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15

UPGRADING
AND

REPAIRING PCS
15th Anniversary Edition
Scott Mueller

201 W. 103rd Street


Indianapolis, Indiana 46290



15



2004

32.973.26018.2.75
98
681.3.07


..
. ..
.. , ..
..
:
info@williamspublishing.com, http://www.williamspublishing.com

, .
98

, 15 . : . . . : 
, 2004. 1344 . : . . . .
ISBN 5845906237 (.)

. , 
3 , 
, 
, 
. PC
.

; , 
,
.
,
.
, ,
.
32.973.26018.2.75


.

, ,
, 
Que Corporation.
Authorized translation from the English language edition published by Macmillan Computer Publishing
Copyright 2004.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage retrieval system,
without permission from the Publisher.
Russian language edition published by Williams Publishing House according to the Agreement with R&I
Enterprises International, Copyright 2004.

ISBN 5845906237 (.)


ISBN 0789729741 (.)

, 2004
Que Corporation, 2004

30

1.
2. PC,

3.
4.
5. -
6.
7. ATA/IDE
8. SCSI
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17. ,
-
18.
19. Internet
20 .
21.
22.
23.
24.
A.
.
.

37
55
69
189
331
373
439
479
519
541
589
607
641
743
773
839
881
913
955
1005
1059
1107
1149
1201
1265
1301
1305
1321

30





Web

30
32
32
33
35
36

1.

37











IBM
20

38
38
42
42
43
44
44
46
46
49
50
51

2. PC,

55

PC
PC
PC
PC

56
56
59
62
63
67

3.

69

PC








70
70
73
78
79
80
80
84
87
94







SMM

MMX
SSE SSE2
3DNow!, Enhanced 3DNow! Professional 3DNow!


HyperThreading


PGA
SEC SEP

Socket 370 (PGA370)
Socket 423
Socket 478
Socket A (Socket 462)
Socket 603
Socket 754

Slot 1 (SC242)
Slot 2 (SC330)





Intel
Intel
AMD
Cyrix
: P6 (686)



Pentium II
Celeron
Pentium III
Pentium II/III Xeon

AMDK6
AMD Athlon Athlon XP
AMD Duron

96
97
98
99
101
105
105
105
106
107
108
108
109
110
112
117
118
119
121
121
123
124
125
125
125
127
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
135
137
138
140
141
141
141
142
142
142
143
153
156
162
163
164
167
169

AMD Athlon XP
Athlon MP
VIA C3
P7 (Intel Pentium 4)
,

(64)
Itanium Itanium 2
AMD Athlon 64
AMD Opteron


170
173
173
174
176
176
179
180
182
184
185
186
187

4.

189


ATX
MicroATX
FlexATX
ITX miniITX
NLX
WTX




Intel

AMD Athlon/Duron
North/South Bridge
Hub
Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)
Intel 450KX/GX (Orion Workstation/Server)
Intel 440FX (Natoma)
Intel 440LX
Intel 440EX
Intel 440BX
Intel 440ZX 440ZX66
Intel 440GX
Intel 450NX
Intel 810, 810E 810E2
Intel 815
Intel 820 820E
Intel 840
( In
tel) (P6)
Pentium 4 (P7)
Intel 850/850E
Intel 845
Intel 865
Intel 875P

190
192
199
202
203
207
212
212
214
214
216
217

218
219
220
223
226
227
228
228
228
230
230
230
231
235
238
240
242
250
252
254
256
256

Pentium 4 (P7)
North Bridge South Bridge
SiS Pentium 4
ALi Corporation Pentium 4
ATI Pentium 4
VIA Pentium 4
Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP
AMD Ath
lon/Duron
VIA Technologies
AMD Athlon/Duron
Silicon Integrated Systems (SiS)
AMD Athlon/Duron
ALiMagik 1 AMD Athlon/Duron
NVIDIA
Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP
Intel
Pentium 4 Xeon
Intel 860
Intel E7205
Intel E7505
Athlon 64
Super I/O
CMOS

,




PCI
PCI Express
(AGP)



,

:
Plug and Play

283
284
284
284
285
285
287
288
291
295
301
302
302
303
306
308
311
311
315
315
318
320
320
324
325
328

5. -

331

BIOS
BIOS
BIOS
EEPROM, Flash ROM

332
333
335
336

257
257
258
260
262
263
265
265
268
272
278
280

ROM BIOS
BIOS
BIOS
BIOS
CMOS BIOS
CMOS
ROM BIOS
CMOS
Setup BIOS
Setup BIOS
Maintenance
Main
Advanced
Security
Power
Boot
Exit
Setup BIOS
Plug and Play BIOS
, Plug and Play
ACPI
Plug and Play
BIOS
BIOS
ROM BIOS

337
338
339
340
341
346
348
349
349
349
350
351
352
360
361
362
364
364
366
366
367
367
368
369
369

6.

373

:
ROM
DRAM
 SRAM

SDRAM
DDR SDRAM
DDR2 SDRAM
RDRAM

DIMM RIMM
DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR2 DIMM
RIMM



(ECC)


, DIMM RIMM

374
376
377
378
382
385
387
388
389
393
393
396
399
401
403
406
409
410
410
417
417
417
420
422

10





(extended)
ROM BIOS

425
427
428
430
435
437
437

7. ATA/IDE

439


IDE
IDE
IDE
ATA
ATA
ATA4
ATA5
ATA6
ATA7
ATA
 ATA
 ATA
ATA
( )
ATA
ATA
ATA


DMA
ATAPI (ATA Packet Interface)
Serial ATA
ATA RAID

440
440
441
442
443
445
446
446
447
448
449
449
452
453
454
456
457
457
458
467
468
469
469
475

8. SCSI

479

(SCSI)
ANSI SCSI
SCSI1
SCSI2
SCSI3
SPI Ultra SCSI
SPI2 Ultra2 SCSI
SPI3 Ultra3 SCSI (Ultra160)
SPI4 Ultra4 SCSI (Ultra320)
SPI5 Ultra5 SCSI (Ultra640)
RAID
Fiber Channel SCSI
iSCSI
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI

480
482
484
485
486
487
488
490
491
492
492
492
492
493
496
497

11

SCSI


SCSI
( )



Plug and Play SCSI
SCSI
SCSI IDE
SCSI

SCSI IDE:
SCSI

499
500
500
503
506
506
506
507
507
508
510
510
515
515
517

9.

519




/

()


(FM)
(MFM)
(RLL)

PRML


AFC

520
520
521
524
525
528
529
530
531
532
532
534
535
536
536
539

10.

541

542
542
544
546
547
550
555
556
557
559
560
568
570
570
572
572

12

573
573
574
574
578
585
588

11.

589

,


3,5 1,44




590
590
591
591
591
594
595
595
595
596
596
597
598
598
600
600
600
601
602
602
604
605
605
606

12.

607




, 


Iomega Zip
LS120 LS240 SuperDisk
,




,



608
608
608
609
610
611
611
612
612
613
613
613
615
615
616
616

13



IBM Microdrive

,



616
622
623
625
625
626
626
627

13.

641


CDROM


, CDROM
DVD
DVD
DVD
DVD

DVD ( )

Bluray Disc


CDROM
DVD
DVD
CD/DVD


CDROM
CDR
CDRW
: MultiRead

CDR/RW

DVD
DVDRAM
DVDR
DVDRW
DVD+RW

642
642
643
644
656
657
658
659
660
663
665
668
668
670
670
682
688
690
693
693
702
705
706
707
710
713
714
716
716
721
723
724
725
726

14

635
636
638
638
639
640


CD/DVD
CD/DVD
 DVD El Torito



/DVD
CDR, CDRW CDROM
DVDROM
DVD
DVDROM
DVD
CDRW DVDRW 1x
CDROM/DVD IDE/ATAPI

CDRW CDROM

CDRW DVDRW

728
729
730
732
732
735
736
736
736
737
737
737
738
738
738
739

14.

743




FDISK Format

MS DOS
Windows




SCSI


SCSI

744
744
744
745
747
752
752
752
754
761
762
762
762
763
763
765
766
766
767
768
768
770
771

15.

773





774
774
776
777
784

15




( )
(
)






SVGA



(3D Accelerator)



API


TV





Desktop Video (DTV)


790
790
791
793
796
798
798
799
800
801
802
804
806
807
809
809
811
814
816
817
819
819
823
823
828
828
829
829
830
831
831
832
836
837
837

16.

839


DirectX






MIDIc

840
841
841
842
842
842
845
847
848

16

785
785
786
789

DVD



:

:



AOpen TubeSound



, DirectX


849
850
850
851
852
854
855
856
856
857
857
858
858
860
860
862
863
865
866
867
867
868
868
868
869
870
871
871
874
876
878
879

17. ,
-

881


USB IEEE1394 (i.Link) FireWire

USB
USB
USB
USB 2.0
USB OnTheGo
IEEE1394 (FireWire i.Link)
IEEE1394a USB 1.1/2.0



UART

882
882
882
883
886
889
889
891
893
896
898
898
898
902
903

17






IEEE 1284
EPP ECP

,
SCSI

903
904
904
906
906
907
910
910
911
911
912

18.

913

104 Windows
USB

Num Lock
















TrackPoint II/III/IV

(trackball)
Renaissance Mouse 3M


USB




914
914
916
917
918
919
919
924
926
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
936
939
940
941
943
944
945
946
946
946
946
947
947
947
951

18

19. Internet
Internet
Internet
Internet
CATV
Internet

CATV
CATV
CATV
DSL
DSL
DSL
DSL
DSL
DSL

DirecWAY StarBand Internet
DirecWAY ( DirecPC)
StarBand
ISDN
ISDN
ISDN
ISDN
Internet

T1 T3
Internet
()






56 /
56
56 /


Internet
, 
Internet Microsoft


Internet



955
956
956
958
958
958
959
961
963
963
963
964
965
966
968
968
969
969
970
972
973
974
975
975
976
977
977
978
979
981
982
982
984
984
985
985
986
987
989
990
994
994
995
998
1000
1000
1001
1001
1002
1003

19

20 .

1005



,


/
/

/

Ethernet




/ Ethernet



Ethernet
WiFi
802.11
Bluetooth
Bluetooth WiFi/IEEE 802.11b/g


TCP/IP
IPX
NetBEUI

HomePNA

Ethernet




//




Internet



TCP/IP

1006
1006
1006
1007
1008
1008
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1013
1017
1019
1022
1026
1026
1028
1032
1034
1038
1042
1042
1043
1044
1044
1045
1046
1046
1046
1047
1049
1050
1050
1050
1051
1052
1052
1052
1054
1054
1054
1054
1055
1055
1055
1056
1056

20

21.

1059





Power_Good

ATX
NLX
SFX ( microATX)

ATX
ATX
ATX12V
ATX










?

, Energy Star


,












RTC/NVRAM

1060
1060
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1066
1067
1068
1069
1071
1072
1074
1074
1076
1076
1079
1080
1080
1081
1083
1085
1087
1090
1091
1091
1092
1093
1093
1094
1094
1095
1097
1098
1099
1099
1099
1100
1101
1101
1102
1104

22.

1107

1108
1109
1110
1112
1117

21



CD/DVDROM



















Setup BIOS




Windows 2000/XP
CDROM

1118
1118
1119
1120
1121
1123
1123
1124
1125
1126
1129
1129
1132
1132
1138

23.

1149



(POST)


: ,

Windows 9x/Me
Windows NT/2000







1150
1150
1150
1153
1154
1155
1155

22

1140
1142
1144
1144
1145
1145
1146
1146
1147
1147
1148
1148
1148
1148

1156
1159
1161
1162
1162
1167
1168
1172
1172
1176
1181


:

?


POST




,
,
,

Windows NT/2000/XP
STOP STOP ERROR
Windows 95/98/Me
Fatal Exception
Windows





(),
AGP

,


Missing
operating system


60 8,4
CDROM/DVD
USB

,

BIOS

Dell
PCI,
PCI

1181
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1187
1187
1188
1188
1188
1188
1189
1189
1189
1190
1190
1191
1191
1192
1192
1193
1194
1195
1195
1196
1197
1197
1198
1199
1199
1199
1199
1200
1200

23

24.

1201


FAT
FAT 32
NTFS


FAT



( )


VFAT
FAT 32
FAT 32

FAT 32
FAT



FAT

RECOVER
Scandisk


NTFS
NTFS
NTFS 5.0 (NTFS 2000)
NTFS
NTFS
NTFS

Windows
,



Norton Disk Editor
, 

Missing Operating System
NO ROM BASIC SYSTEM HALTED
Boot error Press F1 to retry
Invalid drive specification
Invalid Media Type
Hard Disk Controller Failure

1202
1202
1202
1205
1208
1208
1210
1214
1220
1221
1224
1225
1225
1225
1227
1228
1230
1230
1231
1231
1232
1233
1233
1234
1234
1234
1235
1236
1238
1238
1239
1240
1240
1241
1242
1242
1243

24

1245
1246
1248
1258
1261
1261
1261
1261
1261
1262
1262

MS DOS, Windows 9x/Me


Windows 2000/XP

1262
1263

A.

1265

1301

1305

1321

25

:
,


(Scott Mueller) Mueller Technical
Research (MTR),
. 1982 MTR

, .
MTR Fortune 500, 
, , 
, .
.
, 
( , , ,
), A+ .
. 
10 .
1982 ,
,
. 15 ,
.
MTR :
Mueller Technical Research
21 Spring Lane
Barrington Hills, IL 600109009
.: (847) 8546794
: (847) 8546795
: scottmueller@compuserve.com
Web: http://www.m-tr.com
http://www.upgradingandrepairingpcs.com
, , 
. , , 
( 2 . )
.
Upgrading and Repairing Laptops
Upgrading and Repairing PCs.
Upgrading and Repairing Servers .
, ,
, (scottmueller@compusrve.com) Web http://www.upgradingandrepairingpcs.com
Ask Scott.
,
. 2001 Harley FLHRCI
Road King Classic 5,9L Grand Cherokee.


(Mark Edward Soper) Select Systems & Associates, Inc.,
, .
1992 
. 
Microsoft (MCP) A+, ,
QUE,
, 14$ , , 2$ ,
Special Edition Using Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Techni$
cians Portable Reference; Upgrading and Repairing PCs Field Guide Upgrading and repairing PCs:
A+ Study Certification Guide, Second Edition. , The Complete Id$
iots Guide to High$Speed Internet Connections, PC Help Desk in a Book Absolute Beginners Guide
to Cable Internet Connections.
1990 .
125 , SmartComputing, PCNovice, PCNovice
Guides PCNovice Learning Series. , WordPer$
fect Magazine, The WordPerfectionist PCToday.
Web : http://www.smartcomputing.com.
Select Systems (http://www.selectsystems.com). 
mesoper@selectsystems.com.
(Mark Reddin) Microsoft (MCSE) 
+.
Commodore Atari ( 
). 

. 
, 
. ,

Que, .

28


, 15 
. 
. 
. .

. 
, ,
, .
?
(Lisa Carlson) MTR
. 
; , .
(Rick Kughen) Que.
, 
. ,
, 
.
, .
. ,
; 
, . , , 
!
(Todd Brakke), ,
, Que,
. , 
. ,
Que.
(Greg Wiegand), 
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( ) , .
, , , 
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. 
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.
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, . 

, .
, : 
, !


, 15$ .
, 
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, , 
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PC 8 64
, . ,
, 
, .

,
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, 8088 
Pentium 4, Athlon XP Athlon 64.
,
.
,
, 
. 
, RDRAM DDR2 SDRAM, 
, AGP PCI, 
, DVD+/RW, SCSI, USB 2.0 FireWire,
, .


, ,
. ,
, , 
. , .
,
, Intel AMD, . 
, Intel Pentium 4, 
. AMD
64 , Athlon 64, 
. 
, 
. ,
Athlon XP, AMD.
, , , 

.
, AMD Intel,
, 
.
Pentium 4 Intel Hyper
Threading (HT), 
. ,
,
, ..
Pentium 4 RDRAM RIMM, 
Intel DDR
SDRAM. DDR, 

. 
. 6, , 
, , ,
.
Dell? 

. Dell
 , , ,
,

.
? ,
 , Internet
. , 
ATI NVIDIA.
,
, 
.
,
.
, , ,
. , 
, . 

.
,
, , (Technical Reference)
.
13, , 
,
DVD.
24, ,
NTFS FAT.
, .

31

, , ,
. , ,
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, ,
!



. ,
IBM PC PC
. , (
, , ..);
; 
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.
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, ISA, PCI/AGP
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.

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32


, .

,
, .
,
.
. 1 2
. 1, ,
IBM . 2,
PC, , ,
,
. , 
.
3, , 
Intel, Pentium 4 (Prescott, Northwood Willamette),
Pentium III, Pentium II, Celeron Xeon, (CPU)
. 
AMD, , Athlon 64, Athlon XP,
Athlon, Duron K6. , 
,
. ,
, Socket 754 Athlon XP, Socket 423
Socket 478 Pentium 4, Socket A, AMD Athlon XP, 
, , Socket 7, Socket 370, Slot 1 Slot A.
, , .
,
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4, ,
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, , , PCI, PCI Express
AGP, AGP 8x. , 
Intel 850 
ATX.
5, , BIOS.
BIOS, 
. , ,
.
6, , . 
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.
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SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM; EDO 60 ,
PC133 PC3200? . ,

33

PC3200 DDR SDRAM


DIMM EDO SIMM, (Fast Page Mode),
, , .
7, IDE, ATA/IDE,
Ultra ATA 133 /; ,
.
Serial ATA, ATA,
15 .
8, SCSI, SCSI, 
SCSI3, LVD (Low Voltage
Differential), 
, , .
UltraSCSI.
9, ,
. 
, 
,  .
10, , .
11, , .
12, ,
, ,
SuperDisk (LS120), Iomega Zip, Jaz Clik!.
13, , CD
DVD. 
, , .
, DVD,
, , DVDR, DVDRAM,
DVDRW DVD+RW. , 
, .
14, , 
.
15, , 
, . , 

.
16, ,
, .
,
,
, . , 
, 
, MP3.
17, , ,
,
, , USB 1.1
USB 2.0, iLink (FireWire) FireWire 800.
18, , , 
.
19, Internet,
Internet, DSL, CATV DirecPC.

