by imitating the seedling stage in the rice plant's life cycle, thereby remaining indistinguishable from the rice crop until the flowering stage. [ ] adj. having no stain or blemish:PURE squalor<>immaculate Synonyms: CHASTE, clean, decent, modest, pure, spotless, stainless, unblemished, undefiled, unsullied Sample: The West Point cadets were immaculate as they lined up for inspection. [ ] adj. remaining or operating within a domain of reality or realm of discourse:INHERENT; specifically:having existence or effect only within the mind or consciousness immanent<>explicit immanent<>extrinsic [ ] adj. of no substantial consequence:UNIMPORTANT immaterial:relevance=peripheral:center immaterial:relevance=circuitous:directness relevant<>immaterial Synonyms: asomatous, bodiless, disbodied, discarnate, disembodied, incorporeal, insubstantial, metaphysical, nonmaterial, nonphysical, spiritual, unbodied, unembodied, unfleshly, unmaterial, unphysical, unsubstantial Sample: That information is immaterial to solving the problem. [ ] adj. extending or existing since beyond the reach of memory, record, or tradition immemorial<>recent Sample: Customs practiced by tribes have been handed down from time immemorial. [ ] adj. ready to take place; especially:hanging threateningly over one's head
197

immune

immure

immutable

imp

impair

impassive

impeccable

Synonyms: impending, proximate Sample: Robins words were not without emotion:they retained their level tone only by a careful equipoise between imminent extremes. [ ] adj. not susceptible or responsive; especially:having a high degree of resistance to a disease fertilize:grow=immunize:resist overexposure:jaded=vaccination:immune soporific:sleep=vaccinating:immunity vaccination:immune=overexposure:jaded Sample: No computer system is immune to a virus, a particularly malicious program that is designed to infect and electronically damage the disks on which data are stored. [ ] v. to enclose within or as if within walls b:IMPRISON immure<>release immure<>liberate Synonyms: IMPRISON, bastille, confine, constrain, incarcerate, intern, jail, jug Sample: For the two weeks before the examination, the student immureed himself in his room and concentrated upon his studies. [ ] adj. not capable of or susceptible to change immutable:altered=implacable:propitiated transitory:endure=immutable:change immutable<>variable Sample: Scientists are constantly seeking to discover the immutable laws of nature. [ ] n. a mischievous child:URCHIN insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp Synonyms: URCHIN, gamin, monkey Sample: That girl is an imp, always up to mischief. [ ] v. to damage or make worse by or as if by diminishing in some material respect Synonyms: injure, harm, hurt, damage, mar Sample: Exposure to sustained noise has been claimed to impair blood pressure regulation in human beings and, particularly, to increase hypertension, even though some researchers have obtained inconclusive results that obscure the relationship. [ ] adj. unsusceptible to or destitute of emotion impassive:perturb=voracious:satisfy callous:impassive=dupe:duplicity perfervid<>impassive impassive<>emotional impassive<>excitable Synonyms: apathetic, dry, matter-of-fact, phlegmatic, stoic, stolid Sample: Employees had become so inured to the caprices of top management's personnel policies that they greeted the announcement of a company-wide dress code with impassivity. [ ] a a: not capable of sinning or liable to sin b : free from fault or blame : FLAWLESS
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impecunious

impede

impend

impenetrable

impenitent

blemish:impeccable=guile:artless impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse {impeccable:flaw=indolent:stir} restive:calmness=impeccable:flaw impeccable<>faulty Synonyms: errorless, exquisite, faultless, flawless, immaculate, irreproachable Sample: He was proud of his impeccable manners. [ ] adj. having very little or no money usually habitually:PENNILESS foolish:discretion=impecunious:money pelf:impecunious=experience:green impecunious<>wealthy/prosperous/affluent impecunious<>lavish/prosperous Synonyms: POOR, destitute, dirt poor, impoverished, indigent, necessitous, needy, penurious, poverty-stricken, unprosperous Sample: Now that he was wealthy, he gladly contributed to funds to assist impecunious and disbled persons. [ ] v. to interfere with or slow the progress of blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede abet<>thwart/impede facilitate<>impeding impede<>promote/foment cultivate<>impede { decline } nurture<>impede encumber<>remove impediment Synonyms: HINDER, bar, block, brake, dam, obstruct, overslaugh Sample: Although nothing could be further from the truth, freight railroads have been accused of impeding the nation's shift from oil to coal by charging exorbitant fees to transport coal. [ ] vi. to be about to occur remote<>impending <> Synonyms: IMMINENT, proximate Sample: Job failure means being fired from a job, being asked to resign, or leaving voluntarily to protect yourself because you had very strong evidence that one of the first two was impending. [ ] adj. incapable of being penetrated or pierced or incapable of being comprehended:INSCRUTABLE pierce:impenetrable=profane:inviolable juggernaut:unstoppable=enigma:impenetrable impenetrable:subdue=?? porous<>impenetrable Synonyms: IMPASSABLE, impermeable, imperviable, impervious, unpierceable Sample: How could the murderer have gotten into the locked room? To Watson, the mystery, like the room, was impenetrable. [ ] adj.
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not feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain or sorrow for sins or offenses rueful<>impenitent Synonyms: REMORSELESS, regretless, uncontrite, unregretful, unremorseful, unrepentant, unsorry Sample: We could see by his brazen attitude that he was impenitent. imperative [ ] adj. expressive of a command, entreaty, or exhortation question:interrogative=order:imperative Synonyms: MASTERFUL, bossy, domineering, high-handed, imperial, imperious, magisterial, overbearing, peremptory Sample: Although strong legal remedies for nonpayment of child support are available, the delay and expense associated with these remedies make it imperative to develop other options. imperial [ ] adj. of, relating to, befitting, or suggestive of an empire or an emperor of superior or unusual size or excellence imperial:significance=grotesque:fantasy imperial<>obedient Sample: When hotel owner Leona Helmsley appeared in ads as Queen Leona standing guard over the Palace Hotel, her critics mocked her imperial fancies. imperious [ ] adj. marked by arrogant assurance:DOMINEERING fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness imperious:fawn:swagger:self depreciate imperious:servile=bellicose:peaceable fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness=elaborate:sketch imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger imperious:grovel=?? elf:imperious=?? imperious<>humble imperious<>servile/obeisant deferential<>imperious Synonyms: masterful, domineering, peremptory, imperative Sample: His imperiousness indicated that he had long been accustomed to assuming command. impertinent [ ] adj. given to or characterized by insolent rudeness impertinent:propriety=keen:obtuseness perturb:serenity=impertinent:propriety impertinence<>respect/relevence obeisant<>impertinent Synonyms: officious, meddlesome, intrusive, obtrusive Sample: I regard your remarks as impertinent and I resent them. imperturbable [ ] adj. marked by extreme calm, impassivity, and steadiness:SERENE restive<>calm/imperturbable ticklish<>imperturbable testiness<>imperturbability
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impervious

impetuous

impiety

implacable

implement

implicate

imperturbability<>volatility Synonyms: cool, composed, collected, unruffled, nonchalant Sample: Wellington remained imperturbable and in full command of the situation in spite of the hyteria and panic all around him. [ ] adj. not allowing entrance or passage:IMPENETRABLE also not capable of being damaged or harmed impervious:damaged=indomitable:subdued impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible impervious:penetrate=ineluctable:avoid impervious:damaged=indefensible:excused impervious:?=precarious:stable translucent<>impervious of light Synonyms: IMPASSABLE, impenetrable, impermeable, imperviable, unpierceable Sample: You cannot change their habits for their minds are impervious to reasoning. [ ] adj. marked by impulsive vehemence or passion impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness impetuous:hesitate=irrepressible:servile parsimonious:profligacy=impetuous:hesitance restive:calmness=impetuous:patience impetuosity<>hesitance/vacillation impetuous<>deliberate Synonyms: PRECIPITATE, abrupt, hasty, headlong, hurried, precipitant, precipitous, rushing, subitaneous, sudden Sample: We tried to curb his impetuous behavior because we felt that in his haste he might offend some people. [ ] n. the quality or state of being impious:IRREVERENCE impiety<>devoutness Sample: We must regard your blasphemy as an act of impiety. [ ] adj. not placable:not capable of being appeased, significantly changed, or mitigated immutable:altered=implacable:propitiated implacable:compromise=honest:swindle Synonyms: GRIM, ironfisted, merciless, mortal, relentless, ruthless, unappeasable, unflinching, unrelenting, unyielding Sample: Madame Defarge was the implacable enemy of the Evremonde family. [ ] n. CARRY OUT, ACCOMPLISH; especially:to give practical effect to and ensure of actual fulfillment by concrete measures Synonyms: instrument, tool, utensil Sample: This new government is faced not only with managing its economy but also with implementing new rural development programs to stem the flow of farm workers to the city. [ ] v. to involve as a consequence, corollary, or natural inference:IMPLY Synonyms: INVOLVE, embroil, mire, tangle
201

implode

imposing

impostor

impotent

impromptu

improvident

improvised

imprudent

Sample: Though feminist in its implications, Yvonne Rainer's 1974 film antedated the filmmaker's active involvement in feminist politics. [ ] v. to collapse inward as if from external pressure; also:to become greatly reduced as if from collapsing collapse:implode=divide:sunder Sample: The volcanic mountain seemed much smaller after it erupted and imploded. [ ] adj. impressive in size, bearing, dignity, or grandeur imposing<>modest Synonyms: GRAND, august, baronial, grandiose, magnificent, majestic, noble, princely, royal, stately Sample: Imposing steep fines on employers for on-the-job injuries to workers could be an effective incentive to creating a safer workplace, especially in the case of employers with poor safety records. [ ] n. one that assumes false identity or title for the purpose of deception impostor:identity=usurper:authorization { barbarian:property } Sample: The impostor had a false passport, but the customs department knew his real name. [ ] a. not potent:lacking in power, strength, or vigor:HELPLESS clout<>impotent Synonyms: WEAK , boneless, emasculate, forceless, inadequate, ineffective, ineffectual, invertebrate, slack-spined, spineless Sample: Although he wished to break the nicotine habit, he found himself impotent in resisisting the craving for a cigarette. [ ] adj. composed or uttered without previous preparation:EXTEMPORANEOUS ad lib:impromptu=aside:divergent Synonyms: EXTEMPORANEOUS, autoschediastic, extemporary, extempore, improvised, offhand, spur-of-the-moment, unrehearsed, unstudied Sample: Her listeners were amazed that such a thorough presentation could be made in an impromptu speech. [ ] adj. not provident:not foreseeing and providing for the future Synonyms: thriftless, unthrift, unthrifty Sample: He was constantly being warned to mend his improvident ways and begin to "save for a rainy day." [ ] adj. to compose, recite, play, or sing extemporaneously rite<>improvised act Synonyms: EXTEMPORANEOUS, autoschediastic, extemporary, extempore, impromptu, offhand, spur-of-the-moment, unrehearsed, unstudied Sample: While scientists dismiss as fanciful the idea of sudden changes in a genetic code (spontaneous mutation), it is possible that nature, like some master musician, improvises on occasion, departing from the expected or predictable. [ ] adj.
202

impudent

impugn

impuissance

impute

inadvertent

inalienable

inane

not prudent:lacking discretion judicious<>imprudent Sample: It is imprudent to exercise vigorously and become overheated when you are unwell. [ ] adj. marked by contemptuous or cocky boldness or disregard of others:INSOLENT impudence:brazen=deadpan:impassive impudent<>deferential/respectful impudent<>obeisant impudent<>reverence/deference Synonyms: UNWISE, ill-advised, ill-judged, impolitic, indiscreet, injudicious Sample: I think your pert and impudent remarks call for an apology. [ ] v. to assail by words or arguments:oppose or attack as false or lacking integrity extol<>condemn/impugn/detract impugn<>champion impugn<>endorse impugn<>vindicate impugn<>uphold Synonyms: DENY, contradict, contravene, cross, disaffirm, gainsay, negate, negative, traverse Sample: I cannot impugn your honesty without evidence. [ ] n. WEAKNESS, POWERLESSNESS clout<>impuissance Sample: The lame duck President was frustrated by his shift from enormous power to relative impuissance. [ ] adj. to lay the responsibility or blame for often falsely or unjustly imputable:nettle Synonyms: ASCRIBE, accredit, assign, attribute, charge, credit, lay, refer Sample: If I wished to impute blame to the officers in charge of this program, I would state my feelings definitely and immediately. [ ] adj. not focusing the mind on a matter:INATTENTIVE advertent<>inattentive Synonyms: CARELESS, feckless, heedless, irreflective, thoughtless, uncaring, unheeding, unrecking, unreflective, unthinking Sample: Professional photographers generally regard inadvertent surrealism in a photograph as a curse rather than a blessing; magazine photographers, in particular, consider themselves fortunate to the extent that they can minimize its presence in their photographs. [ ] adj. incapable of being alienated, surrendered, or transferred inalienable:surrendered=implacable:propitiated Sample: The Declaration of Independence mentions the inalienable rights that all of us possess. [ ] adj. lacking significance, meaning, or point:SILLY
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obsessed:attracted=rash:adventurous {inane:clumsy} inane<>expressive, meaningful, pregnant, significant, weighty inane<>substantiated Synonyms: INSIPID, driveling, flat, innocuous, jejune, milk-and-water, namby-pamby, sapless, vapid, wishy-washy Sample: Such comments are inane because they do not help us solve our program. List 15 inanimate --- intimate inanimate [ ] adj. not animated or lively:DULL ephemeral:enduring=inanimate:living Synonyms: DEAD, asleep, cold, deceased, defunct, departed, exanimate, extinct, late, lifeless Sample: she was asked to identify the still and inanimate body. [ ] v. to induct into an office with suitable ceremonies inaugurate:president=install:official=crown:king inauguration:official=matriculation:student cease<>inaugurate/commencement Synonyms: begin, commence, start, initiate, usher in Sample: The candidate promised that he would inaugurate a new nationwide health care plan as soon as he was inaugurated as president. [ ] adj. strikingly bright, radiant, or clear incandescent<>dull Synonyms: BRIGHT, beaming, brilliant, effulgent, fulgent, lambent, lucent, luminous, radiant, refulgent Sample: If you leave on an incandescent light bulb, it quickly grows too hot to touch. [ ] vt. invested with bodily and especially human nature and form incorporeal<>incarnate Synonyms: EMBODY, exteriorize, externalize, manifest, materialize, objectify, personalize, personify, personize, substantiate Sample: Your attitude is so fiendish that you must be a devil incarnate. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or involving a deliberate burning of property insurgent:rebel=incendiary:agitate Synonyms: INFLAMMATORY Sample: The fire spread in such an unusual manner that the fire department chiefs were certain that it had been set by an incendiary. [ ] v. to arouse the extreme anger or indignation of propitiate<>incense Synonyms: ANGER, enrage, infuriate, ire, mad, madden, steam up, umbrage Sample: The child's lies incensed his babysitter so much that she slapped him. [ ] n an act, process, or instance of beginning:COMMENCEMENT inception:termination=matriculation:graduation
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inaugurate

incandescent

incarnate

incendiary

incense

inception

incessant

inch

inchoate

incinerate

incipient

incisive

incite

inclement

Synonyms: origin, source, root Sample: She was involved with the project from its inception. [ ] adj. continuing or following without interruption:UNCEASING Synonyms: continual, continuous, constant, perpetual,perennial Sample: The crickets kept up an incessant chirping that disturbed our attempts to fall asleep. [ ] v. to move by small degrees:progress slowly inch:move=drawl:speak accrete:grow=inch:advance accrete:growth=inch:advance Sample: Fearing detection by the sentries on duty, the scout inched his way toward the enemy camp with great stealth. [ ] a being only partly in existence or operation; especially:imperfectly formed or formulated:FORMLESS immature:developed=incipient/inchoate:realized inchoate<>explicit Synonyms: INCOHERENT, disconnected, discontinuous, disjointed, disordered, incohesive, muddled, unconnected, uncontinuous, unorganized Sample: Before the Creation, the world was an inchoate mass. [ ] vi. to cause to burn to ashes singe:incinerate=erode:destruction Sample: Huge bombs incinerated the enemy village. [ ] adj. beginning to come into being or to become apparent immature:developed=incipient/inchoate:realized incipient:realized=tangible:indefinite { moribund:dead } incipient<>full-blown/full realized Synonyms: INITIAL, beginning, inceptive, initiative, initiatory, introductory, nascent Sample: Within the next decade, sophisticated telescopes now orbiting the Earth will determine whether the continents really are moving, forestalling the incipient rift among geologists about the validity of the theory of continental drift. [ ] adj. impressively direct and decisive (as in manner or presentation) Synonyms: biting, clear-cut, crisp, cutting, ingoing, penetrating, trenchant Sample: His incisive remarks made us see the fallacy in our plans. [ ]v to move to action:stir up:spur on:urge on exhortation:motivate=persiflage:incite instigator:incite=bully:browbeat incite<>pacify incitant<>insensible Synonyms: instigate, abet, foment Sample: The demogogue incited the mob to take action into its own hands. [ ] a
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lacking mildness:as severe in temper or action:UNMERCIFUL inclemency:evade=?? draconian:inclemency=fret:vexation inclement<>balmy inclement<>mild Synonyms: SEVERE, bitter, brutal, hard, harsh, intemperate, rigorous, rugged Sample: I like to read a good book in inclement weather. incogitant [ ] adj. THOUGHTLESS, INCONSIDERATE incogitant:thoughtful=restive:calm incogitant:thoughtfulness=restive:calmness Synonyms: RASH , brash, hasty, hotheaded, ill-advised, inconsiderate, mad-brained, reckless, thoughtless, unadvised incongruent [ ] adj. not superposable so as to be coincident throughoutnot congruent incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey incongruent:conform=scatter:overlap Synonyms: INCONSONANT , conflicting, disconsonant, discordant, discrepant, dissonant, incompatible, incongruous, inconsistent, unmixable Sample: There is something incongruous about the way the building of monasteries proliferated in eighteenth-century Bavaria, while in the rest of the Western world religious ardor was diminishing and church building was consequently declining. inconsequential [ ] adj. of no significance:UNIMPORTANT apocalyptic:prophetic=inconsequential:illogical crucial<>inconsequential Synonyms: PETTY, inconsequent, inconsiderable, measly, paltry, picayune, picayunish, small, trifling, trivial Sample: While admitting that the risks incurred by use of the insecticide were not inconsequential, the manufacturer's spokesperson argued that effective substitutes were simply not available. incontrovertible [ ] adj. not open to question:INDISPUTABLE incontrovertible:disputed=untenable:defended{ravenous:satisfied} {intrepid:feared} controvert<>substantiate Synonyms: POSITIVE, certain, incontestable, indisputable, indubitable, uncontestable, undeniable, undisputable, unequivocal, unquestionable Sample: We must yield to the incontrovertible evidence that you have presented and free your client. incorrigible [ ] adj. incapable of being corrected or amended UNALTERABLE, INVETERATE incorrigible:amend=irradicable:remove tractability<>incorrigibility tractable<>incorrigible Sample: Though Widow Douglass hoped to reform Huck, Miss Watson pronounced him incorrigible and said he would come to no good end. incriminate [ ] vt. to charge with or show evidence or proof of involvement in a crime or fault
206

inculcate

inculpate

incursion

indefatigable

indelible

indemnity

indict

indifferent

incrimination<>exoneration exonerate<>incriminate Synonyms: ACCUSE, arraign, charge, criminate, impeach, inculpate, indict, tax Sample: The witness's testimony against the racketeers incriminates some high public officials as well. [ ] vt. to teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions Synonyms: IMPLANT, infix, inseminate, instill [ ] vt. INCRIMINATE exonerate<>inculpate absolve<>inculpate exculpate<>inculpate Synonyms: ACCUSE, arraign, charge, criminate, impeach, incriminate, indict, tax [ ] n a hostile entrance into a territory:RAID incursion<>retreat Synonyms: INVASION, foray, inroad, irruption, raid Sample: The nightly incursions and hit-and-run raids of our neighbors across the border tried the patience of the country to the point where we decided to retaliate in force. [ ] adj. incapable of being fatigued:UNTIRING Synonyms: inexhaustible, tireless, unflagging, untiring, unweariable, unwearying, weariless Sample: He was indefatigable in his constant efforts to raise funds for the Red Cross. [ ] adj. UNFORGETTABLE, MEMORABLE indelible:forget=astounding:expect indelibility<>erasability Synonyms: ineffaceable, ineradicable, inerasable, inexpungible, inextirpable, uneradicable, unerasable Sample: Her intelligence makes an indelible impression on others. [ ] n. security against hurt, loss, or damage mollification:soothe=indemnity:secure Sample: The city will indemnify all home owners whose property is spoiled by this project. Synonyms: REPARATION, amends, compensation, indemnification, quittance, recompense, redress, reprisal, restitution [ ] vt. to charge with a crime by the finding or presentment of a jury (as a grand jury) in due form of law indict:accused=?? Synonyms: ACCUSE, arraign, charge, criminate, impeach, incriminate, inculpate, tax Sample: If the grand jury indicts the suspect, he will go to trial. [ ] adj. marked by a lack of interest, enthusiasm, or concern for something:APATHETIC embrace:affection=shrug:indifference
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avid<>indifferent fervor<>indifferent zealot<>indifference enraptured<>indifferent Synonyms: ACCUSE, arraign, charge, criminate, impeach, incriminate, inculpate, tax Sample: The philosopher claimed that a person who must consciously overcome his or her own indifference before helping another is behaving more nobly than one whose basic disposition allows such an act to be performed without deliberation. indigenous [ ] adj having originated in and being produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment exotic<>indigenous indigenous<>nonnative indigenous<>foreign Synonyms: INNATE , congenital, connate, connatural, inborn, inherited, native, natural, unacquired Sample: Tobacco is one of the indigenous plants that the early explorers found in this country. indigent [ ] adj. suffering from indigence:IMPOVERISHED indigent:wealth=redundant:indispensability indigent<>affluent Synonyms: POOR, destitute, dirt poor, impecunious, impoverished, necessitous, needy, penniless, penurious, poverty-stricken Sample: Neither the economists nor the political scientists have found a way to wipe out the inequities of wealth and eliminate indigence from our society. indispensability [ ] n. absolutely necessary:ESSENTIAL indigent:wealth=redundant:indispensability indispensable<>trivial indoctrinate [ ] v to instruct especially in fundamentals or rudiments:TEACH stickler:exacting=pedagogue:indoctrinate Sample: The Marines indoctrinate new soldiers into the ways of military life. indolent [ ] adj. averse to activity, effort, or movement:habitually lazy rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse{ impeccable:flaw=indolent:stir} indolent:shirk=miserly:hoard Synonyms: LAZY, drony, easygoing, faineant, slothful, slowgoing, work-shy Sample: People should not be praised for their virtue if they lack the energy to be wicked; in such cases, goodness is merely the effect of indolence. inducement [ ] n a motive or consideration that leads one to action or to additional or more effective actions inducement<>deterrent Sample: After the quarrel, Tina said nothing could induce her to talk to Tony again. indulgent [ ] adj. indulging or characterized by indulgence; especially:LENIENT
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indurate

ineffable

ineluctable

inept

inert

abstemious:indulge=austere:decorate glutton:overindulgence=ascetic:self denial indulge:adherent=slovenly:dapper appetite:indulge=?? spartan<>sybaritic/indulgent/voluptuous/luxurious draconian<>indulgent/mild martinet<>indulgent person indulgent<>ascetic Synonyms: FORBEARING, charitable, clement, easy, lenient, merciful, tolerant Sample: The indulgent parents spoil their children by giving in to their every whim. [ ] vt. to make hard indurate<>soften Synonyms: HARDEN, cake, concrete, congeal, dry, set, solidify [ ] adj. incapable of being expressed in words:INDESCRIBABLE ineffable:description=irradicable:obliterate Synonyms: UNUTTERABLE, incommunicable, indefinable, indescribable, inenarrable, inexpressible, undescribable, unexpressible, unspeakable, untellable Sample: Such ineffable joy must be experienced; it cannot be described. [ ] adj not to be avoided, changed, or resisted:INEVITABLE impervious:penetrate=ineluctable:avoid{untenable:defend} serendipitous:effort=ineluctable:chance Synonyms: INEVITABLE, certain, ineludible, inescapable, inevasible, necessary, returnless, unavoidable, unescapable, unevadable Sample: He felt that his fate was ineluctible and refused to make any attempt to improve his lot. [ ] adj. generally incompetent:BUNGLING finesse<>ineptitude inept<>judicious proficient<>inept masterful<>inept Synonyms: AWKWARD, bumbling, clumsy, gauche, halting, ham-handed, lumbering, maladroit, unhandy, wooden Sample: Inept as a carpenter, Ira was all thumbs. [ ] adj. deficient in active properties; especially:lacking a usual or anticipated chemical or biological action ephemeral:endure=inert:react {ineffectual:proceed} persistence:vacillate=inertia:react inertia<>activity reactant<>inert material inert<>active inert<>dynamic Synonyms: INACTIVE, asleep, idle, passive, quiet, sleepy Sample: Our inertia in this matter may prove disastrous; we must move to aid our allies
209

inevitable

inexorable

infamy

infatuate

infer

inferno

infiltrate

immediately. [ ] adj. incapable of being avoided or evaded ineluctable/inevitable:avoid=untenable:defend Synonyms: certain, ineluctable, ineludible, inescapable, inevasible, necessary, returnless, unavoidable, unescapable, unevadable Sample: If the state governments latest budget problems were anomalous, it would not be useful to employ them as illuminating examples in the effort to avoid the inevitable effects of shortsighted fiscal planning in the future. [ ] adj. not to be persuaded or moved by entreaty:RELENTLESS inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest inexorable<>relenting Synonyms: INFLEXIBLE , adamant, dogged, obdurate, relentless, rigid, singleminded, unbending, uncompromising, unyielding Sample: After listening to the pleas for clemency, the judge was inexorable and gave the convicted man the maximum punishment allowed by law. [ ] n. evil reputation brought about by something grossly criminal, shocking, or brutal infamy<>good repute Synonyms: DISGRACE, discredit, disesteem, dishonor, disrepute, ignominy, obloquy, odium, opprobrium, shame Sample: Jesse James was an infamous outlaw. [ ] vt. to cause to be foolish:deprive of sound judgment sabbatical:leave=flattering:infatuation odium<>infatuation Synonyms: INFATUATED, besotted, dotty, enamored Sample: He was infatuated with (or) by a model one week, an artist the next. [ ] vt. GUESS, SURMISE tacit:infer=encoded:decode Synonyms: collect, conclude, deduce, deduct, derive, dope out, draw, gather, judge, make Sample: We must be particularly cautious when we infer that a person is guilty on the basis of circumstantial evidence. [ ] n a place or a state that resembles or suggests hell fire:inferno=storm:hurricane Synonyms: HELL, abyss, blazes, Gehenna, hades, netherworld, perdition, pit, Sheol, Tophet Sample: They could think of no way to hinder his infernal scheme. [ ] v. to pass (troops, for example) surreptitiously into enemy-held territory infiltrate:enter=conspire:plan stalk:follow=infiltrate:enter Synonyms: INSINUATE, edge in, foist, work in, worm Sample: In order to infiltrate enemy lines at night without being seen, the scouts
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infinite

infirm

inflame

infelicitous

influx

infuse

infuriate

darkened their faces and wore black coveralls. [ ] adj. immeasurably or inconceivably great or extensive:INEXHAUSTIBLE infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap unique:precedent=infinite:end Synonyms: eternal, illimitable, perdurable, sempiternal, supertemporal Sample: In the nineteenth century, novelists and unsympathetic travelers portrayed the American West as a land of unremitting adversity, whereas promoters and idealists created a compelling image of a land of infinite promise. [ ] adj. of poor or deteriorated vitality; especially:feeble from age hale<>infirm Synonyms: WEAK, decrepit, feeble, flimsy, fragile, frail, unsound, unsubstantial, weakly Sample: Her greatest infirmity was lack of willpower. [ ] v. to excite to excessive or uncontrollable action or feeling assuage<>inflame subdue<>inflame Synonyms: IRRITATE, aggravate, burn (up), gall, get, grate, provoke, put out, rile, roil Sample: In response to the follies of today's commercial and political worlds, the author does not express inflamed indignation, but rather affects the detachment and smooth aphoristic prose of an eighteenth-century wit. [ ] adj. not appropriate in application or expression happy<>infelicitous Synonyms: awkward, graceless, ill-chosen, inept, unfortunate, unhappy [ ] n. a coming in exodus<>influx Synonyms: inflow, influxion, inpour, inpouring, inrush Sample: The influx of refugees into the country has taxed the relief agencies severely. [ ] vt. INSPIRE, ANIMATE inspire:infuse=obliterate:remove infuse<>drain away/refuse/extract Synonyms: imbue, ingrain, inoculate, invest, leaven, steep, suffuse Sample: Unlike other creatures, who are shaped largely by their immediate environment, human beings are products of a culture accumulated over centuries, yet one that is constantly being transformed by massive infusions of new information from everywhere. [ ] vt. To make furious; enrage infuriate:rage=commend:esteem {scrounge:possession} infuriate:rage=nonplus:perplexity Synonyms: ANGER, enrage, incense, ire, mad, madden, steam up, umbrage Sample: Nothing infuriated Tom more than Aunt Polly's ability to divine when he was not telling the truth.
211

ingenious

ingenuous

ingrained

ingratiating

inherent

inimical

[ ] adj. marked by originality, resourcefulness, and cleverness in conception or execution ingenious<>prosaic { spontaneous} Synonyms: CLEVER, adroit, canny, cunning, dexterous, slim, sly Sample: Although Simpson was ingenious at contriving to appear innovative and spontaneous, beneath the ruse he remained uninspired and rigid in his approach to problem-solving. [ ] adj showing innocent or childlike simplicity and candidness impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub ingratiating:win favor=disingenuous:deceive pernicious:injure=disingenuous:mislead ingenue:sophistication=cynic:trustfulness discompose:placid=fabricate:ingenuous disingenuous:sincere=?? hypercritical<>ingenuous/honest ingenuous<>cunning sly<>ingenuous Synonyms: NATURAL, artless, naive, simple, unaffected, unartful, unartificial, unschooled, unsophisticated, unstudied Sample: The senators attempt to convince the public that he is not interested in running for a second term is disingenuous given the extremely public fund-raising activities of his campaign committee. [ ] adj. to work indelibly into the natural texture or mental or moral constitution ingrained<>easily to change Synonyms: INHERENT, built-in, congenital, constitutional, deep-seated, inborn, inbred, indwelling, innate, intrinsic Sample: Try as they would, the missionaries were unable to uproot the ingrained superstitions of the natives. [ ] adj. capable of winning favor:PLEASING ingratiating:win favor=disingenuous:deceive Synonyms: deferential, disarming, ingratiatory, insinuating, insinuative, saccharine, silken, silky Sample: He tried to ingratiate himself into her parents' good graces. [ ] adj. involved in the constitution or essential character of something:belonging by nature or habit:INTRINSIC extrinsic<>inherent Synonyms: born, built-in, congenital, connate, constitutional, deep-seated, elemental, essential, inborn, inbred, indwelling, ingenerate, ingrained, innate, intimate, intrinsic Sample: Although frequent air travelers remain unconvinced, researchers have found that, paradoxically, the temporal disorientation inherent in jet lag also may yield some mental health benefits. [ ] adj a:having the disposition of an enemy:HOSTILE b:reflecting or indicating
212

inimitable

iniquity

initial

inkling

innocent

innocuous

hostility:UNFRIENDLY inimical<>friendly/amiable/amicable amenable<>inimical Synonyms: HOSTILE, ill, inimicable, unfriendly Sample: She felt that they were inimical and were hoping for her downfall. [ ] adj. not capable of being imitated:MATCHLESS indubitable:question=inimitable:copy inimitable<>commonplace/ordinary Sample: We admire Auden for his inimitable use of language; he is one of a kind. [ ] n. gross injustice:WICKEDNESS iniquity<>rectitude/disinterestedness Synonyms: EVIL, crime, diablerie, sin, tort, wrong, wrongdoing Sample: I cannot approve of the iniquitous methods you used to gain your present position. [ ] adj. placed at the beginning:FIRST eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated initial:realized=tangible:indefinite { moribund:dead } initial<>follow initiate<>follow up inveterate<>uninitiated {youthful} Synonyms: beginning, inceptive, incipient, initiative, initiatory, introductory, nascent Sample: If those large publishers that respond solely to popular literary trends continue to dominate the publishing market, the initial publication of new writers will depend on the writers' willingness to cater to popular tastes. [ ] n. a slight knowledge or vague notion inkling:knowledge=modicum:quantity Synonyms: HINT, clue, cue, indication, intimation, notion, suggestion, telltale, wind Sample: Before sprinkling the dried herbs into the stew, Michael first pulverized them into a fine powder. [ ] n. free from guilt or sin especially through lack of knowledge of evil:BLAMELESS culpable<>innocent Synonyms: GOOD, blameless, exemplary, guiltless, inculpable, irreproachable, pure, righteous, unblam-able, virtuous Sample: Melodramas, which presented stark oppositions between innocence and criminality, virtue and corruption, good and evil, were popular precisely because they offered the audience a world devoid of neutrality.. [ ] adj not likely to give offense or to arouse strong feelings or hostility:INOFFENSIVE, INSIPID placebo:innocuous=salve:unctuous=venom:toxious noxious<>wholesome/sanitary/innocuous innocuous<>injurious Synonyms: HARMLESS, innocent, innoxious, inobnoxious, inoffensive, unoffending,
213

innovation

inquiry

insatiable

insipid

insolent

insouciant

inspired

unoffensive Sample: Let him drink it; it is innocuous and will have no ill effect. [ ] n. the introduction of something new contumaciou:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty Synonyms: CHANGE, mutation, novelty, permutation, sport, vicissitude Sample: Although Simpson was ingenious at contriving to appear innovative and spontaneous, beneath the ruse he remained uninspired and rigid in his approach to problem-solving. [ ] n. examination into facts or principles:RESEARCH confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory prying:inquisitive=garish:colorful painful:agonizing=inquisitive:curious Synonyms: delving, inquest, inquisition, investigation, probe, probing, quest, research Sample: Superficial differences between the special problems and techniques of the physical sciences and those of the biological sciences are sometimes cited as evidence for the autonomy of biology and for the claim that the methods of physics are therefore not adequate to biological inquiry. [ ] adj. incapable of being satisfied:QUENCHLESS insatiate:slake=?? Sample: That dealers patient enough to nurture a young modern painter's career rather than plunder it exist is not impossible, but the public's insatiable appetite for modern art makes such dealers less and less likely. [ ] adj. lacking in qualities that interest, stimulate, or challenge:DULL, FLAT piquant<>insipid Synonyms: ARID, bromidic, dry, dryasdust, dull, dusty, tedious, uninteresting, weariful, wearisome Sample: Flat prose and flat ginger ale are equally insipid:both lack sparkle. [ ] adj. exhibiting boldness or effrontery:IMPUDENT perfunctorily:inspiration=insolently:veneration insolent<>polite/courteous {elegant} Synonyms: UNPALATABLE, distasteful, flat, flavorless, ill-flavored, savorless, tasteless, unappetizing, unsavory Sample: How dare you treat me so rudely! The manager will hear of you insolence. [ ] adj. lighthearted unconcern:NONCHALANCE tenacious:yield=insouciant:worry Synonyms: HAPPY-GO-LUCKY, carefree, free-minded, lighthearted, lightsome Sample: Your insouciant attitude at such a critical moment indicates that you do not understand the gravity of the situation. [ ] adj. outstanding or brilliant in a way or to a degree suggestive of divine inspiration inspire:infuse=obliterate:remove Synonyms: ELATE, commove, excite, exhilarate, set up, spirit (up), stimulate
214

instate

instigate

instill

institute

insubordinate

insular

insulate

Sample: Although the young violinist's steady performance, with the orchestra demonstrated his technical competence. his uninspired style and lack of interpretive maturity labeled him as a novice musician rather than as a truly accomplished performer. [ ] vt. to set or establish in a rank or office:INSTALL instate<>oust Synonyms: INITIATE, inaugurate, induct, install, invest Sample: A police officer who was asked to leave the police force for illegal behavior was reinstated when he was found not guilty. [ ] vt. to goad or urge forward:PROVOKE instigator:incite=bully:browbeat quell<>foment/instigate/rouse Synonyms: INCITE, abet, foment, provoke, raise, set, set on, stir (up), whip (up) Sample: I am afraid that this statement will instigate a revolt. [ ] v. to impart gradually instill<>drain away instill<>remove Synonyms: IMPLANT, inculcate, infix, inseminate Sample: Her athletic parents instilled the girl with a love of baseball. [ ] n. vt. to originate and get established:ORGANIZE rescind<>institute abrogate<>embrace/institute/uphold effacing<>institute Synonyms: FOUND, constitute, create, establish, organize, set up, start Sample: His program was reactionary since it sought to abolish many of the social reforms instituted by the previous administration. [ ] adj disobedient to authority tractable<>insubordinate/intransigent/incorrigible/obstinate Synonyms: contumacious, factious, insurgent, mutinous, rebellious, seditious Sample: By idiosyncratically refusing to dismiss an insubordinate member of his staff, the manager not only contravened established policy, but he also jeopardized his heretofore good chances for promotion. [ ] adj. characteristic of an isolated people; especially:being, having, or reflecting a narrow provincial viewpoint insular<>cosmopolitan Synonyms: local, parochial, provincial, sectarian, small-town Sample: The insularity of the islanders manifested itself in their suspicion of anyuthing foreign. [ ] v. to place in a detached situation:ISOLATE; especially:to separate from conducting bodies by means of nonconductors so as to prevent transfer of electricity, heat, or sound insularity<>cosmopolitanism
215

insurgent

intangible

integral

integrity

intelligible

intemperate

insulate<>expose Synonyms: ISOLATE, close off, cut off, enisle, island, segregate, separate, sequester Sample: Some city parents insulate their children by sending them to private schools. [ ] adj. a person who revolts against civil authority or an established government; especially:a rebel not recognized as a belligerent parsimony:miser=rebelliousness:insurgent insurgent:rebel=incendiary:agitate Synonyms: ISOLATE, close off, cut off, enisle, island, segregate, separate, sequester Sample: We will not discuss reforms until the insurgent troops have returned to their homes. [ ] adj. not tangible:IMPALPABLE impracticable:effected=intangible:known {indestructible:restored} corporeal<>intangible Synonyms: IMPERCEPTIBLE, impalpable, imponderable, inappreciable, indiscernible, insensible, invisible, unapparent, unappreciable, unobservable Sample: Though the financial benefits of his Oxford post were meager, Lewis was drawn to it by its intangible rewards:prestige, intellectual freedom, the fellowship of his peers. [ ] adj. essential to completeness:CONSTITUENT integral<>superfluous integral<>redundant Synonyms: WHOLE, choate, complete, entire, full, perfect Sample: Physical education is an integral part of our curriculum; a sound mind and a sound body are complementary. [ ] n. the quality or state of being complete or undivided:COMPLETENESS ecumenical:generality=entire:integrity genuine:authenticity=entire:integrity taint<>integrity/wholesomeness Synonyms: HONESTY, honestness, honor, honorableness, incorruption Sample: In some cultures the essence of magic is its traditional integrity; it can be efficient only if it has been transmitted without loss from primeval times to the present practitioner. [ ] adj. capable of being understood or comprehended correct:accurate=garble:unintelligible Synonyms: UNDERSTANDABLE, apprehensible, comprehendible, comprehensible, fathomable, graspable, knowable, lucid, luminous Sample: There was loud noise from the burning building, but the firefighters' shouts were still intelligible. [ ] adj. not temperate especially:given to excessive use of intoxicating liquors equable<>intemperate intemperate<>constrained Synonyms: EXCESSIVE, immoderate, inordinate, overindulgent, unrestrained,
216

intensify

inter

intercede

interdict

interim

interlock

interlope

interminable

untempered Sample: Alcoholics are often sorry about their intemperate habits. [ ] vi. to make intense or more intensive:STRENGTHEN moderate:intensity=extenuate:seriousness abate:intensity=taper:width alleviate:intensity=abate:tax abate:intensity=taper:width abate<>intensify/promote assuage<>intensify attenuate<>intensify Synonyms: aggravate, deepen, enhance, heighten, intensate, magnify, mount, redouble, rise, rouse Sample: The noise from the party intensified as the clock struck midnight. [ ] vt. to deposit (a dead body) in the earth or in a tomb inter:burial=obliterate:removal Sample: My friend died Friday and was interred yesterday. [ ] vi. to intervene between parties with a view to reconciling differences:MEDIATE intercessor:mediate=translator:interpret/augur:prediction Synonyms: INTERPOSE, interfere, intermediate, intervene, mediate, step in Sample: You are telling lies about my sister; I must intercede on her behalf. [ ] v. to forbid in a usually formal or authoritative manner interdict<>authorize {inaugurate} Synonyms: FORBID, ban, enjoin, inhibit, outlaw, prohibit, taboo Sample: Civilized nations must interdict the use of nuclear weapons if we expect out society to live. [ ] n. adj. an intervening time:INTERVAL interim<>permanent respite:labor=interim:concert {mediate:confliction} Synonyms: TEMPORARY, acting, ad interim, pro tem, pro tempore, supply Sample: The company will not consider our proposal until next week; in the interim, let us proceed as we have in the past. [ ] adj. to become locked together or interconnected interlocking<>independent Sample: The children interlocked arms and crossed the street as a group. [ ] v. one that intrudes in a place or sphere of activity Synonyms: MEDDLE, busybody, butt in, fool, horn in, interfere, intermeddle, monkey (with), tamper (with) Sample: The merchant thought of his competitors as interlopers who were stealing away his trade. [ ] adj. having or seeming to have no end; especially:wearisomely protracted
217

intermittent

interrogate

intervene

intimate

intimate

countless/innumerable/myriad/untold:number=everlasting/interminable:duration innumerable:number=interminable:duration {unsubstantiated:conclusion} Sample: Although his speech lasted for only twenty minutes, it seemed interminable to his bored audience. [ ] adj. coming and going at intervals:not continuous intermittent<>constant Synonyms: alternate, isochronal, isochronous, periodic, periodical, recurrent, recurring Sample: Our picnic was marred by intermittent rains. [ ] vt. to question formally and systematically:probe confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory question:interrogative=order:imperative Synonyms: ASK, catechize, examine, inquire, query, question, quiz Sample: Knowing that the Nazis would interrogate him about his background, the secret agent invented a cover story that would help him meet their quesions. [ ] vi. to interfere usually by force or threat of force in another nation's internal affairs especially to compel or prevent an action Synonyms: INTERPOSE, intercede, interfere, intermediate, mediate, step in Sample: Although supernovas are among the most luminous of cosmic events, these stellar explosions are often hard to detect, either because they are enormously far away or because they are dimmed by intervening dust and gas clouds. [ ] adj. n. a friend or confidant marked by very close association, contact, or familiarity clique:intimates=flock:sheep obsessed:attracted=intimate:close engrossed:absorbed=intimate:close Synonyms: FRIEND, acquaintance, amigo, cater-cousin, confidant, familiar, mate Sample: Even those siblings whose childhood was dominated by familial feuding and intense rivalry for their parents' affection can nevertheless develop congenial and even intimate relationships with each other in their adult lives. [ ] vt. to make known especially publicly or formally:ANNOUNCE intimate:communicate=allude:refer Synonyms: SUGGEST, connote, hint, imply, insinuate Sample: She intimated rather than stated her preferences. List 16 intimidate --- lectern

intimidate

[ ] vt. to make timid or fearful:FRIGHTEN; especially:to compel or deter by or as if by threats sycophant:flattery=extortionist:intimidation dauntless:intimidate=irrepressible:restrain bully:intimidate=stupid:gullibility intimidate:trepidation=?? sabotage:subvertness=bull:intimidation { dupe:duplicity } cowardice:intimidate=perplexed:obfuscate
218

intransigent

intrepid

intricacy

intrigue

intrinsic

intuition

cowardice:intimidate=choler:antagonize Synonyms: bludgeon, bluster, browbeat, bulldoze, bully, bullyrag, cow, dragoon, hector, strong-arm, terrorize Sample: At first, I found her gravity rather intimidating; but, as I saw more of her, I found that laughter was very near the surface. [ ] adj refusing to compromise or to abandon an extreme position or attitude:UNCOMPROMISING firm:intransigent=concerned:obsessed intransigent:acquiesce=deferential:offend intransigent<>open to compromise tractable<>insubordinate/intransigent/incorrigible/obstinate pliant<>intransigence/intractable Synonyms: OBSTINATE, incompliant, intractable, pertinacious, self-willed, tough, stubborn, willful, unpliable, unyielding Sample: That his intransigence in making decisions brooked no open disagreement from any quarter was well known; thus, clever subordinates learned the art of intimating their opinions in casual remarks. [ ] adj. characterized by resolute fearlessness, fortitude, and endurance genteel:vulgarity=intrepid:fear intrepid:deter=rapt:distract timorous<>intrepid Synonyms: BRAVE, audacious, bold, courageous, dauntless, fearless, unafraid, undaunted, valiant, valorous Sample: For his intrepid conduct in battle, he was promoted. [ ] n. the quality or state of being intricate chiaroscuro:contrast=filigree:delicacy={tapestry:intricacy } chiaroscuro:contrast=filigree:delicacy Sample:One of archaeology's central dilemmas is how to reconstruct the intricacies of complex ancient societies from meager and often equivocal physical evidence. [ ] vt. to arouse the interest, desire, or curiosity of interesting:intriguing=bootless:futile pall<>interest/intrigue Sample: Perhaps because scientists have been so intrigued by dogs superior senses of smell and hearing, researchers have long underestimated their eyesight, assuming that they inhabit a drab, black-and-white world, devoid of color. [ ] adj. belonging to the essential nature or constitution of a thing Synonyms: INHERENT, built-in, congenital, connate, constitutional, deep-seated, elemental, essential, indwelling, innate Sample: The pressure of populating on available resources is the key to understanding history; consequently, any historical writing that takes no cognizance of demographic facts is intrinsically flawed. [ ] n. The act or faculty of knowing or sensing without the use of rational processes;
219