34

20, ,
Ethernet .
, Ethernet
Windows.
21, , 
.
,
Windows, . 
, ,
ATX. , 
, .
22, , ,
.
.
23, , 
, 
. , , 
. , .
24, ,
. , Windows XP, 
NTFS, , , ,
FAT16 FAT32, , . 
 (MBR) 
(VBR), , 
.

Web-
Web, www.upgradingandrepairingpcs.com.

. Web ,
. 
, . 
, .
, Web 
. , 
(Frequently Asked Questions FAQ),
, .
Web !

:
Upgrading and Repairing Laptops;
Upgrading and Repairing Servers;
Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Video Training Course;
Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Field Guide;
Upgrading and Repairing PCs, A+ Certification Study Guide, Second Edition;
Upgrading and Repairing Networks, Fourth Edition.

35


Corvette General Motors
 (Dave McLellan)  : Corvette 
?, : , .
. 
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.
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E-mail:
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http://www.williamspublishing.com

:
:
:

36

115419, , / 783
03150, , / 152



() .
,
.
.
.


, 
.
1617 . (John Napier) 
.
1642 . (Blaise Pascal) .
1822 . (Charles Babbage) , 
,
.
1906 . (Lee DeForest) , 
.
1937 . . (John V. Atanasoff) 
(ABC), 
 .
1943 . (Alan Turing) Colossus,
,
.
1945 . (John Von Neumann) First Draft of a Report
on the EDVAC, 
.
1946 . (John Mauchly) . (J. Presper
Eckert)  ENIAC.
1947 . 23 (John Bardeen), (Walter
Brattain) (William Shockley)
, .
1949 . (Maurice Wilkes) 
EDSAC.
1950 . 
ERA 1101.
1952 . U.S. Census Bureau UNIVAC I.
1953 . IBM 701.
1954 .
2,5 , (Gordon Teal) Texas Instruments, Inc.
1954 . IBM 650;
450 .
1955 . Bell Laboratories
TRADIC.

38

1.

1956 .
TX0.
1956 . IBM 305 RAMAC 
.
1958 . (Jack Kilby) Texas Instruments
, 
.
1959 . IBM 7000 
.
1959 . (Robert Noyce) Fairchild Camera Instrument
Corp. , 
.
1960 . Bell Labs Dataphone,

.
1960 . DEC  PDP1,
120 . .
1961 . Datamation, IBM 81,2% 
; IBM 1400.
1964 . CDC 6600, (Seymour Cray),
3 . , , 
IBM Stretch.
1964 . IBM System/360 (
40 ).
1964 .
IBM SABRE.
1965 . Digital Equipment Corporation 
 PDP8.
1966 . HewlettPackard HP2115, 
.
1969 .
ARPAnet, Internet.
( , 
) SRI International .
1971 . IBM  8 .
1971 . Electronic News
Intel 4004.
1971 . Scientific American
Kenback1 750 .
1972 . HewlettPackard HP35 .
1972 . Intel 8008.
1972 . (Steve Wozniak)
, .
1973 . (Robert Metcalfe)
Enternet Xerox.

39

1973 . Micral
Intel 8008.
1973 . (Don Lancaster)
 TV Typewriter.
1974 . Xerox
, .
1974 . Scelbi 8, 
, Intel 8008.
1975 . Telnet 
ARPAnet.
1975 . Popular Electronics
Altair 8800, Intel 8080.
1975 . (VDM), 
(Lee Felsenstein), 
.
1976 . (Steve Wozniak) Apple I.
1976 . Shugart Associates 5,25
.
1976 . Cray I.
1977 . Tandy Radio Snack TSR80.
1977 . Apple II.
1977 . Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor).
1978 . Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780,
4,3 .
1979 . Motorola 68000.
1980 . (John Shoch)
Xerox ,
.
1980 . Seagate Technologies 
.
1980 . , 60
5,25 .
1981 . Xerox Star, 
(GUI).
1981 . (Adam Osborne)
Osborne I 1 795 .
1981 . IBM PC.
1981 . Sony 3,5 .
1981 . Philips Sony CDDA (
). ,
Sony, .
1983 . Apple Lisa 
.
1983 . Compaq Computer Corp. IBM PC.

40

1.

1984 . Apple 
, 1,5 . .
1984 . IBM PCAT (PC Advanced Technology),
.
Intel 286 16 ISA. 
.
1985 . Philips  
CDROM.
1986 . Compaq Deskpro 386,
Intel 386.
1987 . IBM PS/2,
3,5 VGA.
1988 . Apple (Steve Jobs)
NeXT.
1988 . Compaq PC ,
.
1988 . (Robert Morris)
ARPAnet; 6 60 . .
1989 . Intel 486, .
1990 .  (Tim BernersLee),
(CERN),
(HTML), World Wide Web WWW.
1993 . Intel Pentium P5.
, Intel .
1995 . Intel Pentium Pro
P6.
1995 . Microsoft 32 
Windows 95.
1997 . Intel Pentium II, Pentium Pro
MMX.
1997 . AMD K6, Intel P5 (Pentium).
1998 . Microsoft
Windows 98.
1998 . Intel Celeron,
Pentium II. ,
Intel , 
 .
1999 . AMD Athlon.
1999 . Intel Pentium III, Pentium II 
SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions).
2000 . Microsoft Windows Me (Millennium Edition) Windows 2000.
2000 . Intel AMD 1 .
2000 . AMD Duron, Athlon
 .

41

2000 . Intel Pentium 4, 32 


(IA32) Intel.
2000 . Intel Itanium, 64 (IA64)
.
2001 . 20
IBM PC.
2001 . Intel 2 ,
Pentium 4. 28,5 ,
108 1 , 18 , 
1 2 .
2001 . Microsoft Windows XP Home Professional,
(9x/Me) (NT/2000) 
Windows NT.
2002 . Pentium 4,
3 . HyperThreading (HT), 

.
2003 . AMD Athlon 64 64
, .


,
2000 . ,
. ,
,
. ( , , 
.)
( )
XVII . .
1642 , 
. , 
. , 1671 , 
, 1694 .
.

1820 . , 
, .


, 
. , 1812 , 
. 1822
,
. 1823 . 
, .
10 , 1833
, . 
50 1 000 .
IF.

42

1.


, ,
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. 
,  .
. 
, .
( ).
10 , .
. , , 
50 .
. , ,
.
,  
. 
.
, ,
, 1890 .
, 
(Herman Hollerith), . 
.

. Tabulating Machine Company, 
IBM.
IBM 
,
. 
, , 
, .
 50 250 
, 80 . 
, .
50  
.


. (Clifford Berry) 1937 1942

. ( ABC
AtanasoffBerry Computer) ,
,
.
. (Earl R. Larson) 19 1973 , 
(Eckert) (Mauchly),
.

. 1943 
, 
. ,

43

,
.
, 
. 1946 .
(John P. Eckert) . (John W. Mauchly)

 . ENIAC
(Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator).
300 ,
, .
1 000 , 
.
ENIAC 18 . ; ,
1 800 ( 167 ) 
180 . . 
, , 
/ .
, ,
, .
,
.

. , ,
, ().
, 1945 , (John von Neumann) ,

,
. , , 
.
.
 ,
, 1947 . 
EDVAC UNIVAC, 
(), .
, , 
1950 .
UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer),
  .
, .


UNIVAC .
,
.


, 
(
), .
,
.

44

1.

,
(Lee De Forest) 1906 .
, : ,
. , 
. , ,
. , 
; 
. , 
, /.
, .

.
,  :
.
( ) 
. 1947 Bell Laboratory
(John Bardeen) (Walter Brattain) ,
1948 .
(William Shockley), Bell, 
. 1956 . 
, , , , 
. 
,
.
, 
.
, .. N, , P.
, .
,
. 
.
P N 
, .. . 
P,
NPN, N PNP.
NPN N, 
, . , P,
. N .
NPN :
, ,
. , ,
, .
, 
, ,
. 2001 Intel 
,
20 (1 1 ).
, 2007 ,
, 20 !
: 2001 , AMD Athlon XP 37,5 .
, Pentium 4 42 . .

45


, .
, , 
, , 
.
,
, 
, .
,
AOpen ( Acer) (AX4B533 Tube)
, . 

.


1959 Texas Instruments 
,
. . 
, Pentium Pro 5,5 . , 
, , 32 . . 
.


1998 Intel . 18
1968 (Robert Noyce), (Gordon Moore) 
(Andrew Grove). : 
. , 
,
.
,
.
:
. .
1970 Intel 1 ,
. (1 1024 ,
8 , .. 128 , 
.) , 
1103 (DRAM), 
. Intel 
, .
Busicom Intel
. 

. , , 
, 
.
Busicom
12 . Intel (Ted Hoff)
, 
.
, 

46

1.

. , ..
.
.
, .
, 
.
: 
Busicom. ,
,
. , Intel
. Intel 
, 
, Intel .
Intel, ,
. Intel:
, ,
.
Intel Busicom 60 .
. ,
, . ,
Intel, .
, Intel. 1971
4 4004 (
). 2 300 ,
200 
ENIAC. , ENIAC, 1946 ,
18 . ; 3 000
(85 ). 4004 60 . , 
.
1972 4004 8 8008. 1981
Intel 16 8086 8
8088. 2 500 
.
IBM, .
1982 Intel 286, 134 . .
16
. 
, .
PCAT IBM.
1985 32 Intel 386. 275 . 
5 . (Million Instruction Per Second MIPS).
DESKPRO 386 Compaq ,
.
Intel 486, 1989 . 
1,2 . .
50 4004, 
.
1993 Intel Pentium,
Intel 486. Pentium 3,1 . 
90 . , 1 500 
4004.

47


Intel (386/486)
(Pentium/Pentium Pro) ,

, .

P6, Pentium Pro, 1995 . 


5,5 . ,  
, 
. Pentium Pro, 300 .
, 
.
Intel P6 (Pentium Pro) 1997
Pentium II. 7,5 . , , 
, ,  L2
. 1998 Pentium II 
Celeron, , Pentium II
Xeon, . 1999 Intel 
Pentium III, , , Pentium II,
SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions).
Pentium
, AMD NexGen, Nx686.
AMD 6. 
, Pentium, .. 
Socket 7 . AMD 
K6 .
1998 Intel 
( ), 
. 
Celeron ( Pentium II),
Pentium IIPE ( ),
.
,  
, Pentium III (
Coppermine), 1999 . 
 
, .
1999 AMD Athlon,
Intel .
, Intel 
.
, 2000 
. , , AMD Athlon Thunderbird Duron.
Duron, , Athlon
 ; Thunderbird, , 
, . Duron
Athlon,
,
Celeron, Intel.

48

1.

Intel 2000 Pentium 4,


IA32. Itanium ( Merced),
64 Intel (IA64).
,
, , 32 .
2000 , 
: Intel AMD 1 , 
.
2001 Intel Pentium 4
2 , , .
, AMD Athlon XP,
Palomino, Athlon , 
. 2001 AMD Intel 

Pentium III/Celeron, Pentium 4 Athlon/Duron.
2002 Intel Pentium 4,
3,06 . Hyper
Threading (HT), 
.
HT 2540%
Pentium 4. Windows XP Home
Edition, , , .
2003 AMD 64 Athlon 64
( ClawHammer, K8). 64 
Intel Itanium Itanium 2, 64 
32
, Athlon 64 64 x86, 
Athlon, Pentium 4 .
Athlon 64 32 , 64.


1973 
8008. ,
. 1973 Intel 8080, 
10 , 8008,
64 . .
1975 Altair MITS 
Popular Electronic. ,
, 8080, ,
256 ( !). 
395 , .
(),
. 
,
CP/M (Control Program for Microprocessors) BASIC
(Beginners Allpurpose Symbolic Instruction Code) Microsoft.
1975 IBM ,
. 5100 16 ,
16 64 , BASIC
D300. (9 000 )
, , ( 

49

) 500 . ,
IBM .
IBM PC ( 5150) 5110
5120. IBM PC, .
IBM PC 1980
System/23 DataMaster.
1976 Apple Computer Apple I
666 . ,
. 
, 20 . . 
1977 Apple II ,
IBM PC.
1980 
. Apple II,
, , Altair.
, (CP/M)
S100 ( 100 ). 
. 
.
, 
IBM, Mac.
, , 
: , ,
, 
. , , IBM, 
. , 
, Apple, Apple ,
IBM. IBM PC 
Macintosh .

IBM
1980 IBM 
. 
(. ) Entry Systems Division. 12 
(Don Estridge), (Lewis
Eggebrecht). IBM PC. ( 5100,
1975 , IBM ,
, , , .)
System/23 DataMaster,
IBM PC.
IBM PC DataMaster. , , 
DataMaster; , IBM PC
, DataMaster, 
( ).
, (
), 62 ,
. IBM PC 
, DataMaster. , DataMas
ter, IBM PC.

50

1.

DataMaster 8085 Intel,


64 8 . 
IBM PC 8088,
1 , 16 , 8
. 8
, DataMaster.
IBM , 
. Entry Systems Division
, :
, 
IBM. , 
IBM PC Microsoft.

, IBM Digital Research, CP/M,


. Microsoft,
. IBM .

IBM PC 12 1981
. PC ,
. 
, .

20
IBM PC 20 , , ,
. , IBM ,
8088 4,77 , Pentium 4 
3 ,
20 000 (!) ( , ). 
IBM PC 160
DOS 1.0, 
20 .

, , 23 ( 
Intel ).
: IBM 
PC . , IBM
, ,
. .
Intel , Microsoft
.  , ,
Wintel. AMD
Intel
(AMD 484, K5/K6), Pentium,
Athlon , 
Pentium II/III/4.
Intel, Microsoft AMD
. , PCI AGP, 
ATX NLX, ,
Intel . ,
20

51

Intel ,
. AMD ,

. , AMD 
, Intel ,
. Microsoft 
Windows,
Office .. Intel, Microsoft Internet,
. , DVD, 
Internet
. 
1990 , 
. 
PC , 
. , 
PC .
PC ,
, ,
IBM, , Microsoft. 
BIOS (Basic Input Output System),
(, Phoenix, AMI .). 
BIOS , .
, CP/M UNIX, DOS
. Windows ,
PC .
Macintosh Apple , PC
. , Apple 

.
, Apple, 
, ,
. 90
Apple , Power
Computing. Apple
. Macintosh
, 
, Apple , 
, Apple. , iMac,
Apple 
, Macintosh
, 
. 
, , 
.
PC .
. 
, ,
20 PC .

52

1.


1965
:
, 1824 .
, ,
.
. , ,
. 26 18 . : 2,3 . 4004 140 . Pentium III Xeon. ,
2007 Intel 20 , .

? :
, . , 

, 2 . ,
:
.

20

53

54

1.

2
PC,

PC . ,
PC.

PC
, :
PC?. , PC Personal Computer
( ), . 
, 
. , . , PC
,
PC. , Macintosh Apple, , ,
, PC (
Mac!). PC, .
 PC, ,
. , 
IBM PC, 1981 . IBM PC, .. 
PC. , IBM 
. ( 1975 ,
MITS Altair.)  PC IBM
. PC
IBM , (
, IBM PC).
, IBM 1981 
PC
PC , 
. IBM PC 1987 ,
PS/2. , PC,
IBM , , IBM 
, . 
IBM, PC.
: PC IBM ,
? :
PC? ,
, , PC , , 
PC.


PC
, : Microsoft!.
, . ,
Microsoft , PC;
PC MS DOS Windows 3.1,
Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP.
Microsoft , 
PC
(, ). , (, , 
, , ),
, Windows. Microsoft
Web, ,
.


56

2. PC,

Microsoft 
. Microsoft PC,

.
PC, IBM PC;
Microsoft
PC. , BIOS (Basic Input Output System
) Microsoft DOS (Disk Operating Sys
tem ) IBM.
DOS, Microsoft
MS DOS, IBM, 
. , Compaq, , 
, MS DOS,

. Microsoft
,  IBM
PC, .
( ),
, . , 
,
 . 
, , ( 
) . , . 
, IBM
Microsoft 1981 . IBM 
, .
IBM , 
,
, 
( 17 ).
, , 
, IBM PC 
, .
PC Intel, 8088, 
8284, 8253/54, 8259,
8237, 8255 8288. 
PC.
PC , 
IBM PC. , IBM,

. , IBM
.
IBM, ,
 PC .
(
IBM PC), .
Phoenix Software ( Phoenix Technologies) 
: ,
( !) ,
,  (BIOS). BIOS
,

PC

57

. ,
BIOS , 
.
( DOS Windows) BIOS
.
, Phoenix
, , 
, BIOS, IBM. 
, IBM, BIOS. 
, , 
, ,
. ,
, IBM, 
.
Phoenix clean room,
. 
IBM PC 8 
, .
 IBM , BIOS,
, ,
IBM. POST (PowerOn Self Test), BIOS,

32128 . Phoenix, , Award, AMI
(American Megatrends) Microid Research, BIOS
PC.
 IBM PC 
DOS, , IBM.
DOS , DOS 
BIOS . ,
, BIOS. , 
DOS IBM , 
. Microsoft. , IBM
Microsoft , 
DOS . 
MS DOS IBM
, IBM.
, Macintosh Apple. 
, Mac ; Mac
, .
, Apple MAC OS Apple
. , BIOS OS Mac;
 , , , 
. clean room 
, .
19961997 . Apple  
, Sony, Power Computing, Radius Motorola 
Apple .
Apple Apple,
.
(Steve Jobs), Apple.
Macintosh. 

58

2. PC,

, Apple .
Apple , ,
.
Macintosh Apple
, .
Apple
, , ,
Macintosh!

PC
, Microsoft PC,
PC, , 
. , IBM
PC 1987 . IBM
PC, (8/16 ISA),
, VGA XGA,
, , , , 
,
. IBM 1987 , 
.
, 
PC, . , 
, : Microsoft (
, ), 
Compaq
Intel.
, : ,
Intel PC. ,
Intel inside ( , Intel),
, Intel 
. , , 
Intel PC!
, , Intel, ,
PC. 
Intel, Intel .
. ,
, 
.

. Computer Reseller News Compaq (
HP) IBM 
. , 
. 
.
, , 
.

, .. , 
. 
( ),
.

PC

59


.
, 
, . 
, , 
.
, , 
, , .. , , , 
, ., 
. Dell, Gateway Micron ( MPC)
, , , .
PC. , ,
, 
, , , . 
, 22,
.
, 
, Dell Compaq,
. Gateway
.
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, ? Intel. 
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. ,
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Computer Shopper , , ,
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, , , .
Intel 
, . 
Rambus Pentium 4 
. ,
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,
, AMD.
,
AMD, , 
AMD. ,
AMD, ,
Intel, Intel.
? , Intel 
PC, IBM Intel 8088
IBM PC 1981 . , , , 
, . ,
, Intel .
1989 , 82350 EISA (Extended

60

2. PC,

Industry Standard Architecture), 1993 ( ) 


. ,
, , ,
?
1994 , Intel 
. : 1997 Intel 
,
( 30 . , 3,6 . !).
PC ,
, Intel, , 
.
, Intel PC, 
PC. 
, ,

. , ,
Intel, , Intel 
.
Intel PC.
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) .
PCI Express (3GIO) ,
, PCI SIG (PCI Special
Interest Group) PCI.
AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port )
.
ATX , ( ) 
IBM BabyAT, 80 .
NLX, 
LPX,
. 
.
DMI (Desktop Management Interface ), 
.
DPMA (Dynamic Power Management Architecture 
) APM (Advanced Power Management
) PC.
Intel , 
. , 
Cahners InStat Group (inSearch Research), Intel

5,5 , AMD (. 2.1).
, , Web
, The Register (http://www.theregister.co.uk), 
Chipzilla.

PC

61

2.1. 2001

2001 , . .

1
2

Intel
Toshiba
STMicroelectronics
Texas Instruments

23,850
6,781
6,359
6,100
5,814
5,309
5,037

3
4
5
6
7
8

Samsung
NEC

9
10

Infineon (Siemens)
Philips

4,558
4,235

11
12

IBM
AMD

3,898
3,891

13
14

Mitsubishi
Matsushita

3,473
3,176

15
16

Fujitsu
Agere Systems (Lucent)

3,084
3,051

17
18
19
20

Sanyo
Hynix

2,675
2,450

Micron
Sony

2,411
2,100

21
22
23

Analog Devices
Sharp
Agilent (HP)

24
25

National Semiconductor

1,897
1,858
1,671
1,626
1,597

Hitachi
Motorola

4,828

LSI Logic

, 
PC,
, , , 
. , , Microsoft Intel
PC, , PC
Wintel.

PC
Intel PC, Microsoft 
PC, ,
PC x Design Guides, ,
, ( 
) Windows. 
Designed for Windows ( Windows). 
,
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.
Hardware Design Guide for Microsoft Windows 95 ( 
Microsoft Windows 95).
Hardware Design Guide Supplement for PC 95 (
PC 95).
PC 97 Hardware Design Guide ( PC 97).

62

2. PC,

PC 98 System Design Guide ( PC 98).


PC 99 System Design Guide ( PC 99).
PC 2000 System Design Guide ( PC 2000).
PC 2001 System Design Guide ( PC 2001).
Web Microsoft
Web PC Design Guides (http://www.pcdesguide.org).
, 
, , 
Windows 95/98 Windows NT/2000/XP.
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, Designed for Windows ,
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,
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, DVD, , .

, ;
. . Intel Microsoft,
. ,
, , , .

,
PC 2001 System Design, Web:
Microsoft http://www.microsoft.com/hwdev/
platform/default.asp;
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63

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,

. . 2.2 , Intel,
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8;
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32 PCMCIA, Cardbus;
32 VLBus (VESA Local Bus);
32/64 PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect);
32 AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port).

65


AT, , Intel .
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AT.

66

2. PC,


PC . ,
, , 
. ,
, .
. 2.4, 
.
2.4.

, . 4,

.
CPU (central processing unit). 3,


(Random Access Memory RAM). ,
,
. 6,

, ,
, , .
21,

PC.
21,
, . 11,

.
10,
CD-ROM (Compact Disc -) DVD-ROM (Digital
Versatile Disc )
.
13,
PC, ,
.
18,
,
, 18,
,
. 15,

15,
PC .
16,

Internet.
19, Internet

CD-ROM/DVD-ROM

()
*

* ,
.

67

68

2. PC,


, $
CPU (Central Processing Unit).
( , 
, ) , ,
. PC ,
Intel, Intel,
AMD, Cyrix, IDT Rise Technologies.
Intel , .
Intel
. , , 1970 ,
, Intel ( , ,
Intel).
Z80 Zilog 6502 MOS Technologies. Z80 
8080. 
Intel Pentium, 
AMD, Cyrix ( VIA), IDT Rise Technologies. ,
, . AMD 
.
, , , Intel
.
 , . 
Apple, 6502
1 (, 1 ), Microsoft Softcard ( Z80), 
. Softcard , ,
Z80 2 .
. Z80
70 80 , CP/M. 6502,
, Apple (.. 
Mac).
Intel Microsoft 1981 , IBM 
IBM PC Intel 8088 (4,77 )
Microsoft Disk Operating System (DOS) 1.0.
Intel (Pentium Celeron/III/4
Athlon/Athlon XP) Microsoft.
, ,
, 
, .


PC
, 10
IBM PC. Intel, Intel 4004, 
15 1971 . 108
(0,108 !). 2 300 10
. 4 , 640 
. 4004 ,
 NASA Pioneer 10!
15 2001 30 .
18 500 ( 0,108 2 ).

70

3.

1972 Intel 8008, 200 .


3 500 10 .
8, 16 .
.
, 8080, 1974 .
6 000 64 .
( PC) Altair 8800.
CP/M, Microsoft BASIC.
, .
8080 , .
1975 Intel, 8080,
Zilog. 1976 Z80,
8080.
8080 , ,
(RAM), 
. Z80
8080, .
, , 
Z80, 8080.
Z80 2,5 (
10 ), 8,5 . 64 .
Radio Shack Z80 
TRS80 Model 1. , Z80 , 
, Osborne
Kaypro. , Z80 
, CP/M 
.
Intel 1976 8085, 
6 500 , 5 3
.
MOS Technologies 6502,
Intel.
Motorola. 6800, 
68000. 8080 
300 , 8 6502 25 .
(Steve Wozniak),
Apple I Apple II. 6502 
, Commodore .
,
Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). Motorola
68000, 
Apple Macintosh. PowerPC,
68000.
1978 Intel 8086,
86. 
Pentium III. 8086 16
. 29 000 5 .
20 1 . 
8086 8080 . 

. 
, CP/M (8080).

PC

71

8086, 
, , 
16 . 
, 1979 Intel 8086, 8088.
8088 16 , 8086,
1 , , ,
8 . 
8 8085 , , 
. IBM
8088.
. 
8088  8086,
16 . 8085 8080 
, , ,
8088. , , 
IBM, 
. , Intel 
8088/8086 , 
.
,
. 
16 286 
32 386 ,
IA32 (32 Intel).
, 32 ,
10 . , 1985 386DX
32 , 1995 Windows 95,
, IA32.
,
IA32 16 .
Intel Itanium Itanuim 2, 
64 Intel (IA64). 
(.. ) ,
, 10 , , IA64, 
. IA32,
, 16 .
IA64, , 32 (IA32), 16
(IA16) .
AMD ,
64 , x8664; 
Opteron ( ) Athlon 64 ( ).
, AMD x8664 IA32,
64 IA64. , x8664 
32 , , IA64.
, x8664 ,
IA64, .
Itanium (IA64) 2001
. Hammer (AMD x8664)
2003 . 
,
Microsoft, Red Hat SuSE (Linux), IBM Oracle ( ), SAP.

72

3.

IBM PC Intel 
. IBM PC
, , PC
. 8088, PC,
30 . 5 . Itanium 2,
Madison 0,13 , 
(  6 ) 410 .
2
374 ( 19,3 ).
Intel , 3 , ,
AMD . 
,
1,52 .


. 
,
, .
: 
. . 
(); 1 . ,
( ). . 
, :
;
;
.
,
(Front Side Bus FSB), (Processor Side Bus PSB) 
. ,
(North Bridge Memory Controller
Hub). Intel FSB PSB, AMD
FSB. , 
/ .
.
64 , 
64. , Pentium 4 Athlon XP, 32
 .
 64, 32 (
, , Pentium K6).
Itanuim, AMD Opteron Athlon 64 64
, 64 .
,
, .
. ,
, , 
.
. 3.1 Intel,
IBM PC . . 3.2 Intel ,
AMD, Cyrix, NexGen, IDT Rise.

73

3.1. Intel


,

,
,

8088

1x

16

8086

1x

16

16

286

1x

16

16

16

386SX

1x

32

16

16

386SL

1x

3,3

32

16

16

01

386DX

1x

32

32

486SX

1x

32

32

486SX2

2x

32

32

487SX

1x

32

32

486DX

1x

32

32

486SL2

1x

3,3

32

32

486DX2

2x

32

32

486DX3

23x

3,3

32

32

16

486Pentium OD

2,5x

32

32

216

./.

Pentium 60/66

1x

32

64

28

./.

Pentium 75-200

1,53x

3,33,5

32

64

28

./.

Pentium MMX

1,54,5x

1,82,8

32

64

216

./.

Pentium Pro

23x

3,3

32

64

64

28

./.

Pentium II

3,54,5x

1,82,8

32

64

64

216

./.

Pentium II PE
Celeron

3,56

1,6

32

64

64

216

./.

3,54,5x

1,82,8

32

64

64

216

./.

Celeron A

3,58x

1,52

32

64

64

216

./.

Celeron III
Celeron IIIB

4,59x

1,31,6

32

64

216

./.

914

1,5

32

64

64
64

216

./

Pentium III

46

1,82

32

64

64

216

./.

Pentium IIIE
Pentium IIIB

49

1,31,7

32

64

216

./.

8,510,5

1,45

32

64

64
64

216

./

Pentium II Xeon

44,5x

1,82,8

32

64

64

216

./.

Pentium III Xeon

56

1,82,8

32

64

64

216

./.

Pentium IIIE Xeon

4,56,5

1,65

32

64

64

216

./.

Celeron 4

4,25

1,6

32

64

64

35x
46

1,7
1,3

32
32

64
64

64
64

216
12+8

./

Pentium 4
Pentium 4A
Pentium 4 Xeon
Itanium
Itanium 2

35x
35x
35

1,7
1,6
1,6

32
64
64

64
64
128

64
16
16

74

216
12+8
216
216

./.
./
./.
./.
./

3.

8088
8086
286
386SX
386SL
386DX
486SX
486SX2
487SX

486DX
486SL2

256 ,
512 ,
1
512
256

128
128
256
512
256
512
512 ,
1 ,
2
512 ,
1 ,
2
256 ,
1 ,
2
128
256
512
256
96
96 7

486DX2
486DX3
486Pentium OD
Pentium 60/66
Pentium 75-200
Pentium MMX
Pentium Pro

Pentium II
Pentium II PE
Celeron
Celeron A
Celeron III
Celeron IIIB
Pentium III
Pentium IIIE
Pentium IIIB
Pentium II Xeon

Pentium III Xeon

Pentium IIIE Xeon

Celeron 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4A
Pentium 4 Xeon
Itanium
Itanium 2

29 .
29 .
134 .
275 .
855 .
275 .
1,185 .
1,185 .
1,2 .

1979 .
1978 .
1982 .
1988 .
1990 .
1985 .
1991 .
1994 .
1991 .

1,2 .
1,4 .

1989 .
1992 .

1,2 .
1,6 .
3,1 .
3,1 .
3,3 .
4,1 .
5,5 .

1992 .
1994 .
1995 .
1993 .
1994 .
1997 .
1995 .

MMX

4
4

MMX
MMX
MMX
MMX
SSE
SSE
SSE
SSE
SSE
MMX

7,5 .
27,4 .
7,5 .
19 .
28,1 .
44 .5
9,5 .
28,1 .
44 .
7,5 .

1997 .
1999 .
1998 .
1998 .
2000 .
2001 .
1999 .
1999 .
2001 .
1998 .

SSE

9,5 .

1999 .

SSE

1999 .,
2000 .

4
4

SSE2
SSE2
SSE2
SSE2
MMX
MMX

28,1 .,
84 .,
140 .
42 .5
42 .6
55 .
42 .
25 .
221 .

2002 .
2000 .
2002 .
2001 .
2001 .
2002 .

75

3.2. Intel-

- - ,
,
,

AMD K5
AMD K6

1,5x1,75x
2,5x4,5x

3,5
2,23,2

32
32

64
64

4
4

16+8
232

./.
./.

AMD K6-2

2,5x6x

1,92,4

32

64

232

./.

AMD K6-3

3,5x4,5x

1,82,4

32

64

232

./.

AMD Athlon

5x10

1,61,8

32

64

264

./.

AMD Duron

5x10

1,51,8

32

64

264

./.

AMD Athlon TB

5x10

1,51,8

32

64

264

./.

AMD
Athlon XP/MP
AMD Athlon XP
Barton
AMD Opteron
Sledgehammer
Cyrix 6x86
Cyrix 6x86MX/MII
Cyrix III
NexgenNx586

5x6,5

1,51,8

32

64

264

./.

5,5x6,5x

1,65

32

64

264

./.

1x4,5x

1,55

64

128

264

./.

2x
2x3,5x
2,5x7
2x

2,53,5
2,22,9
2,2
4

32
32
32
32

64
64
64
64

4
4
4
4

16
64
64
216

./.
./.
./.
./.

IDT Winchip

3x4x

3,33,5

32

64

232

./.

IDT Winchip2/2A

2,33x4x

3,33,5

32

64

232

./.

Rise mP6

2x3,5x

2,8

32

64

6x8x
6x8x
5,5x6x
7,5x10,5x

1,6
1,35
1,35
1,4

32
32
32
32

64
64
64
64

4
4
4
4

28
64
64
64
64

./.
./.
./.
./.

VIA
VIA
VIA
VIA

C38
C39
C310
C311

./.

FPU ( ).
. $ .
./. $ .
M .
$ .
$ .
MMX , 57 .
3DNow MMX 21 .
Enh. 3DNow 3DNow 24 .
SSE SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data), MMX 70
.
SSE2 SIMD2, SSE 144 .

76

3.

AMD K5

4,3 .

1996 .

AMD K6
AMD K6-2
AMD K6-3
AMD Athlon
AMD Duron
AMD Athlon TB
AMD Athlon XP/MP
AMD Athlon XP
Barton
AMD Opteron
Sledgehammer
Cyrix 6x86
Cyrix 6x86MX/MII
Cyrix III
NexgenNx586
IDT Winchip

256
512
64
256
256
512

1/21/3

MMX
3DNow
3DNow
Enh. 3DNow
Enh. 3DNow
Enh. 3DNow!
3DNow! Pro
3DNow! Pro

8,8 .
9,3 .
21,3 .
22 .
25 .
37 .
37,5 .
54,3 .

1997 .
1998 .
1999 .
1999 .
2000 .
2000 .
2001 .
2003 .

1000

3DNow! Pro

105,9 .

2003 .

256

MMX
3DNow!

3 .
6,5 .
22 .
3,5 .
5,4 .

1996 .
1997 .
2000 .
1994 .
1997 .

IDT Winchip2/2A
Rise mP6
VIA C38

128

5,9 .
3,6 .
15,2 .

1998 .
1998 .
2001 .

VIA C39

128

15,4 .

2001 .

VIA C310

128

15,5 .

2001 .

VIA C311

128

20,5 .

2002 .

MMX
3DNow!
MMX
MMX,
3DNow!
MMX,
3DNow!
MMX,
3DNow!
MMX,
3DNow!

1 386SL $, .
2 Intel SL Enhanced, 5 3 ,

SX, DX DX2.
3 $ , 128 ( 256 , $

128 ); , Pentium IIIE.


4 $ , $

.
5 $ , 256 ( 512 , $

256 ); , Pentium IIIB.


6 $ , 128 ( 256 , $

128 ); , Pentium 4.
7 Itanium $ 2 (150 .

) 4 (300 . ), $
. Itanium 2 $ 3 .
8 Samuel 2 ( Cyrix III).
9 Ezra.
10 Ezra$T.
11 Nehemiah.