inure

invective

inveigh

inveigle

inventory

investigate

inveterate

immediate cognition. extraneous<>intuitive Sample: She claimed to know the truth by intuition. [ ] vt. to accustom to accept something undesirable inured:tolerance=addicted:dependency Synonyms: ACCUSTOM, familiarize, habituate, use, wont Sample: Employees had become so inured to the caprices of top management's personnel policies that they greeted the announcement of a company-wide dress code with impassivity. [ ] n. of, relating to, or characterized by insult or abuse exhortation:motivate=invective:discredit polemic:disputatious=invective:abusive invective<>flatter Synonyms: ABUSIVE, contumelious, opprobrious, scurrile, scurrilous, truculent, vituperative, vituperatory, vituperous Sample: He had expected criticism but not the invective that greeted his proposal. [ ] vi. to protest or complain bitterly or vehemently:RAIL inveigh<>verbally provide support Synonyms: OBJECT, except, expostulate, kick, protest, remonstrate Sample: He inveighed against the demagoguery of the previous speaker and urged that the audience reject his philosophy as dangerous. [ ] v. to win over by wiles:ENTICE plot:plan=inveigle:interest inveigle<>request directly Synonyms: LURE, allure, bait, decoy, entice, entrap, lead on, seduce, tempt, toll Sample: She was inveigled into joining the club after an initial reluctance. [ ] n. an itemized list of current assets:as a catalog of the property of an individual or estate census:population=inventory:stock inventory:merchandise=manifest:cargo Sample: We must wait until we deplete our present inventory before we order replacements. [ ] v. to make a systematic examination; especially:to conduct an official inquiry cavil:criticize=probe:investigate Synonyms: EXPLORE, delve (into), dig (into), go (into), inquire (into), look (into), probe, prospect, sift Sample: To test the efficacy of borrowing from one field of study to enrich another, simply investigate the extent to which terms from the one may, without forcing, be utilized by the other. [ ] adj. firmly established by long persistence inveterate<>uninitiated {youthful} inveterate<>one-time { casual }
220

invidious

invigorate

invincible

inviolate

invoice

invoke

invulnerable

Synonyms: bred-in-the-bone, confirmed, deep-dyed, deep-rooted, deep-seated, dyed-inthe-wool, entrenched, hard-shell, irradicable, settled, sworn Sample: What is most important to the monkeys in the sanctuary is that they are a group; this is so because primates are inveterately social and build their lives around each other. [ ] adj tending to cause discontent, animosity, or envy invidious<>beneficial Synonyms: LIBELOUS, calumnious, defamatory, detracting, detractive, detractory, maligning, scandalous, slanderous, vilifying Sample: We disregarded her invidious remarks because we realized how jealous she was. [ ] v. to give life and energy to:ANIMATE; also:STIMULATE conducive:foment=tonic:invigorate tonic:invigorate=analgesic:deaden debilitate<>invigorate{enervate<>invigorate/ enfeeble<>invigorate} demoralize<>invigorate { ameliorate } emaciate<>invigorate sap<>invigorate Synonyms: STRENGTHEN, energize, fortify, reinforce Sample: The tonic water invigorated her, contrary to the enervating effect of the alcohol. [ ] adj. Incapable of being overcome or defeated; unconquerable. invincible:conquer=negligible:perceive Synonyms: impregnable, inconquerable, indomitable, inexpugnable, invulnerable, unassailable, unbeatable, unconquerable, undefeatable Sample: Superman is invincible. [ ] adj. not violated or profaned; especially:PURE pierce:impenetrable=profane:inviolable penetrate:impermeable=profane:inviolable inviolable<>profane/impure Synonyms: SACRED, inviolable, sacrosanct Sample: My garden is inviolate; children and dogs must stay out of it. [ ] n. a consignment of merchandise consignment:invoice=?? Synonyms: BILL, account, reckoning, score, statement, tab Sample: Our company sends invoices to customers after they order from us. [ ] vt. to put into effect or operation:IMPLEMENT invoke<>suspend Synonyms: BEG, appeal, beseech, crave, entreat, implore, importune, plead, pray, supplicate Sample: She invoked her advisor's aid in filling out her financial aid forms. [ ] adj.
221

irascible

irate

iridescence

irk

ironclad

irony

irradicable

incapable of being wounded, injured, or harmed euphemism:offend=invulnerable:injure untenable:defense=invulnerable:injury Synonyms: INVINCIBLE, impregnable, inconquerable, indomitable, inexpugnable, unassailable, unbeatable, unconquerable, undefeatable Sample: Achilles was invulnerable except in his heel. [ ] adj. marked by hot temper and easily provoked anger irascible:placate=insensate:conscious affable<>irascible Synonyms: choleric, cranky, cross, hot-tempered, ireful, passionate, peppery, quicktempered, ratty, temperish, testy, tetchy, touchy Sample: Her irascible temper frightened me. [ ] adj. arising from anger gush:effusive=rage:irate Synonyms: ANGRY, choleric, ireful, mad, waxy, wrathful, wrathy, wroth, wrothful Sample: When John's mother found out that he had overthrown his checking account for the third month in a row, she was so irate that she could scarcely speak to him. [ ] n. a lustrous rainbowlike play of color caused by differential refraction of light waves (as from an oil slick, soap bubble, or fish scales) that tends to change as the angle of view changes iridescent<>monochromatic Sample: She admired the iridescent hues of the oil that floated on the surface of the water. [ ] v to make weary, irritated, or bored irk<>make someone pleased Synonyms: ANNOY, abrade, bother, exercise, fret, gall, provoke, ruffle, vex Sample: He found working on the assembly line irksome because of the monotony of the operation he had to perform. [ ] adj. so firm or secure as to be unbreakable:as a:BINDING jammed:full=ironclad:firm Synonyms: INFLEXIBLE, constant, fixed, immovable, immutable, inalterable, invariable, unalterable, unchangeable, unmodifiable Sample: We wanted an ironclad agreement, in writing, before we bought the house. [ ] n. a pretense of ignorance and of willingness to learn from another assumed in order to make the other's false conceptions conspicuous by adroit questioning Sample: Copyright and patent laws attempt to encourage innovation by ensuring that inventors are paid for creative, so it would be ironic if expanded protection under these laws discouraged entrepreneurial innovation by increasing fears of lawsuits. [ ] adj. impossible to eradicate:DEEP-ROOTED ineffable:description=irradicable:obliterate incorrigible:amend=irradicable:remove
222

irreducible

irrelevant

irresolute

irreverent

irritate

issue

issue

Synonyms: INVETERATE, confirmed, deep-dyed, deep-rooted, deep-seated, dyed-inthe-wool, entrenched, hard-shell, settled, sworn [ ] adj. impossible to transform into or restore to a desired or simpler condition factorable<>irreducible [ ] adj. not relevant:INAPPLICABLE apropos<>irrelevant { straight, uniform, symmetrical } Synonyms: extraneous, foreign, immaterial, impertinent, inapplicable, inapposite, irrelative Sample: Because modern scientists find the ancient Greek view of the cosmos outdated and irrelevant, they now perceive it as only of historical interest. [ ] adj. uncertain how to act or proceed:VACILLATING pertinacious<>irresolute Synonyms: VACILLATING, faltering, halting, hesitant, shilly-shallying, tentative, uncertain, vacillatory, wiggle-waggle, wobbly Sample: She had no respect for him because he seemed weak-willed and irresolute. [ ] adj. lacking proper respect or seriousness; also:SATIRIC awe<>irreverence Synonyms: IMPIOUS, irreverential, profane, ungodly, unhallowed, unholy Sample: The worshippers resented her irreverent remarks about their faith. [ ] n. to provoke impatience, anger, or displeasure in:ANNOY antidote:poisoning=balm:irritation haunt:familiar/similarity=harass:irritating balm<>irritant salve<>irritant Synonyms: aggravate, burn (up), exasperate, gall, get, grate, huff, inflame, nettle, peeve, pique, provoke, put out, rile, roil Sample: Although Tom was aware that it would be impolitic to display annoyance publicly at the sales conference, he could not hide his irritation with the client's unreasonable demands. [ ] n. a matter that is in dispute between two or more parties debate:issue=bargain:price repartee:retort=debate:issue {advisement:product } stanza:line=volume:issue Sample: Although normally diffident, Alison felt so strongly about the issue that she put aside her reserve and spoke up at the committee meeting. [ ] vt. the act of publishing or officially giving out or making available issue<>withdraw Synonyms: SPRING, arise, birth, derive (from), emanate, flow, originate, proceed, rise, stem Sample: Between 1941 and 1945, the White House issued news about the war nearly every day.
223

isthmus

jabber

jaded

jam

jape

jar

jargon

jaundice

jaunty

jazz

[ ] n a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas isthmus:land=strait:water Sample: In a magnificent feat of engineering, Goethals and his men cut through the isthmus of Panama in constructing the Panama Canal. [ ] v. to talk rapidly, indistinctly, or unintelligibly jabber<>speak slowly Synonyms: GIBBER, babble, chatter, gabble Sample: Some people jabber about nothing. [ ] adj fatigued by overwork:EXHAUSTED overexposure:jaded=vaccination:immune jaded<>keen Synonyms: TIRED ,clapped-out, fatigued, wearied, weary, worn, worn-down, worn-out Sample: He looked for exotic foods to stimulate his jaded appetite. [ ] adj. fatigued by overwork:EXHAUSTED jammed:full=ironclad:firm Synonyms: PRESS, bear, crowd, crush, push, squab, squash, squeeze, squish, squush Sample: Throngs of shoppers jammed the aisles. [ ] n/v. to make mocking fun of revere<>jape at Synonyms: JOKE, crack, drollery, gag, jest, quip, waggery, wisecrack, witticism [ ] vi. to make a harsh or discordant sound malodorous:smell=cacophony/jarring:sound melodious<>jarring Sample: She moved her chair backwards, and it jarred against the wall. [ ] n. The specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, or similar group. vernacular:place=jargon:profession Synonyms: DIALECT , argot, cant, lingo, patois, patter, slang, vernacular Sample: The First World War began in a context of jargon and verbal delicacy and continued in a cloud of euphemism as impenetrable as language and literature, skillfully used, could make it. [ ] n. a state or attitude characterized by satiety, distaste, or hostility jaundice<>dispose favorably jaundiced<>unprejudiced/candid Sample: She gazed at the painting with jaundiced eyes; she knew it was better than hers. [ ] adj sprightly in manner or appearance:LIVELY staid<>jaunty Sample:In Singing in the Rain, Gene Kelly sang and danced his way throughtthe lighthearted title number in a properly jaunty style. [ ] n.
224

jealous

jejune

jest

jettison

jibe

jingoist

jitter

jocund

American music developed especially from ragtime and blues and characterized by propulsive syncopated rhythms, polyphonic ensemble playing, varying degrees of improvisation, and often deliberate distortions of pitch and timbre portrait:painting=jazz:music [ ] adj. having to do with or arising from feelings of envy, apprehension, or bitterness attentive:meddlesome=envious:jealous Sample: We disregarded her invidious remarks because we realized how jealous she was. [ ] adj. devoid of significance or interest:DULL labyrinthine:simplicity=jejune:interest jejune<>thought provoking Synonyms: JOKE, crack, drollery, gag, jape, quip, waggery, wisecrack, witticism, yak [ ] n. v. an utterance (as a jeer or quip) intended to be taken as mockery or humor jest<>solemnity jest<>solemn utterance Synonyms: JOKE, crack, drollery, gag, jape, quip, waggery, wisecrack, witticis Sample: I said you look terrible in jest; actually, you look very pretty. [ ] n. to get rid of as superfluous or encumbering:DISCARD jettison<>retain Synonyms: DISCARD, abdicate, cashier, cast, junk, reject, scrap, shed, slough, throw away Sample: In order to enable the ship to ride safely through the storm, the captain had to jettison much of his cargo. [ ] vi. to be in accord:AGREE jibe<>conflict Synonyms: AGREE, accord, conform, correspond, dovetail, fit (in), go, harmonize, square, tally Sample: What he says happened does not jibe with what others say. [ ] n. extreme chauvinism or nationalism marked especially by a belligerent foreign policy nepotism:kinship=jingoist:nationality dove<>warmonger/jingoist Sample: We must be careful to prevent a spirit of jingoism from spreading at this time. [ ] vi. to be nervous or act in a nervous way jittery<>resolute Sample: He has the jitters about going to a job interview. [ ] adj. marked by or suggestive of high spirits and lively mirthfulness jocund<>dreary jocund<>morose dour<>jocund jocund<>serious
225

jog

joke

jolt

jot

jovial

jubilant

judicious

Synonyms: MERRY, blithe, blithesome, festive, gay, gleeful, jolly, jovial, lighthearted, mirthful Sample: Santa Claus is always vivacious and jocund. [ ] n. a movement, pace, or instance of jogging (as for exercise) jog:exercise=barter:trade Sample: I go for a jog every evening. [ ] n. something said or done to provoke laughter; especially:a brief oral narrative with a climactic humorous twist joke:punch line=plot:denouement Sample: When the firm's president married the director of financial planning, the office joke was that it wasn't a marriage, it was a merger. [ ] vi. to cause to move with a sudden jerky motion jolt:move=check:stop Synonyms: SHOCK, startle Sample: If you stick s.t. into an electrical socket, you will get a jolt. [ ] vt. to write briefly or hurriedly:set down in the form of a note nip:eat=jot:write Synonyms: PARTICLE, atom, bit, grain, iota, minim, modicum, speck, tittle, whit Sample: I jotted down her name and telephone number. [ ] adj. markedly good-humored especially as evidenced by jollity and conviviality jovial<>mournful saturnine<>jovial maudlin<>jovial jovial<>morose jovial<>drab joviality<>moroseness Synonyms: MERRY, blithe, blithesome, festive, gay, gleeful, jocund, jolly, lighthearted, mirthful Sample: A frown seemed out of place on his invariably jovial face. [ ] adj. EXULTANT dolorous<>jubilant Synonyms: EXULTANT, cock-a-hoop, cock-a-whoop, exulting, triumphal, triumphant Sample: There was great jubilitation when the armistice was announced. [ ] adj. having, exercising, or characterized by sound judgment:DISCREET miser:stingy=sage:judicious daft<>judicious politic<>injudicious { officious } judicious<>imprudent Synonyms: WISE, judgmatic, prudent, sage, sane, sapient, sensible Sample: At a key moment in his life, he made a judicious investment that was the foundation of his later wealth.
226

juggernaut

jumble

justify

juxtapose

kangaroo

ken

kindle

kindred

kink

[ ] n. a massive inexorable force, campaign, movement, or object that crushes whatever is in its path juggernaut:unstoppable=enigma:impenetrable juggernaut:unstoppable=extemporization:spontaneous {boast:dishonest} siren:unresist=juggernaut:unstop Sample: Nothing could survive in the path of the juggernaut. [ ] vi. to mix into a confused or disordered mass mixture:jumble=?? Synonyms: CONFUSE, foul up, mix up, muddle, snarl up, tumble Sample: He does not understand; he has the instructions all jumbled up. [ ] vt. to prove or show to be just, right, or reasonable justify<>argue against Synonyms: MAINTAIN, argue, assert, claim, contend, defend, vindicate, warrant Sample: The law justifies killing s.o. to defend oneself. [ ] vt. to place side by side Sample: Comparison will be easier if you juxtapose the two objects. [ ] n. any of various herbivorous leaping marsupial mammals (family Macropodidae) of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands with a small head, large ears, long powerful hind legs, a long thick tail used as a support and in balancing, and rather small forelegs not used in progression kangaroo:marsupial=squirrel:rodent Sample: Baby kangaroos live in a pocket or pouch on their mothers' stomachs. [ ] n. the range of vision earshot:hear=ken:see Synonyms: horizon, purview, range, reach Sample: I cannot answer your question since this matter is beyond my ken. [ ] vt. to stir up:AROUSE extinguish<>kindle ignite<>extinguish extinguish<>rekindle Synonyms: STIR, arouse, awaken, bestir, challenge, rally, rouse, wake, waken, whet Sample: Neither the ideas of philosophers nor the practices of ordinary people can, by themselves, transform reality; what in fact changes reality and kindles revolution is the interplay of the two. [ ] adj. of a similar nature or character:LIKE kindred<>dissimilar Synonyms: RELATED, affiliated, agnate, akin, allied, cognate, connate, connatural, consanguine, incident Sample: Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn were two kindred spirits. [ ] n.
227

knack

knave

knead

knit

knotty

kudos

labile

labored

a short tight twist or curl caused by a doubling or winding of something upon itself Sample: My project is almost done, but it still has some kinks in it. [ ] n. a clever trick or stratagem knack<>foolish Synonyms: ABILITY, command, expertise, expertism, expertness, know-how, mastership, mastery, skill Sample: He has a knack for getting the baby back to sleep; when he holds the baby, she stops crying and falls asleep. [ ] n. a tricky deceitful fellow sage:judgement=knave:deceive Synonyms: VILLIAN, blackguard, heel, lowlife, miscreant, rascal, rogue, scoundrel [ ] vt. to work and press into a mass with or as if with the hands knead:malleable=penetrate:permeable Sample: Her hands grew strong from kneading bread. [ ] v. to form by interlacing yarn or thread in a series of connected loops with needles ravel<>knit Sample: Whenever David worries, his brow knits in a frown. [ ] adj. marked by or full of knots; especially:so full of difficulties and complications as to be likely to defy solution knotty<>easy knotty<>simple Synonyms: COMPLEX, Byzantine, complicated, daedal, elaborate, gordian, intricate, involved, labyrinthine, sophisticated Sample: What to Watson had been a knotty problem to Sherlock Holmes was simplicity itself. [ ] n. fame and renown resulting from an act or achievement:PRESTIGE kudos<>disparage Synonyms: HONOR, accolade, award, badge, bays, decoration, distinction, laurels Sample: The singer complacently received kudos on his performance from his entourage. [ ] adj. readily or continually undergoing chemical, physical, or biological change or breakdown:UNSTABLE labile<>stable Sample: Because the hormonal changes they undergo affect their spirits, adolescents may become emotionally labile and experience sudden shifts of mood. [ ] adj. lacking ease of expression glib<>labored Synonyms: HARD, arduous, difficult, effortful, heavy, laborious, operose, strenuous, toilsome, uphill Sample: After she climbed the stairs, her breathing was labored.
228

labyrinth

laconic

lambaste

lamentable

lampoon

landfill

landlord

landslide

[ ] n. something extremely complex or tortuous in structure, arrangement, or character:INTRICACY, PERPLEXITY labyrinthine:simplicity=jejune:interest threadbare/timeworn:novelty=labyrinthine:directness ribald:seemly=labyrinthine:direct Synonyms: MAZE, jungle, knot, mesh, mizmaze, morass, skein, snarl, tangle, web Sample: Tom and Becky were lost in the labyrinth of secret caves. [ ] adj. using or involving the use of a minimum of words:concise to the point of seeming rude or mysterious audacious:trepidation=laconic:volubility laconic<>loquacious/voluble laconism<>verbosity voluble<>taciturn/laconic/succinct/reticent Synonyms: CONCISE, breviloquent, brief, compendiary, compendious, curt, short, short and sweet, succinct, terse Sample: For someone as laconic as she, who preferred to speak only when absolutely necessary, his relentless chatter was completely maddening. [ ] vt. to attack verbally:CENSURE Synonyms: BEAT, baste, drub, hammer, paste, pelt, pound, pummel, thrash, wallop Sample: It was painful to watch the champion lambaste his opponent, tearing into him mercilessly. [ ] adj. expressing grief:MOURNFUL lamentable:pity=responsible:censure celebration:lamentful=slight:show respect Synonyms: MELANCHOLY, doleful, dolesome, dolorous, lugubrious, mournful, plaintive, rueful, sorrowful, woeful Sample: Even advocates of the war lamented the loss of so many lives in combat. [ ] n a harsh satire usually directed against an individual panegyric:eulogize=lampoon:satirize satire:lampoon=diligence:effort paean<>harshly lampoon Sample: The magazine's lampoon of the rock star was very funny. [ ] n. a system of trash and garbage disposal in which the waste is buried between layers of earth to build up low-lying land cistern:liquids=landfill:refuse Sample: The landfills in many big cities are already full. [ ] n. the owner of property (as land, houses, or apartments) that is leased or rented to another Sample: The landlord of our apartment building is a huge real estate company. [ ] n. the usually rapid downward movement of a mass of rock, earth, or artificial fill on a slope; also:the mass that moves down
229

languid

languish

languor

lank

lapse

larder

largesse

lariat

droplet:deluge=pebble:landslide Sample: A landslide blocked the coastal road. [ ] adj. drooping or flagging from or as if from exhaustion:WEAK desultory:plan=languid:energy languid<>energetic vivacious<>languid vehement<>languid Synonyms: die-away, enervated, lackadaisical, languishing, languorous, limp, listless, spiritless Sample: Her siege of illness left her languid and pallid. [ ] v to be or become feeble, weak, or enervated languish<>thrive Synonyms: FAIL, decline, deteriorate, fade, flag, weaken Sample: In stories, lovelorn damsels used to languish and pine away. [ ] n. listless indolence or inertia languor<>thrive Synonyms: LETHARGY, coma, dullness, hebetude, lassitude, sleep, slumber, stupor, torpidity, torpor Sample: His friends tried to overcome the languor into which he had fallen by taking him to parties and to the theater. [ ] adj. not well filled out:SLENDER, THIN lank<>stalwart Synonyms: LEAN, angular, bony, gaunt, lanky, rawboned, scraggy, scrawny, skinny, spare Sample: Lank, gaunt, Abraham Lincoln was a striking figure. [ ] n. a slight error typically due to forgetfulness or inattention lapse:error=misbehavior:criminality misdemeanor:crime=lapse:error Synonyms: ERROR , blooper, blunder, boner, bull, bungle, fluff, mistake, slip, trip Sample: It was a lapse on his part when he forgot to pay the rent. [ ] n. a place where food is stored:PANTRY larder:food=wardrobe:clothes larder:provisions=vault:valuables [ ] n liberal giving (as of money) to or as if to an inferior; also:something so given largesse<>parsimony largesse<>penurious Synonyms: GIFT, benevolence, boon, favor, present Sample: Famous among job seekers for its largesse, the company, quite apart from generous salaries, bestowed on its executives annual bonuses and such perquisites as low-interest home mortgages and company cars. [ ] n.
230

lash

lassitude

latent

lathe

latitude

laudatory

lavish

a long light rope (as of hemp or leather) used with a running noose to catch livestock or with or without the noose to tether grazing animals:LASSO lariat:wrangler=crook:shepherd Sample: Cowboys carry lariats on their saddles. [ ] v. to bind with or as if with a line lash<>unbind Synonyms: RUSH, boil, bolt, charge, chase, dash, fling, race, shoot, tear Sample: Sailors lashed down boxes with strong ropes before the storm. [ ] n a condition of weariness or debility:FATIGUE arrogance:defer=lassitude:stir lassitude<>vim/animation lassitude<>verve Synonyms: FATIGUE, exhaustion, tiredness, weariness Sample: The hot, tropical weather created a feeling of lassitude and encouraged drowsiness. [ ] adj. present and capable of becoming though not now visible, obvious, or active latent<>menifest Synonyms: abeyant, dormant, lurking, potential, prepatent, quiescent Sample: Her latent talent was discovered by accident. [ ] n. a machine in which work is rotated about a horizontal axis and shaped by a fixed tool lathe:shape=clasp:fasten Synonyms: abeyant, dormant, lurking, potential, prepatent, quiescent Sample: He makes machine parts on a <n.> lathe. [ ] n. Freedom from normal restraints, limitations, or regulations. latitude<>strict limitation latitude<>tightly restrained Sample: Even though in today's Soviet Union the leaders of the Muslim clergy have been accorded power and privileges, the Muslim laity and the rank-and-file clergy still have little latitude to practice their religion. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or expressing praise consel:advice=laud:homage execrable<>commendable/laudable pejorative<>laudatory Synonyms: EULOGISTIC, encomiastic, laudative, panegyrical, praiseful Sample: The critics' laudatory comments helped to make her a star. [ ] adj. expended or produced in abundance excoriate<>extol/praise lavishly lavish<>mean lavish<>stint penurious<>lavish impecunious<>lavish/prosperous
231

leaven

lectern

lavish<>economical lavish<>hoard lavish<>austere Synonyms: PROFUSE, exuberant, lush, luxuriant, opulent, prodigal, profusive, riotous Sample: In most Native American cultures, an article used in prayer or ritual is made with extraordinary attention to and richness of detail:it is decorated more lavishly than a similar article intended for everyday use. [ ] vt. to raise (as bread) with a leaven distill:purity=leaven:volume Sample: As bread dough is leavened, it puffs up, expanding in volume. [ ] n. a stand used to support a book in a convenient position for a standing reader; especially:one from which scripture lessons are read in a church service Sample: The chaplain delivered his sermon from a hastily improvised lectern. List 17 leer --- mediate [ ] vi. to cast a sidelong glance stare:leer=peruse:smattering [ ] adj. Suspicious or distrustful; wary leery<>showing no doubt Sample: Don't eat sushi at this restaurant; I'm a bit leery about how fresh it is. [ ] n something transmitted by or received from an ancestor or predecessor or from the past legacy:predecessor=gift:donor Sample: The methods that a communitydevises to perpetuate itself come into being to preserve aspects of the cultural legacy that that community perceives as essential. [ ] n. an explanatory list of the symbols on a map or chart glossary:text=legend:map legendary<>obscure Sample: The legend at the bottom of the map made it clear which symbols stood for rest areas along the highway and which stood for public camp sites. [ ] adj. capable of being read or deciphered:PLAIN legible:decipher=?? Sample: The photocopy is faint but legible. [ ] n. MANY, NUMEROUS legion<>lack in number Synonyms: MANY, multifarious, multitudinal, multitudinous, numerous, populous, sundry, various, voluminous Sample: Legions of people filled the streets to celebrate independence. [ ] adj. exerting a soothing or easing influence:relieving pain or stress martinet:leniency=dabbler:dedication
232

leer

leery

legacy

legend

legible

legion

lenient

lethal

lethargy

levee

levelheaded

leverage

levity

lexicographer

liability

Synonyms: GENTLE, balmy, bland, faint, mild, smooth, soft Sample: Considering the gravity of the offense, we were surprised by the leniency of the sentence. [ ] adj. gravely damaging or destructive:DEVASTATING disagreeable:hateful=harmful:lethal Synonyms: DEADLY, deathly, fatal, mortal, mortiferous, pestilent, pestilential Sample: It is unwise to leave lethal weapons where children may find them. [ ] n. the quality or state of being lazy, sluggish, or indifferent lethargic:energy=?? Synonyms: coma, dullness, hebetude, languor, lassitude, sleep, slumber, stupor, torpidity, torpidness, torpor Sample: The stuffy room made her lethargic; she felt as if she was about to nod off. [ ] n. an embankment for preventing flooding levee:river=cordon:crowd rampart:invasion=levee:flood padding:damage=levee:flooding Synonyms: WHARF, berth, dock, jetty, pier, quay, slip Sample: As the river rose and threatened to overflow the levee, emergency workers rushed to reinforce the walls with sandbags. [ ] adj. having sound judgment:SENSIBLE levelheaded<>foolish Sample: She is a levelheaded girl and won't do anything foolish. [ ] n. positional advantage; power to act effectively: leverage:advantage=?? Sample: Unions have the leverage of a strike in negotiations with management. [ ] n. excessive or unseemly frivolity sullen:levity=?? Synonyms: LIGHTNESS, flightiness, flippancy, frivolity, light-mindedness, volatility Sample: Stop giggling abd wriggling around in the pew; such levity is improper in church. [ ] n. an author or editor of a dictionary cartographer:map=weaver:cloth=lexicographer:dictionary Sample: Although the meanings of words may necessarily be liable to change, it does not follow that the lexicographer is therefore unable to render spelling, in a great measure, constant . (9510) [ ] n. something for which one is liable; especially:pecuniary obligation exempt:liability=pardon:penalty asset<>liability Synonyms: DEBT, arrear(s), arrearage, due, indebtedness Sample: Her lack of an extensive vocabulary was a liability that she was able to
233

liaison

liberal

libertine

liberty

libretto

licentious

overcome. [ ] n. a close bond or connection:INTERRELATIONSHIP Synonyms: AMOUR, affair, intrigue Sample: As the liason, he had to avoid offending the leaders of the two armies. [ ] adj. marked by generosity:OPENHANDED heretic:unconformity=generous:liberality { authority:superiority } nefarious:wickedness=generous:liberality parsimonious:liberal=obtuse:keen liberal<>parsimonious liberalist<>enfetterist Synonyms: bounteous, bountiful, free, freehanded, generous, handsome, munificent, openhanded, unsparing Sample: Despite claims that his philosophy can be traced to a single source, the philosophy in fact draws liberally on several traditions and methodologies and so could justifiably be termed eclectic. [ ] n. a person who is unrestrained by convention or morality; specifically:one leading a dissolute life caviler:carping=libertine:licentious libertine:dissolute=sycophant:obsequious ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag emotion:effusive=liberty:licentious{ manner:grandious} Synonyms: LICENTIOUS, fast, incontinent, lascivious, lecherous, lewd, libidinous, lustful, salacious, satyric Sample: Although she was aware of his reputation as a libertine, she felt she could reform him and help him break his dissolute way of life. [ ] n. an action going beyond normal limits:as a:a breach of etiquette or propriety:FAMILIARITY emotion:effusive=liberty:licentious{ manner:grandious} management<>unfettered liberty Synonyms: FREEDOM, license Sample: Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. [ ]n the text of a work (as an opera) for the musical theater libretto:opera=lyrics:song Sample: The composer of an opera's music is remembered more frequently than the author of its libretto. [ ] adj. lacking legal or moral restraints; especially:disregarding sexual restraints caviler:carping=libertine:licentious voluble:verbosity=licentious:dissoluteness licentiousness<>moral restrain Synonyms: ABANDONED, dissolute, profligate, reprobate, self-abandoned, unprincipled Sample: The licentious monarch helped bring about his country's downfall.
234

lien

liken

limber

limerick

limousine

limp

limpid

linen

linoleum

[ ] n a charge upon real or personal property for the satisfaction of some debt or duty ordinarily arising by operation of law lien:claim=subpoena:command Sample: There was a delay before Ralph could take possession of his late uncle's home; apparently, another claimant had a lien upon the estate. [ ] vt. COMPARE liken:similarity=discriminate:difference Sample: She admired her father so much that she likened him to a saint. [ ] adj. capable of being shaped:FLEXIBLE limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty Synonyms: SUPPLE, lissome, lithe, lithesome Sample: Hours of ballet classes kept him limber. [ ] n. a light or humorous verse form of 5 chiefly anapestic verses of which lines 1, 2, and 5 are of 3 feet and lines 3 and 4 are of 2 feet with a rhyme scheme of aabba farce:performance=limerick:poem limerick:poem=lampoon:satire Sample: He writes and recites limericks for fun. [ ] n. a large luxurious often chauffeur-driven sedan that sometimes has a glass partition separating the driver's seat from the passenger compartment mansion:residence=limousine:automobile Sample: The movie star arrived at the theater in a chauffeured limousine. [ ] v. adj. lacking firm texture, substance, or structure limp<>firm Synonyms: STUMBLE, muddle, shuffle Sample: The flowers are limp from lack of water. [ ] adj. marked by transparency:PELLUCID limpid<>murky limpid<>unclear murky<>clear/pellucid/limpid Synonyms: TRANSPARENT, clear, pellucid, see-through, translucent Sample: A limpid stream ran through his property. [ ] n. cloth made of flax and noted for its strength, coolness, and luster clay:porcelain=flax:linen :=:() flannel:cloth=linen:fabric :=:() Sample: You can buy towels in the linen department of this store. [ ] n. a floor covering made by laying on a burlap or canvas backing a mixture of solidified linseed oil with gums, cork dust or wood flour or both, and usually pigments varnish:wood=wax:linoleum Sample: We have linoleum on our kitchen floor.
235

lint

lissome

list

listless

lithe

loath

loathe

lode

lofty

[ ] n. fuzz consisting especially of fine ravelings and short fibers of yarn and fabric lint:covering=tarpaulin:garment Sample: She tried to brush the lint from her jacket. [ ] adj. NIMBLE lissome:lithe=?? lissome<>ungainly lissome<>solid Synonyms: SUPPLE, limber, lithe, lithesome [ ] n. a deviation from the vertical:TILT; also:the extent of such a deviation list<>upright Synonyms: SLANT, cant, heel, incline, lean, recline, slope, tilt, tip Sample: The ship listed during the storm. [ ] adj. characterized by lack of interest, energy, or spirit:LANGUID Synonyms: LANGUID, die-away, enervated, lackadaisical, languishing, languorous, limp, spiritless Sample: We had expected him to be full of enthusiasm and were surprised by his listless attitude. [ ] adj. characterized by easy flexibility and grace lissome:lithe=?? lithe<>awkward Synonyms: SUPPLE, limber, lissome, lithesome Sample: Her figure was lithe and willowy. [ ] adj. unwilling to do something contrary to one's ways of thinking:RELUCTANT castigation:reproof=loathing:dislike loath<>eager Synonyms: DISINCLINED, afraid, averse, backward, hesitant, indisposed, reluctant, uneager, unwilling, unwishful Sample: They were both loath for him to go. [ ] vt. To dislike (someone or something) greatly; abhor. dislike:loathing=pleasure:bliss loathe<>amusing Sample: We loathed the wicked villain. [ ] n. an ore deposit shale:lode=well:aquifer Sample: If this lode that we have discovered extends for any distance, we have found a fortune. [ ] adj. elevated in status:SUPERIOR ignominious<>lofty lofty<>mean
236

loll

loophole

lopsided

loquacious

lottery

lounge

loutish

lofty<>cast down Synonyms: GENEROUS, benevolent, big, chivalrous, considerate, greathearted, magnanimous Sample: They used to tease him about his lofty ambitions. [ ] vi. to act or move in a lax, lazy, or indolent manner:LOUNGE loll<>move vigorously Synonyms: IDLE, bum, dawdle, diddle, laze, lazy, loaf, loiter, lounge Sample: They lolled around in their chairs watching television. [ ] n. a similar opening to admit light and air or to permit observation airtight:loophole=?? Sample: There is a loophole in the new tax law that allows the rich to escape paying higher taxes. [ ] adj. lacking in balance, symmetry, or proportion:disproportionately heavy on one side even handed<>lopsided Synonyms: asymmetric, difform, disproportional, disproportionate, irregular, nonsymmetrical, off-balance, overbalanced, proportionless, unbalanced, unequal, uneven, unproportionate, unsymmetrical Sample: Our team had a lopsided victory of 10 to 0 over our opponent. [ ] adj. given to fluent or excessive talk:GARRULOUS flatter:praise=loquacious:talkative loquacious:succinct=adroit:ungainly loquacious:talkative=rash:adventurous loquacious:talkative=cloying:sweet loquacious:word=profligate:money laconic<>loquacious loquacious<>taciturn reticent<>loquacious Synonyms: TALKATIVE, babblative, chatty, gabby, garrulous, loose-lipped, loosetongued, multiloquent, multiloquious, talky Sample: She is very loquacious and can speak on the telephone for hours. [ ] n. a drawing of lots in which prizes are distributed to the winners among persons buying a chance lottery:raffle=ticket:admission Sample: Nothing excites Esther; even when she won the state lottery, she still preserved her air of bovine calm. [ ] v. n. to act or move idly or lazily:LOAF Synonyms: IDLE, bum, dawdle, goldbrick, laze, lazy, loaf, loiter, loll Sample: We lounged on the beach. [ ] adj. resembling or befitting a lout genteel<>loutish Synonyms: BOORISH, churlish, cloddish, clodhopping, clownish, ill-bred, lowbred,
237

loyal

lubricate

lucid

ludicrous

lug

lugubrious

lull

uncivilized, uncultured, unrefined Sample: The delivery boy is an awkward lout. [ ] n. unswerving in allegiance:as faithful in allegiance to one's lawful sovereign or government exorbitant:moderation=perfidious:loyalty snub:disdain=double cross:disloyalty Synonyms: FAITHFUL, allegiant, ardent, constant, resolute, steadfast, true Sample: Many of her followers remain loyal to her, and even those who have rejected her leadership are unconvinced of the wisdom of replacing her during the current turmoil. [ ] vt. to make smooth or slippery oil:lubricate=antiseptic:disinfect Synonyms: BRIBE, buy, buy off, fix, have, sop, square, tamper (with) Sample: Oils lubricate moving parts of engines and other machines. [ ] adj. clear to the understanding:INTELLIGIBLE manifest/lucid:perceive=transparent:understand prominent:notice=lucid:understand obfuscate<>lucid Synonyms: UNDERSTANDABLE, apprehensible, comprehendible, comprehensible, fathomable, graspable, intelligible, knowable, luminous Sample: Although just barely adequate as a writer of lucid prose, Jones was an extremely capable editor who worked superbly with other writers in helping them improve the clarity of their writing. [ ] adj. meriting derisive laughter or scorn as absurdly inept, false, or foolish ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag Synonyms: LAUGHABLE, comic, comical, droll, farcical, funny, gelastic, ridiculous, risible Sample: Although his attempts to appear psychotic were so clumsy as to be almost ludicrous, there is evidence that Ezra Pound was able to avoid standing trial for treason merely by faking symptoms of mental illness. [ ] vt.vi. to carry laboriously lug:carry=trudge:walk Sample: I lugged two heavy suitcases to the train station. [ ] adj. MOURNFUL; especially:exaggeratedly or affectedly mournful facetious<>lugubrious Synonyms: MELANCHOLY, doleful, dolesome, dolorous, lamentable, mournful, plaintive, rueful, sorrowful, woeful Sample: The lugabrious howling of the dogs added to our sadness. [ ] vt. to cause to sleep or rest:SOOTHE galvanize<>lull startle<>lull
238

lullaby

lumen

luminary

lurk

lush

lustrous

luxurious

lyric

lull<>revive lull<>hectic period Synonyms: CALM, allay, balm, becalm, compose, quiet, settle, soothe, still, tranquilize Sample: Not wanting to get wet, they waited under the awning for a lull in the rain. [ ] n. a soothing refrain; specifically:a song to quiet children or lull them to sleep lullaby:song=diatribe:discourse Sample: She sang sweet lullabies to her baby at bedtime. [ ] n. a unit of luminous flux equal to the light emitted in a unit solid angle by a uniform point source of one candle intensity decibel:sound=volt:electricity=watt:power=lumen:light Sample: In buying light bulbs, she checked not only their power, as measured in watts, but their brightness, as measured in lumens. [ ] n. a person of prominence or brilliant achievement master:experience=luminary:eminence maven:experience=luminary:eminence Synonyms: CELEBRITY, big name, name, notability, notable, somebody Sample: A leading light of the American stage, Ethel Barrymore was a theatrical luminary whose name lives on. [ ] vi. to lie in wait in a place of concealment especially for an evil purpose lurk:wait=purloin:appropriate=abscond:depart lurk:concealment=purloin:appropriation lurk:concealment=espouse:marriage Synonyms: SNEAK, creep, gumshoe, pussyfoot, skulk, slide, slink, slip, steal Sample: "Who knows what evils lurk in the hearts of men? The shadow knows." [ ] adj. growing vigorously especially with luxuriant foliage sere<>lush/damp Synonyms: PROFUSE, exuberant, lavish, luxuriant, opulent, prodigal, profusive, riotous Sample: The garden is lush with new spring growth. [ ] adj. reflecting light evenly and efficiently without glitter or sparkle numb:insensible=burnish:lustrous Synonyms: burnished, gleaming, glistening, glossy, polished, sheeny, shining, shiny Sample: Her large and lustrous eyes gave a touch of beauty to an otherwise drab face. [ ] adj. marked by or given to self-indulgence spartan<>sybaritic/indulgent/voluptuous/luxurious luxuriant<>spartan Synonyms: SENSUOUS, epicurean, luscious, lush, sensual, sensualistic, voluptuous Sample: Their house is full of luxurious furniture. [ ] n. the words of a song libretto:opera=lyrics:song libretto:the text of a work (as an opera) for the musical
239

maelstrom

magnificent

maladroit

malcontent

malicious

malign

theater pleasurable:paradisical=melodious:lyrical ballad:song=lyric:poem=comedian:actor Sample: The natures of social history and lyric poetry are antithetical, social history always recounting the evanescent and lyric poetry speaking for unchanging human nature, that timeless essence beyond fashion and economics. [ ] n a powerful often violent whirlpool sucking in objects within a given radius maelstrom:turbulent=mirage:illusory Synonyms: EDDY, vortex, whirl, whirlpool Sample: The canoe was tossed about in the maelstrom. [ ] adj. Grand or noble in thought or deed; exalted. magnificent<>base Synonyms: GRAND, august, grandiose, imposing, lordly, magnific, majestic, noble, princely, stately Sample: In a magnificent feat of engineering, Goethals and his men cut through the isthmus of Panama in constructing the Panama Canal. [ ] n. lacking adroitness:INEPT complaisance:intractable=adeptness:maladroit maladroit:deft=voluble:terse maladroit:skill=glib:profundity deft<>maladroit Synonyms: AWKWARD, bumbling, clumsy, gauche, halting, ham-handed, heavyhanded, inept, lumbering, unhandy Sample: In his usual maladroit way, he managed to upset the cart and spill the food. [ ] adj. dissatisfied with the existing state of affairs:DISCONTENTED dilatory:procrastinate=malcontent:complain daredevil:???=malcontent:dissatisfaction sycophant:fawn=malcontent:complaint Synonyms: GROUCH, complainer, crank, faultfinder, griper, growler, grumbler, kicker, sorehead Sample: He was one of the few malcontents in the Congress; he constantly voiced his objections to the Presidential program. [ ] adj. given to, marked by, or arising from malice malicious:ill will=exaggerating:hyperbole malicious:ill will=diligent:effort expansive<>malicious Synonyms: bitchy, catty, despiteful, evil, hateful, malevolent, malign, malignant, nasty, rancorous, spiteful, spitish, vicious, wicked Sample: No computer system is immune to a virus, a particularly malicious program that is designed to infect and electronically damage the disks on which data are stored. [ ] adj. having or showing intense often vicious ill will:MALEVOLENT malign:ill will=diligent:effort
240

malinger

malleable

malodor

mandatory

mangle

mangy

mania

extol<>malign Synonyms: MALICIOUS, despiteful, evil, hateful, malevolent, malignant, rancorous, spiteful, vicious, wicked Sample: Because of her hatred of the family, she maligns all who are friendly to them. [ ] v to pretend incapacity (as illness) so as to avoid duty or work parsimonious:skimp=malingering:shirk hoard:miser=shirk:malinger malinger:duty=camoflage/disemble:detection Sample: The captain ordered the sergeant to punish all malingerers and force them to work. [ ] adj. capable of being altered or controlled by outside forces or influences friable:crumble=malleable:alter knead:malleable=penetrate:permeable malleable:shape=irresolute:opinion malleable<>hard to shape Synonyms: PLASTIC, adaptable, ductile, moldable, pliable, pliant, supple Sample: Gold is a malleable metal. [ ] n. an offensive odor cacophony:sound=malodor:scent malodorous:smell=cacophony/jarring:sound Sample: The component heap was most malodorous in summer. [ ] adj. containing or constituting a command:OBLIGATORY mandatory:comply=forbidden:abstain discretionary<>mandatory Synonyms: compulsatory, compulsory, imperative, imperious, obligatory, required Sample: Whereas the Elizabethans struggled with the transition from medieval corporate experience to modern individualism, we confront an electronic technology that seems likely to reverse the trend, rendering individualism obsolete and interdependence mandatory. [ ] vt. to spoil, injure, or make incoherent especially through ineptitude mangle<>praise extravagantly Synonyms: BATTER , maul Sample: The hospital could not take care of all who had been mangled or maimed in the railroad accident. [ ] adj having many worn or bare spots:SEEDY, SHABBY mangy<>decorous Synonyms: SHABBY, decrepit, down-at-heel, moth-eaten, scruffy, seedy, sleazy, squalid, tagrag, tattered Sample: We finally thew out the mangy rug that the dog had destroyed. [ ] n. excessive or unreasonable enthusiasm enthusiasm:mania=suspicion:paranoia
241