77


. 3.1, Pentium Pro -
256 , 512 1 ,
. Pentium II/III -
512 ,
. Celeron, Pentium II PE Pentium IIIE , . Celeron III -,
Pentium IIIE, - ,
128 .
, -
256 512 1 2 , Pentium Pro,
Pentium II/III, Xeon Athlon AMD, - 2
4 Itanium. - 15,5 (256 ), 31 (512 ), 62 (1 ) 124 . (2 ) . - 2 4 ,
Itanium, 300 . !
, Athlon (. . 3.2)
- 512 , , , , - 256 512 (Athlon TB/XP), .



, , 
.
, ,
( ) .
, 
.
; , 
, 
.
.

( 5 ),
( 0 ). , 
. Pentium 64
. , Pentium, Pentium 4, Ath
lon XP, Athlon 64 Itanium/Itanium 2, ( 
) 64 (8 ) .
, .
, 
.
, , , ,
. , 8
,
( ). ,
32 , 64
.

78

3.

.
, 32 , 486,
32 . Pentium, Pentium III,
Celeron, Pentium 4, Athlon XP Duron, 64 Itanium
Athlon 64 64 .
72 SIMM ,
32, 486 , 
Pentium .
DIMM 64, Pentium ,
,
. DIMM ,
Pentium.
2003 DIMM
, Intel 865/785 
Pentium 4/Celeron 4 Athlon 64.
, ,
DIMM.
RIMM (Rambus Inline Memory Modules) , 
. 16
32 . ,
.


; 
, . ,
, .
(), , 
.
, .
. , 
, 
. . 
, 
2
(), ( 00 99), .. 10 .
3
10 ( 000 999) ..
,
2
( 00, 01, 10 11), .. 2 , 
3
( 000 111), .. 2 . , 8086 8088
20
20 , 2 (1 048 576) , 1
. , Intel, . 3.3.
3.3. , Intel

8088/8086
286/386SX
386DX/486/ P5
P6 P7
Itanium

20
24
32
36
44

1 048 576
16 777 216
4 294 967 296
68 719 476 736
17 592 186 044 416

1 024
16 384
4 194 304
67 108 864
17 179 869 184

1
16
4 096
65 536
16 777 216

4
64
16 384

16

79

,
, , , 
. : 
, 
, .


, , 
. , ,
; , , 
, .
, 
, . , 32
32 , 
32 , 16 
.
32. Itanium Athlon 64 64 ,

.
(
) . ,
8088 386SX
. ( )
. , 386S
32, 16
.
16 , 32
386.
,
. ,
386D 386S 32, 386S
, 386D .
.
Pentium 64, 32. 
, ,
32 . Pentium 
32 , , 64
. 
.
, Pentium III/4 Athlon XP, 
. 
(.. 
), (Pentium 4)
(Athlon XP) .


32 Intel, 386,
. 
; ,
.
.

80

3.

: , 
( ).


IBM PC 8088,
16 , 16 ,
1 , 20 . PC 
;
16 1 . , DOS, 
DOS, Windows 1.x 3.x Windows 1.x
3.x 16 . 16
8088.
, 286,
16 , 8088, . ,
286 8088
16 , 8088, , , . 
, 8088 286, 
. , , 
16 , 20
, 1 .
, .. 
. 
; ,

, ( ).


32 , PC, 386.
32 .
32 , 32
32 . , 

. ,
.
, , ,
.
, , 
32 , , Intel
386 . 386
16 . 
, . 
; 32 
, 16
. ,  32
.
, Pentium 4, 
, Turbo 8088. Turbo , 
16 ,
16 1 , 
8088. , Pentium 4
Athlon XP 256 , Windows 3.x

81

DOS , 127
!
,
32 
.
32 .
. , , !
 , 32 , ,
Unix (, Linux), OS/2 Windows NT/2000/XP, 
.
Windows XP 
Windows 95/98/Me ( 16/32
). 16 Windows
3.x. DOS.
64 , Itanium AMD Opteron, 
, Athlon 64 
.
32 . ,
, 64 
. Microsoft 64
Windows XP, 64
.

Itanium AMD Opteron/Athlon 64 64- . , 64- , ,



. , 64- Intel
64- Athlon .


32 Windows
. , 16
( ), 32
(.. , ). DOS Windows,
.
, 
,
. ,
32 .
, , 
, 1 ,
. 
, DOS , 
640 . , 1
16 , 384
. 8088, ,
, , 
PC .
1 

82

3.

( ), 
.
16
DOS. DOS Windows 
DOS, .
, Intel ( AMD Cyrix)
. 32
32 .
DOS Windows 3.x , .. 
, . 
:
( ) Windows.
Pentium 4 ,
DOS.
Windows 9x ( Windows Me), <F8>, 
Starting Windows.... , ,
16
DOS. Safe mode command prompt,
( ),
.
Windows Me , , Windows 98.
16 , Microsoft
(Startup). Windows NT/2000/XP
. DOS
, 
. ,
,
.
DOS DOS,
, DOS
XMS ( 1 ). DOS 
DOS Windows 3.x, .
, , DOS , DPMI
(DOS protected mode interface DOS).
Windows 3.x
XMS Windows 3.x. 16
, 1 . DOS 
DOS; 
, (1 ), 
, . DOS
, Windows 
DPMI, Windows,
XMS .
: 64 
. IBM AT, 21
(A20, A0 ). A20, 
64 
64 , .
(high memory area HMA).

83


, 
. Intel, AMD VIA/Cyrix.
,
(). , 
, . 

, .
. 
. ( .) , ..
. . 3.1 .

. 3.1.

. 1885
, .

()
, .
. , Pentium II
. ( , 
; ,
.)
, .
8086 8088.
12 .
286 386.
4,5 .
486 Intel ,
, AMD 5x86, 2 .
Pentium, K6. Pentium Intel
, AMD Cyrix, 
,
.

84

3.

Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III/4Celeron Athlon/Athlon XP/Duron. P6,


,
AMD Cyrix, , , .
, , 
, (.. 
).
? .
486 386,
, 386. 
Pentium , 486. , 486 
133 ( AMD 5x86133) , Pentium 
75 ! , Pentium 
, 486. Pentium II III 50%
Pentium, , 
.
, , 
Pentium III, 1 000 ,
Pentium, 1 500 ,
, , 486, 
3 000 , , , 
386 286, 6 000 , 8088,
12 000 . , PC 
8088 , 4,77 , 
1,5 . . 
, ; 
, .
. 
:
, . 

, , Intel
, Intel, 
.
, 32 ;
( ) iCOMP 2.0 (intel Comparative Microprocessor Performance
Intel).
iCOMP 3.0.
Web Intel :
http://developer.intel.com/procs/perf/index.htm.

iCOMP.
Pentium 4 Intel .

. 3.4 , iCOMP 2.0, 


.
iCOMP 2.0
.
iCOMP ,
.

85

3.4. iCOMP 2.0

Pentium 75
Pentium 100
Pentium 120
Pentium 133
Pentium 150
Pentium 166
Pentium 200
Pentium-MMX 166
Pentium Pro 150
Pentium-MMX 200
Pentium Pro 180
Pentium-MMX 233
Celeron 266

67
90
100
111
114
127
142
160
168
182
197
203
213

Pentium Pro 200


Celeron 300
Pentium II 233
Celeron 300A
Pentium II 266
Celeron 333
Pentium II 300
Pentium II Overdrive 300
Pentium II 333
Pentium II 350
Pentium II Overdrive 333
Pentium II 400
Pentium II 450

220
226
267
296
303
318
332
351
366
386
387
440
483

Intel iCOMP 2.0


iCOMP 3.0. ,
,
, Internet, 
, . ICOMP 3.0,
, : WinTune 98 Advanced CPU Integer,
CPUMark 99, 3D WinBench 993D, MultimediaMark 99, Jmark 2.0 WinBench 99FPU
WinMark. SSE (
SIMD), ,
Pentium III. , Pentium III
, , Pentium II,
.
. 3.5 iCOMP 3.0 Intel Pentium III.
3.5. iCOMP 3.0

Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium

1000
1240
1500
1650
1780
1930
2110

Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium

2270
2420
2540
2690
2890
3280

II 350
II 450
III 450
III 500
III 550
III 600
III 600E

III
III
III
III
III
III

650
700
750
800
866
1000

Intel Pentium 4 
BAPCo SYSmark 2002.
. 3.6.
3.6. SYSmark 2002 Intel Pentium 4
Pentium 4

SYSmark 2002

1,50
1,60
1,70
1,80
1,90
2,00
2,00 1

159
166
174
179
186
193
212

86

3.

. 3.6
Pentium 4

SYSmark 2002

2,20 1
2,26 2
2,40 2
2,53 2
2,80 2
3,06 2

227
239
245
254
295
315

1 0,13$ , $ 512 ,
400 .
2 0,13$ , $ 512 ,
533 .

SYSmark 2002, 
, ,
Internet Microsoft
Office. SYSmark 2002 , 
:
Internet$ Adobe Photoshop 6.01, Premiere 6.0, Windows Media Encoder 7.1,
Macromedia Dreamweaver 4 Flash 5;
Microsoft Word 2002, Excel 2002, Power
Point 2002, Outlook 2002, Access 2002, Netscape Communicator 6.0, Dragon Naturally
Speaking ( 5), WinZip 8.0 McAfee VirusScan 5.13.
SYSmark , 
, 
. 
, iCOMP. 
.
SYSmark 2002 Web BAPC : www.bapco.com.



, 486DX2, , 
. 
, 2,53 Pentium 4 4,75
533 , 2,083 Athlon XP 2800+
Barton 6,25 , 333 .
1998 Intel 66 .
1998 
, , 100 .
1999
133 , Pentium III.
AMD Athlon
100 , .
Athlon North
Bridge 200 .
2000 2001 AMD Athlon Intel Itanium 
266 , Pentium 4 400 533 . 2002
Athlon XP 333 . 2003 Intel
Pentium 4 800 . , 

87

, Intel AMD.
,
SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM.


BIOS. ,
;
. Pentium 
.
, ,
. , Pentium
. . 3.7
Pentium .
3.7. Pentium

Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium/Pentium Pro
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium/Pentium Pro/MMX
Pentium/Pentium Pro/MMX
Pentium MMX/Pentium II
Pentium MMX ()/
Pentium II/Celeron
Pentium II/Celeron
Pentium II/Celeron
Pentium II/Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Pentium II
Pentium II
Pentium II/III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III/Celeron
Pentium III/Celeron
Pentium III/Celeron
Pentium III/Celeron

75
60
90
120
150
180
66
100
133
166
200
233
266

1,5x
1x
1,5x
2x
2,5x
3x
1x
1,5x
2x
2,5x
3x
3,5x
4x

50
60
60
60
60
60
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

300
333
366
400
433
466
500
533
566
600
633
667
700
733
766
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950

4,5x
5x
5,5x
6x
6,5
7
7,5
8x
8,5x
9x
9,5x
10x
10,5
11
11,5
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5x
6x
6,5x
7x
7,5x
8x
8,5x
9x
9,5x

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

88

3.

. 3.7

Pentium III/Celeron
Pentium III/Celeron
Pentium III/Celeron
Pentium III/Celeron
Pentium III/Celeron
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4/Celeron
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Itanium
Itanium
Itanium 2

1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
533
600
667
733
800
866
933
1000
1066
1133
1200
1266
1333
1400
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2200
2400
2266
2400
2500
2533
2600
2660
2800
3060
3200
3400
733
800
1000

10x
11x
12x
13x
14x
4
4,5
5x
5,5x
6x
6,5x
7x
7,5x
8x
8,5x
9x
9,5x
10x
10,5x
3,25
3,5
3,75
4
4,25
4,5
4,75
5
5,5x
6x
4,25x
4,5x
6,25x
4,75x
6,5x
5x
5,25x
5,75x
4x
4,25x
2,75
3
2,5x

100
100
100
100
100
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
533
533
400
533
400
533
533
533
800
800
266
266
400

( ,
)
. : 
, , 
. , ,
, 
, .
, .

, . ,

89

, .
, .

Cyrix -.

AMD
Athlon XP, AMD,
, , , 
.
, ,
,
Intel Pentium 4 ,
. , !
. 3.8 5, 6 Athlon XP
Duron, AMD.
3.8. AMD

AMD

(P-Rating)

K5
K5
K5
K5
K5
K5
K6
K6
K6
K6
K6
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-3
K6-3
Athlon
Athlon
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron

75
90
100
120
133
166
166
200
233
266
300
233
266
300
300
333
333
350
366
380
400
400
450
475
500
533
550
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800

75
90
100
90
100
116,7
166
200
233
266
300
233
266
300
300
333
333
350
366
380
400
400
450
475
500
533
550
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800

1,5x
1,5x
1,5x
1,5x
1,5x
1,75x
2,5x
3x
3,5x
4x
4,5x
3,5x
4x
4,5x
3x
5x
3,5x
3,5x
5,5x
4x
6x
4x
4,5x
5x
5x
5,5x
5,5x
4x
4,5x
2,5x
2,75
3
3,25
3,5
3,75
4

50
60
66
60
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
100
66
95
100
66
95
66
100
100
95
100
97
100
100
100
200
200
200
200
200
200
200

90

3.

. 3.8

AMD

(P-Rating)

Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon
Athlon
Athlon
Athlon
Athlon
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP

850
900
950
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1000
1133
1200
1333
1400
1500+
1600+
1700+
1800+
1900+
2000+
2100+
2200+
2400+
2500+*
2600+
2600+
2700+
2800+*
2800+
3000+*
3200+

850
900
950
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1000
1133
1200
1333
1400
1333
1400
1466
1533
1600
1666
1733
1800
2000
1833
2083
2133
2167
2083
2250
2167
2333

4,25
4,5
4,75
5
5,5x
6x
6,5x
7x
3,75
4,25
6
5
5,25x
5x
5,25x
5,5x
5,75x
6x
6,25x
6,5x
6,75x
7,5x
5,5x
6,25x
8x
6,5x
6,25x
6,75x
6,5x
7x

200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
333
333
266
333
333
333
333
333

: Athlon/Duron 200 266 $


100 133 ,
, .
, 100 133 ,
.
* Barton, $
$ 512 256 $
Athlon XP.

, AMD, , 
Athlon, 1,8 , 
, Pentium 4 2,2 . 
Athlon XP 2200+, 2200+
Pentium 4, . 
, , ,
, .
, 
.
, AMD, 
, .
, , $

91

,
, . , AMD
Athlon XP, ,
Pentium 4. (,
AMD ,
Pentium 4.)
AMD : ,
,
? , AMD Athlon XP, 
2 , , Pentium 4 
2 , , Pentium 4
2,4 ( Athlon XP 2400+). 
P4 
. Pentium 4
20 , 11 Athlon
10 Pentium III/Celeron.

,
. ,
Athlon ( Pentium III) .
(
)
. ,
Athlon, Pentium III Pentium 4,
, ,
Athlon Pentium III ,
, Pentium 4.
Pentium 4,
. Intel 
:
30% ,
50% Athlon Pentium III,
. 20
P4 
. , Athlon XP Pentium 4 
0,18 ( 
, ). 20 P4
0,18 2,0 ,
Athlon 11
1,73 , Pentium III/Celeron 10
1,13 . 0,13
Pentium 4 3,06 ,
Athlon XP 2,083 ( Athlon 3000+). Pentium 4
,
.
, Pentium 4 Athlon XP ,

.
, 
. , Intel
2 0,13 () , 

92

3.

( 256 512 ), 400 533 .


,
( ) 0,18
Pentium 4, 0,13 Pentium 4, 
, 533 . 
AMD, 
. AMD Athlon XP 
0,13 ( Thoroughbred Barton)
512  , (Barton),
2800+, 3000+ 3200+ 
2,8, 3,0 3,2 Pentium 4.
: 
.
20 Pentium 4 
,
, 
. , 
Pentium 4, , 
, Pentium 4
. , 
AMD , .
, Athlon 64  
, 
Opteron 64.
, Athlon XP, 
AMD, : ,
. , 
Pentium 4 
.

. Windows XP
General () System
Properties (: ). AMD 
. AMD
, Athlon XP, ,
.
, ,
, SiSoft San
dra Intel Frequency ID Utility.

Athlon ( , , ), Web- AMD . ( 1000 ). Athlon XP Model 10,


Model 8 Model 6 .

93

: 
, () (), 
,
.


; 
(overclocking). 
.
. ,
800 900 .
, 
. , ,
, 
, 
1020%.


Intel AMD
, AMD , 
, , 
, .
, .
? 
.
. Intel
: 66, 100, 133, 400 500 . ,

,  . ,
Intel D845PEBT2, 2002 , .
Intel ( D845PEBT2) 
BIOS, 
. , , , 
 , . 

.

4,
BIOS 5.

66 100 133 , 
. , Pentium III 800E 8 
100 . 133 
8133=1 066 . 
. , Celeron 600E 966 ;
100 ,
900 , .
, , 
. ,
 . 

94

3.

, ,
. , Asus P3V4X 
: 66, 75, 83, 90, 95, 100, 103, 105, 110, 112, 115, 120,
124, 133, 140 150 . Pentium III 800E,
.
()

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

100
103
105
110
112
115
120
124
133

800
824
840
880
896
920
960
992
1 066

Celeron 600.
()

9
9
9
9
9
9

66
75
83
90
95
100

600
675
747
810
855
900

1020%
, .. .
,
. ,
10%
PCI AGP. , 
, 
. 
, .

Socket A
AMD Athlon Duron, FCPGA (FlipChip Pin Grid
Array) Socket A, , 
. 
. 

, .

, . 

. , ;
, 
, . , ,
, 
. , 

95

, , .

. ,
, .
, , BIOS Setup.
 
, .


,
, . 
, Slot 1, Slot A, Socket 8, Socket 370, Socket 423, Socket 478 Socket A,
. 
, . 
, Intel,  ,
. ,
Asus P3V4X, 
. , 
,
 .
,
. ,
,
; 
. , 
, , 
, 
.
21, .

, .
,
.

,
, : http://www.tomshardware.com.
Web- , ,
, , ( )
. , Intel ,
. , , .

-
, , ,
. :
, , ,
? : . , $

96

3.

, , 
. ,
. ,
 , . 
.
,
, , . ,
, ,
.
, .
 (SRAM), 
.
, 
(L1) (L2) ( ,
Itanium,  (L3)).
 .

-
, 486, ( ) $
$ 8 486DX, 32, 64
. , 
. 
, 
, ..  ( ) .
, 
. ,
( ),
(.. ).
6,
. , 233 
4,3 . , ,
200 , 4 . , 233
66 , 15
. , 60 (
Pentium), , 16 .
, Pentium 233 ,
233 (4,3 ), , 66 (15 ),
, 16 (60 ).
 , 
, , (
).  
, 
, .
,
, 
.
, , ,
, . , (2,8 )
Pentium 4 5,25 ,
533 . (266 ),
Pentium 4 .

97

,
266 . 2,8  , 
. Pentium 4, 2,8 ,
20  (8 , 12 
) 512  . 
.
, , ,
. 
 ( ) ,
.. .

-
 ,
.
( ), , 
, .
, ,
(SIMM/DIMM). , , ,
 . 
, .
, .
. , 
, , . , ,
(
233 4 ). , (.. )
60 (, 60 ).
,
, 60 , .
 , , , 
. , .
, 60 .
. ,
. 60
. , , .
60 . , 
, 
.
18.00
, :
18.00 :
, ,  . 
? , . , 
,  , , 
. 
, . 
. , ,
, , .
,
.

.  ,

98

3.

.
(.. ) . 
, , , . 
, , . , 
,
. 
, , ,
. , , .
. , , 18.00 
. , , 
, , , .
 :
 . , , .
, 60 ,
. , .. 
, , (cache miss).
, , , Pentium 233 ,
16 (..
).  Intel
, 90%.
,  90% , ,
( 233 ) 90%
. 10%  
, . 
,
60 , 16 .
14 
. 16
(60 ) 333 (3,0 ), 3
. , 7,5 ( )
.  .
 ,
. 
, 90%,  .

-
,
,  .
, 
,
,
15 . Pentium (Socket 7) 
, ..
(66 , 15 ). , ,
. , 60
,
. 15 . 
:
233 16 60
 , 15 (66 ).
, 233 66 .

99

 , 
, , 
. ,
, 
. , ( 
), 
( ),
, 15 , .

%
 , 90%.
, , , 90%
( 233 ),  
; 10%  . 
 90% , 10% 
. , 
, , 
90% ( 233 ), 9% (..
90% 10% 66 ) 1% 
(10% 10% 16 ).  
;  , 
, .
. , 
 . 
? 1%
,
1% ! , . 
,  ,
9% ; ,
.
Intel AMD

. Pentium (P5) 
. Intel 
,  
,
.
. , , 
Pentium II, Intel  
(Sony, Toshiba, NEC, Samsung ..).
, , Intel 
. Pentium II 
.

. 3 ,
333 . 
, Pentium II Pentium III 
. Athlon
 
.

100

3.

Celeron 300A
.  
.  , 
. , 
,
. Pentium III, 
Xeon Celeron  
, , 
. Athlon
Duron , .
, 
, ,
.
, 9%  ,
.  
, .
,
Pentium 4 2 . 
( 2 0,5 ).
 , .. , 
, ( 
). ,
, ( ), 
.
, ( 
2 , 0,5 ). , 99%
(  )
2 , , 
( ).
400 (2,5 ) 2,5 . ,
, !

-
, 
. 
, , ,
,
. ,
, . 
, ,
.
 , 
, (), ().
; 
.
.
,  .
: 
,
.
(), . ,

101

, , , 
.

, .
, , , 
, . 
, .
,
.
 
, .
, .. ( )
.  
, .
, 
(). 
;
, , , 
. , n 
, 
. 
, .. .
n
.

,
. 
.
,
, 
. n

. ,
() .., .
, , 
. 
, Windows, 
, 
, n
.
 486 Pentium $
(four$way set associative cache),
 . , ,
128 256 16 . 
.
,
. 486
(write$through), , ,
.

102

3.

486
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium




( )
( )

( MMX)
MMX
Pro/II/III
III/4

Pentium (write$back),
, .
. 486 
, . ,
486 4 ,
. , .
, 
. ,
. 

. , 
, 
.
, , 
, 
(bus masters). , , 
(bus snooping). ,
(.. ),  ,
,
. 
, 
.
, ,
(Translation Lookaside Buffer TLB),
. 
,
.
. (,
Athlon Palomino) TLB. 
Pentium 4 HyperThreading
TLB (iTLB).
. 
, DDRSDRAM RDRAM,
Pentium 4/Celeron Athlon XP,
.  ,
, 
. 
, . ,
, . . 3.9
, , ( )
( ) .

103

3.9. , -,

Pentium

Pentium Pro

Pentium II

AMD K6-2

AMD K6-3

,
(
) - ,
()
- ,

233

200

450

550

550

4,3 (233)

5,0 (200)

2,2 (450)

1,8 (450)

1,8 (550)

16

32

32

64

64


(
) - ,
()
- ,


,
(
) , ()


1/1


1/1

15 (66)

5 (200)

4,4 (225)

10 (100)

2,2 (450)

2562

512

256

66

66

100

100

100

60 (16)

60 (16)

10 (100)

10 (100)

10 (100)

Duron

Athlon

Athlon XP

Pentium III

Celeron/370

,
(
) - ,
()
- ,

450

1 300

1 400

1 400

1 400

2,2 (450)

0,77 (1 300)

0,71 (1 400)

0,71 (1 400)

0,71 (1 400)

128

128

128

32

32


-
(
) - ,
()
- ,

,
(
) , ()
,
(
) - ,
()
- ,

-

-
(
) - ,
()
- ,


,
(
) , ()

1/1

1/1


1/1
1/1


1/1

0,77 (1 300)

0,71 (1 400)

0,56 (1 800)

0,71 (1 400)

0,71 (1 400)

64
200

256
266

256
266

512
133

256
100

5 (200)

3,8 (266)

3,8 (266)

7,5 (133)

10 (100)

1 700

2 530

0,59 (1 700)

0,39 (2 530)

20

20


1/1


1/1

0,59 (1 700)

0,39 (2 530)

128

512

400

533
3

2,5 (400)

1,9 (533)3

1 $ ,
.
2 Pentium Pro $ 1024 512 .

104

3.

3 , RDRAM 800

1066 , 32$ RDRAM ,


3,2 4,2 /, , $
400 533 64$ .

,  
, 
, .
 , . 
, .



,
, .
, 
, , MMX SSE.

SMM

, Intel .
. 
486SL, 
486DX. ,
, Pentium 
. SMM (System Management
Mode ).
, SMM .
, 
. , 
. 
/, 
, .
BIOS.


Pentium 
, . 486

. $
.
486.
RISC (Reduced
Instruction Set Computer ).
Pentium CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer
), , 
.
CISC.
1. .
2. .
3. .

105

RIS.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. ? , . 5.
7. .
RISC ,  
. ,
, , ,
(). ,
RISC CISC, , , ,
RISC CISC, .
.
Intel
CISC. , 
RISC CISC RISC.

MMX
, MMX multimedia extensions (
) matrix math extensions ( ).
MMX Pentium
(. 3.2) , /
, , 
, .
MMX . , 
, , MMX 
, , .
,
MMX.
MMX 57 
, , $
(Single Instruction Multiple Data, SIMD).
;
10% ( ) , 
90% . SIMD 
, ,
, , .
SIMD , , 
 ; .
Intel 57 ,
, .
,
.
, ,
.
, AMD Cyrix, Intel MMX 
.

106

3.

SSE SSE2
1999 Intel Pentium III,
MMX, SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions 
SIMD). SSE Katmai New Instruc
tions (KNI), Pentium III 
Katmai. Celeron 533A , Pentium III, 
SSE. Pentium II, Celeron 533
( Pentium II) SSE .
SSE 70 
MMX.
KNI MMX2. SSE 
, . MMX
.
SSE2, 144 SIMD, 
2000 Pentium 4. SSE2 
MMX SSE.
SIMD (SSE)
, 
. SSE 
,  (DVD), 
. SSE :
/ ;
MPEG2,
MPEG2 
;
/
.
SSE SSE2
MPEG2, ,
DVD. , SSE
MPEG2
(, MPEG2). , ,
SSE, .
SSE MMX 
SIMD ,
. SIMD, MMX, 
. , SSE 
; 
. 
SSE MMX
. SSE (prefetching), 
.
, 
.
, , 
, ,
SSE. , Adobe Photoshop
SSE,
SSE . SSE DirectX 6.1
 , Windows 98

107

Second Edition, Windows Me, Windows NT 4.0 ( 5 )


Windows 2000.
SSE MMX, SSE2 
SSE. , , SSE2, 
SSE, , SSE, ,
MMX. , MMX 
.

3DNow!, Enhanced 3DNow! Professional 3DNow!


3DNow AMD 
SSE Intel. ( 1998 ) 3DNow
AMD K6, Enhanced 3DNow 
Athlon Duron. Professional 3DNow!
Athlon XP. AMD MMX Intel
MMX K6, Athlon Duron. 
SSE, AMD
MMX, 3DNow!. SSE/SSE2,
3DNow!, Enhanced 3DNow! Professional 3DNow!
, .
3DNow! 21 SIMD,
. Enhanced 3DNow!
24 (19 SSE 5 DSP/ ),
45 . MMX, 3DNow!
, SSE Pentium III
Celeron. AMD, 3DNow!
MMX SSE,
. 3DNow!, Enhanced 3DNow! Profes
sional 3DNow! SSE, , 

. 3DNow! 3DNow! Professional! 51
SSE 3DNow! Enhanced, AMD
SSE. , SSE2,
Pentium 4 Celeron 4.
3DNow, SSE, SIMD ,
. 
3DNow
MMX .
.
SSE 3DNow! 
, Windows 9x, Windows NT 4.0 
Microsoft. Athlon XP Athlon 64
SSE
3DNow! Professional.


P6 ( )
,
, .
.
(). 
.

108

3.

. , 
.
.
, , , 
.


, 
,
. /, 
, , 
,
, . ,
, 
. 
.


, 
, 
. /
, 
. 

  
 .



. /
, , ,
() ,
.
, , 
, , . 

Intel , 
. .
, 
. 
, 
.
, , 
. P6 
, Intel, , P5 (Pentium)
, !


(Dual Independent Bus DIB)

.

109

 
, , . , (backside)
DIB  , 
, ,
( ) .

DIB 4.

DIB :  ,
(FSB). Pentium Pro, Celeron,
Pentium II/III/4, Athlon Duron , 
, .
 
,
(FSB) , 
. .
FSB, , , 
 . 
 .
DIB 
, 
,
, .
, .
DIB 
( ),
. DIB 
, .

HyperThreading
, Windows NT 4.0/2000/XP Professional/2003 Server
Linux, 
,
. 
,

,
.
HyperThreading (HT) Intel 
. , HT
.
HT Xeon
2002 . 
. HT
Xeon 533 , 
2002 Pentium 4 3,06 , 
/ .

110

3.


HT ,
. 
, /. 
(. 3.2).
, 
HT c 
. 
HT
25% .


HT, ,
Pentium 4 c 3,06 . Pentium 4
Pentium 4 800 HT.
.
.
HT ( ).
BIOS.
BIOS / HT. HyperThreading 
, HT 
BIOS.
HT , Windows XP Home Professional.
HT Device Manager ( )
.
Intel Pentium 4
HT; 4. , 
HT, 
() BIOS . Windows NT
4.0 Windows 2000 ,
HT 
. Linux 2.4.18 
.


HT

. 3.2. , HT,
,

111

, HT 
. , 
HT .


, , 
, . 
, ( );
.
, 
, 
(Czochralski). ,
, 
. , 

(99,999999%). 
, 
2500 .
, .
, , ,
, .
, 
, (. 3.3). 
, ,
, . 
(1040 ) ( 2500 ), 
,
. ,
812 (2030 ) 5 ( 1,5 ) . 
.
200 ( 300 ), 
.

(. 3.4). , 
.
, . 
: , , 
; ,
(), . 
().

, 
, 
.
(, , )
. 
(), , , .
( Pentium III ;
. 
.)

112

3.

. 3.3.

. 3.4.

113

, , 
. ( 
.) , 
() .
, ,
, () 
( ),
.
, ()
. 
, .
,
.
, . 
0,18
AMD , Pen
tium 4 Northwood 0,13 .
, ,
, , 

. 
,
. , 
.

Pentium III Celeron, (coppermine) (coppermine


0,18- ), ,
, . , ; Coppermine,
- . Intel
( ), - , . ,
Pentium III (0,25- ) Katmai (
). Intel
: Deerfield, Foster, Northwood, Tualatin, Gallatin, McKinley Madison
, , , , .

,
.
, ,
.
.

, 
(. 3.5). 2001 2002
0,18 0,13 , 
, 200 (8 )
300 (12 ). 300
. 0,13

114

3.

.
, . , 2007 
, , .
, 
, Pentium 4. , 
, 200 
2
8 . , 31 416 . 
Pentium 4, 200 ,
Willamette, 0,18
2
, 217 .
42 . . 200 (8)
145 .

. 3.5. 200 
Pentium 4, 0,13

Pentium 4 Northwood, 0,13


, , 
2
131 . 55 . .
Willamette Northwood 
(512 ), . 
0,13
60%, 200 (8)
240 . , 145 
Willamette.
2002 Intel Northwood ,
2
300 70 686 . 2,25 
200 , 
, . Pentium 4 Northwood,
300 540 . 
0,13
3,7 Pentium 4. 
, 
.

115

2003 0,09 
. 2005 0,065, 2007
0,045 . ,
, 2007 !
300 , 
(.. 450 ) 2015 .
. 3.10.
3.10. ,

1989
1,0

1991
0,8

1993
0,5

1995
0,35

1997
0,25

1999
0,18

2001
0,13

2003
0,09

2005
0,065

2007
0,045

2009
0,032

. 

() , .
50%, , 
, 90%. 
, 
.  
, ,
,
. , 1997 1998 AMD
, .
AMD ,
, IBM Microelectronics 
AMD .

, .
.
, 
, . :
, 
( ) .
, , ,
.
,
, , 
.
.
( 
, ), , 
. 
; 
:
. , Pentium 4 2,0, 2,2, 2,26, 2,24 2,53 
, .. ,
, ,
.
, , 
, , 
. 

116

3.

75% 25%
. , Intel

, .
, 
, , .


, 
,
.
,
. 
Intel AMD 
. , , 
. , , 
, .

. .
, Slot 1
Slot A. 
, .

,
.
, Intel AMD
. : 
, , ( 
). ,
(Bus Frequency BF);
, .
;
, .
PII PIII Slot 1
, , , . PII
PIII, ,
. , .
, , , , -
, .
, .

, Intel AMD,
, ,
.
, ,
.
. 

117

,
Intel AMD. , ,
.  Web
Internet, , .

 .
"" Intel AMD, OEM
. , 
.
. 
(SIMM/DIMM),
, , SCSI, , 
, . ,
, , , 
. ,
Microsoft. 35 , 
, 2 32 . 
2 Microsoft, 
20 . , ,
, .

PGA
PGA .
1980 286 Pentium
Pentium Pro. ,
. PGA ZIF (Zero Insertion Force
). ZIF .
Pentium PGA SPGA
(Staggered Pin Grid Array ),
, 
. ,
. . 3.6 Pentium Pro, 
SPGA;
Pentium 66. , Pentium Pro
,
.

. 3.6. Pentium 66 PGA () Pentium Pro SPGA,


()

118

3.

PGA
, . 
, 
. 
.
, 
.

(FlipChip Pin Grid Array
FCPGA). PGA,
. FCPGA
.
.
. FCPGA
,
.
, ,
FCPGA. , 
. (,
) , 
. , 
, .
AMD ,
, 
. ,
. 
Athlon XP FCPGA , 
, 
, .
Athlon 64 , ,
, .
Intel FCPGA2,
Pentium III Pentium 4.
, 
.
, .
,
(Bumpless BuildUp Layer BBUL), ;
, 
. ,
, ,
.

SEC SEP
1997 2000 Intel AMD , 
. , 
(Single Edge Contact Cartridge SECC)
(Single Edge Processor Package SEPP),
 , ,
.
.

SEC SEP

119

SEC , , 
,  .

 
.
SEP (Single Edge Processor ) 
SEC. SEP , 
 (
). SEP Slot 1. SEP 
, Celeron.
Slot 1 , 242 . Slot 1
. 3.7. SEC SEP, , 
Slot 1 . 
. . 3.8 , SEC.
, , .
SEP . 3.9.
132,870,25
5,2310,010

2,540,127
0,1000,005

72,00
2,832

R 0,25
0,010

47,00
1,850
2,50
0,098

73

2,50
0,098

48

1,880,10
0,0740,004

9,500,25
0,3740,010
1,27
0,050

4,75
0,187

1,780,03
0,0700,001

2,000,127
0,0790,005
76,13 (.)
2,997 (.)

51,13 (.)
2,013 (.)

0,94
0,037

. 3.7. Slot 1 Pentium II

. 3.8. SEC Pentium II

120

3.

Pentium III , SECC2 (Single Edge


Contact Cartridge, 2). SEC.
, 
. 
. Slot 1.
SECC2 . 3.10.