manifest

manifest

manipulate

mansion

manumit

manuscript

mar

hidebound:conservative=manic:interested/excited {peeved:annoyed } Sample: His maniacal laughter frightened us. [ ] n. a list of passengers or an invoice of cargo for a vehicle (as a ship or plane) census:population=inventory:stock inventory:merchandise=manifest:cargo repertoire:performance=manifest:cargo=agenda:meeting Sample: A clerk checked off the items on the manifest that she had received. [ ] adj. easily understood or recognized by the mind:OBVIOUS manifest/lucid:perceive=transparent:understand palatable:savory=discernible:manifest manifest:perceive=brittle:break audible:stentorian=discernible:manifest latent<>menifest occult<>manifest Synonyms: CLEAR, apparent, distinct, evident, obvious, palpable, patent, plain, straightforward, unambiguous Sample: His evil intentions were manifest and yet we could not stop him. [ ] vt. to control or play upon by artful, unfair, or insidious means especially to one's own advantage dexterous:manipulate=prescient:predict { clairvoyant:oversee } manipulate<>guileless Synonyms: beguile, exploit, finesse, jockey, maneuver, play Sample: Under ethical guidelines recently adopted by the National Institutes of Health, human genes are to be manipulated only to correct diseases for which alternative treatments are unsatisfactory. [ ] n. a large imposing residence mansion:residence=limousine:automobile Sample: During his checkered career he had lived in palatial mansions and in dreary boardinghouses. [ ] v. to release from slavery manumit<>enslave detain<>manumit Synonyms: FREE, discharge, emancipate, liberate, loose, loosen, release, unbind, unchain, unshackle Sample: Enlightened slave owners were willing to manumit their slaves and thus put an end to the evil slavery in the country. [ ] n. a written or typewritten composition or document as distinguished from a printed copy; also:a document submitted for publication archive:manuscript=arsenal:weapon Sample: With the help of her editor, she was able to prune her manuscript into publishable form. [ ] v.
242

marsh

marsupial

martinet

marvel

masquerade

masticate

matriculate

To impair the soundness, perfection, or integrity of; spoil burnish:dull=mar:flawless mar<>enhance Sample: This final essay, its prevailing kindliness marred by occasional flashes of savage irony, bespeaks the dichotomous character of the author. [ ] n. a tract of soft wet land usually characterized by monocotyledons (as grasses or cattails) marsh:sodden=desert:arid marshy<>arid Synonyms: SWAMP, baygall, bog, fen, marshland, mire, morass, quag, quagmire, swampland Sample: Marshes have ponds where ducks and geese build nests and feed. [ ] nadj any of an order (Marsupialia) of mammals comprising kangaroos, wombats, bandicoots, opossums, and related animals that do not develop a true placenta and that usually have a pouch on the abdomen of the female which covers the teats and serves to carry the young kangaroo:marsupial=squirrel:rodent Sample: The most common marsupial in North America is the opposum. [ ] n. a strict disciplinarian martinet:discipline=pedant:learning { gourmet:food} stickler:exacting=martinet:discipline martinet:leniency=dabbler:dedication martinet<>indulgent person Sample: The commanding officer was a martinet who observed each regulation to the utter. [ ] n. v. something that causes wonder or astonishment marvel<>mean pedestrian<>marvelous Synonyms: WONDER, miracle, phenomenon, portent, prodigy, sensation, stunner Sample: Winsor McCay, the cartoonist, could draw with incredible virtuosity:his comic strip about Little Nemo was characterized by marvelous draftsmanship and sequencing. [ ] n. v. to assume the appearance of something one is not dissemble:information=masquerade:feeling Sample: He masquerades as a big businessman, but he really isn't one. [ ] vt.vi. to grind or crush (food) with or as if with the teeth in preparation for swallowing:CHEW lung:respire=tooth:masticate {eye:envision,ear:resonate} Synonyms: CHEW, champ, chomp, chumble, chump, crunch, munch, ruminate, scrunch Sample: We must masticate our food carefully and slowly in order to avoid digestive disorders. [ ] vt. to enroll as a member of a body and especially of a college or university
243

mattress

maudlin

maven

maverick

mawkish

meager

mean

inauguration:official=matriculation:student inception:termination=matriculation:graduation commencement<>matriculation Sample: She matriculated into the state university last fall. [ ] n. a fabric case filled with resilient material (as cotton, hair, feathers, foam rubber, or an arrangement of coiled springs) used either alone as a bed or on a bedstead tablecloth:table=sheet:mattress Sample: I like a firm mattress to support my back. [ ] adj. weakly and effusively sentimental mawkish/maudlin:sentiment=pedantic:scholarship maudlin:sentimental=obsequious:deferential maudlin:sentimental=peeved:annoyed maudlin<>jovial Synonyms: SENTIMENTAL, bathetic, lovey-dovey, mawkish, mushy, romantic, slushy, sticky, tear-jerking Sample: I do not like such maudlin pictures. I call them tearjerkers. [ ] n. one who is experienced or knowledgeable:EXPERT maven:experience=luminary:eminence=augur:prediction Synonyms: EXPERT, adept, authority, master, past master, professional, proficient, virtuoso Sample: He is a computer maven. [ ] n. an independent individual who does not go along with a group or party dissenter:orthodox=maverick:group maverick<>follower maverick<>conform to tradition Sample: With its maverick approach to the subject, Shere Hite's book has been more widely debated than most; the media throughout the country have brought the author's controversial opinions to the public's attention. [ ] adj. sickly or puerilely sentimental m mawkish/maudlin:sentiment=pedantic:scholarship mawkish:sentimental=peeve:annoy mawkish:sentimental=gullible:trust mawkish<>unsentimental Synonyms: SENTIMENTAL, bathetic, lovey-dovey, maudlin, mushy, romantic, slushy, sticky, tear-jerking Sample: Your mawkish sighs fill me with disgust. [ ] adj. deficient in quality or quantity amplitude<>meagerness Synonyms: exiguous, poor, scant, scanty, scrimp, scrimpy, skimp, skimpy, spare, sparse Sample: The powers and satisfactions of primeval people, though few and meager, were commensurate with their few and simple desires. [ ] adj.
244

measly

measured

mechanical

meddle

media

mediate

PENURIOUS, STINGY mean:prodigality=meek:arrogance lavish<>mean mean<>noble Sample: During dry periods, poor farmers can lead a mean existence. [ ] adj. contemptibly small measly:contemptibly=puny:weakly measly<>grand Synonyms: PETTY, niggling, paltry, pettifogging, picayune, picayunish, piddling, puny, trifling, trivial Sample: Although the incidence of cases of measles has declined, researchers fear that eradication of the disease, once believed to be imminent, may not come soon. [ ] adj. marked by due proportion measured<>inappropriate [ ] adj. Performed or performing in an impersonal or machinelike manner; automatic mechanical<>emotional Sample: Although hampered by optical and mechanical flaws, the orbiting Hubble space telescope has relayed extraordinary images of distant sidereal bodies. [ ] vi. to interest oneself in what is not one's concern:interfere without right or propriety officious:meddle=disaffected:rebel meddlesome:pry=contentious:argue attentive:meddlesome=envious:jealous Synonyms: busybody, butt in, fool, horn in, interfere, interlope, intermeddle, mess around, monkey (with), tamper (with) Sample: He felt his marriage was suffering because of his meddlesome mother-in-law. [ ] n. a nutrient system for the artificial cultivation of cells or organisms and especially bacteria plantation:tobacco=media:bacteria [ ] vt. to interpose between parties in order to reconcile them intercessor:mediate=translator:interpret/augur:prediction mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction Synonyms: INTERPOSE, intercede, interfere, intermediate, intervene, step in List 18 mediocre --- needy

mediocre

[ ] adj. of moderate or low quality, value, ability, or performance:ORDINARY, SO-SO virtuosity<>mediocrity Synonyms: MEDIUM, average, fair, fairish, indifferent, intermediate, mean, middling, moderate, so-so Sample: Broadway audiences have become inured to mediocrity and so desperate to be pleased as to make their ready ovations meaningless as an indicator of the quality of the production before them.
245

meditate

medley

meet

meliorism

mellifluous

melody

membrane

menace

mend

[ ] vi. to engage in contemplation or reflection Synonyms: PONDER, deliberate, mull (over), muse, revolve, roll, ruminate, turn over Sample: She reached her decision only after much meditation. [ ] n. a musical composition made up of a series of songs or short pieces montage:images=medley:songs Sample: The band played a medley of Gershwin tunes. [ ] adj. v. precisely adapted to a particular situation, need, or circumstance:very proper meet<>inappropriate/unsuitable meet<>unfit {disjointed} [ ] n. The belief that society has an innate tendency toward improvement and that this tendency may be furthered through conscious human effort. meliorism:progress=egalitarian:equity [ ] adj having a smooth rich flow mellifluous:music=ambrosial:food mellifluous:sound=savory:taste Synonyms: golden, honeyed, Hyblaean, liquid, mellifluent, mellow Sample: The combination of elegance and earthiness in Edmund's speech can be starting, especially when he slyly slips in some juicy vulgarity amid the mellifluous circumlocutions of a gentleman of the old school. [ ] n. a sweet or agreeable succession or arrangement of sounds:TUNEFULNESS melody:song=?? pleasurable:paradisical=melodious:lyrical cacophony:melody=genteel:churl melodious<>jarring Sample: The soprano sang the melody while the tenor sang in harmony with her. [ ] n a thin soft pliable sheet or layer especially of animal or plant origin pore:membrane=door:room cell:membrane=seed:hull Sample: A ganglionic cyst is a fluid-filled tumor (generally benign) that develops near a joint membrane or tendon sheath, and that bulges beneath the skin, forming a protuberance. [ ] vt.vi. to make a show of intention to harm odious:disgust=menacing:fear odious:repugnance=menacing:fear {immovable:stability} Synonyms: ENDANGER, compromise, hazard, imperil, jeopard, jeopardize, jeopardy, peril, risk Sample: That nasty dog is a menace to the children in the neighborhood. [ ] vt. to put into good shape or working order again:patch up:REPAIR rend<>unite/mend
246

mendacious

mentor

mercenary

mercurial

merited

mesh

Sample: The conflict over abortion threatens to split our nation, creating a rent in the social fabric that will be difficult to mend. [ ] adj given to or characterized by deception or falsehood or divergence from absolutetruth ambiguous:clarity=mendacious:truth mendacious<>honest veracious<>mendacious mendacity<>veracity mendacity<>honesty mendacity<>candor Synonyms: DISHONEST, deceitful, knavish, lying, roguish, shifty, unhonest, untruthful Sample: He was pathological liar, and his friends learned to discount his mendacious stories. [ ] n. a trusted counselor or guide:TUTOR, COACH mentor:guidance=oracle:prophecy Sample: During this very trying period, she could not have had a better mentor, for the teacher was sympathetic and understanding. [ ] adjn. one that serves merely for wages; especially:a soldier hired into foreign service mercenary:money=vindictive:revenge mercenary:soldier=hack:writer Sample: "I'm not in this war because I get my kicks waving flags," said the mercenary soldier. "I'm in it for the dough." [ ] adj characterized by rapid and unpredictable changeableness of mood mercurial:mood=whimsical:behavior profligate:solvent=mercurial:committed scurrilous:propriety=mercurial:constancy Synonyms: INCONSTANT, capricious, changeable, fickle, lubricious, temperamental, ticklish, unstable, variable, volatile Sample: The childrens mercurial natures were in sharp contrast to the even-tempered dispositions of their parents. (9504) [ ] adj. deserved, be worthy of or entitled or liable to castigation:eproof=denunciation:denial/lorification:merit condign<>undeserved/unmerited gratuitous<>merited merited<>unsuitable Sample: That business proposal merits careful consideration. [ ] vt. to cause (as gears) to engage disengage<>mesh Synonyms: ENGAGE, intermesh Sample: Though science is often imagined as a disinterested exploration of external reality, scientists are no different from anyone else:they are passionate human beings enmeshed in a web of personal and social circumstances.
247

mesmerism

messy

metaphor

meteoric

meteorology

meticulous

metrical

miff

migratory

[ ] n. hypnotic induction held to involve animal magnetism; broadly:HYPNOTISM zeal:dedication=mesmerism:interest exhaustive:careful=mesmerized:interesting Sample: The incessant drone seemed to mesmerize him and place him in a trance. [ ] adj. marked by confusion, disorder, or dirt:UNTIDY Sample: Her room is always messy with magazines and clothes everywhere. [ ] n. a figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting one kind of object or idea is used in place of another to suggest a likeness or analogy between them (as in drowning in money); broadly:figurative language equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense=obfuscation:clarity { metaphor:description } metaphor:description euphemism:offense=ambiguity:comprehesion{metaphor:description } Sample: Ironically, the proper use of figurative language must be based on the denotative meaning of the words, because it is the failure to recognize this literal meaning that leads to mixed metaphors and their attendant incongruity. [ ] adj. resembling a meteor in speed or in sudden and temporary brilliance fleeting:pass=meteoric:rise meteoric:constancy=archaic:currency meteoric<>plodding Sample: We all wondered at his meteoric rise to fame. [ ] n. a science that deals with the atmosphere and its phenomena and especially with weather and weather forecasting demography:population=meteorology:weather Sample: Meteorology includes the study of weather. [ ] adj marked by extreme or excessive care in the consideration or treatment of details firmness:obdurate=carefulness:meticulous fluent:glib=humorous:wry { meticulous:finicky } meticulous<>carelessness Synonyms: CAREFUL, conscientious, conscionable, exact, fussy, heedful, painstaking, punctilious, punctual, scrupulous Sample: He was meticulous in checking his accounts and never made mistakes. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or composed in meter scan:metrical=parse:grammatical Sample: Iambic pentameter is a metric pattern in much of Shakespeare's poetry. [ ] n. vt. a trivial quarrel Synonyms: OFFENSE, dudgeon, huff, pique, resentment, umbrage Sample: He was miffed that his girlfriend did not show up for a date. [ ] adj. WANDERING, ROVING migratory<>sedentary
248

mill

mime

minaret

minatory

mince

mingle

minion

mint

mint

minuscule

Synonyms: migrant, migrative, migratorial, mobile, transmigratory Sample: The return of the migratory birds to the northern sections of this country is a harbinger of spring. [ ] n. a building provided with machinery for grinding grain into flour refinery:petroleum=mill:grain Sample: She puts beef through a mill to make hamburger meat. [ ] vt.vi. to act a part with mimic gesture and action usually without words parody:style=mime:gesture charade:word=mime:story Sample: The children laughed when he mimed being inside a room with no door. [ ] n. a tall slender tower of a mosque having one or more balconies from which the summons to prayer is cried by the muezzin spire:church=minaret:mosque [ ] adj having a menacing quality:THREATENING minatory<>non threatening Sample: Jabbing a minatory forefinger at Dorothy, the Wicked Witch cried, "I'll get you, and your little dog, too!" [ ] vi. to walk with short steps in a prim affected manner sip:drink=mince:walk quaff:sip=stride:mince Sample: Yum-Yum walked across the stage with mincing steps. [ ] vt.vi. to bring or mix together or with something else usually without fundamental loss of identity:INTERMIX mingle<>separate sequester<>permit to mingle Sample: A good salesperson in usually an extrovert, who likes to mingle with people. [ ] n. a servile dependent, follower, or underling minion:dependent=groveler:petitioner [ ] vt. to make (as coins) out of metal:COIN strike:medal=mint:coin Sample: The US government mints pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters. [ ] n. a vast sum or amount mint<>modicum [ ] adj. n. very small small:minuscule=moist:saturated minuscule:letter=minnow:fish minuscule<>lengthy document Sample: Why should I involve myself with a project with so minuscule a chance for
249

minutia

miracle

mirage

mire

mirth

misanthrope

misbehave

mischievous

miscreant

success? [ ] n. a minute or minor detail minutia<>essential point/vital feature minutia<>lengthy account Synonyms: TRIVIA, small beer, small change, small potato(es), triviality Sample: She would have liked to ignore the minutiae of daily living. [ ] n. an extremely outstanding or unusual event, thing, or accomplishment prodigy:person=miracle:occurrence ordinary<>miraculous Synonyms: WONDER, marvel, phenomenon, portent, prodigy, sensation, stunner Sample: All the passengers in a sinking boat drowned except one who was saved by a miracle. [ ] n something illusory and unattainable maelstrom:turbulent=mirage:illusory Sample: The lost prospector was fooled by a mirage in the desert. [ ] vt. to cause to stick fast in or as if in mire mire<>extricate Sample: Their rear wheels became mired in mud. [ ] n gladness or gaiety as shown by or accompanied with laughter mirth:laughter=approval:applause Sample: Sober Malvolio found Sir Toby's mirth improper. [ ] n. a person who hates or distrusts mankind misanthrope:humane=ascetic:voluptuary Sample: We thought the hermit was a miantrope because he shunned our society. [ ] vt.vi. To behave (oneself) in an inappropriate way, to behave badly castigation:disapproval=misbehave:crime lapse:error=misbehavior:criminality reprobate:misbehave=sycophant:fawn Sample: When her son misbehaves, she yells at him instead of telling him why his actions are wrong. [ ] adj. able or tending to cause annoyance, trouble, or minor injury insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp tightfisted:parsimonious=brattish:mischievous rapscallion:mischievous=sluggard:lazy {cavalier:arrogant} Synonyms: NAUGHTY, bad, ill-behaved, misbehaving, paw Sample: She always tried to entice her baby brother into mischief. [ ] n. one who behaves criminally or viciously miscreant:criminal=visionary:delusion miscreant<>law-abiding individual
250

misdemeanor

miser

misfortune

misgiving

mishap

misnomer

misrepresent

miscreant<>saint Synonyms: VILLAIN , blackguard, heel, knave, lowlife, rascal, rogue, scoundrel Sample: His kindness to the miscreant amazed all of us who had expected to hear severe punishment pronounced. [ ] n. a crime less serious than a felony crime:misdemeanor=commitment:decision misdemeanor:crime=lapse:error Sample: The culprit pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor rather than face trial for a felony. [ ] n. a mean grasping person; especially:one who is extremely stingy with money miser:munificent=zealot:blas miser:parsimonious=spendthrift:prodigal miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion parsimony:miser=rebelliousness:insurgent spendthrift<>miser Sample: Her frugality should not be confused with miserliness; as long as I have known her, she has always been willing to assist those who are in need. [ ] n. a distressing or unfortunate incident or event boon<>misfortune Synonyms: adversity, contretemps, mischance, mishap, tragedy Sample: People frequently denigrate books about recent catastrophes as morally despicable attempts to profit, from misfortune, but in my view our desire for such books, together with the venerable tradition to which they belong, legitimizes them. [ ] n. a feeling of doubt or suspicion especially concerning a future event misgiving<>certainty compunction<>absence of misgiving/{ animosity } Synonyms: APPREHENSION, apprehensiveness, foreboding, premonition, prenotion, presage, presentiment Sample: Hamlet described his misgivings to Horatio but decided to fence with Laertes despite his foreboding of evil. [ ] n. an unfortunate accident catastrophe:mishap=humiliation:embarrassment mishap:accident=peccadillo:offence oxymoron:contradictory=mishap:catastrophic Synonyms: MISFORTUNE, adversity, contretemps, mischance, tragedy Sample: With a little care you could have avoided this mishap. [ ] n. a name wrongly or unsuitably applied to a person or an object Sample: His tyrannical conduct proved to all that his nickname, King Eric the Just, was a misnomer. [ ] vt. to give a false or misleading representation of usually with an intent to deceive or be unfair tamper:adjust=misrepresent:communicate
251

mite

mitigate

mnemonics

morbid

mobility

mockery

moderate

modicum

Sample: He misrepresented the job as working in an office when it is actually an outside sales position. [ ] n. any of numerous small acarid arachnids that often infest animals, plants, and stored foods and include important disease vectors mite:creature=speck:amount Sample: Gnats are annoying mites that sing. [ ] v. to make less severe or painful:ALLEVIATE mitigate:severe=qualify:general mitigate<>exacerbate Synonyms: RELIEVE, allay, alleviate, assuage, ease, lighten, mollify Sample: Nothing he did could mitigate her wrath; she was unforgiving. [ ] n. a technique of improving the memory regiment:health=mnemonics:memory mnemonics:remember=staff:walk Sample: He used mnemonic tricks to master new words. [ ] adj. abnormally susceptible to or characterized by gloomy or unwholesome feelings morbid<>wholesome morbid<>hale Synonyms: morose, sick, sickly Sample: These morbid speculations are dangerous; we must lighten our spirits by emphasizing more pleasant matters. [ ] n. capable of moving or being moved:MOVABLE splint:mobility=ballast:instability=purchase:slippery splint:immobilize=duct:convey Sample: The hierarchy of medical occupations is in many ways a caste system; its strata remain intact and the practitioners in them have very little vertical mobility. [ ] n. a subject of laughter, derision, or sport diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery patronize:condescension=deride:mockery Synonyms: burlesque, caricature, farce, mock, sham, travesty Sample: His trial was a mockery of justice; everyone knew he was guilty, yet he was found innocent. [ ] vt. to lessen the intensity or extremeness of exorbitant:moderation=perfidious:loyalty moderate:intensify=extenuate:seriousness Sample: The hurricane's high winds moderated as it reached the shore. [ ] n. a small portion:a limited quantity inkling:knowledge=modicum:quantity modicum<>large amount Synonyms: PARTICLE, atom, grain, iota, jot, minim, molecule, ounce, scrap, whit
252

molar

molding

mollify

mollycoddle

molt

momentous

momentum

Sample: Although his story is based on a modicum of truth, most of the events he describes are fictitious. [ ] n. A tooth with a broad crown used to grind food, located behind the premolars. rib:bone=molar:tooth Sample: The dentist took a bad molar out of my mouth. [ ] n. a decorative plane or curved strip used for ornamentation or finishing hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet [ ] v. to soothe in temper or disposition:APPEASE mollification:soothe=indemnity:secure mollify:anger=hearted:dejection mollify<>rouse vex<>mollify discommode<>convenience/pacificate/ease/mollify mollify<>antagonize/ire pique<>mollify discomfit<>mollify mollify<>exasperate bait<>mollify disaffect<>mollify mollify<>nettle mollify<>rankle Synonyms: PACIFY, appease, assuage, conciliate, placate, propitiate, sweeten Sample: A customer was unhappy, and the store manager mollified her by returning her money. [ ] vt. a pampered or effeminate man or boy chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle mollycoddle<>treat harshly Sample: Don't mollycoddle the boy, Maud! You'll spoil him. [ ] n. the act or process of sheding hair, feathers, shell, horns, or an outer layer periodically; specifically:ECDYSIS fledging<>molt Sample: The male robin molted in the spring. [ ] adj. IMPORTANT, CONSEQUENTIAL atrocious:bad=momentous:important Synonyms: IMPORTANT, big, consequential, considerable, material, meaningful, significant, substantial, weighty Sample: The failure of many psychotherapists to utilize the results of pioneering research could be due in part to the specialized nature of such findings:even momentous findings may not be useful. [ ] n. a property of a moving body that the body has by virtue of its mass and motion and that is equal to the product of the body's mass and velocity
253

oscillate:swing=momentum:scooter Sample: The car lost momentum as it tried to ascend the steep hill. monochromatic [ ] adj. having or consisting of one color or hue iridescent<>monochromatic chromatic<>colorless Sample: Most people who are color blind actually can distinguish several colors; some, however, have a truly monochromatic view of a world all in shades of gray. monocle [ ] n. an eyeglass for one eye monocle:eye=?? monopolize [ ] vt. to get a monopoly of:assume complete possession or control of Sample: The people grumbled at his exorbitant prices but paid them because he had a monopoly. monotone [ ] adj. having the property either of never increasing or of never decreasing as the values of the independent variable or the subscripts of the terms increase:MONOTONIC vociferous<>reticent/monotone monotonous<>piebald Synonyms: DULL, banausic, blah, dreary, humdrum, monotonous, pedestrian, poky, stodgy Sample: The speaker's monotone bored the audience and many people fell asleep. montage [ ] n. the production of a rapid succession of images in a motion picture to illustrate an association of ideas montage:images=medley:songs zigzag:turns=montage:images Sample: The movie was a montage of scenes of life in New York City. morass [ ] n. something that traps, confuses, or impedes morass:irritating=?? Sample: Congress turned into a legislative morass where nothing could become law. moratorium [ ] n. a suspension of an ongoing or planned activity reprieve:punishment=moratorium:activity fast:eat=moratorium:act moratorium:activity=respite:labor tourniquet:bleeding=moratorium:activity Sample: If we declare a moratorium and delay collection of debts for six months, I am sure the farmers will be able to meet their bills. mordant [ ] adj. biting and caustic in thought, manner, or style:INCISIVE mordant<>genial Synonyms: CAUSTIC, mordacious, salty, scathing, trenchant Sample: Actors feared the critic's mordant pen. moribund [ ] adj being in the state of dying:approaching death
254

morose

mortar

mosque

mosquito

motile

motivate

motley

initial:realized=tangible:indefinite { moribund:dead } moribund<>beginning moribund<>nascent Sample: The doctors called the family to the bedside of the moribund patient. [ ] adj having a sullen and gloomy disposition morose<>cheerful sanguine<>morose jovial<>morose jocund<><>morose rejoice<>morose Synonyms: SULLEN, crabbed, dour, gloomy, glum, saturnine, sulky, surly, ugly Sample: When we first meet Hamlet, we find him morose and depressed. [ ] n. a strong vessel in which material is pounded or rubbed with a pestle hammer:anvil=pestle:mortar [ ] n. a building used for public worship by Muslims spire:church=minaret:mosque Sample: Muslims pray in the mosques five times a day. [ ] n. any of a family (Culicidae) of dipteran flies with females that have a set of slender organs in the proboscis adapted to puncture the skin of animals and to suck their blood and that are in some cases vectors of serious diseases mosquito:netting=impurity:filter Sample: myriads of mosquitoes from the swamps invaded our village every twilight. [ ] adj. exhibiting or capable of movement motility<>stasis Sample: Certain organisms exhibit remarkable motility; motile spores, for example, may travel for miles before coming to rest. [ ] v. to provide with a motive:IMPEL exculpatory:absolve=motivational:stir exhortation:motivate=invective:discredit fungi:ecologist=motivation:psychologist Synonyms: PROVOKE, excite, galvanize, innervate, innerve, move, pique, quicken, rouse, stimulate Sample: A desire to go to medical school motivates her to study hard every day. [ ] adj. variegated in color, composed of diverse often incongruous elements motley<>colorless motley<>unique motley<>unvaried Synonyms: VARIEGATED, dappled, discolor, multicolor, multicolored, multihued, parti-colored, varicolored, versicolor, versicolored Sample: As described by Chaucer, the cavalcade of Canterbury pilgrims was motley group.
255

mottle

mournful

movement

muddy

muffle

mulish

mumble

mundane

municipality

[ ] vt. to mark with spots or blotches of different color or shades of color as if stained striated:groove=mottled/dappled:spot mottle<>blanch mottled<>homogenious/solidary Sample: When he blushed, his face took on a mottled hue. [ ] adj. causing sorrow or melancholy:GLOOMY jovial<>mournful revelry<>mournfulness Sample: The hilarity is improper on this solemn day of mourning. [ ] n. a distinct structural unit or division having its own key, rhythmic structure, and themes and forming part of an extended musical composition stanza:poem=movement:orchestra Sample: Though Gray and Burns share many traits with the Romantic poets who followed them, most critics consider them precursors of the Romantic Movement, not true Romantics. [ ] adj. lacking in clarity or brightness:CLOUDY, DULL muddy<>clarity Sample: Her writing is muddy and difficult to understand. [ ] vt. to wrap or pad with something to dull the sound plangent<>muffled resonant<>muffled Sample: We woke to the clarion to muffle its striking. [ ] adj. unreasonably and inflexibly obstinate despicable:value=mulish:flexible flexible<>mulish pliant<>mulish Synonyms: OBSTINATE, bullheaded, headstrong, perverse, pigheaded, refractory, selfwilled, stiff-necked, stubborn, wrongheaded [ ] vt.vi. to utter with a low inarticulate voice enunciate<>mumble Sample: After the automobile accident, the victim had periods of aphasia when he could not speak at all or could only mumble incoherently. [ ] adj. characterized by the practical, transitory, and ordinary:COMMONPLACE mundane<>extraordinary Synonyms: EARTHLY, earthy, sublunary, tellurian, telluric, terrene, terrestrial, uncelestial, worldly Sample: He was concerned only with mundane matters, especially the daily stock market quotations. [ ] n. a primarily urban political unit having corporate status and usually powers of self256

munificent

mural

murky

murmur

mute

myopic

myriad

nadir

nag

government Sample: The investigation into municipal corruption turned up new instances of skulduggery daily. [ ] adj. characterized by great liberality or generosity miser:munificent=zealot:blase Sample: The munificent gift was presented to the bride by her rich uncle. [ ] adj. n. a mural work of art (as a painting) petrography:rock=mural:wall Sample: Two huge murals were painted by Marc Chagall on the walls of the opera house. [ ] adj. characterized by a heavy dimness or obscurity caused by or like that caused by overhanging fog or smoke limpid<>murky murky<>clear pellucid<>murky Sample: She left a trace of musky perfume behind her. [ ] n. a low indistinct but often continuous sound croon:sing=murmur:speak Sample: The crowd murmured angrily and indicated that they did not care to listen to the speaker who was approaching the rostrum. [ ] vt. to muffle, reduce, or eliminate the sound of mute<>amplify Sample: One theory about intelligence sees language as the logical structure underlying thinking and insists that since animals are mute, they must be mindless as well.(9504) [ ] adj. a lack of foresight or discernment:a narrow view of something myopic<>discerning myopia<>prescience Sample: In thinking only of your present needs and ignoring the future, you are being rather myopic. [ ] adj. having innumerable aspects or elements countless/innumerable/myriad/untold:number=everlasting/interminable:duration myriad<>few/scarce myriad<>scanty Sample: myriads of mosquitoes from the swamps invaded our village every twilight. [ ] n. the lowest point nadir<>summit nadir<>acme Sample: Although few people realized it, the Dow-Jones averages had reached their nadir and would soon begin an upward surge. [ ] v.
257

naive

narcissism

nascent

natty

nauseate

naysayer

nebulous

needy

to irritate by constant scolding or urging tonic<>draining { nagging } Sample: She's always nagging her son to get a haircut. [ ] adj. deficient in worldly wisdom or informed judgment; especially:CREDULOUS guile:naif=tardy:prompt worldly<>naive Sample: We realized that John was still young and impressionable, but were nevertheless surprised at his naivety. [ ] n. love of or sexual desire for one's own body narcissist:self absorbed=sycophant:obsequious narcissism:love=guilt:blame [ ] adj. coming or having recently come into existence moribund<>nascent Sample: If we could identify these revolutionary movements in their nascent state, we would be able to eliminate serious trouble in later years. [ ] adj. trimly neat and tidy:SMART slovenly<>natty Sample: Priding himself on being a natty dresser, the gangster Bugsy Siegel collected a wardrobe of imported suits and ties. [ ] v. to feel disgust vertigo:nauseate=?? Sample: The foul smells began to nauseate him. [ ] n. one who denies, refuses, opposes, or is skeptical or cynical about something concur<>naysay <> [ ] adj. INDISTINCT, VAGUE nebulous<>distinct nebulous<>clear cut ? nebulous<>unambiguous ? Sample: She had only a nebulous memory of her grandmother's face. [ ] adj. being in want:POVERTY-STRICKEN affluent<>needy Sample: As he grew older, he became famous as a philanthropist and benefactor of the needy. List 19 nefarious --- palatable

nefarious

[ ] adj flagrantly wicked or impious:EVIL nefarious:wickedness=generous:liberality nefarious<>above reproach/virtuous nefarious<>exemplary


258

negotiate

neophyte

nepotism

nerve

nettle

neutralize

nibble

Synonyms: VICIOUS, corrupt, degenerate, flagitious, infamous, miscreant, perverse, putrid, rotten, villainous Sample: Uriah Heep disguised his nefarious actions by unctuous protestations of his "umility". [ ] vi. to confer with another so as to arrive at the settlement of some matter clog:drainage=stalemate:negotiations negotiator:aggrement=?? tenacious<>negotiable Sample: Despite an agreement between labor and management to keep the print and electronic media apprised of developments, the details of the negotiations were withheld from all but a few journalists from the major metropolitan newspapers. [ ] n a new convert:PROSELYTE inexperience:neophyte=irresponsibility:wastrel Synonyms: NOVICE, apprentice, beginner, colt, freshman, newcomer, novitiate, rookie, tenderfoot, tyro Sample: This monuntain slope contains slides that will challenge esperts as well as neophytes. [ ] n favoritism (as in appointment to a job) based on kinship nepotism:relative=cronyism:friend neptism:relative=cronyism:intimate nepotism:kinship=jingoist:nationality Sample: John left his position with the company because he felt that advancement was based on nepotism rather than ability. [ ] vt. n. to give strength or courage to:supply with physical or moral force appall<>embolden/nerve nervy<>diffident Sample: He was aghast at the nerve of the speaker who had insulted his host. [ ] n. v. to arouse to sharp but transitory annoyance or anger imputable:nettle=??:?? conciliate<>nettle mollify<>nettle Synonyms: IRRITATE, exasperate, get, huff, peeve, pique, provoke, put out, rile, roil Sample: Do not let him nettle you with his sarcastic remarks. [ ] v. to counteract the activity or effect of:make ineffective neutralize:effectiveness=?? Synonyms: annul, cancel (out), counteract, countercheck, frustrate, negate, negative, redress Sample: Melodramas, which presented stark oppositions between innocence and criminality, virtue and corruption, good and evil, were popular precisely because they offered the audience a world devoid of neutrality. [ ] v. to eat or chew in small bits
259

nip

nitpicking

nocturnal

noisome

nomad

nominal

nonchalant

nondescript

nonentity

quaff:sip=gobble:nibble swill:sip=gobble:nibble [ ] v. to take liquor in nips:TIPPLE nip:eat=jot:write Sample: When the plant begins to ramify, it is advisable to nip off most of the new branches. [ ] adj. minute and usually unjustified criticism fluent:glib=meticulous:nitpick/finicky nitpick:criticize=cavil:object nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil Sample: Instead of helping us write the report, he just kept nitpicking. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or occurring in the night diurnal<>nocturnal nocturnal<>happen during daytime Sample: Mr. Jones obtained a watchdog to prevent the nocturnal raids on his chicken coops. [ ] adj. offensive to the senses and especially to the sense of smell noisome<>appealing noisome<>beneficial/pleasant/healthy Synonyms: UNWHOLESOME, insalubrious, insalutary, noxious, sickly, unhealthful, unhealthy, unsalutary Sample: I never could stand the noisome atmosphere surrounding the slaughter houses. [ ] n. a member of a people who have no fixed residence but move from place to place usually seasonally and within a well-defined territory nomad:domicile=freelancer:employer Sample: Several nomadic tribes of Indians would hunt in this area each year. [ ] adj. TRIFLING, INSIGNIFICANT nominal:significance=disjunctive:unity Sample: He offered to drive her to the airport for only a nominal fee. [ ] adj. having an air of easy unconcern or indifference anonymous:identify=nonchalant:excite Sample: Few people could understand how he could listen to the news of the tragedy with such nonchalance; the mahority regarded him as callous and unsympathetic. [ ] adj. lacking distinctive or interesting qualities:DULL, DRAB nondescript<>conspicuous nondescript<>remarkable/striking Sample: The private detective was a short, nondescript fellow with no ourstanding features, the sort of person one would never notice in a crowd. [ ] n. a person of little consequence or significance
260

dilettante:commitment=nonentity:consequence Sample: Don't dismiss John as a nonentity; in his quiet way, he's very important to the firm. nonflammable [ ] adj. not flammable; specifically:not easily ignited and not burning rapidly if ignited impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible Sample: he furniture is covered with nonflammable material. nonplus [ ] n. a state of bafflement or perplexity:QUANDARY infuriate:rage=nonplus:perplexity Synonyms: beat, buffalo, get, stick, stump Sample: Jack's uncharacteristic rudeness nonplussed Jill, leaving her uncertain how to react. nonsense [ ] n. words or language having no meaning or conveying no intelligible ideas nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast Sample: That company demands that we pay a bill that we've already paid. Why do we have to put up with that nonsense? notch [ ] vt. to cut or make a notch in serrated<>without notches/smooth Sample: He cut a notch on the pole to tie a rope around it. novelty [ ] n. something new or unusual threadbare/timeworn:novelty=labyrinthine:directness ballad:stanza=novel:chapter banal<>novel timeworn<>novel Synonyms: CHANGE, innovation, mutation, permutation, sport, vicissitude Sample: One such novel idea is that of inserting into the chromosomes of plants discrete genes that are not a part of the plants natural constitution:specificallythe idea of inserting into nonleguminous plants the genes if they can be identified and isolated that fit the leguminous plants to be hosts for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Hencethe intensified research on legumes. noxious [ ] adj. physically harmful or destructive to living beings noxious<>beneficial noxious<>salubrious Sample: We must trace the source of these noxious gases before they asphyxiate us. nuance [ ] n. a subtle distinction or variation nuance:distinction=hint:suggestion nuance<>patent difference nuance<>lack of subtlety Sample: The unskilled eye of the layperson has difficulty in dicerning the nuances of color in the paintings. nucleate [ ] v. to form into a nucleus:CLUSTER
261

nudge

nurture

oafish

oasis

obdurate

obeisance

obfuscate

nucleate<>disseminate [ ] n.v. to touch or push gently; especially:to seek the attention of by a push of the elbow doze:sleep=nudge:prod nudge:push=?? butt:head=nudge:elbow [ ] vt. to supply with nourishment EDUCATE nurture<>withhold sustenance from nurture<>impede nurture<>stunt disregard<>nurture Sample: While nurturing parents can compensate for adversity, cold or inconsistent parents may exacerbate it. [ ] adj. a stupid person:BOOB Sample: He called the unfortunate waiter a clumsy oaf. [ ]n a fertile or green area in an arid region (as a desert) glade:wood=oasis:desert=archipelago:ocean Sample: When we reached the oasis, we were able to slake our thirst. [ ] adj. resistant to persuasion or softening influences firmness:obdurate=carefulness:meticulous energetic:frenetic (frenzied)=firm:obdurate penitent:obdurate=skeptic:credulous obdurate:move=?? toward<>obdurate Synonyms: UNFEELING, callous, coldhearted, hard-boiled, hardhearted, heartless, stonyhearted, uncompassionate, unemotional, unsympathetic Sample: He was obdurate in his refusal to listen to our complaints. [ ] n. a movement of the body made in token of respect or submission:BOW obeisant:esteem=embrace:affection imperious<>servile/obeisant impudent<>obeisant Synonyms: HONOR, deference, homage, reverence Sample: She made an obeisance as the king and queen entered the room. [ ] v. to make obscure equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense=obfuscation:clarity { metaphor:description } :metaphor:description headstrong:willfulness=obfuscate:confusing rationalization:plausible=obfuscation:indiscernible {equivocation:definite} cowardice:intimidate=perplexed:obfuscate obfuscate<>elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly obfuscate<>clarify obfuscate<>lucid
262

obedient

obeisance

obituary

obligatory

oblige

obliging

oblique

obliterate

Synonyms: OBSCURE, adumbrate, becloud, befog, darken, dim, gloom, murk, overcast, shadow Sample: Do not obfuscate the issues by dragging in irrelevant arguments. [ ] adj. submissive to the restraint or command of authority:willing to obey contumacious<>obedient imperial<>obedient Sample: Good children are obedient to their parents. [ ] n. a movement of the body made in token of respect or submission:BOW obeisant<>impertinent imperious<>servile/obeisant Synonyms: HONOR, deference, homage, reverence Sample: She made an obeisance as the king and queen entered the room. [ ] n. a notice of a person's death usually with a short biographical account roster:staff=obituary:death Sample: I first learned of her death when I read the obituary in the newspaper. [ ] adj. binding in law or conscience elected:obliged=?? discretionary<>obligatory selective/elective<>obligatory Sample: Today water is more ubiquitous in landscape architecture than ever before, because technological advances have made it easy, in some instances even obligatory to install water features in public places. [ ] vt. to do a favor for discommode<>oblige Synonyms: accommodate, convenience, favor Sample: Having no sense of moral obligation, Shipler was as little subject to the reproaches of conscience after he acted as he was motivated by its prompting before he acted. [ ] adj. willing to do favors:ACCOMMODATING visionary:idealistic=officious:obliging Synonyms: AMIABLE 1, complaisant, easy, good-humored, good-natured, goodtempered, lenient, mild Sample: The debonair youth was liked by all who met him, because of his cheerful and obliging manner. [ ] adj. not straightforward:INDIRECT; also:OBSCURE oblique<>direct Synonyms: INCLINED, inclining, leaning, pitched, pitching, sloped, sloping, tilted, tilting, tipped Sample: I can defend myself against direct accusations; innuendos and oblique attacks on my character are what trouble me. [ ] v.
263

oblivious

obloquy

obscure

obsequious

to remove from existence:destroy utterly all trace, indication, or significance of inspire:infuse=obliterate:remove inter:burial=obliterate:remova=accomodate:supply=convey:condudct obliterate:remove=saturated:wet ineffable:description=irradicable:obliterate inexpurgate<>obliterate Synonyms: ERASE, black (out), blot out, cancel, delete, efface, expunge, wipe (out), x (out) Sample: The tidal wave obliterated several island villages. [ ] adj. lacking remembrance, memory, or mindful attention erudite:fathom=oblivious:neglect oblivious:attentive=?? cognizant<>oblivious oblivious<>vigilant oblivious<>mindful vigilant<>oblivious Synonyms: IGNORANT, incognizant, inconversant, unacquainted, unaware, unfamiliar, uninformed, uninstructed, unknowing, unwitting Sample: In spite of lackluster reviews in the press, the production of her play was rescued from almost certain oblivion by enthusiastic audiences whose acumen was greater than that of the critics. [ ] n. Abusively detractive language or utterance; calumny adulation<>obloquy Synonyms: ABUSE, billingsgate, contumely, invective, scurrility, vituperation Sample: I resent the obloquy that you are casting upon my reputation. [ ] adj. not clearly seen or easily distinguished:FAINT comprehend:obscure=?? celebrity<>obscurity explicit<>obscure legendary<>obscure certitude<>obscurity Synonyms: ambiguous, amphibological, double-edged, double-faced, dusky, equivocal, murky, nubilous, opaque, sibylline, tenebrous, uncertain, unclear, unexplicit, unintelligible, vague Sample: In the British theater young people under thirty-five have not had much trouble getting recognition onstage, but offstage-in the ranks of playwrights, directors, designers, administrators -- they have mostly been relegated to relative obscurity. [ ] adj. marked by or exhibiting a fawning attentiveness condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn libertine:dissolute=sycophant:obsequious=narcissist:self absorbed obsequious:attentiveness=?? obsequious:fawn=compliant:yield obsequious:servile=belligerent:assertive maudlin:sentimental=obsequious:deferential
264

observatory

obsess

obsolete

obstacle

obstinate

obstreperous

sycophantic:obsequious=rebellious:resurgent obsequious:attentiveness=parsimonious:frugality supercilious<>obsequious Sample: Helen valued people who behaved as if they respected themselves; nothing irritated her more than an excessively obsequious waiter or a fawning salesclerk. [ ] n. a building or place given over to or equipped for observation of natural phenomena (as in astronomy); conservatory:music=seminary:theology=observatory:astronomy Sample: The observatory is located on a mountain top. [ ] vt. to haunt or excessively preoccupy the mind of agonized:distress=obsessed:concern firm:intransigent=concerned:obsessed obsessed:attracted=rash:adventurous obsessed:attracted=intimate:close Sample: Because the painter Albert Pinkham Ryder was obsessed with his quest for perfection, he was rarely satisfied with a painting, creating endless variations of a scene on one canvas, one on top of another. [ ] adj. of a kind or style no longer current Synonyms: dead, disused, extinct, outmoded, outworn, superseded Sample: Doors were closing on our past, and soon the values we had lived by would become so obsolete that we would seem to people of the new age as quaint as travelers from an ancient land. [ ] n. something that impedes progress or achievement blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede Synonyms: bar, Chinese wall, crimp, hamper, hurdle, impediment, mountain, obstruction, rub, snag, stumbling block, traverse Sample: The sea was not an obstacle to the diffusion of the windmill; on the contrary, while the concept of the new invention passed quickly from seaport to seaport, it made little headway inland. [ ] adj adj. perversely adhering to an opinion, purpose, or course in spite of reason, arguments, or persuasion obstinate:preserve=tactless/insensitive:offend unflappable:upset=obstinate:persuade firmness:obstinacy=supple:spineless/thin:emaciated Synonyms: bullheaded, closed-minded, deaf, hardheaded, headstrong, incompliant, intractable, intransigent, muleheaded, muley, mulish, pertinacious, perverse, pervicacious, pigheaded, refractory, self-willed, stiff, stiff-necked, stubborn, tough, unpliable, unpliant, unyielding, willful, wrongheaded Sample: We tried to persuade him to give up smoking, but he was obstinate and refused to change. [ ] adj marked by unruly or aggressive noisiness:CLAMOROUS Synonyms: VOCIFEROUS, blatant, boisterous, clamorous, loudmouthed, multivocal,
265