. 3.9. Celeron SEP

. 3.10. SECC2 Pentium II/III


. ,
 ,
SEC SEP .
 , 
PGA.


Socket 1, Socket 2, Socket 3, Socket 4. Socket 5,
Socket 6, Socket 7 (Super 7) Socket 8
.

Socket 370 (PGA-370)


1999 Intel P6.
Socket 370 (PGA370), 370
() Celeron

121

Pentium III PGA. Socket 370


( ) Super 7, 
AMD Cyrix. 
, , .., 
. Celeron Pentium III
SECC SEPP. , 
 , , ,
, Slot 1. 
, .
Intel Pentium Pro,
, , .
, Pentium II
.
Intel, Celeron 300 ( 1998 ),
 ; 
.
 .
, Intel ,
, , Celeron.
Socket 370 (PGA370) . 3.11.
Celeron 333 Slot 1,
366433 Slot 1, Socket 370, 466 1,4
Socket 370. Socket 370 (PGA370)
Slot 1. PGASlot 1.
1999 Intel Pentium III 
, Socket 370. 
FCPGA (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array). , 
Intel.
1

AN
AL

VSS

AM
VSS

A12#

VSS

VCC
VSS

A16#
VSS

A15#

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
A6#

VCC
A13#

Rsvd
VSS

A9#

Rsvd
VCC

Rsvd

BPRI#

VSS

Rsvd

Rsvd

VCC
A7#

DEFER#
VSS

REQ4#

Rsvd

Rsvd

VCC

VSS

REQ3#

Rsvd

TRDY#
VCC

HITM#

DRDY#
VSS

HIT#

BR0#
VCC

DBSY#

ADS#
VSS

THRMDN

TRST#

TDI

VCC

THRMDP

TDO

VSS
TCK

VID2

AK
VCC

VSS

A28#

A3#

A11#

VREF6

A14#

Rsvd

REQ0#

LOCK#

VREF7

Rsvd

PWRGD

RS2#

Rsvd

TMS

VCC

A21#

AG

VSS

VCC

VSS
EDGCTRL

Rsvd

VSS
A10#

A19#

VCC
A5#

VSS
A8#

VCC
A4#

VSS
BNR#

VCC
REQ1#

VSS
REQ2#

VCC
Rsvd

VSS
RS1#

VCC
VCC

VSS
RS0#

VCC

THERMTRIP#

VSS
SLP#

BSEL#

VID3

AJ

IGNNE#

AG

SMI#

VCC

VSS

VSS
INIT#

AH

VCC

STPCLK#

AF
VCC

AE
AD

A17#

AB

Rsvd
A22#

VSS

AC
Rsvd

A20#
VCC

AA
A27#

A25#

VSS

VREF5

VCC

A23#

VSS

VCC
A31#
VSS
A24#

A30#

VCC
A20M#

VSS

VCC

AF

VSS
IERR#

FLUSH#

VSS

Rsvd

Y
X

VCC

D0#
VSS

P
N

D8#

J
H

VSS

D2#

D17#

VSS

D7#

D11#

D30#

D21#

VSS

D23#

VCC

D9#

VSS

VSS

D3#

VCC

VCC

D19#

VCC

VSS

D22#
VSS

Rsvd
VCC

D27#
VSS

VCC
VCC

D63#
VSS

VREF1
VCC

VSS
VSS

VCC

VCOREPET

VSS
Rsvd

VCC
D62#

VSS
Rsvd

VCC
Rsvd

PICD0

L
J

PREQ#
VCC

Rsvd
VCC

VREF0

VSS

VSS

VSS
Rsvd

LINT1

LINT0
PICD1

BP2#
D32#

VCC

Rsvd

Rsvd

PICCLK

Rsvd
VSS

VCC

VSS

B
D33#

VSS
VCC

D35#

D31#
VSS

D29#

VCC

D34#
VCC

D28#

D38#

D36#
VSS

D43#

D39#

D45#
VCC

D37#

D42#

D41#
D49#

VSS
D44#

D52#
D40#

VCC
D51#

VSS
D59#

VSS
D47#

VCC
D55#

VCC
D48#

VSS
D54#

VSS
D57#

VCC
D58#

VCC
D46#

VSS
D50#

VSS
D53#

VCC
D56#

VCC
D60#

VSS
Rsvd

VSS
D61#

VCC
Rsvd

VCC
Rsvd

Rsvd
VSS

Rsvd

Rsvd

BP3#

VCC
BPM0#

VCC
Rsvd

CPUPRES#

B
A

Rsvd
PRDY#

H
G

VSS
BPM1#

VSS

R
Q

VCC
Rsvd

Rsvd

T
S

Rsvd

VCC

V
U

Rsvd
VSS

Rsvd

Rsvd

D24#

VCC
Rsvd

Rsvd

VSS
VCC

D25#

VSS

X
W

BCLK

VCC
Rsvd

VREF3

VSS
VSS

Rsvd

PLL2

VCC
D16#

VCC
D26#

VCC

D6#

VSS
VREF2

VSS

VREF4

VCC

D20#
VCC

VCC

C
A

AA
Z

V2.5

VCC
PLL1

VSS
D18#

D14#

D13#

VSS

VCC

D10#
VCC

E
D

VSS

VSS
D1#

Rsvd

G
F

Rsvd

D5#

D12#

L
K

Rsvd

VCC

D15#
VCC

VCC

VSS

RESET#
Rsvd

D4#

S
R

A26#
Rsvd

U
T

A18#

Y
Rsvd

W
V

A29#

AC
AB

VCMOS
Rsvd

Z
VSS

AE
AD

V1.5
FERR#

VCC
Rsvd

AL
AK

VSS

AJ
AH

AN
AM

VID1
VID0

VSS

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

. 3.11. Socket 370 (PGA370)

122

3.

, Socket 370
Pentium III Celeron FCPGA. , 
RESET VRM 8.4. 
, Celeron,
, , RESET
VRM 8.4, . ,
, 
. ,
Intel CA810, VRM 8.4 
. Vtt, Pentium III FCPGA
RESET#.
FCPGA
. , : Pentium III, 
0,18 , 1,601,65 ,
2,00 . 
, . , BIOS 
. 
BIOS, 
.
Slot 1
Celeron, Pentium II Pentium III, 
Celeron Pentium III. Slotsocket,
slot$ket. , ,
Slot 1, Socket 370,
PGA Slot 1. slot$ket
, Celeron.

Socket 423
ZIF Socket 423 (. 3.12) 2000
Pentium 4 ( Willamette).
Socket 423 400 , 
(Memory Controller Hub MCH), 
. Pentium 4
2 Socket 423; 
Socket 478.
Socket 423 , 
,
, .
, ,
Pentium 4. Socket 423 
, . , 
Socket 478, Pentium 4, 
.
(VID),
VRM, , 
. 
. Pentium 4
1,7 , . 
1, 
.

123

. 3.12. 1 Socket 423 (Pentium 4)

Socket 478
ZIF Socket 478 2001 Pentium 4
Celeron 4 ( Pentium 4).
Pentium 4
2 . ,
Socket 423,
. Socket 478 . 3.13.

. 3.13. 1 Socket 478 (Pentium 4)

124

3.

Socket 478 400, 533 800 , 


(Memory Controller Hub MCH),
.
Socket 478 ,
,
(, , Socket 423). ,

, Socket 423.

, .
Socket 478 (VID),
VRM, , 
.
1, .

Socket A (Socket 462)


2000 AMD Socket A (
Socket 462), Athlon Duron PGA.
Slot A,
Athlon. Athlon Duron 
, , 
Athlon, .
Socket A (Socket 462) 462 , Socket 370.
Socket 370 Socket A . 
32 1,1001,850 0,025
( VID0VID4).
. Socket A (Socket 462) . 3.14.
11 ,
.
. Socket A . 3.15.
AMD , Athlon/Athlon XP
Socket A. , AMD 
Athlon  , 
Duron. Athlon 64 Socket 754.
!
,
. Athlon XP
, Athlon/Duron, BIOS
. , ,
.

Socket 603
Socket 603 (. 3.16) Intel Xeon 
(Dual Processor DP) (Multiple Processor MP) 
. ,
.

Socket 754
Socket 754 (. 3.17) Athlon 64
AMD 64 , .

125

55,9
52,40
13,72

1,27

65,5

2,54

(2X)

2,54

1,27

. 3.14. Socket A (Socket 462)


1

SAO#
12

A
VSS101

B
C

SAO#7

SAO#9
VCC90

D
SAO#11

VCC71
SAO#0

J
K
L
M
N

PICCLX

PICD#0

TCK

SCNSK1

V
FID(0)

AA

DBRDY

AC

AF
AG

VSS26

VSS5

VSS6

VCC6

VSS61

VSS10

VCC10

NC34

VSS47

NC41

KEY14

NC51

NC43

NC53
NC54

VSS104
SMI#

VCC25

VSS23

11

VCC24

13

VSS22

15

VCC23

17

NC

VSS21

19

NC6

VCC22

21

23

VCC21

25

VSS19

27

SAI#12

28

29

SAI#2

VSS18

SAI#14

30

31

VCC19

SD#6

SCK#0

V
SD#1

SD#12

SD#13

AA

AB
SD#11

AC

SD#9

AE

AD

AF
SAI#7

AG

SAI#3

AJ

SAI#10

AL

AH

AK

AM

VSS17
SAI#9

SAI#13

34

VCC18
SAI#4

VCC17

33

VSS27
SAI#6

SDINV#

32

SD#16

VSS39

SAI#11

SAI#8
VSS28

SD#18

VCC35

VSS29
SAIC#

SDOV#
VCC28

SD#14

SDOC#
0
VCC36

VSS30

VCC20
SAI#1

VSS49
NC

26

NCB

SFIILV#

VCC41

VSS40
SAI#5

VSS45
SD#0

SD#10

NC46

NC49
NC

NC
VCC38

NC

24

VSS31
PLBYP#

NC
VSS60

NC45
KEY18

VCC27

VSS20

PRCROY

22

NC44

NC7

NC15

CNNCT
VCC49

K7CD#

20

VCC16

VSS32
VCCA

K7CD
VSS71

RCLK

18

VSS16

VCC29
CLKFR

RCLK#
VCC60

CLKIN

16

VCC15

VSS33
NC13

CLKIN#
VSS82

PLBYC

14

VCC30
NC12

PLBYC#
VCC72

VSS15
NC

VSS34
NC11

PLMN1

12

VCC14

KEY16

PLMN2
VSS93

NC17

10

VSS14

VCC31
ANLOG

NC16
VCC83

NC18

VSS35
NC10

NV55
NC56

NC57

VCC32
NC57

VCC13
COREF8#

COREF8
NC50

VSS103

VSS13

VCC47

VCC42

VSS41
NC3

NC48

IIC9

SD#8

NC2
NC42

VSS_Z

SD#2

SD#3
VSS46

VCC43

SD#29

SD#28

VSS52

VCC48
SCK#1

VCC54
SD#4

SDIC#0

NC1

VCC_Z

SD#15

VSS53

VCC50

VSS58

VCC55
SD#5

SD#21

VCC61
SD#17

SD#7

VSS54

NC36

VC12

SD#27

VSS59

VCC56

SD#22

VSS65

VCC62
SD#24

VCC67
SCK#2

SD#25

NC32
VSS9

SDIC#1

VSS66

VCC63

VSS72

VCC68

VSS67

VCC8

VSS12

VCC101

SD#19

SDOC#
1

VCC73
SD#23

SD#26

NC30

SOCKET A (SOCKET 462)

VCC9

SD#31

VSS73

VCC69

VSS7

VSS42

VCC26

NC63

37
SD#30

VSS83

VCC74
SD#20

NC28

VSS11

NC47

VSS102
NMI

VCC5

SD#41

SCK#3

NC24

VCC11

VCC37

VSS25
FLUSH#

AN

NC62

VCC44

VCC33
INIT#

VCC93

NC61

NV35

ZP
VSS37

RESET#

INTR

AM

VSS4

36

VCC91

VSS84

VCC75
NC23

35
SD#40

SD#47

SD#32

KEY12

ZN
VCC39

VCC34

AK
AL

PLTS#

IGNNE#

VCC4

34

VSS92

VCC81

NC58
NC22

SVRFM

PWROK

FERR#

AH
AJ

VSS3

SD#33

33
SDOC#
7

SD#43
VSS85

VCC76
NC21

32

VCC92

NC27

VSS8

VSS48

VSS43

VS38

VCC3

SDK#2

31
SCK#5

SD#45
VCC82

VSS74
KEY4

30

VSS94

NC66

NC33

NC37
VCC45

VCC40
A20M#

VSS2

SCK#4

29
SD#44

SD#38
VSS86

VCC77

28

VCC94

NC31

VCC51
VREF_5

DBRFQ
#

STPC#

AD
AE

VCC2

SD#46

NC

27
SD#34

SD#47
VCC84

VSS75

26

VSS95

VCC7

VSS55
TDO

VSS50

VSS44

AB

VSS1

SD#36

25
SD#35

SD#37
VSS87

VCC78
NC

24

VCC95

NC29

SCNCK2

FID(3)
VCC46

VCC1

SD#58

23
SD#39

SD#56
VCC85

VSS76
KEY6

22

VSS96

KEY10

VCC57

VSS56

FID(1)

FID(2)

SD#48

21
SD#S7

SD#59
VSS88

VCC79

20

VCC96

NC67

VSS62

VCC52

VSS51

X
Y

NC60

SDK#3

NC20

19
SCK#7

SD#60
VCC86

VSS77

18

VSS97

SCNSN

TRST#
VC53

SD#49

17
SD#62

SD#51
VSS89

VCC80
NC19

16

VCC97

VID(4)

PICD#1

SCNINY

TDI

SD#50

15
SD#63

SCK#6
VCC87

VSS78

14

VSS98

VID(3)
VCC65

VCC58

VSS57

T
U

13
SD#53

SDOC#
3

SD#52

NC65

12

VCC98

VSS90

NC59

VSS68

VSS63
TMS

VCC59

NC25

11
SD#61

KEY8

VID(2)
VCC64

VSS64

P
Q

SAO#6

NC64

VSS69
VID(1)

VCC66

VCC88

VSS79

10

VSS99
SD#54

SAO#
13

SAO#1

9
SD#55

SAO#7

SAO#4

VCC70

VSS70
VID(0)

VCC99

VSS91

VSS80
SAO#
14

7
SAO#3

SAO#8

SAO
CKL#

SAO#
10

VSS100

VCC89

VSS81

F
G

5
SAO#5

VCC
106

35

36

AN

37

. 3.15. Socket A (Socket 462)

126

3.

. 3.16. Socket 603 


Intel Xeon

. 3.17. Socket 754.



1


 
Slot 1, Pentium II, Pentium III
Celeron. Xeon (Pentium II Pentium III) 
Slot 2. .

Slot 1 (SC242)
SEC (Single Edge Cartridge
), Pentium II. 
 .
Pentium Pro, , .
Intel SRAM 
Pentium II  . , Celeron
Pentium II,  , ,
 512 (
Pentium II). . 3.18 Slot 1 .
B74

B1

B141

B73

132,870,25
5,2310,010
72,00
2,832

R 0,25
0,010

73

2,540,127
0,1000,005

47,00
1,850
2,50
0,098

2,50
0,098

48

1,880,10
0,0740,004

9,500,25
0,3740,010
1,27
0,050

4,75
0,187

1,780,03
0,0700,001

2,000,127
0,0790,005
76,13 (.)
2,997 (.)
A1

51,13 (.)
2,013 (.)
A74
A73

0,94
0,037

A141

. 3.18. Slot 1

127

Slot 2 (SC330)
Slot 2 ( SC330)
Pentium II Xeon Pentium III Xeon.
Slot 2 . 3.19.
Pentium II/III Xeon (. 3.20),
Pentium II/III.
Slot 2
, ,
Pentium II/III Xeon.

B1
B2

B165

A166

A2
A1

. 3.19. Slot 2 (SC330)

>

. 3.20. Pentium II Xeon Pentium III Xeon

128

3.



. 
. , , 
; ,

. , 
, , 
.
, , ,
, .
, .. ;
, . , 
, .
.
Pentium Pentium MMX 
, .
,  , 
5 , 3,5 3,3 ( 
). ,
, , ,
, .
Pentium Intel
, 

, , , 
3,3 . ,
, 
,  3,3 . 
(Voltage Reduction Technology VRT); 
Pentium 1996 . 
; , Pentium MMX
2,8 ,  3,3 .
,
.
Mobile Pentium II 1,6 , 
, 3,3 .
Socket 370, Socket 478, Socket A, Socket 604, Socket 754, Socket 940 
Pentium Pro (Socket 8) Pentium II (Slot 1 Slot 2) 
Voltage ID (VID),
. ,
, 
.
, Socket 7 , 
, . 
, 
. Pen
tium (Socket 4, Socket 5 Socket 7) ,
MMX 2,8 , Pen
tium , 1,8 . , 
, . 3.11.

129

3.11. ,


-,

VRE (3,5 )
STD (3,3 )
MMX (2,8 )
VRE (3,5 )
3,2
2,9
2,4
2,2
VRE (3,5 )
2,9
MMX (2,8 )
2,45

Intel Pentium
Intel Pentium
Intel MMX Pentium
AMD K5
AMD K6
AMD K6
AMD K6-2/K6-3
AMD K6/K6-2
Cyrix 6x86
Cyrix 6x86MX/MII
Cyrix 6x86L
Cyrix 6x86LV

3,5
3,3
2,8
3,5
3,2
2,9
2,4
2,2
3,5
2,9
2,8
2,45

3,5
3,3
3,3
3,5
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,5
3,3
3,3
3,3

5% .
Socket 7, 
Pentium
(, 2,5; 2,7; 2,8 2,9 ). ,
,
, . 
.
Pentium Pro, Celeron Pentium II/III/4 
, 
Voltage ID (VID).
, STD VRE , 
 ; 
.  , STD
VRE, , 
 , 
, 3,3 .
Socket 5 STD VRE. 
, , Socket 5, Socket 7. 
Socket 4 5 ,
. , 
. , ,
Socket 7 Socket 5, .
Pentium Pro, (Celeron, Pentium II/III/4, AMD Duron,
Athlon, Athlon XP Athlon 64) 
. VID.