obstruct

obtuse

obviate

occlude

occult

occurrence

ode

openmouthed, strident, vociferantSample:The crowd became obstreperous and shouted their disapproval of the proposals made by the speaker. [ ] v. to hinder from passage, action, or operation obstruct<>facilitate occluded<>unobstructed obstructed<>unocclude abet<>obstruct Synonyms: HINDER, bar, block, brake, dam, impede, overslaugh Sample: One political party obstructed the passage of laws proposed by another. [ ] adj. lacking sharpness or quickness of sensibility or intellect restive:calmness=keen:obtuse parsimonious:liberal=obtuse:keen impertinent:propriety=keen:obtuseness obtuse<>insightful Synonyms: DULL, blunt Sample: Because he was so obtuse, he could not follow the teacher's reasoning and asked foolish questions. [ ] vt. to anticipate and prevent (as a situation) or make unnecessary (as an action) emulate:exemplary=obviate:unnecessary obviate:unnecessary=reduce:smaller Synonyms: PREVENT, avert, deter, forestall, forfend, preclude, rule out, stave off, ward Sample: One virus strain that may help gene therapists cure genetic brain diseases can enter the peripheral nervous system and travel to the brain, obviating the need to inject the therapeutic virus directly into the brain. [ ] vt. to close up or block off:OBSTRUCT occluded<>unobstructed obstructed<>unocclude Synonyms: FILL, block, choke, clog, close, congest, obstruct, plug, stop, stopper Sample: A blood clot occluded an artery to the heart. [ ] adj. not easily apprehended or understood:ABSTRUSE, MYSTERIOUS occult<>bare/patent/readily fathomable occult<>manifest Synonyms: RECONDITE, abstruse, acroamatic, deep, esoteric, heavy, hermetic, orphic, profound, secret Sample: The occult rites of the organization were revealed only to members. [ ] n. something that occurs prodigy:person=miracle:occurrence Synonyms: circumstance, episode, event, go, happening, incident, occasion, thing Sample: The occurrence of crime in this city is on the rise. [ ] n. a lyric poem usually marked by exaltation of feeling and style, varying length of line,
266

odious

offbeat

offend

offhand

officious

and complexity of stanza forms chord:tone=ode:poem ode:poetry=spoof:parody spoof:A gentle satirical imitation; a light parody. Sample: Many countries have odes that praise the bravery of their heroes of long ago. [ ] adj. exciting or deserving hatred or repugnance blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting grating:sound=acrid:odor odious:disgust=menacing:fear odious:repugnance=menacing:fear {immovable:stability} hankering<>odium odium<>infatuation odium<>esteem Synonyms: HATEFUL, abhorrent, abominable, detestable, hateable, horrid Sample: I find the task of punishing you most odious. [ ] adj. eccentric, unconventional offbeat<>conventional offbeat<>bathetic offbeat<>hackneyed Synonyms: ECCENTRIC, UNCONVENTIONAL Sample: That writer has an offbeat style of using very short sentences. [ ] v. to cause dislike, anger, or vexation deferential:offend=scornful:respect equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity euphemistic:offend=invulnerable:injure euphemism:offensive=aphorism:prolix glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense intransigent:acquiesce=deferential:offend politic:offend=aloof:associate obstinate:preserve=tactless/insensitive:offend pliant:influence=ticklish:offend remonstrance:offend=syllogism:disprove peccadillo:offense=cameo:sculpture mishap:accident=peccadillo:offence euphemism:offense=ambiguity:comprehesion{metaphor:description } Synonyms: VIOLATE, breach, break, contravene, infract, infringe, transgress Sample: Expecting to be treated with due propriety by her costs, Great-Aunt Maud was offended by their offhand manner. [ ] adj. without premeditation or preparation:EXTEMPORE offhand<>premeditated Synonyms: EXTEMPORANEOUS, autoschediastic, extemporary, extempore, impromptu, improvised, spur-of-the-moment, unrehearsed, unstudied Sample: The teacher made some offhand remarks after class. [ ] adj volunteering one's services where they are neither asked nor needed:MEDDLESOME
267

offish

ominous

omniscient

opaque

opera

opine

opportune

attentive:officious=refined:snobbish {absorbed:engrossed } officious:meddle=disaffected:rebel visionary:idealistic=officious:obliging officious:attentive=parsimony:frugal politic<>injudicious {officious} Synonyms: IMPERTINENT, busy, intrusive, meddlesome, obtrusive, polypragmatic Sample: After her long flight, Jill just wanted to nap, but the officious bellboy was intent on showing her all the special features of the deluxe suite. [ ] adj. somewhat cold and reserved:STANDOFFISH offish<>sociable Synonyms: UNSOCIABLE, aloof, distant, insociable, reserved, solitary, standoffish, unapproachable, unbending, withdrawn [ ] adj. being or exhibiting an omen:PORTENTOUS; especially:foreboding or foreshowing evil:INAUSPICIOUS auspicious<>ominous Synonyms: apocalyptic, baleful, baneful, dire, direful, doomful, fateful, ill-boding, illomened, inauspicious, threatening, unlucky, unpropitious [ ] adj. having infinite awareness, understanding, and insight vacuous<>omniscient Sample: I do not pretend to be omniscient, but I am positive about this fact. [ ] adj. exhibiting opacity:blocking the passage of radiant energy and especially light slack:tension=opaque:translucence opacity:light=impermeability:fluid opacity<>transparency diaphanous<>opaque clarity<>opaque Synonyms: OBSCURE, ambiguous, amphibological, equivocal, nubilous, tenebrous, uncertain, unclear, unintelligible, vague Sample: The opaque window kept the sunlight out of the room. [ ] n. a drama set to music and made up of vocal pieces with orchestral accompaniment and orchestral overtures and interludes; specifically:GRAND OPERA libretto:opera=lyrics:song libretto:the text of a work (as an opera) for the musical theater Sample: Tristan and Lsolde drink a love potion in the first act of the opera. [ ] vt.vi. to express opinions augur:predict=pundit:opine recidivism:relapse=pundit:opine [ ] adj. suitable or convenient for a particular occurrence opportune:convenience=impermanent:transience opportune<>inconvenient Synonyms: TIMELY, auspicious, favorable, propitious, prosperous, seasonable,
268

oppose

oppression

opprobrious

optimization

opulent

oracle

oration

orchestra

timeous, well-timed Sample: The diplomat, selected for her demonstrated patience and skill in conducting such delicate negotiations, declined to make a decision during the talks because any sudden commitment at that time would have been inopportune . [ ] vt. to place over against something so as to provide resistance, counterbalance, or contrast oppose:thwart=treat:cure capitulate<>oppose Synonyms: counter, match, pit, play (off), vie Sample: He was a practical man, opposed to theory [ ] n. unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power oppression:disagreement=?? Sample: When an oppressed group revolts against a society, one must look for the underlying forces that led to the group's alienation from that society. [ ] adj. expressive of opprobrium:SCURRILOUS opprobrious:blameless=?? opprobrious<>irreproachable Synonyms: ABUSIVE, contumelious, invective, scurrile, scurrilous, truculent, vituperative, vituperatory, vituperous Sample: He refused to defend himself against the slander and opprobrium hurled against him by the newspapers; he preferred to rely on his record. [ ] n. an act, process, or methodology of making something (as a design, system, or decision) as fully perfect, functional, or effective as possible; optimization:improve=?? [ ] adj amply or plentifully provided or fashioned often to the point of ostentation Synonyms: LUXURIOUS, Capuan, deluxe, luscious, lush, luxuriant, palatial, plush, sumptuous, upholstered Sample: The king of France lived in opulence in his palace. [ ] n. a person (as a priestess of ancient Greece) through whom a deity is believed to speak mentor:guidance=oracle:prophecy Synonyms: REVELATION, apocalypse, prophecy, vision Sample: The ancient Greeks tried to learn the future from oracles. [ ] n. an elaborate discourse delivered in a formal and dignified manner Sample: The priest gave an oration on the value of not drinking alcohol. [ ] n. a group of musicians including especially string players organized to perform ensemble music orchestra:musician=pack:wolf pilot:ship=conductor:orchestra Synonyms: band, philharmonic, symphony Sample: Although the young violinist's steady performance, with the orchestra demonstrated his technical competence. his uninspired style and lack of interpretive
269

original

ornithology

orthodoxy

oscillate

ossify

ostentatious

ostracism

maturity labeled him as a novice musician rather than as a truly accomplished performer. [ ] adj. not secondary, derivative, or imitative babble:sense=parrot:originality banality<>original commonplace<>original pastiche<>original work trite<>fresh/original Synonyms: INVENTIVE, creative, demiurgic, deviceful, ingenious, innovational, innovative, innovatory, originative Sample: Although the mental process that creates a fresh and original poem or drama is doubtless analogous to that which originates and elaborates scientific discoveries, there is clearly a discernible difference between the creators. [ ] n. a branch of zoology dealing with birds ornithology:eagle=astronomy:planet [ ] n. the quality or state of being conforming to established doctrine especially in religion religion:devoutness=canon:orthodoxy dissenter:orthodox=maverick:group Sample: Although some of her fellow scientists decried the unorthodox laboratory methodology that others found innovative, unanimous praise greeted her experimental results:at once pioneering and unexceptionable. [ ] vt. to swing backward and forward like a pendulum oscillate:swing=momentum:scooter Synonyms: SWING, pendulate, sway Sample: On an oscilloscope, you can see an electrical current oscillate up and down. [ ] v to become hardened or conventional and opposed to change depreciation:value=ossification:flexibility Sample: Inspired interim responses to hitherto unknown problems, New Deal economic stratagems became ossified as a result of bureaucratization, their flexibility and adaptability destroyed by their transformation into rigid policies. [ ] adj. marked by or fond of conspicuous or vainglorious and sometimes pretentious display Synonyms: SHOWY, chichi, flamboyant, orchidaceous, peacockish, peacocky, pretentious, splashy, swank Sample: Trump's latest casino in Atlantic City is the most ostentatious gambling place in the East:it easily outglitters its competitors. [ ] n. exclusion by general consent from common privileges or social acceptance pariah:ostracize=prisoner:confine ostracize<>take in ostracize<>welcome ostracize<>include/embrace Synonyms: EXILE, banishment, deportation, displacement, expulsion, relegation
270

oust

outgoing

outmaneuver

outmoded

outwit

overbearing

overdose

overexposure

overlap

Sample: As soon as the newspapers carried the story of his connection with the criminals, his friends began to ostracize him. [ ] vt. to remove from or dispossess of property or position by legal action, by force, or by the compulsion of necessity instate<>oust Synonyms: DEPRIVE, bereave, disinherit, dispossess, divest, lose, rob Sample: The world wondered if Aquino would be able to oust Marcos from office. [ ] adj. openly friendly and responsive:EXTROVERTED extrovert:outgoing=perfectionist:exacting Synonyms: DEMONSTRATIVE, expansive, unconstrained, unreserved, unrestrained Sample: Rebuffed by his colleagues, the initially outgoing young researcher became increasingly withdrawn. [ ] v. to maneuver with better effect than; outwit outmaneuver<>yield Synonyms: OUTWIT, outfox, outgeneral, outjockey, outreach, outslick, outsmart, outthink, overreach, undo Sample: The soccer player outmaneuvered her opponents and scored a goal. [ ] adj. no longer acceptable, current, or usable Synonyms: OBSOLETE, dead, disused, extinct, outworn, superseded Sample: Unconcerned about keeping in style, Lenore was perfectly happy to wear outmoded clothes as long as they were clean and unfrayed. [ ] vt. to get the better of by superior cleverness:OUTSMART taunt:provoke=plot:outwit Synonyms: have, outfox, outgeneral, outjockey, outmaneuver, outreach, outslick, outsmart, outthink, overreach, undo Sample: By disguising himself as an old woman, Holmes was able to outwit his pursuers and escape capture. [ ] adj. harshly and haughtily arrogant unassuming<>overbearing Synonyms: PROUD, arrogant, cavalier, disdainful, haughty, high-and-mighty, insolent, lordly, supercilious, superior Sample: Certain of her own importance and of the unimportance of everyone else, Lady Bracknell was intolerably overbearing in manner. [ ] n. too great a dose (as of a therapeutic agent) overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention Sample: He took an overdose and was in the hospital for weeks. [ ] adj. to expose excessively; especially:to expose (as film) to excessive radiation (as light) overexposure:jaded=vaccination:immune [ ] vt. to occupy the same area in part:lap over
271

oversee

overt

overture

overwhelm

overwrought

oxymoron

pachyderm

pacify

infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap Synonyms: imbricate, lap, overlie, override, ride, shingle Sample: Many welfare reformers would substitute a single, federally financed income support system for the existing welter of overlapping programs. [ ] v. INSPECT, EXAMINE dexterous:manipulate=prescient:predict { clairvoyant:oversee } Synonyms: SUPERVISE, boss, chaperon, overlook, quarterback, superintend, survey Sample: She oversees both the research and the manufacturing departments. [ ] adj open to view:MANIFEST clandestine:secretly=overt:openly shadowy<>overt Sample: According to the United States Constitution, a person must commit an overt act before he may be tried for treason. [ ] n. something introductory:PRELUDE veto:prohibitive=overture:introductory overture/ preamble:introduction=caveat:warning/cautionary overture:symphony=preface:book coda<>overture Synonyms: INTRODUCTION, exordium, foreword, preamble, preface, prelude, prelusion, proem, prolegomenon, prologue Sample: Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture concludes with a thunderous fusilade of cannon fire. [ ] vt. to make helpless, as with greater force or deep emotion; overcome; crush; overpower usurp:take=trespass:enter {overwhelm:defeat} Synonyms: DELUGE, drown, engulf, flood, inundate, overflow, submerge, swamp, whelm Sample: The notion that cultural and biological influences equally determine crosscultural diversity is discredited by the fact that, in countless aspects of human existence, it is cultural programming that overwhelmingly accounts for cross-population variance. [ ] adj. extremely excited:AGITATED Sample: When Kate heard the news of the sudden tragedy, she became too overwrought to work and had to leave the office early. [ ] n. a combination of contradictory or incongruous words apophasis:claim=oxymoron:paradox equivocation:ambiguous=oxymoron:incongruous oxymoron:contradictory=mishap:catastrophic [ ] n. any of various nonruminant hoofed mammals (as an elephant, a rhinoceros, or a pig) most of which have a thick skin pachyderm:animal=ant:insect Sample: The elephant is probably the best-known pachyderm. [ ] vt.
272

pack

pact

padding

paean

painstaking

palatable

to allay the anger or agitation of:SOOTHE solace:grief=pacification:anger rankle<>pacify tantrum<>pacify vex<>pacify/appease/soothe discompose<>pacificate pacific<>truculent incite<>pacify Synonyms: SOOTHE, pacify, appease, ease, mollify Sample: Dentists criticize the practice of giving fussy children sweets to pacify them. [ ] n. a group of often predatory animals of the same kind orchestra:musician=pack:wolf Synonyms: MUCH, barrel, great deal, heap, lot, lump, multiplicity, peck, pile Sample: I thought I was talking to a mature audience; instead, I find myself addressing a pack of dolts. [ ] n. COMPACT; especially:an international treaty Synonyms: CONTRACT, agreement, bargain, bond, compact, convention, covenant, transaction Sample: The consensus indicates that we are opposed to entering into this pact. [ ] n. material with which something is padded padding:damage=disguise:recognition padding:damage=levee:flooding Synonyms: EMBROIDER, embellish, exaggerate, fudge, magnify, overcharge, overdraw, overpaint, overstate, stretch Sample: Thick padding in that chair makes it very comfortable. [ ] n. a joyous song or hymn of praise, tribute, thanksgiving, or triumph; broadly paean:song=elegy:poem paean<>harshly lampoon Synonyms: ENCOMIUM, TRIBUTE Sample: paeans celebrating the victory filled the air. [ ] adj. taking pains:expending, showing, or involving diligent care and effort cursory<>painstakingly thorough slipshod<>painstaking Synonyms: CAREFUL, conscientious, conscionable, exact, fussy, heedful, meticulous, punctilious, punctual, scrupulous Sample: The new high-frequency word list is the result of painstaking efforts on the part of our research staff. [ ] adj agreeable to the palate or taste palatable:savory=discernible:manifest Synonyms: aperitive, appetizing, flavorsome, good-tasting, mouth-watering, relishing, sapid, saporous, savorous, savorsome, savory, tasteful, tasty, toothsome, toothy Sample: Animals that have tasted unpalatable plants tend to recognize them afterward
273

palatial

palette

pall

palliate

pallid

palmy

palpable

on the basis of their most conspicuous features, such as their flowers. List 20 palatial --- petition [ ] adj of, relating to, or being a palace hovel:palatial=city:bucolic palatial:hovel=bucolic:city Synonyms: LUXURIOUS, Capuan, deluxe, luscious, lush, luxuriant, opulent, plush, sumptuous, upholstered Sample: He proudly showed us through his palatial home. [ ] n. a particular range, quality, or use of color palette:color=repertoire:play Sample: At the present time, art supply stores are selling a paper palette that may be discarded after use. [ ]v to lose in interest or attraction pall<>interest/intrigue Synonyms: BORE, ennui, tire, weary Sample: The study of word lists can eventually pall and put one to sleep. [ ] v. to reduce the violence of (a disease) pain:analgesic=symptom:palliative palliate:anger=enfeeble:vigor caustic<>palliating/genial palliate<>exacerbate palliate<>worsen Synonyms: blanch (over), extenuate, gloss (over), gloze (over), prettify, sugarcoat, varnish, veneer, white, whiten, whitewash Sample: If we cannot cure this disease at present, we can, at least try to palliate the symptoms. [ ] adj Having an abnormally pale or wan complexion rubicund<>pallid Synonyms: PALE, ashen, ashy, blanched, colorless, complexionless, doughy, lurid, wan, waxen Sample: Her complexion was pallid when she was ill. [ ] adj. marked by prosperity palmy:prosperity=draconian:severity Synonyms: FLOURISHING, prosperous Sample: Because his occupation required that he work at night and sleep during the day, he had an exceptionally pallid complexion. [ ] adj. easily perceived by the senses; audible, recognizable, perceptible, noticeable, etc. explicate<>palpable palpable<>subtle impalpable<>clear Synonyms: PERCEPTIBLE, appreciable, detectable, discernible, observable, sensible,
274

palter

tangible Sample: I cannot understand how you could overlook such a palpable blunder. [ ] vi. to act insincerely or deceitfully palter:candor=diehard:budge palter<>candor

Synonyms: LIE, equivocate, falsify, fib, prevaricate paltry [ ] adj. practically worthless; trifling; insignificant; contemptible; petty paltry:significance=?? paltry<>significant/important Synonyms: PETTY , measly, Mickey Mouse, picayune, picayunish, piddling, puny, trifling, trivial, unconsequential Sample: This is a paltry sum to pay for such a masterpiece. pan [ ] vt. to criticize unfavorably, as in reviewing barb:caustic=pan:harsh rave<>pan eulogize<>pan Sample: Hoping for a rave review of his new show, the playwright was miserable when the critics panned it unanimously. panache [ ] n. dash or flamboyance in style and action panache<>humility panache<>unremarkable behavior Synonyms: catholicon, cure-all, elixir, nostrum Sample: Many performers imitate Noel Coward, but few have his panache and sense of style. pandemonium [ ] n. Wild uproar or noise pandemonium<>serene Synonyms: DIN, babel, clamor, hubbub, hullabaloo, jangle, racket, tintamarre, tumult, uproar Sample: When the ships collided in the harbor, pandemonium broke out among the passengers. pander [ ] v. to act as a pander; especially:to provide gratification for others' desires Synonyms: PIMP, bully, fancy man, macquereau Sample: The reviewer accused the makers of Lethal Weapon of pandering to the masses' taste of violence. panegyric [ ]n a eulogistic oration or writing; also:formal or elaborate praise panegyric:eulogize=lampoon:satirize panegyric:praise:valediction:farewell panegyric<>anathema panegyric<>denunciation panegyric<>condemnation
275

panoramic

pantechnicon

pantry

parable

paradigm

paradise

paradox

Synonyms: ENCOMIUM, citation, eulogy, salutation, tribute Sample: The modest hero blushed to hear the speakers delivering panegyrics about his valorous act. [ ] n. an unobstructed or complete view of an area in every direction panoramic<>narrow Synonyms: spectacle, prospect Sample: On a clear day, from the top of the World Trade Center you can get a panoramic view of New York City and neighboring stretches of New Jersey and Long Island. [ ] n. a furniture van pantechnicon:furniture=?? [ ] n. a room (as in a hotel or hospital) for preparation of foods on order pantry:food=armory:weapons pantry:food=closet (wardrobe):clothes Synonyms: LARDER, buttery Sample: Looking in the pantry, we admired the plenitude of fruits and pickles we had preserved during the summer. [ ]n EXAMPLE; specifically:a usually short fictitious story that illustrates a moral attitude or a religious principle parable:story=homily:lecture Synonyms: ALLEGORY, apologue, fable, myth Sample: Let us apply to our own conduct the lesson that this parable teaches. [ ] n. EXAMPLE, PATTERN; especially:an outstandingly clear or typical example or archetype paragon/paradigm:imitate=reverence:regard corrective:amends=paradigm:exemplify Synonyms: MODEL, archetype, beau ideal, ensample, example, exemplar, ideal, mirror, pattern, standard Sample: Pavlov's experiment in which he trains a dog to salivate on hearing a bell is a paradigm of the conditioned-response experiment in behavioal psychology. [ ] n. a place or state of bliss, felicity, or delight pleasurable:paradisical=melodious:lyrical Synonyms: UTOPIA, arcadia, Cockaigne, fairyland, heaven, lubberland, promised land, wonderland Sample: Parts of California seem like paradise to me. [ ] n. a statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet is perhaps true apophasis:claim=oxymoron:paradox :apophasis paradox:contradictory=epigram:wise paradoxical<>common
276

paragon

parallel

paramount

paranoia

paraphrase

parch

pariah

Sample: The paradox of her career was her achievement of her greatest intellectual authority at the very moment when she was bereft of a compelling subject. [ ] n. a model of excellence or perfection paragon:admire=pariah:contempt corrected:amend=paragon:exemplary paragon/paradigm:imitate=reverence:regard hoax:fraudulent=paragon:excellent travesty<>paragon Synonyms: ideal, jewel, nonesuch, nonpareil, phoenix Sample: The class disliked him because the teacher was always pointing him out as a paragon of virtue. [ ] adj. extending in the same direction, everywhere equidistant, and not meeting Synonyms: LIKE, agnate, akin, alike, analogous, comparable, consonant, corresponding, similar, uniform Sample: Foucault's rejection of the concept of continuity in Western thought, though radical, was not unique; he had counterparts in the United States who, without knowledge of his work, developed parallel ideas. [ ] adj. superior to all others painful:agonizing=important:paramount Synonyms: DOMINANT, ascendant, master, overbearing, predominant, predominate, preponderant, prevalent, regnant, sovereign Sample: Proper nutrition and hygiene are of paramount importance in adolescent development and growth. [ ] n. a tendency on the part of an individual or group toward excessive or irrational suspiciousness and distrustfulness of others enthusiasm:mania=suspicion:paranoia Sample: Suffering from paranois, he claimed everyone was out to get him; ironically, his claim was accurate; even paranoids have enemies. [ ] vt. to make a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form paraphrase:verbatim=approximate:precise Synonyms: rephrase, restate, reword, translate (into) Sample: In 250 words or less, paraphrase this article. [ ] vi to dry or shrivel with cold steep<>parch Sample: The parched desert landscape seemed hostile to life. [ ] n. a member of a low caste of southern India paragon:admire=pariah:contempt pariah:ostracize=prisoner:confine {traitor:execute} Synonyms: OUTCAST, castaway, derelict, Ishmael, Ishmaelite, leper, offscouring, untouchable Sample: I am not a pariah to be shunned and ostracized.
277

parity

parlance

parochial

parody

paroxysm

parquetry

parrot

parry

[ ] n. the quality or state of being equal or equivalent parity<>inequality parity<>incommensurateness Synonyms: EQUIVALENCE, adequation, equality, equatability, equivalency, par, sameness Sample: I find your analogy inaccurate because I do not see the parity between the two illustrations. [ ] n. manner or mode of speech gait:walk=parlance:speak Synonyms: WORDING, diction, phrase, phraseology, phrasing, verbalism, verbiage, wordage Sample: All this legal parlance confuses me; I need an interpreter. [ ] vadj. restricted to a small area or scope; narrow; limited; provincial Synonyms: INSULAR, local, provincial, sectarian, small-town Sample: Although Jane Austen writes novels set in small rural communities, her concerns are universal, not parochial. [ ] n a literary or musical work in which the style of an author or work is closely imitated for comic effect or in ridicule; a poor or weak imitation parody:style=mime:gesture ode:poetry=spoof:parody nicety:distinction=spoof:parody :spoof:A gentle satirical imitation; a light parody. Synonyms: MIMIC, ape, burlesque, imitate, mock, take off, travesty Sample: We enjoyed the clever parodies of popular songs that the chorus sang. [ ] n. a sudden violent emotion or action:OUTBURST paroxysm:sudden=ruse:deceived Sample: When he heared of his son's misdeeds, he was seized by a paroxysm of rage. [ ] n. inlaid woodwork in geometric forms, usually of contrasting woods, used esp. in flooring fresco:wall=parquetry:floor Sample: In laying the floor, the carpenters combined redwood and oak in an elegant parquet. [ ] n. to repeat by rote babble:sense=parrot=originality Synonyms: copyist Sample: The little boy parrots everything that his parents say. [ ] v. to evade especially by an adroit answer duty:shirk=question:parry parry:question=shirk:duty Synonyms: DODGE, duck, fence, shirk, sidestep Sample: He was content to wage a defensive battle and tried to parry his opponent's thrusts.
278

parse

parsimony

partial

particularize

partisan

[ ] n./v. to resolve (as a sentence) into component parts of speech and describe them grammatically scan:metrical=parse:grammatical :scan:to analyze (verse) in terms of its rhythmic components, as by counting accents and syllables and marking the metrical feet specimen:dissect=sentence:parse [ ] n. a tendency to be over-careful in spending; unreasonable economy; stinginess craven:hero=parsimonious:spendthrift curt:words=parsimonious:resource miser:parsimonious=spendthrift:prodigal parsimonious:save=prodigal:spend parsimonious:skimp=malingering:shirk parsimony:miser=rebelliousness:insurgent parsimony:frugal=hubris:proud tightfisted:parsimonious=brattish:mischievous parsimonious:profligacy=impetuous:hesitance parsimonious:liberal=obtuse:keen obsequious:attentiveness=parsimonious:frugality officious:attentive=parsimony:frugal largesse<>parsimony liberal<>parsimonious parsimonious<>wasteful profligate<>parsimonious parsimonious<>prodigal parsimonious<>generous Synonyms: STINGY, cheeseparing, close, closefisted, miserly, niggardly, pennypinching, penurious, tight, tightfisted Sample: His parsimonious nature did not permit him to enjoy any luxuries. [ ] adj. inclined to favor one party more than the other:BIASED dispassionate<>partial Synonyms: BIASED, colored, jaundiced, one-sided, partisan, prejudiced, prepossessed, tendentious, unindifferent, warped Sample: Although the revelation that one of the contestants was a friend left the judge open to charges of lack of disinterestedness, the judge remained adamant in her assertion that acquaintance did not necessarily imply partiality. [ ] vt.vi. to state in detail illustrate:pictures=particularize:details ) Synonyms: SPECIFY, detail, specificate, specificize, stipulate Sample: I can tell you briefly what happened, but I'll save the particulars for later. [ ] n. a firm adherent to a party, faction, cause, or person; especially:one exhibiting blind, prejudiced, and unreasoning allegiance authoritativeness:pundits=allegiance:partisans patriot:country=partisan:course
279

passionate

pastiche

patent

pathology

patina

patrician

patriot

partisan:bias=?? Synonyms: FOLLOWER, adherent, cohort, disciple, henchman, satellite, sectary, sectator, supporter Sample: Given the failure of independent laboratories to replicate the results of Dr. Johnson's experiment, only the most partisan supporters of her hypothesis would be foolish enough to claim that it had been adequately verified. [ ] adj. capable of, affected by, or expressing intense feeling Synonyms: IRASCIBLE, choleric, hot-tempered, peppery, quick-tempered, ratty, temperish, testy, tetchy, touchy Sample: Though science is often imagined as a disinterested exploration of external reality, scientists are no different from anyone else:they are passionate human beings enmeshed in a web of personal and social circumstances. [ ] n. a literary, artistic, musical, or architectural work that imitates the style of previous work; pastiche<>original work Synonyms: MISCELLANY, assortment, gallimaufry, hodgepodge, hotchpotch, medley, mishmash, omnium-gatherum, pasticcio Sample: We cannot even say that her music is a pastiche of this or that composer; it is rather, reminiscent of many musicians. [ ] adj. readily visible or intelligible:OBVIOUS abstruse<>accessible/patent nuance<>patent difference occult<>bare/patent patent<>not evident recondite<>patent Synonyms: CLEAR, apparent, distinct, evident, manifest, obvious, palpable, plain, straightforward, unequivocal Sample: It was patent to everyone that the witness spoke the truth. [ ] n. something abnormal,deviation from propriety or from an assumed normal state of something nonliving or nonmaterial pathological<>normal Sample: As we study the pathological aspects of this disease, we must not overlook the psychological elements. [ ] n. a superficial covering or exterior Sample: Judging by the patina on this bronze statue, we can conclude that this is the work of a medieval artist. [ ] n. a person of high birth:ARISTOCRAT base<>patrician Synonyms: GENTLEMAN, aristocrat, blue blood Sample: We greatly admired her well-bred, patrician elegance [ ] n. one who loves his or her country and supports its authority and interests patriot:country=partisan:course )
280

patronize

paucity

paunchy

pauper

pebble

peccadillo

peck

pedagogue

Sample: Knowing the importance of appearing resolute, the patriots sought to present a monolithic front. [ ] vt. to be kind or helpful to, but in a haughty or snobbish way, as if dealing with an inferior condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn patronize:condescension=deride:mockery patronizing:condescending=peeved:annoyed patron:support=apologist:defend Sample: Experts in a field sometimes appear to patronize people who are less knowledgeable of the subject. [ ] n. smallness of number:FEWNESS paucity<>slew profusion<>paucity Synonyms: SCARCITY, insufficience, insufficiency, poverty, scant, scarceness Sample: They closed the restaurant because the paucity of customers made it uneconomical to operate. [ ] adj. having an enlarged, swollen, or protruding abdomen svelte<>paunchy and awkward [ ] n. a person destitute of means except such as are derived from charity; specifically:one who receives aid from funds designated for the poor Sample: Though Widow Brown was living on a reduced income, she was by no means a pauper. [ ] n. a small usually rounded stone especially when worn by the action of water droplet:deluge=pebble:landslid Sample: We threw pebbles into the ocean. [ ] n a slight offense {gaffe n.} glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation ) peccadillo:offense=cameo:sculpture mishap:accident=peccadillo:offence Sample: If we examine these escapades carefully, we will realize that they are mere peccadilloes rather than major crimes. [ ] n. a : to strike, pierce, or pick up something with or as if with the bill peck:kiss=glance:look { peep:sound} Sample: Both the crocodile bird and the crocodile derive benefit from their symbiosis; pecking away at food particles embedded in the crocodile's teeth, the bird derives nourishment; the crocodile, meanwhile, derives proper dental hygiene. [ ] n. TEACHER, SCHOOLMASTER; especially:a dull, formal, or pedantic teacher stickler:exacting=pedagogue:indoctrinate ) pedagogue:instruct=?? Sample: He could never be a stuffy pedagogue; his classes were always lively and filled
281

pedant

pedestrian

peep

peerless

peeve

pejorative

with humor. [ ] n. one who makes a show of knowledge martinet:discipline=pedant:learning mawkish/maudlin:sentiment=pedantic:scholarship scholarly:pedantic=modest:prudish moralistic:principled=pedantic:learned insightful:pedant=?? pedantic:scholar=histrionic:actor pedant:learning=hack:writing Sample: Her insistence that the book be memorized marked the teacher as a pedant rather than a scholar. [ ] adj COMMONPLACE, UNIMAGINATIVE pedestrian<>imaginative pedestrian<>uncommon pedestrian<>marvelous pedestrian<>inspired Synonyms: DULL, banausic, blah, dreary, humdrum, monotone, monotonous, plodding, stodgy Sample: Unintentionally boring, he wrote page after page of pedestrian prose. [ ] n. to utter the slightest sound {peck:kiss=peep:sound} Synonyms: CHIRP, cheep, chip, chipper, chirrup, chitter, tweedle, tweet, twitter Sample: he school principal took a peep at the class through the window. [ ] adj. MATCHLESS, INCOMPARABLE peerless<>equality Synonyms: ALONE, matchless, only, unequaled, unique, unmatched, unparagoned, unparalleled, unrivaled Sample: he singer gave a peerless performance in the opera. [ ] v. to make peevish or resentful:ANNOY mawkish:sentimental=peeve:annoy hidebound:conservative=peeved:annoyed maudlin:sentimental=peeved:annoyed patronizing:condescending=peeved:annoyed placate<>peeve Synonyms: IRRITATE, aggravate, exasperate, get, nettle, pique, provoke, put out, rile, roil Sample: People who chew gum and talk at the same time peeve me. [ ] adj having negative connotations; especially:tending to disparage or belittle:DEPRECIATORY pejorative<>laudatory Synonyms: DEROGATORY, depreciative, depreciatory, detracting, disadvantageous, disparaging, dyslogistic, slighting, uncomplimentary
282

pelf

pellucid

pen

penalty

penchant

penetrate

penitent

Sample: Instead of criticizing Clinton's policies, the Republicans made pejorative remarks about his character. [ ] n. Wealth or riches, especially when dishonestly acquired pelf:impecunious=experience:green [ ] adj easy to understand venial:excuse=pellucid:understand pellucid<>murky murky<>clear/pellucid/limpid Synonyms: TRANSPARENT, clear, limpid, see-through, translucent Sample: After reading these stodgy philosophers, I find his pellucid style very enjoyable. [ ] n. a female swan sheep:ewe=swan:pen :ewe:the female of the sheep [ ] n. the suffering in person, rights, or property that is annexed by law or judicial decision to the commission of a crime or public offense exempt:liability=ardon:penalty Sample: Human nature and long distances have made exceeding the speed limit a cherished tradition in the state, so the legislators surprised no one when, acceding to public practice, they rejected increased penalties for speeding. [ ] n. a strong and continued inclination; broadly:LIKING penchant<>aversion penchant<>dislike Synonyms: LEANING, bent, disposition, inclination, inclining, predilection, predisposition, proclivity, propensity, tendency Sample: The current penchant for touting a product by denigrating a rival, named in the advertisement by brand name, seems somewhat foolhardy:suppose the consumer remembers only the rival's name? [ ] vt to enter by overcoming resistance:PIERCE impervious:penetrate=ineluctable:avoid knead:malleable=penetrate:permeable penetrate:impermeable=change:immutable penetrate:impermeable=profane:inviolable Sample: In order to maintain its power, the government developed a system of espionage that penetrated every hosehold. [ ] adj. feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain or sorrow for sins or offenses:REPENTANT penitent:contrition=?? penitent:obdurate=skeptic:credulous impenitent<>contrite Synonyms: REMORSEFUL, apologetic, attritional, compunctious, contrite, penitential, regretful, repentant, sorry
283

pensive

penury

perceptible

peremptory

perfervid

perfidy

perforate

Sample: When he realized the enormity of his crime, he became remorseful and penitent. [ ] adj. musingly or dreamily thoughtful museful:ruminative=lamentable:pensive Synonyms: THOUGHTFUL, cogitative, contemplative, meditative, pondering, reflecting, reflective, ruminative, speculative, thinking Sample: The pensive youth gazed at the painting for a long time and then sighed. [ ] n. a cramping and oppressive lack of resources (as money); especially:severe poverty incognizance:knowledgeable=penury:wealthy penury<>affluence penurious<>lavish largesse<>penurious Sample: When his pension fund failed, George feared he would end his days in penury. [ ] adj. capable of being perceived especially by the senses relevant:crucial=perceptible:obvious delusion:?=hallucination:perception {mirage:imagination} appreciable<>imperceptible Synonyms: appreciable, detectable, discernible, observable, palpable, sensible, tangible Sample: Even though political editorializing was not forbidden under the new regime, journalists still experienced discreet, though perceptible, governmental pressure to limit dissent. [ ] adj. characterized by often imperious or arrogant self-assurance parsimonious:spend=peremptory:fawn peremptory<>open to challenge Sample: From Jack's peremptory knock on the door, Jill could tell he would not give up until she let him in. [ ] adj. marked by overwrought or exaggerated emotion:excessively fervent perfervid<>impassive Synonyms: IMPASSIONED, ardent, blazing, burning, fervent, fiery, flaming, glowing, hot-blooded, passionate [ ] n. the quality or state of being faithless or disloyal:TREACHERY exorbitant:moderation=perfidious:loyalty perfidious<>faithful/loyal perfidy<>trustworthy Sample: When Caesar realized that Brutus had betrayed him, he reproached his perfidious friend. [ ] v. to make a hole through; especially:to make a line of holes in to facilitate separation perforate:hole=pleat:fold Synonyms: bore, drill, prick, punch, puncture Sample: Before you can open the aspirin bottle, you must first perforate the plastic safety seal that covers the cap.
284

perfunctorily

perimeter

peripatetic

peripheral

perjury

permanence

permeable

[ ] adv. lacking in interest or enthusiasm perfunctorily:inspiration=insolently:veneration ( Sample: The auditor's perfunctory inspection of the books overlooked many errors. [ ] n. the boundary of a closed plane figure country:border=circle:perimeter Sample: To find the perimeter of any quadrilateral, we add the lengths of the four sides. [ ] adj. moving or traveling from place to place:ITINERANT peripatetic<>rooted peripatetic<>sedentary Synonyms: ITINERANT, ambulant, itinerate, nomadic, perambulant, roving, vagabond, vagrant, wandering, wayfaring Sample: The peripatetic school of philosophy derives its name from the fact that Aristotle walked with his pupils while discussing philosophy with them. [ ] adj. of, relating to, involving, or forming a periphery or surface part immaterial:relevance=peripheral:center crux<>peripheral element periphery<>center peripheral<>in essence periphery<>core periphery<>important part/central area Sample: One virus strain that may help gene therapists cure genetic brain diseases can enter the peripheral nervous system and travel to the brain, obviating the need to inject the therapeutic virus directly into the brain. [ ] n. the voluntary violation of an oath or vow either by swearing to what is untrue or by omission to do what has been promised under oath:false swearing perjury:deposition calumny:assertion=perjury:testimony calumny:representation=perjury:testimony perjure<>depose Sample: When several witnesses appeared to challenge his story, he was indicted for perjury. [ ] n. the quality or state of being permanent:DURABILITY evanescent:permanence=archaic:currency heroic:craven=erratic:permanent opportune:convenience=impermanent:transience ephemeral<>permanent /perpetual extinction<>perpetuation interim<>permanent transience<>permanence Synonyms: LASTING, diuturnal, durable, enduring, perdurable, perduring, stable [ ] adj. capable of being permeated:PENETRABLE; especially:having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to pass through
285

pernicious

perpetual

persecute

persevere

persiflage

personable

perspective

perspicacious

knead:malleable=penetrate:permeable opacity:light=impermeability:fluid waterproof<>permeable diaphanous<>impermeable of light impermeable<>easily penetrated Synonyms: penetrable, pervious, porose, porous [ ] adj. highly injurious or destructive:DEADLY pernicious:injure=disingenuous:mislead Synonyms: baneful, deadly, noxious, pestiferous, pestilent, pestilential Sample: He argued that these books had a pernicious effect on young and susceptible minds. [ ] adj. continuing forever:EVERLASTING transient:vanish=constant:perpetuate ephemeral<>permanent/perpetual extinction<>perpetuation debunk<>perpetuate to sham perpetual<>transitory Sample: Ponce de Leon hoped to find perpetual youth. [ ] vt to come to mind continually; obsess: persecute:injure=haunt:remember Synonyms: WRONG, aggrieve, oppress, outrage Sample: They were persecuted by the government because of their religion. [ ] vi. to persist in a state, enterprise, or undertaking in spite of counterinfluences, opposition, or discouragement obstinate:preserve=tactless/insensitive:offend persevere<>give up Synonyms: carry on, go on, hang on, persist Sample: My teacher encouraged me to persevere in my studies. [ ] n. to provide with an incentive; move to action; impel exhortation:motivate=persiflage:incite Synonyms: BANTER, backchat, badinage, repartee, snip-snap [ ] adj. pleasant or amiable in person:ATTRACTIVE personable<>unattractive Sample: The man I am seeking to fill this position must be personable since he will be representing us before the public. [ ] n. an optical glass (as a telescope) Synonyms: VISTA, lookout, outlook, prospect, scape Sample: Because folk art is neither completely rejected nor accepted as an art form by art historians, their final evaluations of it necessarily remain equivocal. [ ] adj. of acute mental vision or discernment:KEEN
286

perspicuity

pertinacious

pertinent

perturb

peruse

pervade

perspicacious<>obtuse/undiscerned perspicacious<>dull { awkard Synonyms: SHREWD, argute, astucious, astute, cagey, heady, sagacious Sample: The brillant lawyer was known for his perspicacious deductions. [ ] n. plain to the understanding especially because of clarity and precision of presentation perspicuous<>dull Synonyms: CLARITY, clearness, limpidity, lucidity, plainness Sample: One of the outstanding features of this book is the perspicuity of its author; her meaning is always clear. [ ] adj. stubbornly unyielding or tenacious inexperience:green=pertinacity:refractory ) encyclopedia:compendious=abstract:concise/ {pertinacity:changeable} { recapitulation:lengthy} pertinacious<>tractable pertinacity<>vacillation pertinacious<>pliable pertinacious<>irresolute capricious<>pertinacious Synonyms: OBSTINATE, bullheaded, headstrong, mulish, perverse, refractory, selfwilled, stubborn, willful, unyielding Sample: He is bound to succeed because his pertinacious nature will not permit him to quit. [ ] adj. having a clear decisive relevance to the matter in hand pertinent:relevance=redundant:superfluity immaterial<>pertinent/relevant pertinent<>irrelevant pertinent<>lack of relevance Synonyms: RELEVANT, ad rem, applicable, applicative, applicatory, apposite, apropos, germane, material, pointful Sample: The lawyer wanted to know all the pertinent details. [ ] vt. to disturb greatly in mind:DISQUIET impassive:perturb=voracious:satisfy stoic:perturb=avaricious:satisfy perturb:serenity=reassure:doubt perturb:serenity=impertinent:propriety Sample: I am afraid this news will perturb him and cause him grief. [ ] v. to examine or consider with attention and in detail:STUDY stare:leer=peruse:smattering Sample: I am certain that you have missed important details in your rapid perusal of this document. [ ] vt. to become diffused throughout every part of suffuse pervasive<>limited distribution
287

pessimism

pesticide

pestle

petition

petrography

petty

petulance

phenomenal

philanthropic

Sample: Despite airing them for several hours, she could not rid her clothes of the pervasive odor of mothbals that clung to them. n. an inclination to emphasize adverse aspects, conditions, and possibilities or to expect the worst possible outcome Sample: The good news we have been receiving lately indicates that there is little reason for your pessimism. [ ] n. an agent used to destroy pests insect:pesticide=plant:herbicide [ ] n. a usually club-shaped implement for pounding or grinding substances in a mortar hammer:anvil=pestle:mortar pestle:grind=flint stone:sharpen=spoon:stir awl:pierce=pestle:hash Sample: From the way in which the elderly pharmacist pounded the drug with his pestle, young George could tell that his employer was agitated about something. [ ] vt.vi. to make a request to:SOLICIT minion:dependent=groveler:petitioner Sample: Signing this petition is a mere formality; it does not obligate you in any way. List 21 petrography --- prestige [ ] n. the description and systematic classification of rocks petrography:rock=mural:wall [ ] adj. having secondary rank or importance:MINOR, SUBORDINATE petty:notice=mysterious:explain{contemptible:respect} Synonyms: inconsequent, inconsequential, inconsiderable, measly, Mickey Mouse, niggling, paltry, peanut, peddling, pettifogging, picayune, picayunish, piddling, piffling, pimping, puny, small, trifling, trivial, unconsequential, unconsidered, ungenerous, unvital Sample: Children invariably get involved in petty squabbles; wise parents know when to interfere and when to let the children work things out on their own. [ ] n. the quality or state of being petulant:PEEVISHNESS Sample: The feverish patient was petulant and restless. [ ] adj EXTRAORDINARY, REMARKABLE phenomenal<>ordinary phenomenal<>unexceptional/commonplace Synonyms: EXCEPTIONAL, extraordinary, rare, remarkable, singular, unimaginable, unique, unthinkable, unusual, unwonted Sample: That singer's new recording is a phenomenal success. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or characterized by philanthropy:HUMANITARIAN philanthropist:beneficence=comedian:humor resourceful:inventiveness=philanthropic:geniality
288

philistine

phlegmatic

piddling

piebald

pigment

pilfer

pillar

pillory

philanthropist:endow=prevaricater:mislead philanthropist:eleemosynary=?? Synonyms: CHARITABLE, altruistic, benevolent, eleemosynary, good, humane, humanitarian Sample: As he grew older, he became famous as a philanthropist and benefactor of the needy. [ ] n. a person who is guided by materialism and is usually disdainful of intellectual or artistic values philistine<>aesthete Sample: We need more men of culture and enlightenment; we have too many philistines among us. [ ] adj. having or showing a slow and stolid temperament phlegmatic:arouse=?? phlegmatic<>spirited phlegmatic<>vivacious phlegmatic<>sprightly Synonyms: IMPASSIVE, apathetic, dry, matter-of-fact, stoic, stolid Sample: The nurse was a cheerful but phlegmatic person, unexcited in the face of sudden emergencies. [ ] adj. TRIVIAL, PALTRY restive:calmness=piddling:considerable , niggling, paltry, peanut, peddling, pettifogging, puny, trifling [ ] adj. of different colors; especially:spotted or blotched with black and white monotonous<>piebald [ ] n a coloring matter in animals and plants especially in a cell or tissue; albino:pigment=prairie:tree Sample: Van Gogh mixed various pigments with linseed oil to create his paints. [ ] vt.vi. STEAL; especially:to steal stealthily in small amounts and often again and again abscond:depart=pilfer:take Synonyms: STEAL, appropriate, filch, lift, pinch, purloin, snitch, swipe, thieve Sample: The children pilfered apples from the fruit stand. [ ] n. a firm upright support for a superstructure:POST colonnade:pillar=queue:person stockade:enclosure=pillar:support derelict<>pillar of society Sample: Her long years of service made her a pillar of the community. [ ] n to expose to public contempt, ridicule, or scorn admonish:denounce=punish:pillory{persuade:convince} chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle pillory<>exalt
289

pilot

pine

pinnacle

piquant

pithy

pitiless

pittance

Sample: Even though he was mocked and pilloried, he maintained that he was correct in his beliefs. [ ] n. one employed to steer a ship:HELMSMAN pilot:ship=conductor:orchestra Sample: The plane was lost in the stormy sky until the pilot saw the city through a rift in the clouds. [ ] vi. to yearn intensely and persistently especially for something unattainable longing:pine=remorse:rue Sample: Though she tried to be happy living with Clara in the city, Heidi pined for the mountains and for her gruff but loving grandfather. [ ]n an upright architectural member generally ending in a small spire and used especially in Gothic construction to give weight especially to a buttress pinnacle<>low point Sample: We could see the morning sunlight illuminate the pinnacle while the rest of the mountain lay in shadow. [ ] adj agreeably stimulating to the palate; especially:SPICY pique<>mollify piquant<>vapid piquant<>flat piquant<>insipid Synonyms: PUNGENT, peppery, poignant, racy, snappy, spicy, zesty Sample: The piquant sauce added to our enjoyment of the meal. [ ] adj. having substance and point:tersely cogent pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature circumlocution<>pithy utters pithy<>prolix/verbose/diffuse/wordy pithy<>insubstantial pith<>unimportant point Synonyms: compact, epigrammatic, marrowy, meaty Sample: I enjoy reading his essays because they are always compact and pithy. [ ] adj. devoid of pity:MERCILESS clement<>pitiless Sample: The pitiless soldiers killed innocent civilians. [ ] n. a small portion, amount, or allowance; also:a meager wage or remuneration pittance:money=?? pittance:allowance=rivulet:stream cornucopia<>lack/pittance pittance<>crop crop:a batch or lot of something produced during a particular cycle] Sample: He could not live on the pittance he received as a pension and had to look for an additional source of revenue.
290

placate

placebo

plagiarize

plangent

plantation

plateau

platitude

[ ] vt. to soothe or mollify especially by concessions:APPEASE inalienable:surrendered=implacable:propitiated irascible:placate=insensate:conscious galling<>placating placate<>peeve placate<>antagonize placate<>rile placate<>foment placate<>surprise gall<>placate Synonyms: PACIFY, appease, assuage, conciliate, mollify, propitiate, sweeten Sample: The teacher tried to placate the angry mother. [ ] n an inert or innocuous substance used especially in controlled experiments testing the efficacy of another substance (as a drug) placebo:innocuous=salve:unctuous placebo:painkiller=backdrop:vista placebo:innocuous=venom:toxious Sample: In a controlled experiment, fifty volunteers were given erythromycin tablets; the control group received only placebos. [ ] vt.vi. to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own:use (another's production) without crediting the source plagiarism:ideas=forgery:documents plagiarism:ideas=rustling:cattle Sample: The editor could tell that the writer had plagiarized parts of the article; he could recognize whole paragraphs from the original source. [ ] adj having a loud reverberating sound plangent<>muffled Synonyms: RESONANT, consonant, orotund, resounding, ringing, rotund, round, sonorant, sonorous, vibrant [ ] n. a usually large group of plants and especially trees under cultivation plantation:tobacco=media:bacteria Sample: Although Gutman admits that forced separation by sale was frequent he shows that the slaves preferencerevealed most clearly on plantations where sale was infrequentwas very much for stable monogamy. [ ] n. a region of little or no change in a graphic representation plateau:change=respite:activity ) plateau:slope= Sample: The economy kept improving, and then reached a plateau. [ ] n. a banal, trite, or stale remark equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal Sample: The platitudes in his speech were applauded by the vast majority in his
291

plausible

pleat

plethora

pliable

pliant

plight

plodding

audience; only a few people perceived how trite his remarks were. [ ] adj. superficially fair, reasonable, or valuable but often specious rationalization:plausible=obfuscation:indiscernible {equivocation:definite} Synonyms: BELIEVABLE, colorable, credible, creditable Sample: The fact that a theory is plausible does not necessarily ensure its scientific truth, which must be established by unbiased controlled studies. [ ] n. FOLD; especially:to arrange in pleats perforate:hole=pleat:fold ) Sample: The pleats in her skirt need pressing. [ ] n. EXCESS, SUPERFLUITY; also:PROFUSION, ABUNDANCE plethora<>dearth Synonyms: EXCESS, overabundance, overflow, overkill, overmuch, overplus, superfluity, surfeit, surplus, surplusage Sample: She offered a plethora of excuses for her shortcomings. [ ] adj. a. supple enough to bend freely or repeatedly without breaking b. Easily influenced, persuaded, or swayed; tractable. static:move=pliable:inflexible pliable:influenced=censorious:condemn pertinacious<>pliable pliable<>rigid pliable<>difficult to crumble Synonyms: PLASTIC, adaptable, ductile, malleable, moldable, pliant, supple Sample: In remodeling the bathroom, we replaced all the old, rigid lead pipes with new, pliable copper tubing. [ ] adj easily influenced:YIELDING pliant:influence=ticklish:offend evanescent:disappear=pliant:yield pliant:indomitable=model:differentiated pliant<>mulish pliant<>intransigence/intractable pliant<>incorrigible Synonyms: PLASTIC, adaptable, ductile, malleable, moldable, pliable, supple Sample: Catherine's disposition was pliant; she was like putty in her suitor's hands. [ ] n. to put or give in pledge:ENGAGE plight<>favorable condition Synonyms: PREDICAMENT, box, corner, dilemma, fix, hole, jam, pickle, scrape, spot Sample: His plight is that he has no money. [ ] adj. working laboriously and monotonously:DRUDGE meteoric<>plodding flit<>plod Synonyms: DULL, banausic, blah, dreary, humdrum, monotone, monotonous,
292

plot

plot

pluck

pluck

plumb

plummet

plump

polarize

pedestrian, stodgy Sample: Work in that government department plods along. [ ] vi. a secret plan for accomplishing a usually evil or unlawful end:INTRIGUE cabal:association=plot:plan joke:punch line=plot:denouement plot:plan=inveigle:interest follow:shadow=scheme:plot taunt:provoke=plot:outwit ) Sample: With the connivance of his friends, he plotted to embarrass the teacher. [ ] n. the plan or main story of a literary work choreography:dance=plot:story Sample: Though he tried to follow the plot of Gravity's Rainbow, John found the novel too episodic. [ ] n. courageous readiness to fight or continue against odds:dogged resolution pluck<>cowardice pluckish<>coward Synonyms: COURAGE, cojones, dauntlessness, guts, heart, mettle, resolution, spirit, spunk Sample: Even the adversaries of young Indiana Jones were impressed by the boy's pluck in trying to rescue the archeological treasure they had stolen. [ ] n. to play by sounding the strings with the fingers or a pick horn:blow=harp:pluck plucky<>craven Sample: Robin Hood reached back and plucked one last arrow from his quiver. [ ] vt to measure the depth of with a plumb assess:value=plumb:depth measure:dimensions=calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:depth plumb:depth=verify:accuracy plumb<>examine cursorily Sample: The plumber fixed the leak in the pipes by soldering a couple of joints from which water had been oozing. [ ] v. to drop sharply and abruptly fall descend:plummet=move:dart plummet:ascend=?? Sample: Stock prices plummeted as Wall Street reacted to the rise in interest rates. [ ] adj. having a full rounded usually pleasing form a plump woman svelte<>plump Sample: You can say that a woman is pleasingly plump, but it is not polite to call her chubby or fat. [ ] v. to break up into opposing factions or groupings
293

polemic

polished

politic

pollster

pompous

ponderable

ponderous

pontificate

polarize<>coalesce polarize<>make compatible polarize<>unity Sample: The abortion issue has polarized the country into pro-choice and anti-abortion camps. [ ] n. the art or practice of disputation or controversy polemic:disputatious=invective:abusive polemical<>compromising the main part, polemics for the party's policy. [ ] adj. highly developed, finished, or refined PERFECT rustic<>polished untutored<>polished gaucheness<>polish Sample: He polished the convex lens of his telescope. [ ] adj. characterized by shrewdness in managing, contriving, or dealing politic:offend=aloof:associate politic<>unsophisticated politic<>injudicious { officious } Sample: His inauguration as President of the United States marked the culmination of his political career. [ ] n. one that conducts a poll or compiles data obtained by a poll exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass canvass:To conduct a survey of (public opinion); poll. Sample: Pollsters ask people questions and record their answers. [ ] adj. having or exhibiting self-importance:ARROGANT nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimles pompous:bombast=exaggerated:hyperbole ) Sample: Instead of writing that Gorbachev had a birthmark on his forehead, the pompous young poet sang of the former premier's maculated brow. [ ] adj. significant enough to be worth considering:APPRECIABLE ponderable<>inappreciable Sample: I can evaluate the data gathered in this study; the imponderable items are not so easily analyzed. [ ] adj of very great weight ponderous<>ethereal/gossamer/lively slight<>ponderous ponderous<>lively/vibrant/briskly Synonyms: HEAVY, cumbersome, cumbrous, hefty, massive, eighty Sample: His humor lacked the light touch; his jokes were always ponderous. [ ] v.
294

porcelain

pore

porous

portentous

portrait

poseur

posit

to speak or express opinions in a pompous or dogmatic way pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless pontificate:speak=strut:walk pontificate:speak=swagger:walk pontificate<>comment tentatively pontificate<>speak diffidently Sample: Our boss pontificates about company rules at our meetings. [ ] n. a hard, fine-grained, sonorous, nonporous, and usually translucent and white ceramic ware that consists essentially of kaolin, quartz, and feldspar and is fired at high temperatures clay:porcelain=flax:linen ) glaze:porcelain=varnish:wood ) glaze:porcelain=veneer:furniture ) Sample: Porcelain was invented by the Chinese in the 8th century A.D. [ ] n. a minute opening especially in an animal or plant; especially:one by which matter passes through a membrane pore:membrane=door:room ) Sample: Determined to become a physician, Beth spends hours poring over her anatomy text. [ ] adj. capable of being penetrated fragile:break=porous:penetrate CAN BE) porous<>impenetrable Sample: Dancers like to wear porous clothing because it allows the ready passage of water and air. [ ] adj. eliciting amazement or wonder:PRODIGIOUS portentous:amaze=?? portentous<>regular Sample: he riot was a portent of the revolution to come. [ ] n. PICTURE; especially:a pictorial representation (as a painting) of a person usually showing the face portrait:painting=jazz:music portrait:person=seascape:ocean ) portrait:painting=biography:history Sample: The artist has captured the sadness of childhood in his portrait of the boy with the rueful countenance. [ ] n. a person who pretends to be what he or she is not:an affected or insincere person poseur:sincerity=recluse:gregariousness ) poser:sincere=recluse:gregarious stickler:derelict=poseur:unaffected poseur<>sincere person Sample: Some thought Dali was a brillant painter; others dismissed him as a poseur. [ ] v
295

posterity

postscript

postulate

posture

potable

potentate

pot

potentiate

pout

to assume or affirm the existence of:POSTULATE posit<>deny as false [ ] n. the offspring of one progenitor to the furthest generation Synonyms: OFFSPRING, brood, children, descendants, issue, progeniture, progeny, scions, seed Sample: We hope to leave a better world to posterity. [ ] n. a note or series of notes appended to a completed letter, article, or book postscript:letter=?? Sample: She added a postscript (or) a P.S. at the bottom of her letter. [ ] v to assume or claim as true, existent, or necessary:depend upon or start from the postulate of postulate<>deny as false Synonyms: ASSUME, presuppose, posit, premise, presume Sample: We must accept these statements as postulates before pursuing our discussions any further. [ ] vi. to assume an artificial or pretended attitude:ATTITUDINIZE posturer:unaffected=bigot:tolerant posture<>behave naturally Synonyms: attitudinize, masquerade, pass (as or for), pass off Sample: No matter how much Arnold boasted or postured, I could not believe he was as important as he pretended to be. [ ] adj. suitable for drinking potable:beverage=habitable:dwelling Synonyms: drinkable Sample: The recent drought in the Middle Atlantic States has emphasized the need for extensive research in ways of making sea water potable. [ ]n RULER, SOVEREIGN; broadly:one who wields great power or sway virtuoso:skill=potentate:power ) potentate<>subject potentate<>powerless person Synonyms: monarch, ruler, sovereign Sample: The potentate spent more time at Monte Carlo than he did at home on his throne. [ ] n. an enclosed framework of wire, wood, or wicker for catching fish or lobsters lobster:pot=?? [ ] vt. to make effective or active or more effective or more active; also:to augment the activity of (as a drug) synergistically deactivate<>potentiate [ ] vt. vi. to show displeasure by thrusting out the lips or wearing a sullen expression
296

prairie

prate

preach

precarious

precedent

precipice

precipitate

wince:pain=smile:pleasure=pout:displeasure=sneer:contempt pout<>grin Synonyms: SULK, grump, mump, pet Sample: When the child could not have any candy, she pouted. [ ] n. a large area of level or rolling land in the Mississippi valley that in its natural uncultivated state usually has deep fertile soil, a cover of tall coarse grasses, and few trees albino:pigment=prairie:tree [ ] vi. to talk long and idly:CHATTER pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless prate:speak=saunter:walk ) Synonyms: CHAT, babble, chatter, clack, gabble, prattle, BOAST, blow, brag, crow, puff, vaunt, BABBLE, blabber, blather, drivel, drool, gabble, prattle, twaddle Sample: Let us not prate about our qualities; rather, let our virtues speak for themselves. [ ] vt.vi. to deliver a sermon nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil Synonyms: evangelize, sermonize, MORALIZE, preachify, sermonize Sample: The minister preached the word of God to the people in the church. [ ] adj. characterized by a lack of security or stability that threatens with danger precarious:stability=spent:efficacy impervious:?=precarious:stable precarious<>secure/stable precarious<>safe Synonyms: DOUBTFUL, ambiguous, borderline, dubious, equivocal, impugnable, indecisive, uncertain Sample: I think this stock is a precarious investment and advise against its purchase. [ ] adj. prior in time, order, arrangement, or significance preempt:precedence=acquire:possession unexceptionable:oppose=unique:precedent unique:precedent=infinite:end turncoat:constancy=simpleton:precedent Synonyms: PRECEDING, antecedent, anterior, foregoing, former, past, previous, prior Sample: In failing to see that the justice's pronouncement merely qualified previous decisions rather than actually establishing a precedent, the novice law clerk overemphasized the scope of the justice's judgment. [ ] n. a very steep or overhanging place; dangerous position:CLIFF precipice:steepness=defile:narrowness precipitous<>level Sample: Suddenly Indiana Jones found himself dangling from the edge of a precipice. [ ] v. to bring about especially abruptly
297

precipitation

precipitous

preclude

precursor

predecessor

preeminent

precipitate<>retard/dilatory Synonyms: ABRUPT, headlong, impetuous, sudden Sample: The new biological psychiatry does not deny the contributing role of psychological factors in mental illnesses, but posits that these factors may act as a catalyst on existing physiological conditions and precipitate such illnesses. [ ] n something precipitated:as a deposit on the earth of hail, mist, rain, sleet, or snow snow:precipitation=hurricane:cyclone Synonyms: HASTE , hastiness, hurriedness, precipitancy, rush Sample: The hydrologic cyclea major topic in this scienceis the complete cycle of phenomena through which water passes beginning as atmospheric water vaporpassing into liquid and solid form as precipitationthence along and into the ground surfaceand finally again returning to the form of atmospheric water vapor by means of evaporation and transpiration. [ ] adj. very steep, perpendicular, or overhanging in rise or fall precipitous<>gradually sloping precipitous<>slope slowly Synonyms: PRECIPITATE, abrupt, hasty, headlong, hurried, impetuous, precipitant, rushing, sudden Sample: This hill is difficult to climb because it is so precipitous; one slip, and our descent will be precipitous as well. [ ] v. To make impossible, as by action taken in advance; prevent preclude<>to make possible Sample: This contract does not preclude my being employed by others at the same time that I am working for you. [ ] n. one that precedes and indicates the approach of another precursory<>derivative precursor<>sequela Synonyms: ANCESTOR, antecedent, antecessor, foregoer, predecessor, prototype Sample: Though Gray and Burns share many traits with the Romantic poets who followed them, most critics consider them precursors of the Romantic Movement, not true Romantics. [ ] n. one that precedes; especially:a person who has previously occupied a position or office to which another has succeeded legacy:predecessor=gift:donor ) Synonyms: FORERUNNER, ancestor, antecedent, antecessor, foregoer, precursor Sample: Science advances in a widening spiral in that each new conceptual scheme embraces that phenomena explained by its predecessors and adds to those explanations. [ ] adj. having paramount rank, dignity, or importance:OUTSTANDING preeminence:importance=preponderance:weight ) efface<>bring to preeminent Synonyms: SUPREME, incomparable, surpassing, towering, transcendent, ultimate, unequalable, unmatchable, unsurpassable
298

preempt

preen

preface

pregnant

prejudice

preliminary

premeditated

Sample: The king traveled to Boston because he wanted the preeminent surgeon in the field to perform the operation. [ ] v. to replace with something considered to be of greater value or priority:take precedence over preempt:precedence=acquire:possession Synonyms: APPROPRIATE, accroach, annex, arrogate, commandeer, confiscate, expropriate, seize, sequester, take Sample: Hoping to preempt any attempts by the opposition to make educational reform a hot political issue, the candidate set out her own plan to revitalize the public schools. [ ] v. to dress or smooth (oneself) up:PRIMP ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion preen<>ruffle Synonyms: PRIDE, plume, pique Sample: As Kitty preened before the mirror, carefully smoothing her shining hair, she couldn't help preening herself on her good looks. [ ] n. the introductory remarks of a speaker or author overture:symphony=preface:book ) preface<>epilogue prefatory<>conclusive Synonyms: INTRODUCTION, exordium, foreword, overture, preamble, prelude, prelusion, prologue Sample: In their preface, the collection's editors plead that certain of the important articles they omitted were published too recently for inclusion, but in the case of many such articles, this excuse is not valid. [ ] adj. abounding in fancy, wit, or resourcefulness:INVENTIVE inane<>expressive/meaningful/pregnant/significant/weighty Synonyms: childing, enceinte, expectant, expecting, gravid, parous, parturient [ ]n an adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or examination of the facts. tendentious<>unbiased/unprejudiced Synonyms: bias, one-sidedness, partiality Sample: The author argues for serious treatment of such arts as crochet and needlework, finding in too many art historians a cultural blindness traceable to their prejudice against textiles as a medium in which women artists pre-dominate. [ ] adj. coming before and usually forming a necessary prelude to something else Synonyms: inductive, introductory, prefatory, preparative, preparatory Sample: The isotopic composition of lead often varies from one source of common copper ore to another with variations exceeding the measurement error and preliminary studies indicatevirtually uniform is topic composition of the lead from a single copper-ore source. [ ] adj.
299

preponderant

prepossessing

preposterous

presage

prescience

prescription

characterized by fully conscious willful intent and a measure of forethought and planning offhand<>premeditated spontaneous<>premeditated Synonyms: forethought, precogitated, predetermine Sample: She had premeditated the murder for months, reading about common poisons and buying weed killer that contained arsenic. [ ] adj. having superior weight, force, or influence preeminence:importance=preponderance:weight preponderant<>commensurate preponderate<>secondary preponderant<>subsidiary Synonyms: DOMINANT, ascendant, overbearing, paramount, predominant, predominate, prevalent, regnant, master, sovereign Sample: A preponderance of the evidence is against the defendant. [ ] adj. tending to create a favorable impression:ATTRACTIVE unprepossessing<>entrancing/winsome Synonyms: ATTRACTIVE, alluring, appealing, attracting, captivating, charming, drawing, enchanting, engaging, mesmeric Sample: During adolescence many attractive young people somehow acquire the false notion that their appearance is unprepossessing. [ ] adj. contrary to nature, reason, or common sense:ABSURD preposterous<>commonsensical Synonyms: FOOLISH , absurd, crazy, harebrained, insane, loony, silly, wacky Sample: When the candidate tried to downplay his youthful experiments with marijuana by saying he hadn't inhaled, we all thought, "What a preposterous excuse!" [ ] vt. FORETELL, PREDICT harbinger:presage=archetype:exemplify Synonyms: AUGUR, betoken, bode, forebode, foreshadow, foreshow, foretoken, omen, promise Sample: The vultures flying overhead presaged the discovery of the corpse in the desert. [ ] n. foreknowledge of events:a:divine omniscience b:human anticipation of the course of events:FORESIGHT dexterous:manipulate=prescient:predict {clairvoyant:oversee} myopia<>prescience Sample: Crosby's colleagues have never learned, at least not in time to avoid embarrassing themselves, that her occasional bogus air of befuddlement presages a display of her formidable intelligence. [ ] n. a written direction for a therapeutic or corrective agent; specifically:one for the preparation and use of a medicine overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention
300

presentiment

preservative

prestige

Synonyms: LAW , decree, decretum, edict, institute, ordinance, precept, prescript, regulation, rule Sample: The patient took the prescription given him by his oculist to the optician. [ ] n. a feeling that something will or is about to happen:PREMONITION Synonyms: APPREHENSION, apprehensiveness, foreboding, misgiving, premonition, prenotion, presage Sample: Hamlet felt a presentiment about his meeting with Laertes. [ ] n. something that preserves or has the power of preserving; specifically:an additive used to protect against decay, discoloration, or spoilage censorship:communication=preservative:decay ) preservative:decay=anchor:drifting seal:leakage=preservative:decay Sample: Because of the excellent preservation of the fossil, anatomical details of early horseshoe crabs were clarified for the first time, enabling experts to reassess the evolution of the horseshoe crab. [ ] n. standing or estimation in the eyes of people:weight or credit in general opinion eclipse:prestige=(enervation)enfeeble:vigor ) abase:prestige=damp:ardor Sample: The wealthy man sought to obtain social prestige by contributing to popular charities.

List 22 presumptuous --- raconteur presumptuous [ ] adj. overstepping due bounds (as of propriety or courtesy):taking liberties transgression:morality=presumption:propriety presumptuous:unruly Synonyms: brash, brassbound, confident, forward, gay, overconfident, overweening, presuming, pushful, pushing, self-asserting, self-assertive, uppish, uppity Sample: The struggle of the generations is one of the obvious constants of human affairs; therefore, it may be presumptuous to suggest that the rivalry between young and old in Western society during the current decade is uniquely critical. pretense [ ] n. an inadequate or insincere attempt to attain a certain condition or quality pretense:deceive=admonition:reprove Synonyms: MASK, cloak, color, coloring, cover, facade, face, false front, guise, masquerade Sample: An example of an illegitimate method of argument is to lump dissimilar cases together deliberately under the pretense that the same principles apply to each. prevail [ ] vi. to gain ascendancy through strength or superiority:TRIUMPH prevail<>yielding Synonyms: CONQUER, best, master, overcome, triumph, RULE, dominate, domineer, predominate, preponderate, reign Sample: This final essay, its prevailing kindliness marred by occasional flashes of savage irony, bespeaks the dichotomous character of the author.
301

prevalent

prevaricate

prime

primordial

primp

principal

prissy

pristine

[ ] adj. generally or widely accepted, practiced, or favored:WIDESPREAD prevalent<>unusual Synonyms: DOMINANT, ascendant, master, overbearing, paramount, predominant, predominate, preponderant, regnant, sovereign Sample: A radical committed to social change, Reed had no patience with the conservative views prevalent in the America of his day. [ ] vi. to deviate from the truth:EQUIVOCATE blandishment:coax=prevarication:deceive equivocation:clarity=prevarication:truth philanthropist:endow=prevaricater:mislead ) prevaricate:candid=?? Synonyms: LIE, equivocate, falsify, fib, palter Sample: Some people believe that to prevaricate in a good cause is justifiable and regard the statement as a "white lie." [ ] n. the earliest stage prime<>uninitial Synonyms: MORNING, aurora, cockcrow, dawn, daybreak, dayspring, morn, sunrise Sample: Although he was over seventy years old, Jack had the vigor of a man in his prime. [ ] adj. existing in or persisting from the beginning primordial<>most recent Synonyms: EARLY, primitive, FIRST, primary, prime Sample: The Neanderthal Man is one of our primordial ancestors. [ ] vt.vi. to dress, adorn, or arrange in a careful or finicky manner primp:vain=gloat:smug Synonyms: DRESS UP, deck (out), doll out, doll up, fix up, gussy up, slick, smarten (up), spruce (up) Sample: She primps for hours before a dance. [ ] adj. most important, consequential, or influential:CHIEF principal<>subordinate Synonyms: CHIEF, capital, dominant, main, major, outstanding, predominant, preeminent, star, stellar Sample: The principal reproved the students when they became unruly in the auditorium. [ ] adj. being prim and precise:FINICKY Synonyms: EFFEMINATE, epicene, sissified, sissy, unmanly Sample: She is very prissy about her children using slang expressions. [ ] adj. not spoiled, corrupted, or polluted (as by civilization):PURE pristine:decay=stable:fluctuation demanding:satisfactory=adulterate:pristine {closed-mind:sway}
302

privation

privilege

probe

probity

proclivity

procrastinate

procure

demanding:satisfy=closed-mind:sway dismantle:unity=adulterate:pristine pristine:blemish=?? squalid<>pristine pristine<>taint Synonyms: original, pure Sample: Scientists' pristine reputation as devotees of the disinterested pursuit of truth has been compromised by recent evidence that some scientists have deliberately fabricated experimental results to further their own careers. [ ] n. the state of being deprived; especially:lack of what is needed for existence repletion<>privation Synonyms: ABSENCE, dearth, default, defect, lack, want Sample: In his youth, he knew hunger and privation. [ ] n. a right or immunity granted as a peculiar benefit, advantage, or favor:PREROGATIVE; especially:such a right or immunity attached specifically to a position or an office Synonyms: RIGHT, birthright, perquisite, prerogative, franchise Sample: Psychology has slowly evolved into an independent scientific discipline that now functions autonomously with the same privileges and responsibilities as other sciences. [ ] v. to make a searching exploratory investigation cavil:criticize=probe:investigate Synonyms: INQUIRY, delving, inquest, inquisition, investigation, probing, quest, research Sample: The surgeon probed the wound for foreign matter before suturing it. [ ] n. adherence to the highest principles and ideals:UPRIGHTNESS probity<>unscrupulousness probity<>shiftness :shift:given to deception, evasion, or fraud:TRICKY Synonyms: GOODNESS, morality, rectitude, righteousness, rightness, uprightness, virtue Sample: Everyone took his probity for granted; his defalcations, therefore, shocked us all. [ ] n. A natural propensity or inclination; predisposition proclivity<>aversion Sample: The cross old lady has a proclivity to grumble. [ ] v. to put off intentionally the doing of something that should be done dilatory:procrastinate=malcontent:complain husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate procrastination<>diligence Synonyms: DELAY, dally, dawdle, drag, lag, linger, loiter, poke, put off, tarry Sample: It is wise not to procrastinate; otherwise, we find ourselves bogged down in a mass of work that should have been finished long ago. [ ] vt.
303

prod

prodigal

prodigy

profane

proffer

proficient

to get possession of:obtain by particular care and effort procure<>relinquish Synonyms: GET, acquire, annex, compass, gain, have, land, obtain, pick up, secure Sample: The personnel department handles the procurement of new employees. [ ] vt. to incite to action:STIR doze:sleep=nudge:prod rein<>prod Synonyms: POKE, dig, jab, jog, nudge, punchURGE, exhort, goad, prick, prompt, propel, spur Sample: If you prod him hard enough, he'll eventually clean his room. [ ] adj. characterized by wasteful expenditure:LAVISH mean:prodigality=meek:arrogance miser:parsimonious=spendthrift:prodigal parsimonious:save=prodigal:spend husbandry<>prodigality parsimonious<>prodigal prodigal<>frugal Synonyms: PROFUSE, exuberant, lavish, lush, luxuriant, opulent, profusive, riotous Sample: She is most frugal in matters of business, but in her private life she reveals a streak of prodigality. [ ] n. an extraordinary, marvelous, or unusual accomplishment, deed, or event prodigy:person=miracle:occurrence prodigious:amaze=?? prodigious<>slight Synonyms: WONDER, marvel, miracle, phenomenon, portent, sensation, stunner Sample: Often the difficulties of growing up in the public eye cause child prodigies to retire from the world of achievement before reaching adulthood:happily, they sometimes later return to competition and succeed brilliantly. [ ] v. to treat (something sacred) with abuse, irreverence, or contempt:DESECRATE pierce:impenetrable=profane:inviolable penetrate:impermeable=profane:inviolable inviolable<>profane/impure Synonyms: OBSCENE, coarse, dirty, filthy, foul, indecent, nasty, smutty, vulgar Sample: Many philosophers agree that the verbal aggression of profanity in certain radical newspapers is not trivial or childish, but an assault on decorum essential to the revolutionaries purpose. [ ] v. to present for acceptance:TENDER, OFFER proffer<>retain Synonyms: OFFER, extend, give, hold out, pose, present, tender [ ] adj. having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning proficient<>inept
304

profligate

profusion

proliferate

prolix

prolong

prominent

proficient<>incompetent Sample: Experienced and proficient, Susan is a good, reliable trumpeter her music is often more satisfying than Carol's brilliant but erratic playing. [ ] adj. wildly extravagant:PRODIGAL profligate:solvent=mercurial:committed querulous:words=profligate:money loquacious:word=profligate:money parsimonious:profligacy=impetuous:hesitance profligate<>parsimonious provident<>profligate profligate<>thrift profligate<>economize Synonyms: ABANDONED, dissolute, licentious, reprobate, self-abandoned, unprincipled Sample: The profligacy and dissolution of life in Caligula's Rome appall some historians. [ ] n great quantity:lavish display or supply profusion<>paucity profuse<>scanty Synonyms: ABUNDANCE, richness, wealth Sample: Seldom have I seen food and drink served in such profusion as at the wedding feast. [ ] v. to increase in number as if by proliferating:MULTIPLY proliferate<>decrease in mount barren<>prolific Sample: Times of economic hardship inevitably encourage countless get-rich-quick schemes to proliferate. [ ] adj marked by or using an excess of words pithy<>prolix prolixity<>succinctness taciturn<>prolix terse<>prolix Synonyms: WORDY, diffuse, long-winded, redundant, verbose, windy Sample: Her prolix arguments irritated and bored the jury. [ ] vt. to lengthen in extent, scope, or range prolong<>truncate Synonyms: EXTEND, draw, draw out, elongate, lengthen, prolongate, protract, spin (out), stretch Sample: In their determination to discover ways to prolong human life, doctors fail to take into account that longer lives are not always happier ones. [ ] adj. readily noticeable:CONSPICUOUS prominent:notice=lucid:understand )
305

promote

propagate

propensity

prophetic

propitiate

propitious

eclipse<>make more prominent/bring to more prominent prominent<>inconspicuous Synonyms: NOTICEABLE, arresting, conspicuous, outstanding, remarkable, salient, striking, Sample: Doreen justifiably felt she deserved recognition for the fact that the research institute had been returned to a position of preeminence, since it was she who had directed the transformation. [ ] vt. to contribute to the growth or prosperity of:FURTHER abate<>intensify/promote subside<>promote Synonyms: ADVANCE, elevate, prefer, upgrade Sample: For his intrepid conduct in battle, he was promoted. [ ] vt. to cause to spread out and affect a greater number or greater area:EXTEND propagate<>check Synonyms: SPREAD, circulate, diffuse, disperse, disseminate, distribute, radiate, strew Sample: Since bacteria propagate more quickly in unsanitary environments, it is important to keep hospital rooms clean. [ ] n. an often intense natural inclination or preference propensity<>aversion Synonyms: LEANING, bent, disposition, inclination, inclining, penchant, predilection, predisposition, proclivity, tendency Sample: The poet W. H. Auden believed that the greatest poets of his age were almost necessarily irresponsible, that the possession of great gifts engenders the propensity to abuse them. [ ] adj. foretelling events:PREDICTIVE mentor:guidance=oracle:prophecy apocalyptic:prophetic=inconsequential:illogical Synonyms: apocalyptic, Delphian, fatidic, mantic, oracular, prophetical, sibylline, vatic Sample: Kagan maintains that an infant's reactions to its first stressful experiences are part of a natural process of development, not harbingers of childhood unhappiness or prophetic signs of adolescent anxiety. [ ] vt. to gain or regain the favor or goodwill of:APPEASE, CONCILIATE immutable:altered=implacable:propitiated inalienable:surrendered=implacable:propitiated propitiate<>incense propitiate<>antagonize Synonyms: PACIFY, appease, assuage, conciliate, mollify, placate, sweeten Sample: Like many eighteenth-century scholars who lived by cultivating those in power, Winckelmann neglected to neutralize, by some propitiatory gesture of comradeship, the resentment his peers were bound to feel because of his involvement with the high and mighty. [ ] adj. favorably disposed:BENEVOLENT
306

proposal

prosaic

proscribe

prosecution

proselytize

prospect

prosperous

inauspicious<>propitious propitious<>unfavorable Synonyms: FAVORABLE, auspicious, benign, bright,, fortunate, white Sample: I think it is advisable that we wait for a more propitious occasion to announce our plans; this is not a good time. [ ] n. an act of putting forward or stating something for consideration Synonyms: invitation, proffer, proposition, suggestion Sample: I am ready to accept your proposal with the two proviso that you meet your obligations within the next two weeks. [ ] adj. DULL, UNIMAGINATIVE,EVERYDAY, ORDINARY prosaic<>exceptional/imaginary/exciting prosaic<>extraordinary ingenious<>prosaic { spontaneous} prosaic<>preternatural Synonyms: COMMONPLACE, everyday, lowly, mundane, workaday, workday Sample: Though the ad writers had come up with a highly creative campaign to publicize the company's newest product, the head office rejected it for a more prosaic, down-to-earth approach. [ ] v. to condemn or forbid as harmful or unlawful:PROHIBIT proscribed<>permitted proscription<>permission Synonyms: SENTENCE, condemn, damn, doom Sample: Despite the fact that it is almost universally proscribed, the practice of indentured servitude still persists in many parts of the world. [ ] n. the act or process of prosecuting; specifically:the institution and continuance of a criminal suit involving the process of pursuing formal charges against an offender to final judgment mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction Sample: The defense called several respectable witnesses who were able to refute the false testimony of the prosecution's only witness. [ ] vi to recruit or convert especially to a new faith, institution, or cause hunter:quarry=proselytizer:convert salesperson:buy=proselytizer:convert { educator:promote} Sample: In these interfaith meetings, there must be no attempt to proselytize; we must respect all points of view. [ ] v. to search for or explore (a region) for mineral deposits or oil. prospect:mineral=investigate:information Sample: Many people prospected for gold in California in the 1850s. [ ] adj. enjoying vigorous and healthy growth:FLOURISHING palmy:prosperity=draconian:severity impecunious<>wealthy/prosperous/affluent
307

prostrate

protean

protest

protocol

protract

protuberant

prosperous<>depressed Synonyms: FLOURISHING, booming, prospering, roaring, robust Sample: Paradoxically, England's colonization of North America was undermined by its success:the increasing prosperity of the colonies diminished their dependence upon, and hence their loyalty to, their home country. [ ] adj. stretched out with face on the ground in adoration or submission; also:lying flat prostrate<>erect prostrate<>upright Synonyms: PRONE, decumbent, flat, procumbent, reclining, recumbent Sample: He prostrated himself before the idol. [ ] adj. displaying great diversity or variety:VERSATILE circular:asymmetrical=protean:rigid protean<>static Synonyms: CHANGEABLE, changeful, fluid, mobile, mutable, unsettled, unstable, unsteady, variable Sample: A remarkably protean actor, Alec Guinness could take on any role. [ ] vt.vi. to execute or have executed a formal protest against (as a bill or note) protest:dissuade=supplicate:entreat Synonyms: OBJECT , except, expostulate, inveigh (against), kick, remonstrate Sample: Despite vigorous protestations, the grin on the teen-agers face belied her denial that she had known about the practical joke before it was played on her parents. [ ] n. a code prescribing strict adherence to correct etiquette and precedence protocol:blunder=bumper:damage ) Sample: We must run this state dinner according to protocol if we are to avoid offending any of our guests. [ ] v to prolong in time or space:CONTINUE protract:length=throng:number protract<>curtail protract<>abridge transient<>protracted Synonyms: EXTEND, draw, draw out, elongate, lengthen, prolong, prolongate, spin (out), stretch Sample: During a period of protracted illness, the sick can become infirm losing both the strength to work and many of the specific skills they once possessed. [ ] adj. thrusting out from a surrounding or adjacent surface often as a rounded mass:PROMINENT protuberant<>depressed protuberance<>concavity protrude<>concave Synonyms: prominent, obtrusive Sample: A ganglionic cyst is a fluid-filled tumor (generally benign) that develops near a joint membrane or tendon sheath, and that bulges beneath the skin, forming a
308

provident

providential

provincial

provisional

provisory

provoke

prowess

prowl

protuberance. [ ] adj. FRUGAL, SAVING provident<>profligate Synonyms: PROVIDENT ,SPARING, canny, chary, economical, frugal, saving, Scotch, stewardly, thrifty Sample: In his usual provident manner, he had insured himself against this type of loss. [ ] adj. Happening as if through divine intervention; opportune. providential<>unfortunate/mishap Synonyms: LUCKY, fortunate, happy, well [ ] adj. limited in outlook:NARROW bigot:tolerant=provincial:cosmopolitan{servile:domination} ecumenical<>factionalism/provincial Synonyms: INSULAR, local, parochial, sectarian, small-town Sample: As provincial governor, Sir Henry administered the Queen's law in his remote corner of Canada. [ ] adj. serving for the time being:TEMPORARY definitive<>provisional Synonyms: CONDITIONAL, provisionary, provisory, tentative Sample: Before the Second World War, academics still questioned whether the body of literature produced in the United States truly constituted a national literature, or whether such literature was only a provincial branch of English literature. [ ] adj. containing or subject to a proviso:CONDITIONAL provisory<>unconditional Synonyms: CONDITIONAL, provisional, provisionary, tentative [ ] vt. to call forth (as a feeling or action):EVOKE taunt:provoke=plot:outwit choleric<>difficult to provoke jejune<>thought provoking Synonyms: IRRITATE, aggravate, inflame, pique, rile, roil Sample: Marshall's confrontational style could alienate almost anyone:he even antagonized a board of directors that included a number of his supporters and that had a reputation for not being easily provoked. [ ] n. distinguished bravery; especially:military valor and skill prowess<>timid Synonyms: HEROISM, gallantry, valiance, valiancy, valor, valorousness Sample: he showed her prowess on the basketball court by scoring 35 points for our team. [ ] v. to move about or wander stealthily in or as if in search of prey reconnoiter:information=prowl:prey Sample: At night, criminals are on the prowl for people to rob.
309

prude

prudent

prudish

prune

pry

psychology

pucker

puckish

[ ] n. a person who is excessively or priggishly attentive to propriety or decorum; especially:a woman who shows or affects extreme modesty fanatic:devoted=prude:proper Synonyms: bluenose, goody-goody, prig, puritan Sample: Prudery actually draws attention to the vice it is supposed to repress; the very act that forbids speech or prohibits sight dramatizes what is hidden. [ ] adj. marked by circumspection:DISCREET prudence:daredevil=sagacity:simpleton fool<>prudent Synonyms: WISE , judgmatic, judicious, sage, sane, sapient, sensible Sample: It was a war the queen and her more prudent counselors wished to avoid if they could and were determined in any event to postpone as long as possible. [ ] adj. marked by prudery:PRIGGISH scholarly:pedantic=modest:prudish Synonyms: PRIM, genteel, priggish, prissy, proper, puritanical, straitlaced, stuffy, tightlaced Sample: He sang a ribald song that offended many of the more prudish listeners. [ ] n. a plum dried or capable of drying without fermentation prune:plum=raisin:grape Synonyms: DUNCE, blockhead, chump, dimwit, dolt, dope, dumbbell, idiot, ignoramus, moron Sample: With the help of her editor, she was able to prune her manuscript into publishable form. [ ] v. to look closely or inquisitively; also:to make a nosy or presumptuous inquiry connive:cooperate=pry:watch prying:inquisitive=garish:colorful Synonyms: SNOOP, busybody, mouse, nose, poke Sample: He pried into his daughter's love life so closely that she stopped telling him anything. [ ] n. the study of mind and behavior in relation to a particular field of knowledge or activity fungi:ecologist=motivation:psychologist Sample: Pavlov's experiment in which he trains a dog to salivate on hearing a bell is a paradigm of the conditioned-response experiment in behavioal psychology. [ ] v. to contract into folds or wrinkles squint:eye=pucker:mouth [ ] adj. IMPISH, WHIMSICAL puckish<>sober puckish<>grave puckish<>staid Synonyms: PLAYFUL, antic, impish, larkish, mischievous, prankish, roguish, sportive,
310

puerile

puissance

pulchritude

pullet

pulverize

pun

punch line

punctilious

waggish, wicked [ ] adj. CHILDISH, SILLY puerile<>sagacious Synonyms: CHILDISH, babyish, immature, infantile, infantine, pre-kindergarten Sample: His puerile pranks sometimes offended his more mature friends. [ ] n. Power; might puissance<>powerlessness Sample: We must keep his friendship for he will make a puissant ally. [ ] n. physical comeliness pulchritude<>ugliness pulchritude<>homeliness pulchritudinous<>hideous Synonyms: comeliness, beautifulness Sample: I do not envy the judges who have to select this year's Miss America from this collection of female pulchritude. [ ] n. a young hen; specifically:a hen of the domestic chicken less than a year old filly:horse=pullet:chicken [ ] v. to reduce (as by crushing, beating, or grinding) to very small particles:ATOMIZE pulverize<>solidify Synonyms: DESTROY, decimate, demolish, destruct, dynamite, rub out, ruin, shatter, tear down, wreck Sample: Before sprinkling the dried herbs into the stew, Michael first pulverized them into a fine powder. [ ] n. a joke using words with similar sounds or two different meanings: pun:joke=supernova:star Synonyms: calembour, paronomasia Sample: A pun is, for example:"I have a weak back that I hurt about a week back"; "weak" and "week" have the same sound but different meanings and "back" means "the human back" and in "the past." [ ] n. the sentence, statement, or phrase (as in a joke) that makes the point joke:punch line=plot:denouement Sample: In the pun, "Did you know that I hurt myself and have a weak back?" "No, when did it happen?" "Oh, about a week back!" the punch line is a "week back." [ ] adj. marked by or concerned about precise accordance with the details of codes or conventions punctilious<>remiss Synonyms: CAREFUL, conscientious, conscionable, exact, fussy, heedful, meticulous, painstaking, punctual, scrupulous Sample: We must be punctilious in our planning of this affair, for any error may be regarded as a personal affront.
311

pundit

pungent

puny

purgatory

purity

purlieu

[ ] n one who gives opinions in an authoritative manner:PANDIT, CRITIC augur:predict=pundit:opine authoritativeness:pundits=allegiance:partisans miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion pundit:opinion=augur:prediction recidivism:relapse=pundit:opine pundit:??=autocracy:power Synonyms: pandit, teacher, critic Sample: Even though he discourses on the matter like a pundit, he is actually rather ignorant about this topic. [ ] adj. causing a sharp or irritating sensation; especially:ACRID pungency<>blandness Synonyms: peppery, piquant, poignant, racy, snappy, spicy, zesty Sample: The pungent verbal give-and-take among the characters makes the novel lively reading, and this very spiritedness suggests to me that some of the opinions voiced may be the author's. [ ] adj. slight or inferior in power, size, or importance:WEAK measly:contemptibly=puny:weakly puny<>enormous Synonyms: PETTY, measly, niggling, paltry, piddling, trifling, trivial, unconsequential Sample: Our puny efforts to stop the flood were futile. [ ] n. an intermediate state after death for expiatory purification; specifically:a place or state of punishment wherein according to Roman Catholic doctrine the souls of those who die in God's grace may make satisfaction for past sins and so become fit for heaven Synonyms: SWAMP, bog, fen, marsh, mire, morass, quagmire Sample: In this purgatory, he could expect no help from his comrades. [ ] n. the quality or state of being pure mosquito:netting=impurity:filter stickler:approximation/imprecision=purist:adulteration synopsis:conciseness=distillate:purity winnow:chaff=filter:impurities winnow:grain=purify:water distill:purity=leaven:volume dismantle:unity(whole)=?:purity inviolable<>profane/impure Sample: Although ordinarily skeptical about the purity of Robinson's motives, in this instance Jenkins did not consider Robinson's generosity to be alloyed with consideration of personal gain. [ ] n. a frequently visited place:HAUNT taut:commodious=extraordinary:purlieu purlieu<>an unfrequent place Synonyms: RESORT, hangout, haunt, rendezvous, stamping ground, watering hole
312