. 
, .
, , , ,
.



, . 
. 
,
.

130

3.


().

( ).
, 
.
, .
( ) 
, . ,
,
. 
. ,
.
; 
.
,
.
.

. , 
. . 3.21 .

Intel,
( ).
. ,
,
. ,
.

. 3.21.

131


. , .


. 
(. 3.22).
, ,
.

, BIOS
. ,
Athlon, , .

Pentium 4
478> mPGA478B

. 3.22. , 
Pentium 4,
Socket 478

132

3.


, .
, 
( ).
,
. , 
, 
. 
, 10 , (
). , ,
.
, 
, , 
1525 .
. 3.23 Pentium II/III.

. 3.23. Pentium II/III


, 
. 
. ,
,
. . 3.24
Athlon XP.


, 
, (. 3.25; . . 3.21).
,
. , 
.
, .
, 
,  
. ,
. ,
Dell Gateway, 

133

. ,
, 
,
. 
, 
.
Intel AMD , 
, ,
.
, ,
, 
,
.

. 3.24. ()
,
()

134

3.

. 3.25.
Pentium II/III


,
,
. ,
( ), 
, .
. 
, , , ( )
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
. 
( , ) ( 
: , ). , 
, , 
, , ,
, . . 3.26 
, .
 .

, . 
. Arctic Silver 
, ,
. , 
, 
, 
. .
, ( )
.

135

. 3.26. , 

, 
ATX.
: ,
ATX , .
,
. ,
,
, , .


( ) , .
FCPGA, ,
,
(flipchip ).

, .
, 
, . Intel
, 
, 20 ( 8 ). , 
AMD (Athlon, Duron Athlon XP) , 
, 30 ( 12 ).
. 
AMD 
, AMD
, Intel. 
,
; .

. , 
, 
, . 
AMD Intel,
AMD, 
.
, 
.

136

3.

AMD Intel 
. , AMD 
,
, . 
, 
.
Intel , 
, 
(Integrated Heat Spreader IHS). 
.
Intel, IHS,
100 ( 40 ),
.
Pentium 4, Celeron 4 Pentium III/Celeron Tualatin, 0,13
(. 3.27). , AMD 
IHS, K6.
AMD Intel,
, 

.

. 3.27. Pentium 4 Socket 478,


,


-.


, . 
, 
. 
Intel (Specification Update manuals), Web.
Web, , 
, , , 
.

. Intel P6/P7, Pentium Pro Pentium III/4/Celeron,
, ,
. ;
, .
ROM BIOS
BIOS . 
, ,
.

137

Intel , 

  (BIOS). ,
BIOS 
. ,
BIOS , 
. Web
, BIOS
.

Intel
, Intel, AMD Cyrix
(. 3.12). , ,
. , 
, ,
.
, , , 
. , 
. ,
Intel, ,
.
.
3.12.
AMD

AMD

X5
SSA5
5k86
K6

5x86-133 [Socket 3]
K5 (PR75-100) [Socket 5, 7]
K5 (PR120-200) [Socket 7]
K6; AMD
NexGen
NexGen, K6 [Socket 7]
0,25- K6 [Socket 7]
K6-2 ( K6-3D) [Socket 7, Super 7]
K6-3 ( K6 Plus-3D) [Super 7]
K7
Athlon [Slot A]
0,18- Athlon [Slot A]
0,18- Athlon (Slot A)
Athlon 64
Duron [Socket A]
Athlon [Slot A, Socket A]
Athlon [Slot A, Socket A]
Athlon [Socket A]
0,18- Athlon XP/MP, Athlon 4 (Socket A)
0,13- Athlon XP/MP (Socket A)
0,13- Athlon XP/MP, -
512 (Socket A)
Duron (Socket A)
Morgan
Duron (Socket A)
0,13- Morgan (Socket A)
Opteron (64- ) (Socket 754)
Opteron DP (Socket 940)
0,09- Athlon 64
0,09- Athlon 64
K8 (64- )

NX686
Little Foot
Chompers
Sharptooth
Argon
K7
K75
76
K8
Spitfire
Thunderbird
Mustang
Corvette
Palomino
Thoroughbred
Barton
Spitfire
Camaro
Morgan
Appaloosa
ClawHammer
ClawHammer DP
San Diego
Odessa
SledgeHammer

138

3.

. 3.12

VIA/Cyrix

VIA/Cyrix

M6
M7
M9
M1sc
Chili
M1
M1L
M1R
M2
Cayenne
Jedi
Gobi
Joshua
Jalapeno
Mojave
Serrano
C5
C5B
C5C
C5M
C5N
Samuel
Samuel 2
Ezra
Ezra-T
C5X
C5XL
C5YL
Nehemiah
Esther
CZA
Matthew

486DX [Socket 1, 2, 3]
486DX2/DX4 [Socket 3]
5x86 [Socket 3]
5x86 [Socket 3]
5x86
6x86 ( 3,3 3,52 ) [Socket 7]
6x86L ( 2,8/3,3 ) [Socket 7]
3M SGS 5M IBM 6x86
6x86MX/M-II [Socket 7, Super 7]
Mxi Gobi
Joshua ( Gobi)
Joshua
VIA/Cyrix-III [Socket 370]
Mojave
Cyrix/VIA M3 [Socket 370]
Cyrix/VIA M4
Samuel (Winchip-4 - )
0,15- Samuel 2
1,13- Ezra
Ezra-T
Ezra-T ( )
Cyrix/VIA Winchip-4 [Socket 370]
0,15- C3 (Socket 370)
0,13- C3 (Socket 370)
Ezra, 1,25 (Socket 370)
Nehemiah
Nehemiah ( , -
)
Esther
C4 (Socket 370)
C4 (Socket 370)
0,10- Socket 478

Intel

Intel

P23
P23S
P23N
P4
P4S
P24
P24S
P24D
P24C
P23T
P4T
P24T
P24CT
P5
P5T
P54C
P54CQS
P54CS
P54CTA

486SX [Socket 1, 2, 3]
486SX SL-enhanced [Socket 1, 2, 3]
487SX () [Socket 1]
486DX [Socket 1, 2, 3]
486DX SL-enhanced [Socket 1, 2, 3]
486DX2 [Socket 1, 2, 3]
486DX2 SL-enhanced [Socket 1, 2, 3]
486DX2 ( - write-back) [Socket 3]
486DX4 [Socket 3]
486DXODP (486 overdrive) [Socket 1, 2, 3]
486DXODPR (486 overdrive) [Socket 1, 2, 3]
PODP5V (Pentium OverDrive 486) [Socket 2, 3]
Pentium OverDrive 486DX4 ( 3,3 ) [Socket 2, 3]
Pentium ( 60/66 ) [Socket 4]
Pentium OverDrive (120, 133) [Socket 4]
Pentium ( 75120 ) [Socket 5, 7]
Pentium ( 120133 ) [Socket 5, 7]
Pentium ( 120200 ) [Socket 7]
Pentium OverDrive (125, 150, 166) [Socket 5, 7]

Intel

139

. 3.12
Intel

Intel

P55C
P54CTB
Tillamook
P6
P6T
Klamath
Deschutes
Drake
Tonga
Covington
Mendocino

Pentium MMX [Socket 7]


Pentium MMX OverDrive [Socket 5, 7]
Pentium MMX
Pentium Pro [Socket 8]
Pentium II OverDrive [Socket 8]
Pentium II [Slot 1]
0,25- Pentium II [Slot 1 & 2]
Pentium II Xeon [Slot 2]
Pentium II
Celeron (Deschutes ) [Slot 1]
Celeron ( - 128 )
[Slot 1, Socket 370]
Pentium II (256KB on-die L2)
Pentium III [Slot 1]
Pentium III Xeon [Slot 2]
0,18- Pentium III -
256 [Slot 1, Socket 370]
0,13- Pentium III (Socket 370)
0,18- Pentium III Tualatin (Socket 370)
Coppermine Xeon ( -
256 ) [Slot 2]
Celeron III ( -
128 ) [Socket 370]
Celeron III
Willamette
0,18- Pentium 4 [Socket 423]
0,13- Pentium 4 [Socket 478]
0,09- Pentium 4 Hyper-Threading (Socket 478)
Xeon DP [Socket 603]
Xeon MP (Socket 603)
0,13- Xeon DP (Socket 603)
0,13- Xeon MP [Socket 603]
0,09- Xeon (Socket 603)
Pentium 4 DRAM
Merced
Itanium (IA64) [PAC 418]
Itanium [PAC 418]
- 3
0,13- Itanium 2
Madison
0,09- Madison
Itanium

Dixon
Katmai
Tanner
Coppermine
Tualatin
Coppermine-T
Cascades
Coppermine-128
Timna
P68
Willamette
Northwood
Prescott
Foster
Foster MP
Prestonia
Gallatin
Nocona
Banias
P7
Merced
McKinley
Madison
Deerfield
Montecito
Shavano

Intel-
AMD Cyrix , 
Intel, .. .
,
, Intel; ,
. , 
Intel, , 
Intel . , Intel ,
, .

140

3.

AMD
Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), Intel
, , Pentium.
AMD Intel , AMD 
486 Intel. ,
AMD Intel . 1996
AMD NexGen Intel.
AMD, Duron/Athlon/Athlon XP,
Socket A ( Socket 462). AMD Athlon 64
64 , .
Socket 754.
AMD . 3.2.

Cyrix
Cyrix ,
National Semiconductor 1997 VIA Technologies 1999 . 
,
. Cyrix Texas Instruments, IBM.
Cyrix National Semiconductor.
Cyrix , IBM (
6x86 ), National Semicon
ductor, VIA Technologies.

(P1/086), (P2/286), (P3/386),
(P4/486) (P5/586) -.

: P6 (686)
P6 (686) , 
. P6 : Pentium Pro Pentium II. 
P5 Pentium. . 3.13 
P6 .
3.13. P6
Pentium Pro

P6 - 256 , 512
1 ,

Pentium II

P6 - 512 ,

Pentium II Xeon

P6 - 512 , 1 2 ,

Celeron

P6 -

Celeron-A

P6 - 128 ,

Pentium III

P6 SSE (MMX2), - 512


Pentium IIPE

P6 - 256 ,

Pentium III Xeon

P6 SSE (MMX2), - 512 ,


1 2

: P6 (686)

141

Pentium
; .
MMX. 
Intel ?
: ,
(Dual Independent Bus DIB), .



. :
; 
;
, , 
,
;
,
, , , .


P6 .
: ( ), .
.


P6 
P5: ,
. , CISC
RISC. RISC , 
.
, P5 , P6
() .
(
).
, P6 
, , 
32 .
Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III . Pentium
,
. RISC,
Intel CISC. CISC
RISC , Intel
.
Pentium, , P6
32 . P6
32
(, Windows NT/2000). 16
Windows 9 (
16 ) , P6
. , 
. Windows NT/2000 

142

3.

Pentium Pro,
Celeron Pentium II/III.
Windows 9, Windows NT/2000/XP P6.
, 
. , 
.
,
32 Intel. 
, 
.

Pentium Pro -.
, -
Pentium Pro.

Pentium II
Intel 1997 .
Klamath,
. Pentium II, , ,
Pentium Pro, MMX ( 
57 MMX). Pentium II 
. 3.28.

. 3.28. Pentium II.


Intel

: P6 (686)

143

. Pentium II
(Single Edge Contact SEC) 
. ,
SIMM  (. 3.29);
Slot 1 , .
, SECC (Single Edge Contact
Cartridge) SECC2. . 3.30 3.31 .

. 3.29. Pentium II ( SEC).


Intel

>

. 3.30. SECC

144

3.

>

. 3.31. SECC2

, SECC2 . 1999 Intel


Pentium II/III. 
, Pentium Pro.
Intel Pentium II
.
/

Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium

3,5
4
4,5
5
3,5
4
4,5

66
66
66
66
100
100
100

II
II
II
II
II
II
II

233
266
300
333
350
400
450

Pentium II 7,5 . ;
P6 Intel. Pentium II
0,35 . Pentium II 333
0,25 . ,
. 333
Pentium II 75150% , Pentium MMX 233 , 
50% .
. iCOMP 2.0 Pentium II 266 
, Pentium 200 .
, Pentium II
Pentium Pro MMX. 
, Pentium Pro, MMX 57 
. , Pentium II 
, Pentium Pro ( 16, 32 ).
Pentium II
.

,

( ),

450
400
350
333
300
266
233

27,1
24,3
21,5
23,7
43,0
38,2
34,8

0,25
0,25
0,25
0,25
0,35
0,35
0,35

2,0
2,0
2,0
2,0
2,8
2,8
2,8

: P6 (686)

145

Pentium II 450 ,
233 . 0,25
2,0 .
Pentium Pro, Pentium II
.
: , , 
; ,
; , 
, 
, , . 
Pentium II .
Pentium Pro, Pentium II
(Dual Independent Bus DIB).
Pentium II  
,
. Pentium II ,
Pentium II , ,
.

Pentium II 333 2,5 .
Pentium II  . ,
,
. 

Pentium.
Pentium II . 3.14,
Pentium II . 3.15.
3.14. Pentium II

66, 100

3,5, 4, 4,5, 5
233, 266, 300, 333, 350, 400, 450
: 32 (16
16 ); : 512
( )
32
64
36
64
64
242- (Single
Edge Contact Cartridge SECC)

12,826,281,64

SMM (System Management Mode)

3.15. Pentium II
Pentium II MMX (350, 400 450 )


iCOMP 2.0

146

15 1998
350 (1003,5), 400 (1004) 450 (1004,5)
386, 440 483 (350, 400 450 )
7,5 . (0,25- ) 31 .
- 512

3.

. 3.15
Pentium II MMX (350, 400 450 )



4
2,0
Slot 2
10,2

Pentium II (266, 300, 333 366 )




25 1999
266, 300, 333 366
27,4 . (0,25- )
3135
1,6
366 9,5 , 333 8,6 ,
300 7,7 , 266 7,0

Pentium II MMX (333 )




iCOMP 2.0




7 1997
333 (66 5)
366
7,5 . (0,35- ) 31 .
- 512
512
2,0
Slot 1
10,2

Pentium II MMX (300 )




iCOMP 2.0



7 1997
300 (66 4,5)
332
7,5 . (0,35- ) 31 .
- 512
512
Slot 1
14,2

Pentium II MMX (266 )




iCOMP 2.0



7 1997
266 (66 4)
303
7,5 . (0,35- ) 31 .
- 512
512
Slot 1
14,2

Pentium II MMX (233 )




iCOMP 2.0



: P6 (686)

7 1997
233 (66 3,5)
267
7,5 . (0,35- ) 31 .
- 512
512
Slot 1
14,2

147

, Pentium II 64 .
. ,
:  .
,
.  ,
. 
Pentium II ,
. , Pentium II 333 
333 ,  
167 .  
, Pentium Pro,
 , 66 ( 
Socket 7 Pentium). Intel, 
, .
, 
, , Intel 
 .
Pentium Pro 200 , 
.  
, Pentium II 400 , 

200 .  Pentium II,
Intel  ( Pentium Pro
256 , Pentium II 512 ).
, ,  ,
512 Pentium II
233 333 . 350, 400 , 
4 . ,
 512 .
350 , .
Pentium II , 
.
, ,

.
Pentium II ,
.
Pentium II (Error Correction Code ECC)
(L2). 
, , 
. Pentium II
, , 
.
Pentium II . 
Slot 1 , 
. .
(, , Intel Boxed AL440FX DK440LX,
.)
Pentium II , 
. (). ,
Pentium II ().

148

3.

, Intel,
Pentium II . 

.
. 

( ). 
: 
.
, .
. 3.32 SEC , , 
, , .

Pentium II.
Pentium II, 
SEC.
. . 3.33.
(  ) 
(. 3.16).


(S.E.C.)



Slot 1

. 3.32. Pentium II/III

: P6 (686)

149

. 3.33. Pentium II/III SECC

3.16. Pentium II
S-

CPUID

/,

-
,

SL264
SL265
SL268
SL269
SL28K
SL28L
SL28R
SL2MZ
SL2HA
SL2HC
SL2HD
SL2HE
SL2HF
SL2QA
SL2QB
SL2QC
SL2KA
SL2QF
SL2K9
SL35V
SL2QH
SL2S5
SL2ZP
SL2ZQ
SL2S6

C0
C0
C0
C0
C0
C0
C0
C0
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
dA0
dA0
dA0
dA1
dA1
dA1
dA1
dA1
dA1

0633h
0633h
0633h
0633h
0633h
0633h
0633h
0633h
0634h
0634h
0634h
0634h
0634h
0634h
0634h
0634h
0650h
0650h
0650h
0651h
0651h
0651h
0651h
0651h
0651h

233/66
266/66
233/66
266/66
233/66
266/66
300/66
300/66
300/66
266/66
233/66
266/66
233/66
233/66
266/66
300/66
333/66
333/66
266/66
300/66
333/66
333/66
333/66
350/100
350/100

512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512

ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC

SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC
SECC

5
5
5
5
1,
1,
5
1,
5
5
5
5
5
1,
1,
1,
5
1

150

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

3, 5
3, 5
5

3, 5
3, 5
5

1, 2
1, 2
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5

3.