purloin

pursue

purvey

pusillanimous

quaff

quail

quaint

qualified

[ ] vt.vi to appropriate wrongfully and often by a breach of trust lurk:wait=purloin:appropriate=abscond:depart Synonyms: STEAL, appropriate, cabbage, filch, pilfer, pinch, snitch, swipe, thieve [ ] vt. to follow in order to overtake, capture, kill, or defeat Synonyms: FOLLOW, chase, chivy, trail, ADDRESS, court, make up (to), spark, sue, sweetheart, woo Sample: Sure of his priestly vocation, Terrence planned to pursue his theological training at the local Roman Catholic seminary. [ ] v. to supply (as provisions) usually as a matter of business vendor:purvey=censor:expurgate Synonyms: provide, peddle Sample: As purveyor of rare wines and viands, he traveled through France and Italy every year in search of new products to sell. [ ] adj. lacking courage and resolution:marked by contemptible timidity dauntless<>pusillanimous pusillanimous<>stouthearted temerity<>pusillanimity/circumspection valiance<>pusillanimous Synonyms: COWARDLY, coward, craven, gutless, lily-livered, poltroon, poltroonish, spunkless, unmanly Sample: You should be ashamed of your pusillanimous conduct during this dispute. [ ] vt.vi. to drink (a beverage) deeply quaff:sip=stride:mince ) quaff:sip=delve:skim Sample: As we quaffed our ale, we listened to the gay songs of the students in the tavern. [ ] vi. to recoil in dread or terror:COWER quail<>become resolute quail<>give bold Synonyms: GIRL , damsel, gal, lass, lassie, maid, maiden, miss, missy Sample: He was afraid that he would quail in the face of danger. [ ] adj. unusual or different in character or appearance:ODD Sample: Doors were closing on our past, and soon the values we had lived by would become so obsolete that we would seem to people of the new age as quaint as travelers from an ancient land. [ ] adj. limited or modified in some way mitigate:severe=qualify:general absolute<>qualified categorical<>qualified/conditional qualified<>unreserved
313

quandary

quarantine

quarry

quarry

quash

quell

quench

querulous

Sample: Even though the general's carefully qualified public statement could hardly be faulted, some people took exception to it. [ ] n. a state of perplexity or doubt quandary:perplex=?? Sample: When the two colleges to which he had applied accepted him, he was in a quandary as to which one he should attend. [ ] n. to isolate from normal relations or communication embargo:commerce=quarantine:contact hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident Sample: We will have to place this house under quarantine until we determine the nature of the disease. [ ] n. an open excavation usually for obtaining building stone, slate, or limestone mine:ore=quarry:rock Sample: He works in a stone quarry. [ ] n. one that is sought or pursued:PREY hunter:quarry=proselytizer:convert aspirant:quarry=hunter:prey Synonyms: prey Sample: Hunters kill deer (bears, rabbits, etc.) as quarry. [ ] v. to suppress or extinguish summarily and completely quash<>engender foment<>quash/quell quash<>foment Synonyms: ANNUL, abrogate, discharge, dissolve, vacate, void Sample: The authorities acted quickly to quash the student rebellion, sending in tanks to cow the demonstrators. [ ] vt. to thoroughly overwhelm and reduce to submission or passivity uell<>foment/instigate/rouse foment<>quash/quell quell<>foment Synonyms: CRUSH, annihilate, extinguish, put down, quash, quench, squash, suppress Sample: The police used fire hoses and teat gas to quell the rioters. [ ] vt. to cool (as heated metal) suddenly by immersion (as in oil or water) tint:suffuse=damp:quench Synonyms: CRUSH, annihilate, extinguish, put down, quash, quell, squash, suppress Sample: The firefighters quenched the fire. [ ] vadj. habitually complaining querulous:words=profligate:money querulous:complain=sycophant:flattery querulous:complain=voluble:talk )
314

queue

quibble

quiescent

quip

quixotic

quota

quotidian

rabble

Synonyms: IRRITABLE, fractious, fretful, huffy, peevish, pettish, petulant, snappish, waspish, waspy Sample: His classmates were repelled by his querulous and complaining statements. [ ] vi. a waiting line especially of persons or vehicles colonnade:pillar=queue:person queue:people=chain:link=colonnade:pillar Sample: They stood patiently in the queue outside the movie theatre. [ ] n. to evade the point of an argument by caviling about words encomiast:eulogize=quibbler:cavil nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil faultfinding:criticize=quibble:cavil Synonyms: ARGUE, argufy, bicker, dispute, hassle, squabble, wrangle Sample: Do not quibble; I want a straightforward and definite answer. [ ] adj. marked by inactivity or repose:tranquilly at rest tumult<>quietude/quiescence quiescence<>tumult rambunctious<>quiescent Synonyms: LATENT, abeyant, dormant, lurking, potential, prepatent Sample: The astronomer and feminist Maria Mitchell's own prodigious activity and the vigor of the Association for the Advancement of Women during the 1870's belie any assertion that feminism was quiescent in that period. [ ] n. a witty or funny observation or response usually made on the spur of the moment Sample: You are unpopular because you are too free with your quips and sarcastic comments. [ ] adj. foolishly impractical especially in the pursuit of ideals; especially:marked by rash lofty romantic ideas or extravagantly chivalrous action quixotic<>displaying consistently practical behavior Sample: His head is in the clouds; he is constantly presenting these quixotic schemes. [ ] n. a proportional part or share; especially:the share or proportion assigned to each in a division or to each member of a body quota<>unlimited number Synonyms: SHARE, allotment, allowance, bite, cut, lot, part, partage, portion, slice Sample: That student receives a yearly quota of money from the government. [ ] adj COMMONPLACE, ORDINARY quotidian<>remarkable quotidian<>striking Synonyms: ORDINARY, everyday, plain, plain Jane, routine, unremarkable, usual, workaday Sample: Their piety was expressed in quotidian behavior:they worshipped regularly, according all the regenerative processes of nature respect, and even awe. [ ] n. a disorganized or disorderly crowd of people:MOB
315

rabid

racketeer

raconteur

items:hodgepodge=people:rabble [ ] adj. extremely violent:FURIOUS rabid<>logical rabid<>detached Synonyms: FURIOUS, corybantic, delirious, frantic, frenetic, frenzied, mad, wild Sample: He was a rabid follower of the Dodgers and watched them play whenever he could go to the ball park. [ ] n. one who obtains money by an illegal enterprise usually involving intimidation Sample: The witness's testimony against the racketeers incriminates some high public officials as well. [ ] n a person who excels in telling anecdotes raconteur:storytelling=wordsmith:writing :) Sample: My father was a gifted raconteur with an unlimited supply of anecdotes. List 23 racy --- repatriate

racy

raffish

raffle

rafter

rage

ragged

[ ] adj. having a strongly marked quality:PIQUANT tame<>racy Synonyms: PUNGENT, peppery, piquant, poignant, snappy, spicy, zesty Sample: She writes racy novels about rich men and beautiful women. [ ] adj. marked by or suggestive of flashy vulgarity or crudeness ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub Synonyms: WILD, devil-may-care, fast, gay, rakehell, rakish, sporty [ ] n. a lottery in which the prize is won by one of numerous persons buying chances lottery:raffle=ticket:admission Sample: Although the sponsor of the raffle claimed all winners were chosen at random, people had their suspicions when the grand prize went to the sponsor's brother-in-law. [ ]n any of the parallel beams that support a roof roof:rafter=table:leg Sample: The engineer calculated that the strut supporting the rafter needed to be reinforced. [ ] n. violent and uncontrolled anger bigotry=dedication=rage:anger gush:effusive=rage:irate infuriate:rage=commend:esteem {scrounge:possession} infuriate:rage=nonplus:perplexity Sample: Despite all prophylactic measures introduced by the authorities, the epidemic raged until cool weather set in. Synonyms: ANGER, fury, indignation, ire, mad, wrath [ ] adj. torn or worn to tatters
316

ragtime

rail

rakish

ramble

rambunctious

rampart

ramshackle

rancid

rancor

cloth:ragged=furniture:rickety Synonyms: frayed, frazzled, shreddy, tattered Sample: His clothes are torn and ragged from living in the woods. [ ] n. rhythm characterized by strong syncopation in the melody with a regularly accented accompaniment music:ragtime=?? Sample: Scott Joplin made ragtime popular in 1893 and wrote ragtime piano pieces. [ ] vi. to revile or scold in harsh, insolent, or abusive language Synonyms: SCOLD, bawl out, berate, jaw, rate, revile, tongue-lash, upbraid, vituperate Sample: You may rail at him all you want; you will never change him. [ ] adj of, relating to, or characteristic of a rake:DISSOLUTE rakish:restraint=slothful:assiduity Synonyms: WILD, devil-may-care, fast, gay, raffish, rakehell, sporty Sample: He wore his hat at a rakish and jaunty angle. [ ] vi. to move aimlessly from place to place draw:doodle=travel:ramble Synonyms: WANDER, gad, gallivant, meander, range, roam, rove, straggle, stray, traipse Sample: Listening to the teacher ramble, Judy wondered whether he'd ever get to his point. [ ] adj. marked by uncontrollable exuberance:UNRULY rambunctious<>quiescent Sample: Her rambunctious little boy is always chasing other children. [ ] n. a protective barrier:BULWARK tower:edifice=rampart:barrier rampart:invasion=levee:flood Sample: "From the ramparts we watched" as the fighting continued. [ ] adj. appearing ready to collapse:RICKETY ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity Synonyms: rickety Sample: The boys propped up the ramshackle clubhouse with a couple of boards. [ ] adj. offensive in odor or flavor:RANK Synonyms: MALODOROUS, fetid, high, nidorous, noisome, olid, putrid, reeking, smelly, whiffy Sample: A rancid odor filled the ship's galley and nauseated the crew. [ ] n bitter deep-seated ill will rancor<>goodwill rancor<>charitableness Synonyms: ENMITY, animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, hostility
317

Sample: Let us forget out rancor and cooperate in this new endeavor. [ ] n. a series of mountains range:mountain=chain:link {archipelago:island } Sample: New York state has several mountain ranges, including the Adirondacks. ranger [ ] n. the keeper of a British royal park or forest ranger:forest=curator:museum Sample: A ranger in the national park watches out for fires. rank [ ] adj. offensive in odor or flavor; especially:RANCID Synonyms: OBSCENE, coarse, dirty, filthy, foul, gross, indecent, raunchy, smutty, vulgar Sample: The chicken meat looked good in the market, but it smells rank now. rankle [ ] v. ( to cause anger, irritation, or deep bitterness rankle<>pacify rankle<>calm mollify<>rankle Synonyms: fester Sample: The memory of having been jilted rankled him for years. rant [ ] vt.vi. to scold vehemently fear:cower=anger:rant Synonyms: ORATE, bloviate, declaim, harangue, mouth, perorate, rave, soapbox Sample: As we heard him rant on the platform, we could not understand his strange popularity with many people. rapacious [ ] adj. excessively grasping or covetous troubled:distraught=covetous:rapacious ) Synonyms: VORACIOUS, edacious, gluttonous, ravening, ravenous Sample: Hawks and other rapacious birds prey on variety of small animals. rapport [ ] n RELATION; especially:relation marked by harmony, conformity, accord, or affinity rapport<>discord Synonyms: HARMONY, concord, unity Sample: In team teaching, it is important that all teachers in the group have good rapport with one another. rapprochement [ ] n. establishment of or state of having cordial relations estrangement<>rapprochement Synonyms: RECONCILIATION, harmonizing, reconcilement Sample: Two former enemies reached a rapprochement; they agreed not to fight again. rapscallion [ ] n. RASCAL, NE'ER-DO-WELL rapscallion:mischievous=sluggard:lazy {cavalier:arrogant Synonyms: SCAMP, devil, enfant terrible, limb, mischief, rascal, rogue, scalawag, skeezicks, villain range
318

rapt

rash

raisin

raspy

ratify

ratiocination

ration

rationalize

raucous

[ ] adj. wholly absorbed:ENGROSSED intrepid:deter=rapt:distract rapt<>distracted Synonyms: INTENT, absorbed, deep, engaged, engrossed, immersed, preoccupied, wrapped, wrapped up Sample: The audience listened with rapt attention to the excellent speaker. [ ] adj. marked by or proceeding from undue haste or lack of deliberation or caution obsessed:attracted=rash:adventurous loquacious:talkative=rash:adventurous rash<>circumspective Synonyms: brash, hasty, hotheaded, ill-advised, incautious, incogitant, inconsiderate, mad-brained, madcap, reckless, thoughtless, unadvised, unconsidered, unwary Sample: Charging an expensive vacation that he couldn't pay for on his credit card was a rash thing to do. [ ] n. a grape of any of several varieties that has been dried in the sun or by artificial heat prune:plum=raisin:grape [ ] adj. HARSH, GRATING mellifluous<>raspy Synonyms: IRRITABLE, peevish, pettish, petulant, prickish, prickly, raspish, snappish, snappy, waspish Sample: The sergeant's raspy voice grated on the recruits' ears. [ ] vt. to approve and sanction formally:CONFIRM repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification Synonyms: confirm Sample: Before the treaty could go into effect, it had to be ratified by the president. [ ] n. the process of exact thinking:REASONING ratiocination:thinking=articulation:talking Synonyms: INFERENCE, conclusion, deduction, illation, judgment, sequitur Sample: While Watson was a man of average intelligence, Holmes was a genius, whose gift for ratiocination made him a superb detective. [ ] n. a food allowance for one day dose:medicine=ration:food Sample: Many food rations for soldiers come in cans. [ ] v. to provide plausible but untrue reasons for conduct rationalization:plausible=obfuscation:indiscernible {equivocation:definite} Synonyms: EXPLAIN, account, explain away, justify Sample: All attempts at rationalization at this time are doomed to failure; tempers and emotions run too high for intelligent thought to prevail. [ ] adj. disagreeably harsh or strident:HOARSE
319

ravel

rave

ravenous

raze

reactant

reactionary

ream

reap

reassure

Synonyms: HARSH, dry, grating, hoarse, jarring, rough, squawky, strident, stridulent, stridulous Sample: His raucous laughter irritated me and grated on my ears. [ ] vt. to separate or undo the texture of:UNRAVEL ravel<>knit Synonyms: COMPLICATE, entangle, muddle, perplex, snarl, tangle Sample: A sigle thread pulled loose, and the entire scarf started to ravel. [ ] v. n. an extravagantly favorable criticism rave<>pan Synonyms: ENTHUSE, drool, rhapsodize, rhapsody Sample: Critics raved about the new play. [ ] adj. very eager or greedy for food, satisfaction, or gratification incontrovertible:disputed=untenable:defended{ravenous:satisfied} Synonyms: VORACIOUS, edacious, gluttonous, rapacious, ravening Sample: The revenous dog upset several garbage pails in its search for food. [ ] vt. to destroy to the ground:DEMOLISH raze<>build Synonyms: DESTROY, decimate, demolish, ruin, unbuild, undo, unframe, unmake, wrack, wreck Sample: The owners intend to raze the hotel and erect an office building on the site. [ ] n. a substance that enters into and is altered in the course of a chemical reaction reactant<>inert material [ ] adj. relating to, marked by, or favoring reaction; especially:ultraconservative in politics contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:change/innovation/novelty recalcitrant/refractory:authority=reactionary:change reactionary:convention=?? votary<>reactionary Synonyms: CONSERVATIVE, die-hard, fogyish, old-line, orthodox, right, tory, traditionalistic Sample: His program was reactionary since it sought to abolish many of the social reforms instituted by the previous administration. [ ] n. a quantity of paper being 20 quires or variously 480, 500, or 516 sheets ream:paper=cord:wood Sample:Our office uses 20 reams of paper each week. [ ] v. to gather by reaping:HARVEST scythe:reaper=axe:woodcutter ) reap<>plant Synonyms: garner, gather, harvest, ingather Sample: In the autumn, farmers reap their crops. [ ] v. to restore to confidence
320

rebuff

rebus

recalcitrant

recant

recapitulate

recessive

recidivism

feed:hunger=reassure:uneasiness perturb:serenity=reassure:doubt formidable<>reassuring Sample: She reassured him that she still loves him. [ ] vt. to reject or criticize sharply:SNUB rebuff<>approve Synonyms: FEND (off), hold off, keep off, rebut, repel, repulse, stave off, ward (off) Sample: She rebuffed his invitation so smoothly that he did not realize he had been snubbed. [ ] n. a representation of words or syllables by pictures of objects or by symbols whose names resemble the intended words or syllables in sound; also:a riddle made up of such pictures or symbols rebus:dissimulation=?? [ ] adj obstinately defiant of authority or restraint incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey recalcitrant/refractory:authority=reactionary:change fastidious:outshine=recalcitrant:resist ) Synonyms: UNRULY, fractious, indomitable, intractable, undisciplinable, undisciplined, ungovernable, unmanageable, untoward, wild Sample: Donkeys are reputed to be the most recalcitrant of animals. [ ] vi. to withdraw or repudiate (a statement or belief) formally and publicly:RENOUNCE apostasy:faith=recantation:heresy recantation:error=confession:crime recant:declare=?? recant<>reaffirm Synonyms: ABJURE, forswear, palinode, recall, retract, take back, unsay, withdraw Sample: A number of writers who once greatly disparaged the literary critic have recently recanted, substituting approbation for their former criticism. [ ] v. to repeat the principal points or stages of:SUMMARIZE encyclopedia:compendious=abstract:concise {pertinacity:changeable} { recapitulation:lengthy} Sample: Let us recapitulate what has been said thus far before going ahead. [ ] adj. producing little or no phenotypic effect when occurring in heterozygous condition with a contrasting allele dominant<>recessive Sample: The painting was larger than it appeared to be, for, hanging in a darkened recess of the chapel, it was diminished by the perspective. [ ] n. a tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behavior; especially:relapse into criminal behavior recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce recidivism:relapse=pundit:opine
321

reciprocate

reckless

recluse

recoil

reconcile

recondite

Sample: Prison reformers in the United States are disturbed by the high rate of recidivism; the number of persons serving second and third terms indicates the failure of the prisons to rehabilitate the inmates. [ ] vi. to move forward and backward alternately reciprocating<>moving unidirectional Synonyms: recompense, requite, retaliate, return Sample: The state is a network of exchanged benefits and beliefs, a reciprocity between rulers and citizens based on those laws and procedures that are conducive to the maintenance of community. [ ] adj. marked by lack of proper caution:careless of consequences circumspect<>audacious/reckless measured<>reckless Synonyms: ADVENTUROUS, adventuresome, audacious, daredevil, daring, foolhardy, rash, temerarious, venturesome, venturous Sample: He is reckless when he drives his car too fast. [ ] n. a person who leads a secluded or solitary life poseur:sincerity=recluse:gregariousness recluse:communicate=?? roisterer:carouse=recluse:withdraw turncoat:consistency=recluse:compassion recluse:crowd=claustrophobia:enclosure recluse:crowd=shirk:duty recluse:solitude=toady:favor Synonyms: SECLUDED, cloistered, hermetic, secluse, seclusive, sequestered Sample: The recluse lived in a hut in the forest. [ ] vi. to fall back under pressure recoil<>advance Synonyms: blanch, blench, flinch, quail, shrink, squinch, start, wince Sample: The hunter recoiled when he saw a dangerous snake in front of him. [ ] vt. to make consistent or congruous rift<>reconciliation Synonyms: ADAPT, accommodate, adjust, conform, fit, quadrate, square, suit, tailor, tailor-make Sample: Edith Wharton sought in her memoir to present herself as having achieved a harmonious wholeness by having reconciled the conflicting elements of her life. [ ] adj difficult or impossible for one of ordinary understanding or knowledge to comprehend:DEEP recondite<>widely understood recondite<>patent recondite<>self explain recondite<>self-evident Synonyms: abstruse, acroamatic, deep, esoteric, heavy, hermetic, occult, orphic,
322

profound, secret Sample: He read many recondite books in order to obtain the material for the scholarly thesis. reconnaissance [ ] vi. a preliminary survey to gain information; especially:an exploratory military survey of enemy territory reconnoiter:information=prowl:prey ) Sample: If you encounter any enemy soldiers during your reconnaissance, capture them for questioning. reconstitute [ ] vt. to constitute again or anew; especially:to restore to a former condition by adding water reconstitute<>dehydrate Synonyms: REORGANIZE, readjust, rearrange, reconstruct, reorder, reorient, reorientate, reshuffle, retool Sample: A mother reconstituted powdered milk by adding water to it for her child to drink. rectify [ ] v. to correct by removing errors:ADJUST rectify:treaty=confirm:hypothesis ) Synonyms: CORRECT, amend, emend, mend, right Sample: I want to rectify my error before it is too late. rectitude [ ] n. moral integrity:RIGHTEOUSNESS rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse{impeccable:flaw=indolent:stir} inequity<>rectitude Synonyms: GOODNESS, morality, probity, righteousness, rightness, uprightness, virtue Sample: He was renowned for his rectitude and integrity. recuperate [ ] v. to regain a former state or condition; especially:to recover health or strength recuperative<>debiliating Synonyms: IMPROVE, ameliorate, convalesce, gain, look up, mend, perk (up) Sample: The doctors were worried because the patient did not recuperate as rapidly as they had expected. redolent [ ] adj. exuding fragrance:AROMATIC redolent<>unscented Synonyms: SWEET, ambrosial, aromal, aromatic, balmy, fragrant, perfumed, perfumy, savory, spicy Sample: Even though it is February, the air is redolent of spring. redoubtable [ ] adj ILLUSTRIOUS, EMINENT; broadly:worthy of respect exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame/redoubtable:regard redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard redoubtable:regard/respect=creditable:belief/trust Sample: During the Cold War period, neighboring countries tried not to offend the Russians because they could be redoubtable foes. redress [ ] n./v.
323

redundant

reel

refinery

reflective

refractory

refresh

refugee

refulgent

to set right:REMEDY Synonyms: NEUTRALIZE, annul, cancel (out), counteract, countercheck, frustrate, negate, negative Sample: Do you mean to tell me that I can get no redress for my injuries? [ ] adj. exceeding what is necessary or normal:SUPERFLUOUS indigent:wealth=redundant:indispensability Synonyms: WORDY, diffuse, long-winded, palaverous, prolix, verbose, windy Sample: The chances that a species will persist are reduced if any vital function is restricted to a single kind of organ; redundancy by itself possesses an enormous survival advantage. [ ] n. a revolvable device on which something flexible is wound reel:winding=die:shaping Sample: He bought a new reel and stronger fish line, so he could catch bigger fish. [ ] n. a building and equipment for refining or processing (as oil or sugar) refinery:petroleum=mill:grain crass<>refined refine<>reduce purity [ ] adj. marked by reflection:THOUGHTFUL, DELIBERATIVE ruminative<>unreflective Synonyms: THOUGHTFUL, cogitative, contemplative, meditative, pensive, pondering, reflecting, ruminative, speculative, thinking [ ] adj resisting control or authority:STUBBORN, UNMANAGEABLE adamant:flexibility=refractory:control recalcitrant/refractory:authority=reactionary:change inexperience:green=pertinacity:refractory unruly:authority=refractory:change refractory<>responsive Synonyms: OBSTINATE, bullheaded, headstrong, intractable, mulish, perverse, selfwilled, stiff-necked, stubborn, unyielding Sample: The refractory horse was eliminated from the race when he refused to obey the jockey. [ ] vt. to restore strength and animation to:REVIVE disgruntle<>refresh Synonyms: RENEW, modernize, refurbish, rejuvenate, renovate, restore, update Sample: A balmy breeze refreshed us after the sultry blast. [ ] n. one that flees; especially:a person who flees to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution refugee:asylum=?? Synonyms: displaced person, evacuee, fugitive Sample: The church harbored illegal aliens who were political refugees. [ ] adj.
324

refute

regard

regenerate

regime

regimen

regress

rehabilitate

rehearsal

a radiant or resplendent quality or state:BRILLIANCE Synonyms: BRIGHT, beaming, brilliant, effulgent, fulgent, incandescent, lambent, lucent, luminous, radiant [ ] vt. to prove wrong by argument or evidence:show to be false or erroneous refutation<>verification Sample: One witness refuted the statement of another by presenting new evidence. [ ] n. a feeling of respect and affection:ESTEEM exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame/redoubtable:regard flout:disregard=taunt:challenge redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard redoubtable:regard/respect=creditable:belief/trust Synonyms: ADMIRE, consider, esteem, respect Sample: I have high regard for mothers who take good care of their children. [ ] adj. restored to a better, higher, or more worthy state truculent:gentleness=unregenerate:remorse Sample: Shocked by Huck Finn's barefaced lies, Miss Watson prayed the good Lord would give him a sense of his unregenerate wickedness. [ ] n. a government in power Sample: The challenge of interpreting fictional works written under politically repressive regimes lies in distinguishing what is organic to an authors beliefs, as opposed to what is imposed by political coercion. [ ] n. a systematic plan (as of diet, therapy, or medication) especially when designed to improve and maintain the health of a patient regimen:health=mnemonics:memory regimen:health=budget:solvency Sample: I doubt whether the results warrant our living under such a strict regimen. [ ] v. to tend to approach or revert to a mean regressive<>forward Synonyms: REVERT, retrogress, throw back Sample: The transition from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic era is viewed by most art historians as a regression, because, instead of an increasingly sophisticated pictorial art, we find degeneration. [ ] v. to restore to a former state (as of efficiency, good management, or solvency) recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce recycle:disposal=rehabilitate:demolition Synonyms: RESTORE, reclaim, recondition, reconstruct, recover, rejuvenate, restitute Sample: We must rehabilitate those whom we send to prison. [ ] n. a private performance or practice session preparatory to a public appearance rehearsal:perform=?? Sample: When Gutherie gave Guiness his assurance that rehearsals were going well,
325

reign

rein

reiterate

rejoice

relapse

release

relentless

relevant

he spoke with such assurance that Guiness was convinced. [ ] n. royal authority:SOVEREIGNTY coronation:reign=wedding:marriage Synonyms: RULE, dominate, domineer, predominate, preponderate, prevail Sample: Louis XIV reigned in France for over 70 years. [ ] n. to check or stop by or as if by a pull at the reins rein<>prod Synonyms: COMPOSE, collect, control, cool, re-collect, repress, restrain, simmer down, smother, suppress Sample: If those parents don't rein in their children a little, the children will never learn to behave. [ ] v. to state or do over again or repeatedly sometimes with wearying effect digress:excursive=reiterate:redundant Sample: He reiterated the warning to make sure everyone understood it. [ ] v. to feel joy or great delight rejoice<>moroseness sulky<>rejoice Sample: When the war ended, the winners rejoiced. [ ] vi. to slip or fall back into a former worse state recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce recidivism:relapse=pundit:opine relapse:error=?? Synonyms: LAPSE, backslide, recidivate Sample: The economy relapsed into a depression from the peak. [ ] vt. to set free from restraint, confinement, or servitude constrain<>release immure<>release Synonyms: FREE, discharge, emancipate, liberate, loose, loosen, manumit, unbind, unchain, unshackle Sample: De Klerk's decision to set Nelson Mandela free was pivotal; without Mandela's release, there was no possibility that the African National Cogress would entertain talks with the South African government. [ ] adj. showing or promising no abatement of severity, intensity, strength, or pace:UNRELENTING inexorable<>relenting Synonyms: INFLEXIBLE, adamant, dogged, inexorable, obdurate, rigid, singleminded, unbending, uncompromising, unyielding Sample: For someone as laconic as she, who preferred to speak only when absolutely necessary, his relentless chatter was completely maddening. [ ] adj. having significant and demonstrable bearing on the matter at hand
326

religion

relinquish

relish

reluctant

remiss

remnant

relevant:crucial=perceptible:obvious immaterial:relevance=peripheral:center immaterial:relevance=circuitous:directness germane<>irrelevant immaterial<>relevant relevant<>immaterial Synonyms: ad rem, applicable, applicative, applicatory, apposite, apropos, germane, material, pertinent, pointful Sample: Teri was impressed by how relevant Virginia Woolf's remarks were to her as a woman writer; it was as if Woolf had been writing with Teri's situation in mind. [ ] n. a cause, principle, or system of beliefs held to with ardor and faith religion:devoutness=canon:orthodoxy Synonyms: creed, cult, faith, persuasion Sample: Buddhism and Hinduism are two of the world's major religions. [ ] vt. to give over possession or control of:YIELD procure<>relinquish relinquish<>cling to relinquish<>cooperate/reward Synonyms: abandon, cede, give up, hand over, lay down, leave, resign, surrender, turn up, waive, yield Sample: I will relinquish my claims to this property if you promise to retain my employees. [ ] n. characteristic flavor; especially:pleasing or zestful flavor relish<>despise Synonyms: ENJOYMENT, delectation, diversion, pleasure Sample: I relish a good joke as much as anyone else. [ ] adj. Unwilling; disinclined: hesitation:reluctance=hubris:pride cajole:reluctant=?? alacrity<>reluctant Sample: The prosecutor's office was ready to serve a subpoena on the reluctant witness. [ ] adj. showing neglect or inattention:LAX assiduous<>remiss punctilious<>remiss remiss<>scrupulous/wary Synonyms: NEGLIGENT, behindhand, careless, delinquent, derelict, disregardful, lax, neglectful, regardless, slack Sample: Though Senator Tsongas had been treated for cancer, his symptoms were in remission, and he was considered fit to handle the strains of a Presidential race. [ ] n. a usually small part, member, or trace remaining shred:remnant=?? Synonyms: REMAINDER, balance, heel, leavings, remains, remanet, residual, residue,
327

remodel

remonstrance

remorse

remunerate

rend

renounce

residuum, rest Sample: I suggest that you wait until the store places the remnants of these goods on sale. [ ] vt. to alter the structure of:REMAKE construct:remodel=compose:edit Sample: In remodeling the bathroom, we replaced all the old, rigid lead pipes with new, pliable copper tubing. [ ] n an earnest presentation of reasons for opposition or grievance; especially:a document formally stating such points remonstrance:offend=syllogism:disprove remonstrance:dissuade=apprehend:censure remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal remonstrance:dissuade=syllogism:disprove Synonyms: DEMUR, challenge, demurral, demurrer, difficulty, objection, protest, question, remonstration Sample: The authorities were deaf to the pastor's remonstrances about the lack of police protection in the area. [ ] n. a gnawing distress arising from a sense of guilt for past wrongs:SELF-REPROACH longing:pine=remorse:rue truculent:gentleness=unregenerate:remorse Synonyms: PENITENCE, attrition, compunction, contriteness, contrition, penance, penitency, remorsefulness, repentance, rue Sample: Although remorse is usually thought to spring from regret for having done something wrong, it may be that its origin is the realization that one's own nature is irremediably flawed. [ ] vt. to pay an equivalent to for a service, loss, or expense:RECOMPENSE remuneration:service=retaliation:injury remunerative<>unrequited Synonyms: COMPENSATE, indemnify, pay, recompense, reimburse, repay, requite Sample: The legislators of 1563 realized the futility of trying to regulate the flow of labor without securing its reasonable remuneration, and so the second part of the statute dealt with establishing wages. [ ] v to split or tear apart or in pieces by violence rend:tear=rush:hurry rend<>unite/mend/repair Synonyms: TEAR, cleave, rip, rive, split Sample: In his grief, he tried to rend his garments. [ ] vi. to give up, refuse, or resign usually by formal declaration claim<>renounce renounce<>embrace Synonyms: ABANDON, chuck, desert, forsake, quit, throw over Sample: Even though she knew she would be burned at the stake as a witch, Joan of
328

renovate

repartee

repatriate

repeal

repel

repertoire

replete

Arc refused to renounce her belief that her voices came from God. [ ] vt. to restore to a former better state (as by cleaning, repairing, or rebuilding) renovate<>cause to decay Synonyms: REVIVE, reactivate, rekindle, renew, resurrect, resuscitate, retrieve, revitalize, revivify Sample: They claim that they can renovate worn shoes so that they look like new ones. [ ] n. a succession or interchange of clever retorts:amusing and usually light sparring with words repartee:retort=debate:issue {advisement:product} :=: ( ) Synonyms: RETORT, back answer, comeback, riposte Sample: He was famous for his witty repartee and his sarcasm. [ ] v. ( to restore or return to the country of origin, allegiance, or citizenship repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification Sample: Ancient artworks were repatriated from the USA to Greece. List 24 repeal --- safeguard [ ] v. to rescind or annul by authoritative act; especially:to revoke or abrogate by legislative enactment repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification Synonyms: REVOKE, dismantle, lift, recall, rescind, reverse Sample: We have many statutes in our law books which should be repealed. [ ] vt. to drive back:REPULSE repellent:attract=ephemeral:endure court<>repel intentionally entrancing<>disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore winsome<>unprepossessing/repelling Synonyms: RESIST, buck, combat, contest, dispute, duel, fight, oppose, traverse, withstand Sample: His classmates were repelled by his querulous and complaining statements. [ ] n. the complete list or supply of dramas, operas, or musical works available for performance palette:color=repertoire:play ( repertoire:performance=manifest:cargo=agenda:meeting Synonyms: EFFECT, impact, imprint, influence, mark Sample: The opera company decided to include Madame Butterfly in its repertoire for the following season. [ ] adj. fully or abundantly provided or filled repletion<>want repletion<>emptiness repletion<>privation Synonyms: ALIVE, abounding, overflowing, rife, swarming, teeming, thronged
329

reportage

repose

reprehensible

repressed

reprieve

reprimand

reprisal

reproach

Sample: The book is replete with humorous situations. [ ] n. the act or process of reporting news reportage:journalist=ridicule:satirist {choreography:dancer} [ ] n. to take a rest guilt:expiation=fatigue:repose dehydrate:water=fatigue:repose/rest Synonyms: REST, lie, lie down, recline, stretch (out) Sample: She reposed on a sofa and fell asleep. [ ] adj. worthy of or deserving reprehension:CULPABLE lamentable:pity=reprehensible:censure censure:blameless=approbation:reprehensible ) despicable:contempt=reprehensible:censor Synonyms: BLAMEWORTHY, amiss, blamable, blameful, censurable, culpable, demeritorious, guilty, sinful, unholy Sample: Your vicious conduct in this situation is reprehensible. [ ] adj characterized by restraint unrepressed<>restrained Synonyms: SUPPRESS, muffle, shush, squelch, strangle Sample: Although Darwinism was a profoundly repressive world view, it was essentially passive, since it prescribed no steps to be taken, no victories over nature to be celebrated, no program of triumphs to be successively gained. [ ] n. to delay the punishment of (as a condemned prisoner) reprieve:punishment=moratorium:activity ) Synonyms: RESPITE Sample: During the twenty-four-hour reprieve, the lawyers sought to make the stay of execution permanent. [ ] n./v. to reprove sharply or censure formally usually from a position of authority Sample: I am afraid that my parents will reprimand me when I show them my report card. Synonyms: REPROVE, admonish, call down, chide, lesson, monish, rebuke, reproach, tick off [ ] n( the act or practice in international law of resorting to force short of war in retaliation for damage or loss suffered Synonyms: REPARATION, amends, compensation, indemnification, indemnity, quittance, recompense, redress, restitution Sample: I am confident that we are ready for any reprisals the enemy may undertake. [ ] n./v. an expression of rebuke or disapproval irreproachable:blame=irresponsible:restraint nefarious<>above reproach/virtuous scurvy<>above reproach
330

reprobate

reprobate

reproof

reprove

reptile

repudiate

opprobrious<>irreproachable Synonyms: REBUKE, admonishment, admonition, chiding, rap, reprimand, reproof, wig, wigging Sample: Having no sense of moral obligation, Shipler was as little subject to the reproaches of conscience after he acted as he was motivated by its prompting before he acted. [ ] n. A morally unprincipled person. reprobate:misbehave=sycophant:fawn reprobate<>righteous individual Synonyms: VILLAIN, blackguard, heel, lowlife, miscreant Sample: I cannot understand why he has so many admirers if he is the reprobate you say he is. [ ] v. to condemn strongly as unworthy, unacceptable, or evil accolade<>reprobate/reproof reprobation<>acclaim/tribute Synonyms: CRITICIZE, blame, censure, condemn, denounce, denunciate, knock, rap, reprehend, skin Sample: The students showed their reprobation of his act by refusing to talk with him. [ ] n. criticism for a fault:REBUKE castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial{ glorification:merit } castigation:reproof=loathing:dislike castigation:reproof=soaking:damp accolade<>reprobate/reproof Synonyms: REBUKE, admonishment, admonition, chiding, rap, reprimand, reproach, wig, wigging Sample: The judge gave a reproof of the man's behavior in court. [ ] v. to scold or correct usually gently or with kindly intent pretense:deceive=admonition:reprove reprove:reprimand=blame:censure Synonyms: admonish, call down, chide, lesson, monish, back, rebuke, reprimand, reproach, tick off Sample: The principal reproved the students when they became unruly in the auditorium. [ ] n. Any of various cold-blooded, usually egg-laying vertebrates of the class Reptilia, such as a snake, lizard, crocodile, turtle, or dinosaur, having an external covering of scales or horny plates and breathing by means of lungs. lizard:reptile=orange:fruit finch:bird=aspen:tree=lizard:reptile=eagle:bird Sample: The skeleton of a primitive. bird that was recently discovered indicated that this ancient creature anticipated todays birds in that, unlike earlier birds and unlike reptilian ancestors, it had not a tooth in its head. [ ] vt. to refuse to accept; especially:to reject as unauthorized or as having no binding force
331

repugnant

repulse

rescind

resentment

reserved

resign

repudiate<>espouse/uphold Synonyms: DEFECT, apostatize, desert, rat, renounce, tergiversate, tergiverse, turn Sample: Fashion is partly a search for a new language to discredit the old, a way in which each generation can repudiate its immediate predecessor and distinguish itself. [ ] adj. exciting distaste or aversioninconsistent. odious:repugnance=menacing:fear cogent:convince=repugnant:repel repugnance<>affinity Synonyms: abhorrent, invidious, obnoxious, repellent, revulsive Sample: Jones was unable to recognize, the contradictions in his attitudes that were obvious to everyone else; even the hint of an untruth was repugnant to him, but he courted serious trouble by always cheating on his taxes. [ ] v./n. to drive or beat back:REPEL captivate<>repulse court<>repulse intentionally entrancing<>disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore Synonyms: DISGUST, nauseate, reluct, repel, revolt, sicken Sample: The repulsion of the enemy forces was not accomplished bloodlessly; many of the defenders were wounded in driving the enemy back. [ ] v to make void (as an act) by action of the enacting authority or a superior authority:REPEAL irrevocable:rescind=?? rescind<>institute rescission<>enactment Sample: Because of public resentment, the king had to rescind his order. [ ] n. a feeling of indignant displeasure or persistent ill will at something regarded as a wrong, insult, or injury Synonyms: OFFENSE, dudgeon, huff, miff, pique, umbrage Sample: Like many eighteenth-century scholars who lived by cultivating those in power, Winckelmann neglected to neutralize, by some propitiatory gesture of comradeship, the resentment his peers were bound to feel because of his involvement with the high and mighty. [ ] adj. restrained in words and actions furtive:openness=flamboyant:reserved gregarious:reserved=?? expansive<>reserved/diffident qualified<>unreserved Synonyms: constrained, incommunicable, noncommittal, restrained Sample: Although he was known to be extremely reserved in his public behavior, scholars have discovered that his diaries were written with uncommon frankness. [ ] v. to give up one's office or position:QUIT abdicate:throne=resign:office
332

resilience

resin

resolute

resonant

resourceful

respite

respire

Synonyms: RELINQUISH, abandon, cede, give up, hand over, leave, surrender, waive, yield Sample: Job failure means being fired from a job, being asked to resign, or leaving voluntarily to protect yourself because you had very strong evidence that one of the first two was impending. [ ] n. the capability of a strained body to recover its size and shape after deformation caused especially by compressive stress resilience:recover=?? resilience<>unable to recover Sample: Highly resilient, steel makes excellent bedsprings. [ ] n. a sticky substance found in some plants resin:tree=gum:rubber plant Sample: The resin that comes out when a rubber tree's bark is cut is used to make rubber. [ ] adj. marked by firm determination:RESOLVED malleable:shape=irresolute:opinion bristle:anger=vacillate:unresolution{condone:mercy} {condemn:warning} indubitable:questioned=resolute:sway daunt<>make resolute jittery<>resolute Synonyms: DECIDED, bent, decisive, determined, intent, resolved, set, settled Sample: Nothing could shake his resolution to succeed despite all difficulties. [ ] adj continuing to sound : ECHOING full-bodied:flavor=resonant:sound resonant<>muffled Synonyms: consonant, fat, orotund, plangent, resounding, ringing, rotund, round, sonorant, sonorous, vibrant Sample: The deep, resonant voice of the actor James Earl Jones makes him particulary effective when he appears on stage. [ ] adj. able to meet situations:capable of devising ways and means resourceful:inventiveness=philanthropic:geniality Synonyms: WEALTH, fortune, property, riches, substance, worth Sample: No crisis could faze the resourceful hotel manager. [ ] n. A usually short interval of rest or relief. fast:eat=respite:labor ) plateau:change=respite:activity ) moratorium:activity=respite:labor respite:labor=interim:concert {mediate:confliction} ) Synonyms: BREAK, blow, breath, breather, breathing space (or spell), reprieve Sample: The judge granted the condemned man a respite to enable his attorneys to file an appeal. [ ] v.
333

resplendent

responsive

restive

restless

restore

restrain

BREATHE; specifically:to inhale and exhale air successively lung:respire=tooth:masticate {eye:envision , ear:resonate} Sample: Artificial light enhances the respiratory activity of some microorganisms in the winter but not in the summer, in part because in the summer their respiration is already at its peak and thus cannot be increased. [ ] adj shining brilliantly:characterized by a glowing splendor bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence bravura:performance=resplendent:appearance ) resplendence<>lackluster resplendent<>dull Synonyms: SPLENDID, glorious, gorgeous, magnificent, proud, splendiferous, splendorous, sublime, superb Sample: The toreador wore a resplendent costume called a suit of lights. [ ] adj. quick to respond or react appropriately or sympathetically:SENSITIVE dispassionate<>responsive Synonyms: TENDER, compassionate, kindhearted, softhearted, sympathetic, warm, warmhearted Sample: Some activists believe that because the health-care system has become increasingly unresponsive to those it serves, individuals must circumvent bureaucratic impediments in order to develop and promote new therapies. [ ] adj. marked by impatience:FIDGETY incogitant:thoughtful=restive:calm restive:calm=piddling:considerable ) restive:calm=keen:obtuse ) incogitant:thoughtfulness=restive:calmness ) restive:calmness=impeccable:flaw restive:calmness=impetuous:patience restive<>calm/imperturbable restiveness<>contentment Synonyms: TENSE, edgy, nervy, uneasy, uptight Sample: Waiting impatiently in the line to see Santa Claus, even the best-behaved children grow restive and start to fidget. [ ] adj. marked by a lack of quiet, repose, or rest restless:serene=?? Synonyms: uneasy, unpeaceful, unquiet, unrestful, unsettled, untranquil Sample: Intellectual restlessness and flight from boredom have caused him to rush pellmell into situations that less adventurous spirits might hesitate to approach. [ ] vt. to put or bring back into existence or use dilapidated<>restored Synonyms: recall, reestablish, reinstate, reintroduce, renew, revive Sample: The slow recession of the flood waters created problems for the crews working to restore power to the area. [ ] vt.
334

resurgence

resuscitate

retainer

retaliate

retard

reticent

to limit, restrict, or keep under control temperate:restrain=tenacious:persist rakish:restraint=slothful:assiduity bridled<>without restraint fervid<>restrained unrepressed<>restrained theatrical<>restraint {professional} Synonyms: QUIET, inobtrusive, subdued, tasteful, tasty, unobtrusive Sample: goumands lack self-restraint; if they enjoy a particular cuisine, they eat far too much of it. [ ] n. a rising again into life, activity, or prominence:RENASCENCE resurgence<>waning vitally sycophantic:obsequious=rebellious:resurgent Sample: The resurgent nation surprised everyone by its quick recovery after total defeat. [ ] v to revive from apparent death or from unconsciousness; also:REVITALIZE extinct<>resuscitated resuscitation<>enervation Synonyms: REVIVE, reactivate, rekindle, renew, renovate, resurrect, retrieve, revitalize, revivify Sample: The lifeguard tried to resuscitate the drowned child by applying artificial respiration. [ ] n. a person attached or owing service to a household; especially:SERVANT retainer:retinue=witch:coven [ ] v. to repay (as an injury) in kind remuneration:service=retaliation:injury Synonyms: RECIPROCATE, recompense, requite, return,avenge, revenge Sample: The repudiation of Puritanism in seventeenth-century England expressed itself not only in retaliatory laws to restrict Puritans, but also in a general attitude of contempt for Puritans. [ ] vt. to slow up especially by preventing or hindering advance or accomplishment:IMPEDE divert:shunt=retard:brake catalyze<>retard expedite<>retard precipitate<>retard/dilatory Synonyms: DELAY, bog (down), decelerate, detain, embog, hang up, mire, set back, slacken, slow (up or down) Sample: Lack of good food retarded the boy's growth. [ ] adj restrained in expression, presentation, or appearance reticent:talk=abstemious:gorge reticent:voluble=?? ) reticent<>loquacious
335

retinue

retort

retouch

retract

retreat

retrench

retrospective

vociferous<>reticent/monotone voluble<>taciturn/laconic/succinct/reticent effusive<>reticent Synonyms: SILENT, close, close-lipped, closemouthed, close-tongued, reserved, taciturn, tight-lipped, tight-mouthed, uncommunicative Sample: Though extremely reticent about his own plans, the man allowed his associates no such privacy and was constantly soliciting information about what they intended to do next. [ ] n. a group of retainers or attendants retainer:retinue=witch:coven retinue:attendant=staff:officer {suite:room/coterie:group} Sample: The queen's retinue followed her down the aisle. [ ] vi. to pay or hurl back:RETURN repartee:retort=debate:issue retort:response=?? Synonyms: ANSWER, come in, rejoin, reply, respond, return Sample: Even when it was advisable for her to keep her mouth shut, she was always ready with a retort. [ ] vt.vi. to alter (as a photographic negative) to produce a more desirable appearance revise:manuscript=retouch:picture Sample: A photographer retouched the boy's picture to make his skin look clearer. [ ] vt.vi. TAKE BACK, WITHDRAW misunderstood:clarify=erroneous:retract foster<>retract Synonyms: RECEDE, back, fall back, retreat, retrocede, retrograde Sample: He dropped his libel suit after the newspaper published a retraction of its statement. [ ] n. the usually forced withdrawal of troops from an enemy or from an advanced position incursion<>retreat Synonyms: RECEDE, back, fall back, retract, retrocede, recoil, shrink Sample: Opponents of the expansion of the market economy, although in retreat, continued to constitute a powerful political force throughout the century. [ ] v. to cut out:EXCISE retrench:expense=decelerate:speed attenuate:force=retrenchment:money retrench<>enlarge retrench<>expand Synonyms: SHORTEN, abbreviate, abridge, curtail, cut, cut back, slash Sample: If they were to be able to send their children to college, they would have to retrench. [ ] adj. affecting things past:RETROACTIVE
336

revelry

revenge

revere

revise

revive

revoke

retrospective<>anticipatory Sample: In retrospect. Gordon's students appreciated her enigmatic assignments, realizing that such assignments were specifically designed to stimulate original thought rather than to review the content of her course. [ ] n. noisy partying or merrymaking revelry<>mournfulness Synonyms: MERRYMAKING, festivity, gaiety, jollity, merriment, revel, reveling, revelment, whoopee Sample: New Year's Eve is a night of revelry. [ ] n. to inflict injury in return for mercenary:money=vindictive:revenge Synonyms: AVENGE, redress, venge, vindicate Sample: Casting a baleful eye at his successful rival, the rejected suitor stole off, vowing to have his revenge. [ ] v. to show devoted deferential honor to:regard as worthy of great honor reverence:respect=avidity:enthusiasm ) reverent:idolater=trusting:dupe venerable:reverence=despicable:scorn elegiac:sorrow=devotional:reverence paragon/paradigm:imitate=reverence:regard exemplary:imitation=reverent:deference revere<>jape at revere<>disparage impudent<>reverence/deference reverence<>despise Synonyms: adore, reverence, venerate, worship Sample: Reverence for one's forebears (sometimes referred to as ancestor worship) plays an important part in many Oriental cultures. [ ] vt to make a new, amended, improved, or up-to-date version of revise:manuscript=retouch:picture Synonyms: redraft, redraw, restyle, revamp, rework, rewrite, work over Sample: Aptly enough, this work so imbued with the notion of changing times and styles has been constantly revised over the years, thereby reflecting its own mutability. [ ] vi. to return to consciousness or life:become active or flourishing again wither<>revive lull<>revive Synonyms: RESTORE, resuscitate, revivify Sample: The corporation expects only modest increases in sales next year despite a yearlong effort to revive its retailing business. [ ] vt. to annul by recalling or taking back:RESCIND empower<>revoke the authority irrevocable:rescind=??
337

revue

rewarding

ribald

rickety

rider

ridicule

rife

rift

Synonyms: dismantle, lift, recall, repeal, rescind, reverse Sample: Repeat offenders who continue to drive under the influence of alcohol face having their driver's licenses permanently revoked. [ ] n. a theatrical production consisting typically of brief loosely connected often satirical skits, songs, and dances Sample: We went to a musical revue last night. [ ] adj. yielding or likely to yield a reward:VALUABLE, SATISFYING drudgery<>rewarding work relinquish<>cooperate/reward/procure Sample: Punishment for violating moral rules is much more common than reward for following them; thus, adherence to the rules goes almost unnoticed in society. [ ] adj. CRUDE, OFFENSIVE ribald:seemly=labyrinthine:direct ribald<>seemly ribald<>proper Synonyms: SCAMP, devil, enfant terrible, mischief, rapscallion, rascal Sample: He sang a ribald song that offended many of the more prudish listeners. [ ] adj. lacking stability or firmness:SHAKY cloth:ragged=furniture:rickety Synonyms: rachitic, rackety, rattletrap, shaky, wobbly; Sample: To locate a book on the top shelf of the stacks, Lee had to scale an exceptionally rickety ladder. [ ] n. a clause appended to a legislative bill to secure a usually distinct object rider:bill=endorsement:policy ) Sample: Senator Foghorn said he would support Senator Filibuster's tax reform bill only if Filibuster agreed to add an antipollution rider to the bill. [ ] n .v. the act of exposing to laughter:DERISION, MOCKERY satire:ridicule=elegy:sorrow reportage:journalist=ridicule:satirist {choreography:dancer} ridicule:derision=?? sublime<>base/ridiculous Synonyms: deride, lout, mock, quiz, rally, razz, scout, taunt, twit Sample: The sardonic humor of nightclub comedians who satirize or ridicule patrons in the audience strikes some people as amusing and others as rude. [ ] adj. copiously supplied:ABOUNDING sparse<>rife Synonyms: PREVAILING, current, popular, prevalent, rampant, regnant, ruling, widespread, abounding, overflowing, replete, swarming, teeming, thronged Sample: In the face of the many rumors of scandal, which are rife at the moment, it is best to remain silent. [ ] n
338

rigid

rile

riot

risible

rite

rival

rive

riveting

BREACH, ESTRANGEMENT faultfinding:criticize=rift:breach ) rift<>reconciliation Synonyms: CRACK, chink, cleft, fissure, rima, rimation, rime, split Sample: Within the next decade, sophisticated telescopes now orbiting the Earth will determine whether the continents really are moving, forestalling the incipient rift among geologists about the validity of the theory of continental drift. [ ] adj. inflexibly set in opinion circular:asymmetrical=protean:rigid Synonyms: STIFF, immalleable, impliable, incompliant, inelastic, inflexible, unbending, unflexible, unyielding Sample: The actual rigidity of Wilson's position was always betrayed by his refusal to compromise after having initially agreed to negotiate a settlement. [ ] vt. to make agitated and angry:UPSET rile=volatile=?? appease<>rile placate<>rile rile<>conciliate Synonyms: ROIL, mud, muddle, muddy Sample: Red had a hair-trigger temper:he was an easy man to rile. [ ] vi. to indulge in revelry or wantonness sedate<>riot Synonyms: REVEL, carouse, frolic, hell, roister, spree, wassail Sample: The riot was marked not only by mayhem, with its attendant loss of life and limb, but also by arson and pillage. [ ] adj arousing or provoking laughter; especially:LAUGHABLE Synonyms: LAUGHABLE, comic, comical, droll, farcical, funny, gelastic, ludicrous, ridiculous Sample: His ideas are so grandiose that they are risible. [ ] n. a prescribed form or manner governing the words or actions for a ceremony rite<>improvised act Sample: The occult rites of the organization were revealed only to members. [ ] n. one of two or more striving to reach or obtain something that only one can possess Sample: The rival mobs engaged in a bitter vendetta. [ ] vt. to wrench open or tear apart or to pieces:REND rive<>unite Synonyms: TEAR, cleave, rend, rip, split [ ] adj. , , having the power to fix the attention:ENGROSSING, FASCINATING vapid<>riveting Sample: The reviewer described Byatt's novel Possession as a riveting tale:absorbed in
339

rivulet

robust

rodent

roil

roister

roster

rostrum

rosy

rouse

the story, he had finished it in a single evening. [ ] n. a small stream pittance:allowance=rivulet:stream := Sample: As the rains continued, the trickle of water running down the hillside grew into a rivulet that threatened to wash away a portion of the slope. [ ] adj. having or exhibiting strength or vigorous health robust<>sickness { formless } Sample: The candidate for the football team had a robust physique. [ ] n any of an order (Rodentia) of relatively small gnawing mammals (as a mouse, a squirrel, or a beaver) that have in both jaws a single pair of incisors with a chisel-shaped edge kangaroo:marsupial=squirrel:rodent ) Sample: Dental patterns often enable the taxonomist to distinguish members of one rodent species from those of another. [ ] v. to stir up:DISTURB, DISORDER roil<>clarify/appease/settle Synonyms: mud, muddle, muddy, IRRITATE, aggravate, burn (up), exasperate, grate, inflame, nettle, peeve, provoke, rile Sample: Be careful when you pour not to roil the wine; if you stir up the sediment you'll destroy the flavor. [ ] v. to engage in noisy revelry:CAROUSE roisterer:carouse=recluse:withdraw ) [ ] n a roll or list of personnel roster:personnel=slate:candidate roster:staff=obituary:death Sample: They print the roster of players in the season's program. n. a stage for public speaking rostrum:orator=bench:judge Sample: The crowd murmured angrily and indicated that they did not care to listen to the speaker who was approaching the rostrum. [ ] adj. characterized by or tending to promote optimism Synonyms: HOPEFUL, couleur de rose, encouraging, likely, promiseful, promising, roseate, rose-colored Sample: Rosy cheeks are a symbol of good health. [ ] vt. to stir up:EXCITE mollify<>rouse quell<>foment/instigate/rouse Synonyms: WAKE, awake, awaken, stir, waken Sample: Roused from the bed at what he considered an ungodly hour, Roy muttered imprecations under his breath.
340

rubicund

rudimentary

rue

ruffian

ruffle

ruminate

rumple

run

rupture

ruse

[ ] adj. having a healthy reddish color rubicund<>pale rubicund<>pallid Synonyms: RUDDY, florid, flush, flushed, full-blooded, glowing, sanguine [ ] adj. Being in the earliest stages of development; incipient. rudimentary<>full developed/fully realized Sample: His dancing was limited to a few rudimentary steps. [ ] n to feel penitence, remorse, or regret for longing:pine=remorse:rue rue<>satisfaction rueful<>impenitent Synonyms: REGRET, deplore, repent Sample: The artist has captured the sadness of childhood in his portrait of the boy with the rueful countenance. [ ] n. . adj. a brutal person:BULLY Sample: The ruffians threw stones at the police. [ ] n. a strip of fabric gathered or pleated on one edge hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet preen<>ruffle Synonyms: ANNOY, abrade, bother, chafe, exercise, fret, gall, irk, provoke Sample: Her blouse has a ruffle of lace around the neck. [ ] vt.vi. to go over in the mind repeatedly and often casually or slowly ruminate:decide museful:ruminative=lamentable:plaintive ruminative<>unreflective Synonyms: PONDER, deliberate, meditate, mull (over), muse, revolve, roll Sample: We cannot afford to wait while you ruminate upon these plans. [ ] n. FOLD, WRINKLE rumple:shirt=?? glaze<>rumple Sample: If you throw your clothes on the floor, they will rumple. [ ] n. an unbroken course of performances or showings,to be presented or performed for a continuous period of time journal:entries=run:performance [ ] n. breach of peace or concord; specifically:open hostility or war between nations rupture<>remain unbreakable Synonyms: BREACH, break, fissure, fracture, rent, rift, schism, split Sample: There was a rupture in diplomatic relations between the two countries because of a disagreement about the countries' borders. [ ] n.
341

rustic

rustle

sabbatical

sabotage

saccharine

sacrifice

sacrilege

a crafty stratagem; a subterfuge. paroxysm:sudden=ruse:deceived Synonyms: TRICK, artifice, feint, gambit, gimmick, jig, maneuver, ploy, stratagem, wile Sample: You will not be able to fool your friends with such an obvious ruse. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or suitable for the country:RURAL rustic<>polished urbane<>rude/rustic Synonyms: RURAL, agrestic, bucolic, campestral, countrified, country, out-country, outland, pastoral, provincial Sample: At school, his classmates regarded him as a yokel and laughed at his rustic mannerisms. [ ] v. to steal (as livestock) especially from a farm or ranch plagiarism:ideas=rustling:cattle Sample: We watched an old movie about two men who rustled horse [ ] adj. of or relating to the break or change from a normal routine sabbatical:leave=flattering:infatuation Sample: She isn't teaching this year because she's on sabbatical leave in Europe. [ ] vt. destructive or obstructive action carried on by a civilian or enemy agent to hinder a nation's war effort saboteur:disrupt=apologist:defend sabotage:subvertness=bull:intimidation { dupe:duplicity } Synonyms: undermining, wreckage, wrecking Sample: A worker sabotaged wires and cut off electricity to parts of the city. [ ] adj. overly or sickishly sweet sugar:saccharine=butter:margarin acerbity<>saccharin Sample: Aspartame, a new artificial sugar substitute, is only a partial replacement for saccharin because, unlike saccharin, it breaks down and loses its sweetening characteristics at high temperatures, making it unsuitable for baking. [ ] n. an act of offering to a deity something precious; especially:the killing of a victim on an altar worship:sacrifice=prediction:augury Synonyms: VICTIM , offering Sample: He felt it would be unrealistic, in view of the intense turmoil that would likely follow, to make the sacrifice required in order to gain such little advantage. [ ] n. a technical and not necessarily intrinsically outrageous violation (as improper reception of a sacrament) of what is sacred because consecrated to God sacrilege<>respect/reverent Synonyms: latitudePROFANATION, blasphemy, desecration, violation Sample: A century ago the physicians word was incontrovertible to doubt it was
342

saddle

safeguard

considered almost sacrilegious [ ] v. ; n to place (an onerous responsibility) on a person or group saddle<>?? Synonyms: BURDEN, charge, cumber, encumber, lade, load, task, tax, weigh, weight Sample: The manager was saddled with so many problems that he could not work well. [ ] n. a technical contrivance to prevent accident hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident Synonyms: DEFENSE aegis,armor, guard, protection, security, shield, ward Sample: Objectively set standards can serve as a safeguard for physicians, providing them protection from unjustified malpractice claims. List 25 sagacious --- signal

sagacious

salient

salmon

salubrious

[ ] adj of keen and farsighted penetration and judgment:DISCERNING prudence:daredevil=sagacity:simpleton=turncoat:constancy miser:stingy=sage:judicious sage:judgement=knave:deceive sensitive:boor=sagacity:simpleton sagacious<>without wisdom/puerile/folly/fatuous Synonyms: WISE, discerning, insighted , perceptive, sophic Sample: He is much too sagacious to be fooled by a trick like that. [ ] adj standing out conspicuously:PROMINENT; especially:of notable significance salient:ignore=incomprehensible:understand subtle:ignore=salient:observe salient<>unconspicuous Synonyms: NOTICEABLE, arresting, arrestive, conspicuous, marked, outstanding, prominent, remarkable, signal, striking Sample: One of the salient features of that newspaper is its excellent editorial page. [ ] n. a large anadromous salmonid fish (Salmo salar) of the No. Atlantic noted as a game and food fish salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist Sample: Fish ladders had to be built in the dams to assist the salmon returning to spawn in their native streams. [ ] adj . favorable to or promoting health or well-being instructive:comprehension=salubrious: virulent/insalubrious/deleterious<>salubrious/wholesome noxious<>salubrious insalubrious<>wholesome salubrious<>baneful squalor<>salubrious Synonyms: HEALTHFUL, good, healthy, hygienic, salutary, salutiferous, wholesome Sample: Many people with hay fever move to more salubrious sections of the country during the months of August and September.
343

salutary

[ ] adj producing a beneficial effect:REMEDIAL deleterious<>salutary/salubrious Synonyms: HEALTHFUL, good, healthy, hygienic, salubrious, salutiferous, wholesome Sample: The punishment had a salutary effect on the boy, as he became a model student. salutation [ ] n. an expression of greeting, goodwill, or courtesy by word, gesture, or ceremony salutation<>deportation Synonyms: GREETING, salute Sample: The salutation of the letter read "Dear Mom." salvage [ ] v. to rescue or save especially from wreckage or ruin Sample: Many industries are so beleaguered by the impact of government sanctions, equipment failure, and foreign competition that they are beginning to rely on industrial psychologists to salvage what remains of employee morale. salve [ ] n. v. an unctuous adhesive substance for application to wounds or sores placebo:innocuous=salve:unctuous salve<>irritant Synonyms: OINTMENT, balm, cerate, chrism, cream, unction, unguent Sample: Her apology was a salve for my anger. salvo [ ] n. a simultaneous discharge of two or more guns in military action or as a salute shot:salvo=?? sanctify [ ] vt. to set apart to a sacred purpose or to religious use:CONSECRATE desecrate<>sanctify/revere Synonyms: BLESS , consecrate, hallow Sample: The couple sanctified their wedding day by having a priest marry them in a church. sanction [ ] v. to give effective or authoritative approval or consent to dismiss<>sanction Synonyms: PERMISSION, allowance, authorization, consent, leave, permit, sufferance Sample: This is soeven though the armed forces operatein an ethos of institutional change oriented toward occupational equality and under the federal sanction of equal pay for equal equal work. sanctimonious [ ] adj. affecting piousness:hypocritically devout; also:indicative of affected piousness sanctimonious:devoted=unctuous:earnest Synonyms: HYPOCRISY, cant, hypocriticalness, pecksniffery, pharisaicalness, pharisaism, sanctimoniousness Sample: You do not have to be so sanctimonious to prove that you are devout. sand [ ] v. n. to smooth or dress by grinding or rubbing with an abrasive (as sandpaper) varnish:glossy=sand:smooth
344

sanguine

sanitation

sap

sapient

sapling sarcastic

sartorial

satiated

satire

sand:dune=word:sentence { water:canal} Sample: When you build a table, you should sand the wood before you paint it. [ ] adj. CONFIDENT, OPTIMISTIC sanguine<>despondent/hopeless sanguine<>morose Synonyms: BLOODY gory,imbrued MURDEROUS bloody; RUDDY, florid ,rubicund Sample: Let us not be too sanguine about the outcome; something could go wrong. [ ] n. the promotion of hygiene and prevention of disease by maintenance of sanitary conditions censorship:information=sanitation:disease noxious<>wholesome/sanitary/innocuous Sample: Strict sanitation is used in businesses such as barber shops and restaurants. [ ] vt. to weaken or exhaust the energy or vitality of sap<>invigorate Synonyms: WEAKEN, attenuate, blunt, cripple, debilitate, disable, enfeeble, unbrace, undermine, unstrengthen [ ] adj. possessing or expressing great sagacity sapient<>foolish Synonyms: WISE , judgmatic, judicious, prudent, sage, sane, sensible [ ] n. a young tree; specifically:one not over four inches in diameter at breast height [ ] adj. given to the use of sarcasm:CAUSTIC sarcasm<>praise Synonyms: acerb, acerbic, archilochian, caustic, corrosive Sample: I am afraid of his trenchant wit for it is so often sarcastic. [ ] adj. of or relating to a tailor or tailored clothes; broadly:of or relating to clothes tonsorial:hair=sartorial:apparel Sample: He was as famous for the sartorial splendor of his attire as he was for his acting. [ ] adj. to satisfy (as a need or desire) fully or to excess satiated:food=saturated:moisture sate<>starve Synonyms: full, glutted, gorged, jaded, sated, satiate, surfeited SATE, SURFEIT, CLOY, PALL, GLUT, GORGE Sample: The guests, having eaten until they were satiated, now listened inattentively to the speakers. [ ] n a literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or scorn panegyric:eulogize=lampoon:satirize satire:ridicule=elegy:sorrow
345

saturated

saturnine

saunter

savanna

savory

savvy

scale

reportage:journalist=ridicule:satirist {choreography:dancer} satire:lampoon=diligence:effort limerick:poem=lampoon:satire Synonyms: lampoonery, raillery, satiricalness Sample: Gulliver's Travels, which is regarded by many as a tale for children, is actually a bitter satire attacking human folly. [ ] adj full of moisture:made thoroughly wet satiated:food=saturated:moisture small:minuscule=moist:saturated obliterate:remove=saturated:wet Synonyms: WET, drenched,dripping , soaked , soaking ,sodden ,sopping , soused , wringing-wet Sample: Their clothes were saturated by the rain. [ ] adj. of a gloomy or surly disposition despondent:depressed=saturnine:gloomy/masterful:skilled saturnine<>jovial Synonyms: SULLEN, crabbed, dour, gloomy, glum, morose, sulky, surly, ugly Sample: Do not be misled by his saturnine countenance; he is not as gloomy as he looks. [ ] n./v. to walk about in an idle or leisurely manner:STROLL prate:speak=saunter:walk=drawl:speak Synonyms: amble, bummel, drift, linger, mope, mosey, muck, stroll Sample: As we sauntered through the park, we stopped frequently to admire the spring flowers. [ ] n. A flat grassland of tropical or subtropical regions. savanna<>slope [ ] adj. pleasing to the sense of taste especially by reason of effective seasoning mellifluous:sound=savory:taste savory<>noisome Synonyms: PALATABLE, aperitive, appetizing, flavorsome, relishing, sapid, savorous, savorsome, tasty, toothsome Sample: Julia Child's recipes enable amateur chefs to create savory delicacies for their guests. [ ] n./v. practical know-how savvy<>simplicity savvy<>tactless Sample: That politician has a lot of savvy about how to talk to TV and newspaper reporters. [ ] n. a.an instrument or machine for weighing b.an estimate of the amount of sound lumber in logs or standing timber gauge:pressure=scale:weight=yardstick:length
346

scalpel

scan

scanty

scarce

scare

scathing

schism

scintillating

color:spectrum=tone:scale Sample: She played a C-major scale on the piano. [ ] n a small straight thin-bladed knife used especially in surgery scalpel:surgeon=telescope:astronomer Sample: With a scalpel, the doctor cut into the patient's leg. [ ] vt. to read or mark so as to show metrical structure scan:metrical=parse:grammatical Synonyms: BROWSE, dip (into), flip (through), glance (at or over), leaf (through), , riffle (through), run (through or over), skim (through), thumb (through) [ ] adj. limited or less than sufficient in degree, quantity, or extent scant:considerable=?? voluminous<>scanty/scarce profuse<>scanty myriad<>scanty Synonyms: MEAGER , exiguous, poor, scrimp, scrimpy, skimp, sparse Sample: Thinking his helping of food was scanty, Oliver Twist asked for more. [ ] adj. deficient in quantity or number compared with the demand:not plentiful or abundant superfluity<>scarcity myriad<>few/scarce Synonyms: SHORT, deficient, failing, inadequate, insufficient, scant, scanty, shy, unsufficient, wanting Sample: When John's mother found out that he had overthrown his checking account for the third month in a row, she was so irate that she could scarcely speak to him. [ ] n. v. to frighten especially suddenly:ALARM scare:terrified=?? bully:scare=?? Synonyms: FRIGHTEN, affright, alarm, awe, fright, startle, terrify, terrorize Sample: The little boy had a scare when his sister locked him in a closet. [ ] adj. bitterly severe scathing<>politely {cooperative Synonyms: CAUSTIC mordacious, mordant, salty, trencha [ ] n. a separation or division into factions schism:consensus=interruption:continuity schism<>accord Sample: Unenlightened authoritarian manage rarely recognize a crucial reason for the low levels of serious conflict among members of democratically run work groups:a modicum of tolerance for dissent often prevents schism. [ ] adj brilliantly lively, stimulating, or witty scintillating<>foolly Synonyms: FLASH ,glance, gleam, glimmer, glint, glisten, glitter, shimmer, sparkle
347

scion

scoff

scooter

scorch

score

scorn

scour

scowl

scrappy

Sample: The party conversation scintillated as people told jokes and drank champagne. [ ] n. DESCENDANT, CHILD scion<>ancestor [ ] v. to show contempt by derisive acts or language pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate:aimless scoff:contempt=thankful:gratitude Synonyms: fleer, flout, gibe, gird, jeer, jest, quip (at), scout (at), sneer Sample: He scoffed at dentists until he had his first toothache. [ ] n. child's foot-operated vehicle consisting of a narrow footboard mounted between two wheels tandem with an upright steering handle attached to the front wheel oscillate:swing=momentum:scooter Sample: I like to ride my scooter to work because I can park in a small space. [ ] v. to dry or shrivel with or as if with intense heat:PARCH dampen<>scorch Synonyms: BURN, bake, broil, cook, melt, roast, swelter Sample: The fire scorched the walls of the house. [ ] n. the copy of a musical composition in written or printed notation director:script=conductor:score script:drama=score:music notes:score=symbols:rebus [ ] vt to treat with scorn:reject or dismiss as contemptible or unworthy deferential:offend=scornful:respect redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore venerable:reverence=despicable:scorn adulate<>scorn Synonyms: DESPITE contempt, despisal, despisement, disdain, disparagement Sample: Looking askance at her questioner, she displayed her scorn. [ ] vt. to rub hard especially with a rough material for cleansing scour:wash=?? Synonyms: HURRY beeline, bullet, fleet, flit, fly Sample: We scoured the woods for a lost child. [ ] vi. to contract the brow in an expression of displeasure scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection{hurl:disgust} Synonyms: FROWN , gloom, glower, lower Sample: The child scowled when his father asked him to share the cookie. [ ] adj. QUARRELSOMEhaving an aggressive and determined spirit: FEISTY scrappy<>timorous Synonyms: :UARRELSOME, battlesome, brawling, brawlsome
348

scrawl

screw

scribble

script

scrupulous

scrutable

scrutiny

scuff

Sample: She gets scrappy with people who don't agree with her politics. [ ] vt. to write or draw awkwardly, hastily, or carelessly scrawl<>write carefully Synonyms: SCRIBBLE, scrabble, scratch, squiggle Sample: He scrawled his ideas on paper and typed them neatly later. [ ] n. a nail-shaped or rod-shaped piece with a spiral groove and a slotted or recessed head designed to be inserted into material by rotating gear:tooth=screw:thread [ ] vt.vi. to write hastily or carelessly without regard to legibility or form tinker:adjust=scribble:write=mumble:talk Synonyms: scrabble, scratch, scrawl, squiggle [ ] n. the written text of a stage play, screenplay, or broadcast; specifically:the one used in production or performance director:script=conductor:score script:drama=score:music ) Sample: After the film editors had bowdlerized the language in the script, the motion picture's rating was changed from "R" to "PG." [ ] adj. having moral integrity:acting in strict regard for what is considered right or proper probity<>unscrupulousness Synonyms: UPRIGHT honest, just true CAREFUL , conscientious, exact, fussy, heedful, meticulous, painstaking, punctilious, punctual Sample: The value of Davis sociological research is com-promised by his unscrupulous tendency to use materials selectively in order to substantiate his own claims, while disregarding information that points to other possible conclusions. [ ] adj. capable of being deciphered:COMPREHENSIBLE mysterious<>scrutable Sample: Experienced poker players try to keep their expressions inscrutable, hiding their reactions to the cards behind a so-called poker face. [ ] n. a searching study, inquiry, or inspection:EXAMINATION observe:scrutinize=question:grill ) scrutinize:gloss=delve:skim scrutinize:look=?? scrutinize<>gloss over Synonyms: check over, check up, con, examine, inspect, perlustrate, study, survey Sample: In contrast to the incuriosity with which the acquisition of language by young children was once regarded, the process by which such learning occurs has now become the object of scrutiny . [ ] n./v. to scratch, gouge, or wear away the surface of scuff:abrasion=heat:vaporization Synonyms: SHUFFLE scuffle, shamble, shool, shovel
349

sculptor

scurrilous

scurvy

scythe

secluded

secrete

sedate

sedentary

Sample: I scuffed my shoes on the sidewalk. [ ] n. an artist who makes sculptures canvas:painter=marble:sculptor statue:sculpture=ode:poem Sample: A sculptor carved a statue of his lover in a piece of stone. [ ] adj. using or given to coarse language scurrilous:propriety=mercurial:constancy Synonyms: ABUSIVE, contumelious, invective, opprobrious, scurrile, truculent, vituperative, vituperatory, vituperous Sample: Your scurrilous remarks are especially offensive because they are untrue. [ ] adj. disgustingly mean or contemptible:DESPICABLE scurvy<>above reproach Synonyms: CONTEMPTIBLE, beggarly despicable, despisable, mean, pitiable, scummy, shabby Sample: Peter Pan sneered at Captain Hook and his scurvy crew. [ ] n. an implement used for mowing (as grass) and composed of a long curving blade fastened at an angle to a long handle scythe:reaper=axe:woodcutter Sample: The carpenter uses screws to put the table parts together. [ ] adj. Removed or remote from others; solitary hermitage:secluded=landmark:conspicuous Sample: We drove to a secluded spot in the country and had a lovely picnic. [ ] vt. to form and give off (a secretion) frank:secretiveness=honest:theft secrete<>absorb secrete<>divulge Synonyms: HIDE, bury, bush up, cache, conceal, cover, ensconce Sample: The pack rat secretes odds and ends in its nest; the pancreas secretes insulin in the islets of Langerhans. [ ] adj. to dose with sedatives sedative:pacify=antiseptic:sterlize sedative:drowsiness=anesthetic:numbness sedate<>roil sedate<>flighty Synonyms: :SERIOUS ,earnest,grave, sober, sobersided, solemn, somber, staid, weighty Sample: The parents were worried because they felt their son was too quiet and sedate. [ ] adj. not migratory:SETTLED migratory<>sedentary peripatetic<>sedentary
350

seduce

sedulous

seemly

seminal

seminary

sensation

Synonyms: :calm, placid, serene, tranquil Sample: Noting the murder victim's flaccid musculature and pearlike figure, she deduced that the unfortunate fellow had earned his living in some sedentary occupation. [ ] vt. to persuade to disobedience or disloyalty seduce<>discourage Synonyms: LURE, allure, bait, decoy, entice, entrap, inveigle, lead on, tempt, train Sample: The National Archives contain information so seductive that researchers have been known never to publish because they cannot bear to bring their studies to an end. [ ] adj. involving or accomplished with careful perseverance sedulous<>careless/lack of industriousness sedulous<>lazy Synonyms: ASSIDUOUS, diligent, industrious, operose Sample: The young woman was so sedulous that she received a commendation for her hard work. [ ] adj. conventionally proper:DECOROUS ribald:seemly=labyrinthine:direct seemly<>uncouth/ribald/indecorous Synonyms: DECOROUS ,becoming, befitting,conforming, decent, nice, proper, right Sample: Lady Bracknell did not think it was seemly for Ernest to lack a proper family; no baby abandoned on a doorstep could grow up to marry her daughter. [ ] adj. containing or contributing the seeds of later development seminal<>hampering further development seminal<>derivative Synonyms: :original Sample: Although Freud has generally been regarded as a seminal thinker who shaped the course of psychology, his psychoanalytic methods have come under attack recently. [ ] n. A school, especially a theological school for the training of priests, ministers, or rabbis conservatory:music=seminary:theology=observatory:astronomy Sample: Sure of his priestly vocation, Terrence planned to pursue his theological training at the local Roman Catholic seminary. [ ] n. a mental process (as seeing, hearing, or smelling) due to immediate bodily stimulation often as distinguished from awareness of the analgesic:pain=anesthetic:sensation numb:sensation=stiff:suppleness numb:insensible:burnish:lustrous bribe:incorruptible=affect/rouse:insensible sensation<>anesthesia sensation<>unnoticed event Synonyms: feeling, sense, sensibility WONDER, marvel, miracle, phenomenon, portent Sample: Human reaction to the realm of thought is often as strong as that to sensible presences; our higher moral life is based on the fact that material sensations actually
351

sensitive

sentinel

sepulchral

sequela

sequester

seraph

sere

serendipity

present may have a weaker influence on our action than do ideas of remote facts. [ ] adj. highly responsive or susceptible tactless/insensitive:offend=obstinate:preserve insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp sensitization:allergic=habituation:inured quixotic:idealistic=touchy:sensitive sensitive:boor=sagacity:simpleton tactile:touch=sentient:emotion {corse:surface} sensitive<>numb insensitive<>tender sentimental/sentient<>unconscious Synonyms: :impressible, responsive, sensile, susceptible, susceptive Sample: The successful reconstruction of an archaeological site requires scientific knowledge as well as cultural sensitivity. [ ] n. SENTRY:GUARD, WATCH; especially:a soldier standing guard at a point of passage (as a gate) sentinel:watchful=epicure:discriminating sentient<>unconscious Sample: Though camped in enemy territory, Bledsoe ignored the elementary precaution of posting sentinels around the encampment. [ ] adj. suited to or suggestive of a sepulchre:FUNEREAL, MORTUARY sepulchral<>merry Synonyms: mortuary, tumulary n. A secondary consequence or result precursor<>sequela [ ] vt. to place (property) in custody especially in sequestration sequester:seclusion=endanger:jeopardy sequester<>permit to mingle Synonyms: ISOLATE, close off, cut off, insulate, island, segregate, separate Sample: Although he had hoped for a long time to sequester himself in a small community, he never was able to drop his busy round of activities in the city. [ ] n.[ one of the 6-winged angels standing in the presence of God diabolical<>seraphic [ ] adj being dried and withered sere<>lush/damp Synonyms: DRY, arid, bone-dry, droughty, moistureless, thirsty, waterless Sample: After the unseasonably dry winter the Berkeley hills looked dusty and sere. [ ] n. the faculty or phenomenon of finding valuable or agreeable things not sought for serendipitous:effort=ineluctable:chance Sample: Many scientific discoveries are a matter of serendipity:Newton was not sitting
352

serenity

serfdom

sermon

serpentine

serrate

serried

servile

there thinking about gravity when the apple dropped on his head. [ ] n. the quality or state of being shining bright and steady perturb:serenity=reassure:double disturb:serenity=console:grief perturb:serenity=reassure:doubt havoc<>serenity tumultuous<>serene furor<>serenity vociferous<>serenity pandemonium<>serene tumult/bedlam/riot<>serenity Synonyms: CALM composed, easy, placid, poised, self-composed, self-possessed, tranquil Sample: As painted by Constable, the scene is not one of bucolic serenity; rather it shows a striking emotional and intellectual tension. [ ] n. a member of a servile feudal class bound to the soil and subject to the will of his lord serfdom<>lord [ ] n. a religious discourse delivered in public usually by a clergyman as a part of a worship service nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil homiletics:sermon=logic:argument Synonyms: preach, preaching, preachment, sermonizing [ ] adj. Of or resembling a serpent, as in form or movement; sinuous serpentine:directness=?? Sample: The car swerved at every curve in the serpentine road. [ ] adj. notched or toothed on the edge; specifically having marginal teeth pointing forward or toward the apex serrated<>without notches/smooth Synonyms: :denticulate, saw-edged, sawtooth, saw-toothed Sample: The beech tree is one of many plants that have serrated leaves. [ ] adj. crowded or pressed together:COMPACT serried<>widely separated Synonyms: SERRATE, denticulate, saw-edged, sawtooth, saw-toothed, serrated [ ] adj. meanly or cravenly submissive:ABJECT compliant:servile=trusting:gullible gullible:chicanery=servile:domination imperious:servile=bellicose:peaceable impetuous:hesitate=irrepressible:servile obsequious:servile=belligerent:assertive Synonyms: SUBSERVIENT , menial, obeisant, obsequious, slavish Sample: The king enjoyed the servile compliments and attentions of the sycophants in
353

severe

shackle

shadow

shale

sham

shard

shelter

his retinue. [ ] adj. rigorous in restraint, punishment, or requirement:STRINGENT, RESTRICTIVE mitigate:severe=qualify:general palmy:prosperity=draconian:severity Synonyms: ascetic, astringent, austere, mortified, stern Sample: The stern visage of the judge indicated that she had decided to impose a severe penalty. [ ] vt. to deprive of freedom especially of action by means of restrictions or handicaps:IMPEDE shackle<>loose/emancipate Synonyms: bond(s), chains, fetter(s), gyve(s), iron(s) Sample: Our times seem especially hospitable to bad ideas, probably because in throwing off the shackles of tradition, we have ended up being quite vulnerable to untested theories and untried remedies. [ ] vt. to follow especially secretly:TRAIL follow:shadow=leave:abscond follow:shadow=scheme:plot hear:eavesdrop=follow:shadow shadowy<>overt Synonyms: SHADE, adumbration, penumbra, umbra, umbrage Sample: We could see the morning sunlight illuminate the pinnacle while the rest of the mountain lay in shadow. [ ] n. a fissile rock that is formed by the consolidation of clay, mud, or silt, has a finely stratified or laminated structure, and is composed of minerals essentially unaltered since deposition shale:lode=well:aquifer [ ] v. n. adj. an imitation or counterfeit purporting to be genuine debunk<>perpetuate to sham Synonyms: IMPOSTURE, cheat, deceit, deception, fake, flimflam, hoax, put-on, sell, spoof Sample: He shammed sickness to get out of going to school. [ ] n. fragments of pottery vessels found on sites and in refuse deposits where pottery-making peoples have lived shard:pottery=fragment:bone=crumb:bread [ ] vt. n. to constitute or provide a shelter for:PROTECT conspicuous:sheltered=?? arbor:shelter=hedgerow:fence Synonyms: asylum,cover,covert,harbor, harborage, haven, port, refuge, retreat, sanctuary Sample: The archaeologist assigned several students the task of reassembling earthenware vessels from the shards he had brought back from the expedition.
354

shiftless

shirk

shopworn

shrewd

shrink

shrug

shun

shunt

shuttle

[ ] adj. lacking in ambition or incentive:LAZY shiftless:ambition=ingenuous:guile Sample: Stop being so shiftless; get out of bed and go to work. [ ] v to evade the performance of an obligation duty:shirk=question:parry parsimonious:skimp=malingering:shirk hoard:miser=shirk:malinger recluse:crowd=shirk:duty Synonyms: SNEAK, creep, gumshoe, lurk, pussyfoot, skulk, slink, slip Sample: Brian has a strong sense of duty; he would never shirk any responsibility. [ ] adj. stale from excessive use or familiarity shopworm<>new Synonyms: TRITE, cliche, cliched, hackneyed, stale, sterotypical, timeworn, tired, well-worn, worn-out [ ] adj. marked by clever discerning awareness and hardheaded acumen shrewd<>foolish shrewd<>na?ve Synonyms: argute, astucious, astute, cagey, heady, perspicacious, sagacious Sample: Because of its lack of theaters, the city came, ironically, to be viewed as an unimpressed theater town, and that reputation led entrepreneurs to believe that it would be shrewd to build new theaters there. [ ] n. to recoil instinctively Synonyms: CONTRACT, compress, concentrate, condense, constrict Sample: My wool sweater shrank when I washed it. [ ] vt.vi. to raise or draw in the shoulders especially to express aloofness, indifference, or uncertainty embrace:affection=shrug:indifference blush:embarrassment=nod:agreement=bow:respect=shrug:indifference Sample: Cynics believe that people who shrug off compliments do so in order to be praised twice. [ ] vt. to avoid deliberately and especially habitually haunt<>shun frequent<>shun { avoid } Synonyms: ESCAPE, avoid, bilk, double, duck, elude, eschew, evade, shy Sample: We thought the hermit was a miantrope because he shunned our society. [ ] v. to switch (as a train) from one track to another divert:shunt=retard:brake Sample: If the switchman failed to shunt the Silver Streak onto a side track, the train would plow right into Union Station. [ ] vt.vi
355

sidereal

signal

to cause to move or travel back and forth frequently Synonyms: shunt Sample: The shuttles leave the hotel for the airport every hour. [ ] adj. of, relating to, or expressed in relation to stars or constellations:ASTRAL arboreal:trees=sidereal:stars fluvial:river=sidereal:star star:sidereal=emotion:affective Synonyms: STELLAR , astral, starny, starry, stellular Sample: Although hampered by optical and mechanical flaws, the orbiting Hubble space telescope has relayed extraordinary images of distant sidereal bodies. [ ] adj. distinguished from the ordinary signal<>unremarkable Sample: The Grand Marshal of the parade raised his mace to signal that it was time for the procession to begin. List 26 simpleton --- stagnant

simpleton

simulate

sin

sincere

sinecure

[ ] n. a person lacking in common sense prudence:daredevil=sagacity:simpleton turncoat:constancy=simpleton:sagacity sensitive:boor=sagacity:simpleton Synonyms: FOOL , ament, cretin, feeb, half-wit, idiot, imbecile, moron, natural, zany [ ] vt. to give or assume the appearance or effect of often with the intent to deceive:IMITATE simulation<>authentic article Synonyms: ASSUME , act, affect, bluff, counterfeit, fake, feign, pretend, sham Sample: He simulated insanity in order to avoid punishment for his crime. [ ] n. an offense against religious or moral law peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation Synonyms: EVIL , crime, diablerie, iniquity, tort, wrong Sample: It is a sin to waste food when others do not have enough to eat. [ ] adj. free of dissimulation:HONEST authenticity:fraudulent=sincerity:hypocritical poseur:sincerity=recluse:gregariousness disingenuous:sincere=?? poseur<>sincere person badinage<>sincere conversation Synonyms: heartfelt, hearty, unfeigned, wholeheartedhonest, real, true Sample: Although he attempted repeatedly to disabuse her of her conviction of his insincerity, he was not successful; she remained adamant in her judgment. [ ] n. an office or position that requires little or no work and that usually provides an income sinecure<>arduous employment Sample: My job is no sinecure; I work long hours and have much responsibility.
356

sinew

singe

singular

sinister

sinuous

sip

siren

skeptic

[ ] n. solid resilient strength:POWER tendinous:sinewy= sinew<>weakness Synonyms: POWER , arm, beef, energy, force, might, muscle, potency, strength, strong Sample: The steak was too sinewy to chew [ ] v. to burn superficially or lightly:SCORCH; especially:to remove the hair, down, or fuzz from usually by passing rapidly over a flame singe:incinerate=erode:destruction Sample: I singed some hair when I blew out the candle. [ ] adj. distinguished by superiority:EXCEPTIONAL worldly<>singular Synonyms: SEVERAL , individual, particular, respectiveONLY Sample: Though the young man tried to understand Father William's singular behavior, he still found it odd that the old man incessantly stood on his head. [ ] adj. singularly evil or productive of evil Synonyms: baleful, malefic, maleficent, malign; compare Sample: We must defeat the sinister forces that seek our downfall. [ ] adj. of a serpentine or wavy form:WINDING Synonyms: WINDING, anfractuous, convoluted, flexuous, meandering, meandrous, serpentine, snaky, tortuous Sample: The snake moved in a sinuous manner. [ ] vi. to drink in small quantities sip:drink=mince:walk swill:sip=gobble:nibble quaff:sip=stride:mince quaff:sip=gobble:nibble swill<>sip Synonyms: DRINK, imbibe, quaff, sup (off or up), swallow, toss [ ] n. One of a group of sea nymphs who by their sweet singing lured mariners to destruction on the rocks surrounding their island. siren:unresist=juggernaut:unstop siren:sound=beacon:light Sample: allured by the song of the sirens, the helmsman steered the ship toward the reef. [ ] n. a person disposed to skepticism especially regarding religion or religious principles penitent:obdurate=skeptic:credulous votary<>skeptic credence<>skeptic/doubt Synonyms: doubter, doubting Thomas, headshaker, Pyrrhonian, Pyrrhonist, unbeliever, zetetic
357

sketchy

skimpy

skirt

skit

skittish

slake

slant

slate

slew

Sample: The popularity of pseudoscience and quack medicines in the nineteenth century suggests that people were very credulous but the gullibility of the public today makes citizens of yesterday look like hard-nosed skeptics. [ ] adj. wanting in completeness, clearness, or substance:SLIGHT, SUPERFICIAL fawn:imperiousness=elaborate:sketchy doggerel:poem=sketch:draw Synonyms: SUPERFICIAL, cursory, depthless, shallow, uncritical Sample: Although the records of colonial New England are sketchy in comparison with those available in France or England, the records of other English colonies in America are even more fragmentary. [ ] adj. deficient in supply or execution especially through skimping:SCANTY parsimonious:skimp=malingering:shirk Synonyms: MEAGER, exiguous, poor, scant, scanty, scrimp, scrimpy, skimp, spare, sparse [ ] vt. to avoid especially because of difficulty or fear of controversy skirt<>seek skirt<>face Synonyms: DODGE, eschew, shun Sample: We took a road that skirted the city to avoid traffic. [ ]n a brief burlesque or comic sketch included in a dramatic performance (as a revue) skit:play=anecdote:narrative vignette:scene=skit:drama Sample: At the picnic, the cousins put on a short skit about their grandparents. [ ] adj. easily frightened:RESTIVE Synonyms: EXCITABLE, agitable, alarmable, combustible, edgy, skittery, startlish, volatile Sample: She is as skittish as a kitten playing with a piece of string. [ ] vt. SATISFY, QUENCH gratify:desire=slake:thirst insatiate:slake=?? Synonyms: QUENCH Sample: When we reached the oasis, we were able to slake our thirst. [ ]v to present so as to conform to a particular bias or appeal to a certain audience slant<>assert without bias Synonyms: ASIDE, aslant, aslope, obliquely, sideways, sidewise, slantingly, slantways, slantwise [ ] n. a list of candidates for nomination or election roster:personnel=slate:candidate Sample: Please act as my proxy and vote for this slate of candidates in my absence. [ ] v.
358

slight

slight

slink

slippery

slipshod

sloppy

sloth

a large number paucity<>slew Synonyms: SPATE, abundance, raft, mort Sample: A slew of ants crawled over the candy bar. [ ] adj. small of its kind or in amount:SCANTY, MEAGER grievous<>slight prodigious<>slight slight<>ponderous massive<>slight Synonyms: THIN, attenuate, reedy, slender, slim, squinny, stalky, tenuous, twiggy Sample: The remark was only slightly humorous, inviting a chuckle, perhaps, but certainly not a guffaw. [ ] n. to treat with disdain or indifference celebration:lament=slight:show respect cosset<>slight slight<>show respect to Synonyms: NEGLECT, blink (at or away), discount, disregard, fail, forget, ignore, omit, overlook, overpass Sample: Hypersensitive and ready to take offense at any discourtesy, Bertha was always on the lookout for real or imaginary slights. [ ] v. to go or move stealthily or furtively (as in fear or shame):STEAL Synonyms: SNEAK, creep, gumshoe, lurk, pussyfoot, shirk, skulk, slide, steal Sample: He slinks around the house as though he shouldn't be there. [ ] adj. causing or tending to cause something to slide or fall dingy:glisten=slippery:adhere splint:mobility=ballast:instability=purchase:slippery Synonyms: SLICK, greasy, lubricious, slippy, slithery Sample: The mountaineer struggled to get a proper purchase on the slippery rock. [ ] adj. wearing loose shoes or slippers assiduous<>slipshod slipshod<>painstaking Synonyms: SHABBY, bedraggled, down-at-heel, scrubby, scruffy, shoddy, tacky, tagrag, tattered, threadbare Sample: This paper shows slipshod work; you need to learn to write better. [ ] adj wet so as to spatter easily:SLUSHY Synonyms: SLIPSHOD, botchy, careless, messy, slapdash, slovenly, unthorough, untidy Sample: The living room was sloppy, with magazines all over the floor. [ ] n. disinclination to action or labor:INDOLENCE rakish:restraint=slothful:assiduity Sample: Note how well the somewhat greenish coat of the sloth enables it to blend in
359

slouch

sloven

sluggard

sluggish

slumber

slur

sly

smarmy

smart

with its arboreal surroundings. [ ] v. to walk, stand, or sit with a gait or posture characterized by an ungainly stooping of the head and shoulders or excessive relaxation of body muscles:DROOP slouch<>stand erect [ ] adj. untidy especially in personal appearance:slovenly indulge:adherent=slovenly:dapper slovenly<>tidy slovenly<>natty slovenly<>dapper Synonyms: SLOVENLY, careless, disheveled, ill-kempt, messy, slipshod, sloppy, uncombed, unkempt, untidy Sample: Such slovenly work habits will never produce good products. [ ] n. an habitually lazy person rapscallion:mischievous=sluggard:lazy {cavalier:arrogant} Synonyms: bum, dolittle, do-nothing, faineant, idler, lazybones, loafer, slouch, slug, slugabed Sample: "You are a sluggard, a drone, a parasite," the angry father shouted at his lazy son. [ ] adj. averse to activity or exertion:INDOLENT; also:TORPID alacrity<>sluggish Synonyms: LETHARGIC, comatose, dopey, heavy, hebetudinous, slumberous, stupid, torpid Sample: Species with relatively sluggish metabolic rates, including hibernators, generally live longer than those whose metabolic rates are more rapid. [ ] n.v. to be in a torpid, slothful, or negligent state Synonyms: LETHARGY, coma, dullness, hebetude, languor, lassitude, sleep, stupor, torpidity, torpor Sample: I went into a deep slumber that lasted all night. [ ] n. an insulting or disparaging remark or innuendo:ASPERSION Synonyms: ANIMADVERSION, aspersion, obloquy, reflection, slam, stricture Sample: Polls revealed that the front-runner's standing had been damaged by the slurs and innuendoes circulated by his opponent's staff. [ ] adj. lacking in straightforwardness and candor:DISSEMBLING sly<>artless sly<>ingenuous Synonyms: CLEVER, adroit, canny, cunning, dexterous, ingenious, slim Sample: His sly remark made her turn red and giggle. [ ] adj. Hypocritically, complacently, or effusively earnest; unctuous smarmy<>earnest [ ] vi.
360

smart

smattering

smirk

smother

smug

smuggle

snare

snarl

a smarting pain; especially:a stinging local pain smart:pain=grieve:sorrow smart<>soothe Sample: The country smarted under the ignominious defeat and dreamed of the day when it would be victorious. [ ] adj. stylish or elegant in dress or appearance tatty<>smart Synonyms: STYLISH, chic, dashing, exclusive, fashionable, modish Sample: He wore a smart suit with new shoes. [ ] n. superficial piecemeal knowledge erudite<>smattering of knowledge/ignorant/unlettered Synonyms: Being sophomoric, being half-baked Sample: I don't know whether it is better to be ignorant of a subject or to have a mere smattering of information about it. [ ] v to smile in an affected or smug manner:SIMPER smirk:smugness=sneer:derision Synonyms: simper Sample: Wipe that smirk off your face! [ ] vt. to be overcome or killed through or as if through lack of air smother:choke=?? Synonyms: SUFFOCATE, asphyxiate, choke, stifle Sample: The killer smothered the man by putting a pillow over his face. [ ] adj. highly self-satisfied smirk:smugness=sneer:derision primp:vain=gloat:smug Synonyms: COMPLACENT, priggish, self-complacent, self-contented, self-pleased, self-satisfied Sample: The action and charades in a melodrama can be so immediately classified that all observers can hiss the villain with an air of smug but enjoyable condescension. [ ] v. to convey or introduce surreptitiously collude:cooperate=smuggle:convey smuggle<>transport openly Synonyms: bootleg, contraband, run Sample: Dealers in cocaine smuggle the drug into the USA. [ ] v. n. to capture by or as if by use of a snare snare<>boo Synonyms: CATCH, benet, catch up, ensnare, entangle, entrap, tangle, trap [ ] vi to cause to become knotted and intertwined:TANGLE. To growl viciously while baring the teeth exoneration:blame=disentangle:snarl
361

sneer

snob

snub

soak

sober

sodden

solace

disentangle<>snarl snarler<>coo Synonyms: COMPLICATE, entangle, muddle, perplex, ravel, tangle Sample: As docile as he seems today, that old lion was once a ferocious, snarling beast. [ ] n.vt. to smile or laugh with facial contortions that express scorn or contempt smirk:smugness=sneer:derision wince:pain=smile:pleasure=pout:displeasure=sneer:contempt Synonyms: SCOFF, fleer, flout, gibe, gird, jeer, jest, quip (at), scout (at) Sample: That ingrate Bob sneered at the tie I gave him. [ ] n. one who has an offensive air of superiority in matters of knowledge or taste attentive:officious=refined:snobbish={absorbed:engrossed} Sample: They are snobs who drink only expensive French wine and won't listen to rock 'n' roll. [ ] v. to treat with contempt or neglect dissemble:honesty=snub:politeness ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub snub:disdain=double cross:disloyalty court<>snub Synonyms: CUT, cold-shoulder, ostracize, snob Sample: She rebuffed his invitation so smoothly that he did not realize he had been snubbed. [ ] v. to lie immersed in liquid (as water):become saturated by or as if by immersion soaking:wet=exuberant:happy=frigid:cool castigation:reproof=soaking:damp soaking:damp=frigid:cool Synonyms: drench, impregnate, insteep, saturate, seethe, sodden, souse, steep, waterlog Sample: The strawberries had been soaking in the champagn for so long that they had begun to macerate:they literally fell apart at the touch of a spoon. [ ] adj. marked by sedate or gravely or earnestly thoughtful character or demeanor puckish<>sober sumptuousness<>sobriety frivolous<>sober flippancy<>sobriety trepidation<>sober Synonyms: GRAVE, earnest, staid Sample: His sober demeanor quieted the noisy revelers. [ ] adj. , heavy with or as if with moisture or water marsh:sodden=desert:arid Synonyms: SATURATED, soggy, soppy, logged Sample: He set his sodden overcoat near the radiator to dry. [ ] n./v. alleviation of grief or anxiety
362

solder

solemn

solicitous

solidify

solitude

solvent

solace:grief=pacification:anger Synonyms: PLACATE, propitiate, console Sample: I hope you will find solace in the thought that all of us share your loss. [ ] v. to unite or make whole by solder breach<>solder solder<>breach Synonyms: WELD Sample: The plumber fixed the leak in the pipes by soldering a couple of joints from which water had been oozing. [ ] adj marked by grave sedateness and earnest sobriety jest<>solemnity Synonyms: SERIOUS, earnest, grave, no-nonsense, sedate, sober, sobersided, somber, staid, weighty Sample: The minister was concerned that nothing should disturb the solemnity of the marriage service. [ ] adj. full of concern or fears:APPREHENSIVE solicitous<>unconcerned Synonyms: EAGER, anxious, appetent, ardent, athirst, avid, impatient, keen, raring, thirsty Sample: The employer was very solicitous about the health of her employees as replacements were difficult to get. [ ]v to make solid, compact, or hard pulverize<>solidify Synonyms: HARDEN, cake, concrete, congeal, dry, indurate, set Sample: The cold water solidified into ice. [ ] n. the quality or state of being alone or remote from society:SECLUSION recluse:solitude=toady:favor Synonyms: aloneness, isolation, loneness, solitariness Sample: Cherishing his solitude, the recluse shunned the company of other human beings. [ ] adj. n. able to pay all legal debts coagulant:thicken=solvent:dissolve profligate:solvent=mercurial:committed regimen:health=budget:solvency Sample: By dint of of a dismal or depressing character:MELANCHOLY cherubic<>somber adulation<>somber affection droll<>somber Synonyms: DARK, caliginous, dim, dusk, dusky, gloomy, lightless, murky, obscure, tenebrous Sample: From the doctor's grim expression, I could tell he had somber news.
363

somnolence

sonata

sonnet

soothe

sop

sophism

sophistication

sophomoric

soporific

[ ] n. the quality or state of being drowsy:SLEEPINESS ennui:enthusiastic=somnolence:alert Sample: The heavy meal and the overheated room made us all somnolent and indifferent to the speaker. [ ] n. an instrumental musical composition typically of three or four movements in contrasting forms and keys dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata Sample: Unlike many recent interpretations of Beethovens piano sonatas, the recitalists performance was a delightfully free and introspective one; nevertheless, it was also, seemingly paradoxically, quite controlled. [ ] n. a fixed verse form of Italian origin consisting of fourteen lines that are typically fivefoot iambics rhyming according to a prescribed scheme; also:a poem in this pattern sonnet:poet=symphony:composer sonnet:verse monger=?? [ ] vt. to please by or as if by attention or concern:PLACATE,RELIEVE, ALLEVIATE vex<>pacify/appease/soothe smart<>soothe Synonyms: PLACATE, relieve, alleviate Sample: After his vacation in this placid section, he felt soothed and rested. [ ] n. a conciliatory or propitiatory bribe, gift, or gesture sop:conciliatory=subsidy:supportive sopping:dampen=frigid:cool Sample: They did not make him president of the company, but they gave him a new title as a sop. [ ] n an argument apparently correct in form but actually invalid; especially:such an argument used to deceive sophism:reasoning=counterfeit:money Synonyms: CASUISTRY [ ] n. the process or result of becoming cultured, knowledgeable, or disillusioned; especially:CULTIVATION, URBANITY ingenue:sophistication=cynic:trustfulness callow<>behaving with adult sophistication politic<>unsophisticated bucolic<>sophisticated Sample: Sophistication is an acquired characteristic, found more frequently among city dwellers than among residents of rural areas. [ ] adj. conceited and overconfident of knowledge but poorly informed and immature Sample: Your sophomoric remarks are a sign of your youth and indicate that you have not given much thought to the problem. [ ] adj.
364

sordid

sound

sparse

spartan

spat

spate

tending to dull awareness or alertness soporific:sleep=vaccinating:immunity soporific:alertment=anesthetic:pain soporific<>stimulant soporific<>provocative Synonyms: MESMERIZING, hypnotic Sample: I do not need a sedative when I listen to one of his soporific speeches. [ ] adj. marked by baseness or grossness:VILE sordid<>wholesome Synonyms: DIRTY, black, filthy, foul, grubby, impure, nasty, squalid, unclean, uncleanly Sample: The social worker was angered by the sordid housing provided for the homeless. [ ] adj. SOLID, FIRM; also:STABLE ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity decrepit<>sound tenable<>unjustified/unsound Synonyms: VALID, cogent, convincing, satisfactory, satisfying, solid, telling Sample: At first glance, the notion that Styrofoam cups may actually be more ecologically sound than paper cups strikes most environmentalists as subversive. [ ] adj. of few and scattered elements; especially:not thickly grown or settled copious<>sparse sparse<>rife Synonyms: MEAGER, exiguous, poor, scant, scanty, scrimp, scrimpy, skimp, skimpy, spare Sample: Although it seems axiomatic that there would be a greater risk of serious automobile accidents in densely populated areas, such accidents are more likely to occur in sparsely populated regions. [ ] adj. marked by simplicity, frugality, or avoidance of luxury and comfort spartan<>sybaritic/indulgent/voluptuous/luxurious voluptuous<>spartan spartan<>sumptuous luxuriant<>spartan Synonyms: ASCETIC, austere Sample: Looking over the bare, unheated room with its hard cot, he wondered what he was doing in such spartan quarters. Only his spartan sense of duty kept him at his post. [ ] n. a brief petty quarrel or angry outburst cabal:association=spat:quarrel Synonyms: QUARREL, altercation, beef, bickering, dispute, falling-out, fight, hassle, miff, tiff Sample: What had started out as a mere spat escalated into a full-blown argument. [ ] n. a large number or amount
365

specialize

specious

speck

spectator

spectrum

speculate

spendthrift

spate<>dearth Synonyms: SLEW, raft Sample: I am worried about the possibility of a spate if the rains do not diminish soon. [ ] vi. to pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study dabbler<>specialist dabble<>specialize Synonyms: ITEMIZE, enumerate, inventory, list, particularize, specify Sample: The failure of many psychotherapists to utilize the results of pioneering research could be due in part to the specialized nature of such findings:even momentous findings may not be useful. [ ] adj having a false look of truth or genuineness:SOPHISTIC specious:authenticity=?? specious<>valid Synonyms: FALSE, counterfactual, erroneous, inaccurate, incorrect, unsound, untrue, wrong Sample: Let us not be misled by such specious arguments. [ ] n. a very small amount:BIT mite:creature=speck:amount Synonyms: MODICUM, whit, smattering Sample: The airplane looks like a speck in the clouds. [ ] n. one who looks on or watches epicure:discriminating=spectator:watching Synonyms: BEHOLDER, bleacherite, onlooker Sample: The spectators in the amphitheater cheered the gladiators. [ ] n. a continuum of color formed when a beam of white light is dispersed (as by passage through a prism) so that its component wavelengths are arranged in order color:spectrum=tone:scale Sample: The visible portion of the spectrum includes red at one end and violet at the other. [ ] vi. to meditate on or ponder a subject:REFLECT conjecture<>restrain from the speculation Synonyms: MEDITATE, ponder, ruminate, mull over Sample: Future generations will probably consider current speculations about humanity's place in the universe to be marred by omissions and errors; even rigorous scientific views change, sometimes overnight. [ ] n. a person who spends improvidently or wastefully craven:hero=parsimonious:spendthrift miser:parsimonious=spendthrift:prodigal spendthrift<>miser Synonyms: high roller, prodigal, profligate, scattergood, spender, squanderer, unthrift, waster, wastethrift, wastrel
366

spent

spindly

spiny

spire

spleen

splint

spoil

spoke

spontaneous

Sample: Easy access to credit encourages people to turn into spendthrifts who shop till they drop. [ ] adj. drained of energy or effectiveness:EXHAUSTED precarious:stability=spent:efficacy Synonyms: EFFETE, all in, bleary, depleted, drained, exhausted, far-gone, used up, washed-out, worn-out Sample: She was spent after running seven miles. [ ] adj of a disproportionately tall or long and thin appearance that often suggests physical weakness limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty lanky, rangy, spindling [ ] adj. abounding with difficulties, obstacles, or annoyances:THORNY Synonyms: THORNY, nettlesome, prickly Sample: She is facing a a spiny problem [ ] n. a tapering roof or analogous pyramidal construction surmounting a tower spire:church=minaret:mosque Sample: He could see the church spire above the trees. [ ] n. feelings of anger or ill will often suppressed spleen<>good will Synonyms: MALICE, despite, despitefulness, grudge, ill will, malevolence, maliciousness, malignancy, spite, spitefulness [ ] n. material or a device used to protect and immobilize a body part (as a broken arm) splint:mobility=ballast:instability=purchase:slippery splint:immobilize=duct:convey buttress:edifice=splint:limb crumb:bread=splint:wood Sample: The doctor put a splint on the boy's broken arm to hold it in place. [ ] vt. to pamper excessively:CODDLE cosseted<>unspoiled Synonyms: DOTE, cosset, cocker Sample: Exposure to low-intensity gamma radiation slows the rate of growth of the spoilage microorganisms in food in much the same way that the low heat used in pasteurization inhibits the spoilage action of the microorganisms in milk. [ ] n any of the small radiating bars inserted in the hub of a wheel to support the rim spoke:hub=radius:center [ ] adj. arising from a momentary impulse juggernaut:unstoppable=extemporization:spontaneous {boast:dishonest} spontaneous<>premeditated ingenious<>prosaic { spontaneous}
367

spoof

sporadic

sprain

sprightly

spur

spurious

spurn

Sample: Although Simpson was ingenious at contriving to appear innovative and spontaneous, beneath the ruse he remained uninspired and rigid in his approach to problem-solving. [ ] n. A gentle satirical imitation; a light parody. ode:poetry=spoof:parody nicety:distinction=spoof:parody Synonyms: IMPOSTURE, cheat, deceit, deception, fake, flimflam, phony, put-on, sell, sham Sample: The comedian did a spoof of the situation in the White House. [ ] adj. occurring occasionally, singly, or in scattered instances chronic<>sporadic sporadic<>regular Synonyms: INFREQUENT, few, occasional, rare, scarce, seldom, semioccasional, uncommon, unfrequent Sample: The prevailing union of passionate interest in detailed facts with equal devotion to abstract generalization is a hallmark of our present society; in the past this union appeared, at best, sporadically and as if by chance. [ ] n. a sudden or violent twist or wrench of a joint with stretching or tearing of ligaments sprain:injure=cold:contagion Synonyms: turn, twist, wrench Sample: I lifted a heavy box and have a sprain in my arm. [ ] adj. marked by a gay lightness and vivacity:SPIRITED dodder:unsteady=cavort:sprightly hangdog<>sprightly Synonyms: LIVELY, alert, animate, animated, gay, keen, spirited, unpedantic, vivacious [ ] vt. to incite to action or accelerated growth or development:STIMULATE deter<>spur Synonyms: URGE, egg (on), exhort, goad, prick, prod, prompt Sample: The dark clouds spurred us to work faster before the rain started. [ ] adj. outwardly similar or corresponding to something without having its genuine qualities:FALSE spurious<>genuine Synonyms: ARTIFICIAL, dummy, ersatz, false, imitation, mock, sham, simulated, substitute Sample: The hero of Jonathan Gash's mystery novels is an antique dealer who gives the reader advice on how to tell spurious antiques from the real things. [ ] v. to reject with disdain or contempt:SCORN spurn<>welcome willingly spurn<>court/crave/embrace spurned<>beloved
368

squabble

squalid

squall

squander

squint

squelch

stagnant

Synonyms: DECLINE , disapprove, dismiss, refuse, reject, reprobate, repudiate, turn down Sample: The heroine spurned the villain's advances. [ ] n. a noisy altercation or quarrel usually over trifles squabble:dispute=foible:failing tiff:squabble=foible:failing squabble:quarrel=foible:failing Synonyms: QUARREL, altercation, beef, bickering, controversy, dispute, fight, hassle, row, tiff Sample: Children invariably get involved in petty squabbles; wise parents know when to interfere and when to let the children work things out on their own. [ ] adj. marked by filthiness and degradation from neglect or poverty squalid<>pristine splendor<>squalor squalor<>salubrious squalor<>immaculate Synonyms: SHABBY, broken-down, dilapidated, dingy, disreputable, run-down, scrubby, seedy, shoddy, sleazy Sample: It is easy to see how crime can breed in such a squalid neighborhood. [ ] n. a short-lived commotion squall:commotion=flash:illumination Synonyms: QUARREL, altercation, beef, bickering, brawl, dispute, falling-out, feud, fight, hassle [ ] vt. to spend extravagantly or foolishly:DISSIPATE husband<>squander conserve<>waste/squander/exhaust Synonyms: WASTE, blow, consume, dissipate, fool (away), fritter, frivol away, prodigalize, throw away, trifle (away) Sample: Ever prey to vagrant impulses that impelled him to squander his talents on a host of unworthy projects, his very dissipation nonetheless enhanced his reputation, for the sheer energy of his extravagance dazzled observers. [ ] v. looking or tending to look obliquely or askance (as with envy or disdain) squint:eye=pucker:mouth Synonyms: squinch, squinny [ ] n./v to completely suppress:QUELL squelch<>foment Synonyms: QUELL, quash, subjugate, subdue, squash, tramp down Sample: The speaker squelched her listener's argument with several examples and facts. [ ] adj. not advancing or developing stagnant<>flowing Synonyms: STATIC, immobile, stationary, unmoving
369

staid

stalemate

stalk

stalwart

stammer

stanza

stark

Sample: The stagnant water was a breeding ground for disease. List 27 staid --- swear [ ] adj. marked by settled sedateness and often prim self-restraint:SOBER, GRAVE staid<>jaunty puckish<>staid Synonyms: SERIOUS, earnest, grave, no-nonsense, sedate, sober, sobersided, solemn, somber, weighty Sample: Her conduct during the funeral ceremony was staid and solemn. [ ] n. a drawn contest:DEADLOCK clog:drainage=stalemate:negotiations Synonyms: DEADLOCK, logjam Sample: Negotiations between the union and the employers have reached a stalemate; neither side is willing to budge from previously stated positions. [ ] v. to pursue by tracking stealthily collude:cooperate=stalk:follow stalk:follow=infiltrate:enter Synonyms: still-hunt Sample: In Stalking the Wild Asparagus, Euell Gibbons has as his prey not wild beasts but wild plants. [ ] adj marked by outstanding strength and vigor of body, mind, or spirit lank<>stalwart timorous<>stalwart Synonyms: HALE, stout, sturdy, robust Sample: His consistent support of the party has proved that he is a stalwart and loyal member. [ ] v to make involuntary stops and repetitions in speaking:HALT falter:act=stammer:speak Synonyms: STUTTER, falter Sample: The bereaved father sobbed and stammered, his words becoming almost incoherent in his grief. [ ] n a division of a poem consisting of a series of lines arranged together in a usually recurring pattern of meter and rhyme:STROPHE ballad:stanza=novel:chapter stanza:line=volume:issue stanza:poem=movement:symphony Sample: Do you know the last stanza of "The Star-Spangled Banner"? [ ] adj. rigid in or as if in death Synonyms: RIGID, desolate Sample: Melodramas, which presented stark oppositions between innocence and criminality, virtue and corruption, good and evil, were popular precisely because they offered the audience a world devoid of neutrality.
370

startle

static

stature

status

steadfast

stealth

steep

stench

stentorian

[ ] vt. to frighten or surprise suddenly and usually not seriously startle<>lull Synonyms: FRIGHTEN, affright, alarm, awe, fright, scare, terrify, terrorize Sample: Marison was a scientist of unusual insight and imagination who had startling success in discerning new and fundamental principles well in advance of their general recognition. [ ] adj. characterized by a lack of movement, animation, or progression static:move=pliable:inflexible motility<>stasis Synonyms: immobile, stagnant, stationary, unmoving Sample: Nothing had changed at home; things were static there [ ] n. natural height (as of a person) in an upright position stature:tall=sound:loud Sample: Most professional basketball players are tall in stature. [ ] n. relative rank in a hierarchy of prestige; especially:high prestige abase:status=shorten:length Synonyms: cachet, consequence, dignity, position, prestige, rank, standing, state, stature Sample: A unique clay disk found at the Minoan site of Phaistos is often adduced as the earliest example of printing by scholars who have defended its claim to this status despite equivalent claims put forward for other printing artifacts. [ ] adj. firmly fixed in place:IMMOVABLE capricious<>steadfast Synonyms: STAUNCH, adamant, resolute Sample: Penelope was steadfast in her affections, faithfully waiting for Ulysses to return from his wanderings. [ ] n. the act or action of proceeding furtively, secretly, or imperceptibly caprice:whimsical=stealth:furtive=discontent:unsatisfied Sample: Fearing detection by the sentries on duty, the scout inched his way toward the enemy camp with great stealth. [ ] vt.vi. to saturate with or subject thoroughly to steep<>parch Synonyms: SATURATE, soak, immerse Sample: Be sure to steep the fabric in the dye bath for the full time prescribed. [ ] n. to emit a strong offensive odor:STINK stench:nose=din:ear { glimmer:eye} [ ] adj extremely loud audible:stentorian=discernable:obvious audible:stentorian=discernible:manifest
371

sterile

stickler

stiff

stifle

stigma

stilted

stint

stingy

stentorian<>faint Synonyms: earsplitting, raucous, strident Sample: The town crier had stentorian voice. [ ] adj. free from living organisms and especially microorganisms verdant<>sterile Synonyms: barren, effete, impotent, infecund, infertile, unfruitful Sample: A hospital's operating room is a sterile area. [ ] n one who insists on exactness or completeness in the observance of something stickler:approximation/imprecision=purist:adulteration stickler:exacting=martinet:discipline stickler:excating=pedagogue:indoctrinate stickler:derelict=poseur:unaffected Sample: The Internal Revenue Service agent was a stickler for accuracy; no approximations or rough estimates would satisfy him. [ ] adj lacking in suppleness or responsiveness numb:sensation=stiff:suppleness suppleness<>stiffness/rigidness Synonyms: immalleable, impliable, incompliant, inelastic, inflexible, rigid, unbending, unflexible, unyielding Sample: I felt stiff at the tea party, in my new suit and tight shoes. [ ] vt to withhold from circulation or expression:REPRESS foment<>stifle foster<>stifle {retract } Synonyms: SUFFOCATE, asphyxiate, choke, quackle, smother Sample: Halfway through the boring lecture, Laura gave up trying to stifle her yawns. [ ] n. a mark of shame or discredit:STAIN stigma<>mark of esteem Synonyms: blot, blur, brand, odium, onus, slur, spot, stain Sample: I do not attach any stigma to the fact that you were accused of this crime; the fact that you were acquitted clears you completely. [ ] adj. POMPOUS, LOFTY Synonyms: GENTEEL, affected, mincing, pretentious Sample: His stilted rhetoric did not impress the college audience; they were immune to bombastic utterances [ ] v. :stink (n. ) to be sparing or frugal lavish<>stint Synonyms: SCRIMP, pinch, scrape, screw, skimp, skinch, spare Sample: The old man could not have been accused of stinting his affection; his conduct toward the child betrayed his adoration of her. [ ] adj. not generous or liberal:sparing or scant in giving or spending
372

stipple

stipulate

stock

stockade

stodgy

stoic

stolid

stouthearted

miser:stingy=sage:judicious generosity<>stinginess Synonyms: close, niggardly, parsimonious, penurious, miserly Sample: That stingy lady won't spend money on heating her apartment. [ ] v to engrave by means of dots and flicks stipple:dot=striate:band Synonyms: SPECKLE , freckle, speck, sprinkle Sample: Seurat carefully stippled dabs of pure color on the canvas, juxtaposing dots of blue and yellow that the viewer's eye would interpret as green. [ ] v. To lay down as a condition of an agreement; require by contract. stipulation<>tacit requirement Sample: Before agreeing to reduce American military forces in Europe, the president stipulated that NATO teams be allowed to inspect Soviet bases. [ ] n. adj. a store or supply accumulated; especially:the inventory of goods of a merchant or manufacturer census:population=inventory:stock stock<>unique Synonyms: RESERVE, hoard, inventory, reservoir, stockpile, store Sample: A shrewd investor, he took clever advantage of the fluctuations of the stock market. [ ] n. an enclosure or pen made with posts and stakes stockade:enclosure=pillar:support [ ] adj. BORING, DULL stodgy<>exciting Synonyms: DULL, dim, dreary, humdrum, monotone, monotonous, pedestrian, plodding Sample: For a young person, Winston seems remarkably stodgy:you'd expect someone of his age to have a little more life. [ ] adj. not affected by or showing passion or feeling; especially:firmly restraining response to pain or distress stoic:perturb=avaricious:satisfy stoic<>flinch Synonyms: IMPASSIVE, phlegmatic, apathetic, stolid Sample: The doctor called her patient a stoic because he had borne the pain of the examination without whimpering. [ ] adj. having or expressing little or no sensibility:UNEMOTIONAL Synonyms: IMPASSIVE, phlegmatic, apathetic, stoic Sample: The earthquake shattered his usual stolidity; trembling, he crouched on the no longer stable ground. adj. having a stout heart or spirit:STUBBORN
373

straggle

strait

stratify

stray

strength

striate

stricture

stride

strident

strike

pusillanimous<>stouthearted Synonyms: BRAVE , bold, courageous, dauntless, doughty, fearless, intrepid, unafraid, undaunted, valiant [ ] vi. to wander from the direct course or way:ROVE, STRAY Synonyms: WANDER , drift, meander, ramble, range, roam, rove, stray Sample: The new soldiers straggled behind the neat lines. [ ] n. a comparatively narrow passageway connecting two large bodies of water b:a situation of perplexity or distress isthmus:land=strait:water Sample: Both he and his wife are ill and have lost their jobs:they are in dire straits. [ ] v. to divide or arrange into classes, castes, or social strata stratify<>homogenize Sample: The different-colored rocks have stratified over millions of years. [ ] adj. vi. to wander accidentally from a fixed or chosen route digressive:topic/subject=stray:group stray:group=digress:subject Synonyms: DIGRESS , depart, divagate, diverge, excurse, ramble, wander Sample: Their daughter has strayed:she left school and started using drugs. [ ] n. degree of potency of effect or of concentration slacken:tautness=dilute:strength Sample: There is an inverse ratio between the strength of light and its distance. [ ] vt. to mark with striations or striae grooved:striated=braided:stranded stipple:dot=striate:band striated:groove=dappled:spot Sample: The glacier left many striated rocks. [ ] n. an adverse criticism:CENSURE eulogy<>stricture Synonyms: ANIMADVERSION, aspersion, obloquy, reflection, slam, slur Sample: His strictures on the author's style are prejudiced and unwarranted. [ ] vi.vt. to move with or as if with long steps quaff:sip=stride:mince Sample: The president strode across the White House lawn to the helicopter. [ ] adj. characterized by harsh, insistent, and discordant sound stridency:sound=acridity:odor Synonyms: VOCIFEROUS, blatant, boisterous, clamorous, dinsome, obstreperous Sample: I think these regulations are too stringent. [ ] v. To form by stamping, printing, or punching:
374

stringent

strip

strut

strut

stubborn

studio

stultify

stun

stunt

sturdy

strike:medal=mint:coin [ ] adj. marked by rigor, strictness, or severity especially with regard to rule or standard stringent<>lax Synonyms: RIGID , draconian, ironhanded, rigorous, strict, unpermissive Sample: I think these regulations are too stringent. [ ] v. to remove clothing, covering, or surface matter from bedeck<>strip Synonyms: denude, disrobe, unclothe, undress Sample: The king was stripped of his power and became an ordinary citizen. [ ] vi. to walk with a pompous and affected air pontificate:speak=strut:walk Sample: His strut as he marched about the parade ground revealed him for what he was:a pompous buffoon. [ ] n. a structural piece designed to resist pressure in the direction of its length strut:wing=buttress:wall Sample: The engineer calculated that the strut supporting the rafter needed to be reinforced. [ ] adj. unreasonably or perversely unyielding:MULISH Synonyms: OBSTINATE, bullheaded, headstrong, intractable, mulish, refractory, willful, unyielding Sample: My stubborn little boy would not put his coat on; he held his arms to his sides and said, "No, no." [ ] n. the working place of a painter, sculptor, or photographer studio:artist=laboratory:scientist ) [ ] vt. to have a dulling or inhibiting effect on stultify<>stir/excite stultifying<>exciting/stirring Synonyms: constipate, stagnate, stifle, trammel Sample: His long hours in the blacking factory left young Dickens numb and incurious, as if the menial labor had stultified his mind. [ ] vt. to make senseless, groggy, or dizzy by or as if by a blow:DAZE Synonyms: DAZE , paralyze, petrify, stupefy Sample: When I hit my head, the bump stunned me and I fell to the floor. [ ] v. n. to hinder the normal growth, development, or progress of nurture<>stunt Sample: These small ears of corn were stunted because no rain fell for weeks. [ ] adj. marked by or reflecting physical strength or vigor decrepit<>sturdy
375

stygian

stylus

stymie

subdue

subject

subjugate

sublime

submerge

Synonyms: STRONG , stalwart, stout, tenacious, tough Sample: Tolkien's hobbits are somewhat squat, sturdy little creatures, fond of good ale, good music, and good food. [ ] adj. extremely dark, gloomy, or forbidding stygian:dark=abysmal:low Synonyms: INFERNAL, avernal, cimmerian, hellish, pandemoniac, plutonian, plutonic Sample: The stygian room reminded him of an empty space. [ ] n. an instrument for writing, marking, or incising stylus:mark=lamp:illumination [ ] v. to present an obstacle to:stand in the way of stymie<>abet Sample: The detective was stymied by the contradictory evidence in the robbery investigation. [ ] vt. to conquer and bring into subjection:VANQUISH impervious:damaged=indomitable:subdued impenetrable:subdue=?? subdue<>inflame subdued<>unruly flamboyant<>subdued burgeon<>subdue indominatable<>easly subdued Synonyms: CONQUER , crush, defeat, reduce, subjugate, vanquish Sample: As soon as the city was beleaguered, the life became more subdued as the citizens began their long wait for outside assitance. [ ] n. vt. one that is placed under authority or control potentate<>subject [ ] vt. to bring under control and governance as a subject:CONQUER subjugation<>liberation enfranchise<>subjugate Synonyms: CONQUER , crush, defeat, reduce, subdue, vanquish Sample: It is not our aim to subjugate our foe; we are interested only in establishing peaceful relations. [ ] adj. lofty, grand, or exalted in thought, expression, or manner sublime<>base sublime<>ridiculous sublime<>worthless sublime<>furtive Synonyms: GRAND , elevated, exalted, lofty, superb Sample: Mother Teresa has been honored for her sublime deeds. [ ] vt. vi. to put under water
376

submissive

subordinate

subpoena

subside

subsidiary

subsidy

substantial

substantiate

bend:rigid=submerge:buoyant=dissolve:insoluble Synonyms: DIP , douse, duck, dunk, immerse, souse, submerse Sample: After hitting the submerged iceberg, the Titanic started taking in water rapidly and soon foundered. [ ] adj. submitting to others Synonyms: TAME, domestic, domesticated, subdued Sample: Crushed by his authoritarian father, Will had no defiance left in him; he was totally submissive in the face of authority. [ ] adj. n. placed in or occupying a lower class, rank, or position:INFERIOR principal<>subordinate Sample: Johnson never scrupled to ignore the standards of decent conduct mandated by company policy if literal compliance with instructions from his superiors enabled him to do so, whatever the effects on his subordinates. [ ] n. (v. a writ commanding a person designated in it to appear in court under a penalty for failure lien:claim=subpoena:command Sample: The prosecutor's office was ready to serve a subpoena on the reluctant witness. [ ] vi. to tend downward:DESCEND; especially:to flatten out so as to form a depression subside<>promote subside<>withhold pressure Synonyms: ABATE , die down/away, ebb, lull, moderate, slacken, wane Sample: The doctor assured us that the fever would eventually subside. [ ] adj. furnishing aid or support:AUXILIARY preponderant<>subsidiary Sample: This information may be used as subsidiary evidence but is not sufficient by itself to prove your argument. [ ] n. a grant by a government to a private person or company to assist an enterprise deemed advantageous to the public sop:conciliatory=subsidy:supportive Synonyms: APPROPRIATION, grant, subvention [ ] adj. IMPORTANT, ESSENTIAL diaphanous<>substantial substantive<>trivial vaporous<>substantial Synonyms: MATERIAL, corporeal, gross, objective, phenomenal, physical, sensible, tangible Sample: In contrast to the substantial muscular activity required for inhalation, exhalation is usually a passive process. [ ] vt. to establish by proof or competent evidence:VERIFY substantiate<>disapprove
377

subterfuge

subtle

subvert

succinct

succor

unsubstantiated<>verified controvert<>substantiate inane<>substantiated Synonyms:CONFIRM, authenticate, corroborate, justify, validate, verify Sample: The value of Davis sociological research is com-promised by his unscrupulous tendency to use materials selectively in order to substantiate his own claims, while disregarding information that points to other possible conclusions. [ ] n. deception by artifice or stratagem in order to conceal, escape, or evade subterfuge:deceive=decanter:pour candor:subterfuge=brash:deliberate Synonyms: DECEPTION, cheat, chicanery, dishonesty, double-dealing, dupery, fraud, trickery Sample: As soon as we realized that you had won our support by a subterfuge we withdrew our endorsement of your candidacy. [ ] adj. difficult to understand or perceive:OBSCURE subtle:ignore=salient:observe subtle:overlook=tractable:lead palpable<>subtle blatant<>subtle Synonyms: FINE, delicate, nice, refined Sample: Postmodern architecture is not concerned with the easy goal of returning to the past but with the more subtle and difficult aim of integrating historical forms into a new and complex whole. [ ] vt. to overturn or overthrow from the foundation:RUIN sabotage:subvertness=bull:intimidation { dupe:duplicity } Synonyms: SABOTAGE, undermine, wreck [ ] adj. marked by compact precise expression without wasted words loquacious:succinct=adroit:ungainly babble<>express succinctly prolixity<>succinctness verbosity<>succinctness voluble<>taciturn/laconic/succinct/reticent succinct<>verbose Synonyms: CONCISE, breviloquent, brief, compendiary, compendious, curt, laconic, short, summary, terse Sample: His remarks are always succinct and pointed. [ ] vt. n. to go to the aid of:RELIEVE succor:relief=caution:warning succor<>aggravate succor<>deny aid Synonyms: HELP, aid, assist, assistance, comfort, hand, lift, relief, secours, support Sample: We shall be ever grateful for the succor our country gave us when we were in need.
378

suffuse

suite

sulk

sullen

summary

summit

summon

sumptuous

sunder

[ ] v to spread over or through in the manner of fluid or light:FLUSH, FILL tint:suffuse=damp:quench Synonyms: INFUSE, imbue, ingrain, inoculate, invest, leaven, steep Sample: A blush suffused her cheeks when we teased her about her love affair. [ ] n. RETINUE; especially:the personal staff accompanying a ruler, diplomat, or dignitary on official business Sample: After her long flight, Jill just wanted to nap, but the officious bellboy was intent on showing her all the special features of the deluxe suite. [ ] v. To be sullenly aloof or withdrawn, as in silent resentment or protest sulky<>rejoice Sample: When his girlfriend will not see him, he sulks for days. [ ] adj. Gloomy or somber in tone, color, or portent sullen:levity=?? Sample: When the group voted against his plan, he became sullen. [ ] n. adj. an abstract, abridgment, or compendium especially of a preceding discourse compendium:summary=anthology:collection aside:digression=summary:excerpt Synonyms: epitome, recapitulation, resume, sum, summation Sample: He wrote a summary of his book to send to a publisher. [ ] n. TOP, APEX; especially:the highest point:PEAK crest:wave=summit/peak:mountain roof:room=summit:mountain nadir<>summit Synonyms: TOP, apex, crest, crown, peak, roof, vertex Sample: Next year, the summit conference will be held in Vienna. [ ] vt. to command by service of a summons to appear in court command:request=summon:invite summons:citation=?? summon<>dismiss Synonyms: CONVOKE, assemble, call, convene Sample: She had to summon up all her courage before talking to her boss. [ ] adj. extremely costly, rich, luxurious, or magnificent sumptuous<>sobriety spartan<>sumptuous ascetic<>sumptuous Synonyms: LUXURIOUS, luscious, lush, luxuriant, opulent, palatial, plush Sample: The sumptuous costumes of Renaissance Italy, with their gold and silver embroidery and figured brocades, were the antithesis of Spanish sobriety, with its dark muted colors, plain short capes, and high collars edged with small ruffs. [ ] v.
379

supercilious

superficial

superfluous

supine

supple

supplement

to break apart or in two:separate by or as if by violence or by intervening time or space collapse:implode=divide:sunder sunder<>connect sunder<>link sunder<>combine/yoke/bond sunder<>merge asunder<>yoke Synonyms: SEPARATE, dichotomize, disjoin, disjoint, dissever, disunite, divide, divorce, part Sample: Northern and southern Ireland are politically and religiously sundered. [ ] adj coolly and patronizingly haughty supercilious<>obsequious supercilious<>humble superciliousness<>humility Synonyms: PROUD, arrogant, disdainful, haughty, insolent, lordly, overbearing, superior Sample: I prefer Jill's modesty to Jack's supercilious and arrogant attitude. [ ] adj. of or relating to a surface superficial<>central Synonyms: SHALLOW, shoal Sample: Despite the contingencies of time, space, and history, human societies the world over have confronted the same existential problems and have come to remarkably similar solutions, differing only in superficial details. [ ] adj. exceeding what is sufficient or necessary:EXTRA pertinent:relevance=redundant:superfluity integral<>superfluous superfluity<>scarcity Synonyms: excess, extra, spare, surplus Sample: Joe spoke of superfluous and vital matters with exactly the same degree of intensity, as though for him serious issues mattered neither more nor less than did trivialities . [ ] adj. exhibiting indolent or apathetic inertia or passivity; especially:mentally or morally slack supine<>vigilant Sample: The defeated pugilist lay supine on the canvas. [ ] adj. easy and fluent without stiffness or awkwardness numb:sensation=stiff:suppleness suppleness<>stiffness/rigidness Synonyms: PLASTIC, adaptable, ductile, malleable, moldable, pliable, pliant Sample: The angler found a supple limb and used it as a fishing rod. [ ] n. something that completes or makes an addition Synonyms: APPENDIX, addendum, rider
380

supplicate

suppress

surfeit

surgeon

surrender

surreptitious

surrogate

suspend

Sample: Although any destruction of vitamins caused by food irradiation could be counterbalanced by the use of diet supplements, there may be no protection from carcinogens that some fear might be introduced into foods by the process. [ ] v. to make a humble entreaty; especially:to pray to God protest:dissuade=supplicate:entreat supplicant:beseeching=coquette=flirtatious supplicate<>demand Synonyms: BEG, appeal, beseech, crave, entreat, implore, importune, invoke, plead, pray Sample: We supplicate Your Majesty to grant him amnesty. [ ] vt. to put down by authority or force:SUBDUE suppress<>unrestrain/stimulate Synonyms: CRUSH, annihilate, extinguish, put down, quash, quell, quench, squash Sample: No one is neutral about Stephens; he inspires either uncritical adulation or profound antipathy in those who work for him. [ ] n. an overabundant supply:EXCESS surfeit<>deficiency deprivation<>surfeit Synonyms: EXCESS, overabundance, overflow, plethora, superfluity, surplus Sample: Every Thanksgiving we are surfeited with an overabundance of holiday treats. [ ] n. a medical specialist who practices surgery scalpel:surgeon=telescope:astronomer Sample: The surgeon probed the wound for foreign matter before suturing it. [ ] n./v. to yield to the power, control, or possession of another upon compulsion or demand inalienable:surrendered=implacable:propitiated appropriate<>surrender Synonyms: RELINQUISH, abandon, cede, resign, waive, yield Sample: By forcing our surrender to the authority of the clock systematic timekeeping has imposed a form of tyranny on society. [ ] adj. done, made, or acquired by stealth:CLANDESTINE surreptitious<>barefaced/aboveboard Synonyms: SECRET, clandestine, covert, furtive, stealthy Sample: News of their surreptitious meeting gradually leaked out. [ ] n. to put in the place of another:to appoint as successor, deputy, or substitute for oneself surrogate:indirect=?? Synonyms: SUBSTITUTE, alternate, backup, replacement Sample: For centuries animals have been used as surrogates for people in experiments to assess the effects of therapeutic and other agents that might later be used in humans. [ ] vi. to cause to stop temporarily suspend<>erect
381

suspicion

suture

svelte

swagger

swamp

sway

swear

invoke<>suspend Synonyms: EXCLUDE, bar, bate, debar, eliminate, except Sample: To avoid annihilation by parasites, some caterpillars are able to curtail periods of active growth by prematurely entering a dormant state, which is characterized by the suspension of feeding. [ ] n. a state of mental uneasiness and uncertainty:DOUBT enthusiasm:mania=suspicion:paranoia Synonyms: UNCERTAINTY, concern, doubt, dubiety, dubiosity, incertitude, mistrust, skepticism, uncertitude, wonder Sample: M