. 3.16
S-

CPUID

/,

-
,

SL2S7
SL2SF
SL2SH
SL2VY
SL33D
SL2YK
SL2WZ
SL2YM
SL37G
SL2WB
SL37H
SL2KE
SL2W7
SL2W8
SL2TV
SL2U3
SL2U4
SL2U5
SL2U6
SL2U7
SL356
SL357
SL358
SL37F
SL3FN
SL3EE
SL3F9
SL38M
SL38N
SL36U
SL38Z
SL3D5

dA1
dA1
dA1
dA1
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
TdB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB1
dB1
dB1
dB1
dB1

0651h
0651h
0651h
0651h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
1632h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0653h
0653h
0653h
0653h
0653h

400/100
350/100
400/100
300/66
266/66
300/66
350/100
400/100
400/100
450/100
450/100
333/66
266/66
300/66
333/66
350/100
350/100
400/100
400/100
450/100
350/100
400/100
450/100
350/100
350/100
400/100
400/100
350/100
400/100
350/100
400/100
400/100

512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512

ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC

SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC2 OLGA
SECC 3.00
SECC2 OLGA
PGA
SECC 2.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC2 PLGA
SECC2 OLGA
SECC2 OLGA
SECC2 PLGA
SECC2 OLGA
SECC2 PLGA
SECC2 PLGA
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC2 OLGA

2, 5
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2,
1, 2,
1, 2,
1, 2,
1, 2,
1, 2,
1, 2
2, 4
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
1, 2,
2, 5
2, 5
1, 2
1, 2,
1, 2,
2, 5
2, 5
1, 2

5
5
5
5
4
5

5
5

SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge.


SECC2 Single Edge Contact Cartridge, 2.
PLGA Plastic Land Grid Array.
OLGA Organic Land Grid Array.
ECC Error Correcting Code.
1. Pentium II ().
2. $ ,
4 . Pentium II 512 .
3. $ .
4. Pentium II OverDrive
Pentium Pro (Socket 8).
5. , .
.

: P6 (686)

151

, SL2KA Pentium II
333 ( 66 )  (L2),
. , 
2,0 . , 
, , Intel Pentium II Specification Update
Manual, , .
SECC2. 
PLGA SECC. OLGA.
,

. . 3.34 SECC2 ( PLGA
OLGA), .
Pentium II ,
. Pentium II 
, ,
.
Pentium Pro, Pentium,
: 

(VID). . 3.17 .

. 3.34. SECC2, PLGA OLGA

152

3.

3.17. Pentium II
VID4

VID3

VID2

VID1

VID0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0

1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

1,30
1,35
1,40
1,45
1,50
1,55
1,60
1,65
1,70
1,75
1,80
1,85
1,90
1,95
2,00
2,05

2,1
2,2
2,3
2,4
2,5
2,6
2,7
2,8
2,9
3,0
3,1
3,2
3,3
3,4
3,5

0 Vss.
1 .
VID0VID3 Socket 370.
Socket 370 1,302,05 .
VID0VID4 Slot 1.
Slot 1 1,303,5 .

Pentium II 2,8 ; 
2,0 . Pentium II Mobile Module Pentium II
, 440BX,
100 . 
440BX Pentium II 350
400 . Pentium IIPE 
256 , .

Celeron
P6 Pentium II Pentium III,
Pentium 4. 
Celeron ... .

: P6 (686)

153

Celeron 
Pentium II/III/4 . 
 .
Celeron SEPP (Single Edge Processor
Package). SECC Slot 1.
SEPP . , 
Celeron.
Celeron , Pentium II.
Slot 1 
(), ,
 . AMD 
Socket 7 Intel
Celeron PPGA (Plastic Pin Grid Array).
PGA370 Socket 370 (370 ). 
PPGA . 
. 3.35.
Celeron 433 SEPP 
Slot 1 242 . 300
PPGA. , Celeron 300433 . 
Celeron 466 PPGA.
Celeron Socket 370 1,4 , Celeron
Socket 478 Pentium 4.
Celeron PPGA
Slot 1? Slot 1Socket 370 (. 3.36).

PPGA

FC>PGA

SEPP

. 3.35. FCPGA, PPGA SEPP 


Celeron

154

3.

Socket 370

Slot

. 3.36. Slot 1Socket 370

Celeron.
Celeron 300A, 
128 ; 300 266 
.
4 .
P6 Pentium II ( 266533 ), Pentium III
( 533 ) Pentium 4 ( 1,7 ).
.
66, 100 400 ( ).
.
MMX, Celeron 533A
SSE; Celeron 1,7 SSE2.
SEP, PPGA, FCPGA FCPGA2.
 ,
. ,  
Celeron Celeron.
,
.
Celeron 300A, 
128 . Celeron (266 300 ) 
. Pentium II (Celeron 300A
533 ) 19 . , Pentium III (
533 ) 28,1 . . 1,7
Pentium 4, 42 . . ,
Celeron, Pentium III/4, 
256 , 128 , ..  128 . 
, Intel Celeron
Pentium III Pentium 4 ,
. Celeron Pentium III
MMX, SSE, Pentium 4 SSE2.
Celeron SEPP PPGA 0,25 
, FCPGA FCPGA2 0,18. 
, 
.

: P6 (686)

155

Pentium III
. 3.37 Pentium III
1999 . , Pentium II 
SSE  . Pentium III
SIMD: 70 ,
, , / .
Pentium III 0,25
9,5 . . 1999 Intel (
Coppermine), 0,18
256  , .
28,1 . . Pentium III ( Tualatin)
0,13 44 . ; , 
Tualatin,  
. Pentium III 450
1,4 ; , (Xeon), 
 . Pentium III 32  
512  ,
.  4
. Pentium III 
64 .
, 
.
BIOS .
Pentium III SECC2, 
SEC. SECC2 
, .
Pentium III.
SIMD. 70 ,
, ,
Internet, , , 
.
Intel.
PC, Intel, ,
. 
/ .
,
.

. 3.37. Pentium III ( FCPGA SECC2)

156

3.

, .
Internet; .
. ;
.
Pentium III SECC2
FCPGA, 
.
FCPGA Socket 370 Slot 1 slotket.
Pentium III 512 256  ,
. Xeon, ,
 512 , 1 2 ,
. Xeon ,
. Pentium III 4
ECC.
Pentium III . 3.38.
/ >/ /

FPO >
>
S>

. 3.38. Pentium III

. 3.18 Pentium III.


3.18. Pentium III

S-

S- OEM

CPUID

-
,

450
450
500
500
500
500E
500E
533B
533EB
533EB

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
133
133
133

4,5x
4,5x
5x
5x
5x
5x
5x
4x
4x
4x

SL3CC
SL37C
SL3CD
SL365
SL37D
SL3R2
SL45R
SL3E9
SL3SX
SL3VA

SL364
SL35D
SL365
SL365
SL35E
SL3Q9
SL444
SL3BN
SL3N6
SL3VF

kB0
kC0
kB0
kB0
kC0
cA2
cB0
kC0
cA2
cA2

0672
0673
0672
0672
0673
0681
0683
0673
0681
0681

512
512
512
512
512
256
256
512
256
256

: P6 (686)

157

. 3.18

S-

S- OEM

CPUID

-
,

533EB
533EB
550
550E
550E
550E
550E
600
600E
600E
600E
600E
600B
600EB
600EB
600EB
600EB
650
650
650
650
667
667
667
667
667
667
700
700
700
700
700
700
733
733
733
733
733
733
733
750
750
750
750
750
750
800

133
133
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
133
133
133
133
133
100
100
100
100
133
133
133
133
133
133
100
100
100
100
100
100
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

4x
4x
5,5x
5,5x
5,5x
5,5x
5,5x
6x
6x
6x
6x
6x
4,5x
4,5x
4,5x
4,5x
4,5x
6,5x
6,5x
6,5x
6,5x
5x
5x
5x
5x
5x
5x
7x
7x
7x
7x
7x
7x
5,5x
5,5x
5,5x
5,5x
5,5x
5,5x
5,5x
7,5x
7,5x
7,5x
7,5x
7,5x
7,5x
8x

SL44W
SL45S
SL3FJ
SL3R3
SL3V5
SL44X
SL45T
SL3JT
SL3NA
SL3NL
SL44Y
SL45U
SL3JU
SL3NB
SL3VB
SL44Z
SL45V
SL3NR
SL3NM
SL452
SL45W
SL3ND
SL3T2
SL453
SL45X

SL3SZ
SL3T4
SL455
SL45Z
SL4M8
SL4KD
SL4FQ
SL3V6
SL3VC
SL456
SL462
SL4M9
SL4KE
SL457

SL3XG
SL3XS
SL3F7
SL3QA
SL3N7
SL3XH
N/A
SL3JM
SL3H6
SL3VH
SL43E
SL3XU
SL3JP
SL3H7
SL3VG
SL3XJ
SL3XT
SL3KV
SL3VJ
SL3XK
SL3XV
SL3KW
SL3VK
SL3XL
SL3XW
SL4CJ
SL4C4
SL3S9
SL3VL
SL453
SL3XX
SL4CH
SL4C3
SL3SB
SL3VM
SL3XN
SL3XY
SL4CG
SL4C2
SL4CX
SL3WC
SL3VN
SL3XP
SL3XZ
SL4CF
SL4BZ
SL3XR

cB0
cB0
kC0
cA2
cA2
cB0
cB0
kC0
cA2
cA2
cB0
cB0
kC0
cA2
cA2
cB0
cB0
cA2
cA20
cB0
cB0
cA2
cA2
cB0
cB0
cC0
cC0
cA2
cA2
cB0
cB0
cC0
cC0
cA2
cA2
cB0
cB0
cC0
cC0
cC0
cA2
cA2
cB0
cB0
cC0
cC0
cB0

0683
0683
0673
0681
0681
0683
0683
0673
0681
0681
0683
0683
0673
0681
0681
0683
0683
0681
681
0683
0683
0681
0681
0683
0683
0686
0686
0681
0681
0683
0683
0686
0686
0681
0681
0683
0683
0686
0686
0686
0681
0681
0683
0683
0686
0686
0683

256
256
512
256
256
256
256
512
256
256
256
256
512
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256

800
800
800
800EB
800EB
800EB
800EB
800EB
850

100
100
100
133
133
133
133
133
100

8x
8x
8x
6x
6x
6x
6x
6x
8,5x

SL463
SL4MA
SL4KF
SL458
SL464
SL4MB
SL4G7
SL4KG
SL47M

SL3Y3
SL4CE
SL4BY
SL3XQ
SL3Y2
SL4CD
SL4XQ
SL4BX
SL43F

cB0
cC0
cC0
cB0
cB0
cC0
cC0
cC0
cB0

0683
0686
0686
0683
0683
0686
0686
0686
0683

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256

158

SL3SY
SL3T3
SL454
SL45Y
SL4M7

3.

. 3.18

S-

S- OEM

CPUID

-
,

850
850
850
866
866
866
866
866
900
933
933
933
933
933
1000B
1000B
1000B
1000
1000
1000B
1000B
1000B
1000B
1000B
1000B
1100
1133
1133
1133-S
1133-S
1200
1200
1266-S
1333
1400-S
1200

100
100
100
133
133
133
133
133
100
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
100
100
133
133
133
133
133
133
100
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133

8,5x
8,5x
8,5x
6,5x
6,5x
6,5x
6,5x
6,5x
9x
7x
7x
7x
7x
7x
7,5x
7,5x
7,5
10
10
7,5
7,5
7,5
7,5
7,5
7,5
11x
8,5
8,5
8,5
8,5
9
9
9,5
10
10,5
9

SL49G
SL4MC
SL4KH
SL47N
SL49H
SL4MD
SL4KJ
SL5B5

SL43H
SL4CC
SL4BW
SL43G
SL43J
SL4CB
SL4BV
SL5QE
SL4SD
SL448
SL44J
SL4C9
SL4BT
SL5QF
SL48S
SL4C8

cB0
cC0
cC0
cB0
cB0
cB0
cB0
cD0
cC0
cB0
cB0
cC0
cC0
cD0
cB0
cC0
cB0
cC0
cC0
cC0
cD0
cD0
cD0
cD0
cD0
cD0
tA1
tA1
tA1
tA1
tA1
tA1
tA1
tA1
tA1
tA1

0683
0686
0686
0683
0683
0686
0686
068A
0686
0683
0683
0686
0686
068A
0683
0686
0683
0686
0686
0686
068A
068A
068A
068A
068A
068A
06B1
06B1
06B1
06B1
06B1
06B1
06B1
06B1
06B1
06B1

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256

SL47Q
SL49J
SL4ME
SL4KK
SL4FP
SL4C8
SL4MF
SL4BR
SL4KL
SL4BS

SL5DV
SL5B3
SL52R
SL5FQ

SL4BR
SL4BS
SL5QK

SL5B3
SL52R
SL5QW

SL5LT
SL5GQ
SL5LV
SL5PU
SL5GN
SL5PM
SL5LW

SL5GQ
SL5PU
SL5GN
SL5QL
SL5VX
SL5XL

SL657
SL5PM

-
,

,
,

,
.

450
450
500
500
500
500E
500E
533B

225
225
250
250
250
500
500
267

90
90
90
90
90
85
85
90

2,00
2,00
2,00
2,00
2,00
1,60
1,60
2,05

9,5
9,5
9,5
9,5
9,5
28,1
28,1
9,5

SECC2
SECC2
SECC2
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2

: P6 (686)

25,3
25,3
28,0
28,0
28,0
13,2
13,2
29,7

0,25
0,25
0,25
0,25
0,25
0,18
0,18
0,25

159

. 3.18

-
,

,

,

,
.

533EB
533EB
533EB
533EB
550
550E
550E
550E
550E
600
600E
600E
600E
600E
600B
600EB
600EB
600EB
600EB
650
650
650
650
667
667
667
667
667
667
700
700
700
700
700
700
733
733
733
733
733
733
733
750
750
750

533
533
533
533
275
550
550
550
550
300
600
600
600
600
300
600
600
600
600
650
650
650
650
667
667
667
667
667
667
700
700
700
700
700
700
733
733
733
733
733
733
733
750
750
750

85
85
85
85
80
85
85
85
85
85
82
82
82
82
85
82
82
82
82
82
82
82
82
82
82
82
82
82
82
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80

1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
2,00
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60
2,00
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
2,05
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,7
1,7
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,7
1,7
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,7
1,7
1,7
1,65
1,65
1,65

28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
9,5
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
9,5
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
9,5
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1

SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2

160

14,0
14,0
14,0
14,0
30,8
14,5
14,5
14,5
14,5
34,5
15,8
15,8
15,8
15,8
34,5
15,8
15,8
15,8
15,8
17,0
17,0
17,0
17,0
17,5
17,5
17,5
17,5
17,5
17,5
18,3
18,3
18,3
18,3
18,3
18,3
19,1
19,1
19,1
19,1
19,1
19,1
19,1
19,5
19,5
19,5

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,25
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,25
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,25
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18

3.

. 3.18

-
,

,

,

,
.

750
750
750
800
800
800
800
800EB
800EB
800EB
800EB
800EB
850
850
850
850
866
866
866
866
866
900
933
933
933
933
933
1000B
1000B
1000B
1000
1000
1000B
1000B
1000B
1000B
1000B
1000B
1133
1133
1133-S
1133-S
1200
1200
1266

750
750
750
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
850
850
850
850
866
866
866
866
866
900
933
933
933
933
933
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1133
1133
1133
1133
1200
1200
1266

80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
75
75
75
75
75
77
70
70
70
70
70
70
64
64
75
75
75
69
69
69
69
69
69
69

1,65
1,7
1,7
1,65
1,65
1,7
1,7
1,65
1,65
1,7
1,7
1,7
1,65
1,65
1,7
1,7
1,65
1,65
1,7
1,7
1,75
1,7
1,65
1,65
1,7
1,7
1,75
1,7
1,7
1,7
1,7
1,7
1,7
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,7
1,475
1,475
1,45
1,45
1,475
1,475
1,45

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18

28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13

28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
44
44
44
44
44
44
44

FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
FCPGA
FCPGA
FCPGA
FCPGA2
FCPGA2
FCPGA2
FCPGA2
FCPGA2
FCPGA2
FCPGA2

: P6 (686)

19,5
19,5
19,5
20,8
20,8
20,8
20,8
20,8
20,8
20,8
20,8
20,8
22,5
22,5
22,5
22,5
22,9
22,5
22,5
22,5
26,1
23,2
25,5
24,5
24,5
25,5
27,3
26,1
26,1
26,1
26,1
26,1
26,1
29,0
29,0
29,0
29,0
29,0
29,1
29,1
27,9
27,9
29,9
29,9
29,5

161

. 3.18

-
,

,
,

,
.

1133
1400
1200

1133
1133
1200

69
69
69

1,475
1,45
1,45

44
44
44

FCPGA2
FCPGA2
FCPGA2

29,9
29,9
29,9

0,13
0,13
0,13

SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge.


SECC2 Single Edge Contact Cartridge (revision 2).
CPUID ID, CPUID.
ECC Error Correcting Code.

Pentium III . , 
, 
. , 
,
. 
.
, 
.

Pentium II/III Xeon


Xeon
Pentium II III. Xeon, Pentium II,
1998 . Pentium III 
1999 . Xeon
Pentium II III: ,  .
Pentium II/III Xeon SEC.
 .
SEC . 3.39, . 3.40.

. 3.39. SEC Pentium II/III Xeon

162

3.

>

. 3.40. SEC Pentium II/III Xeon

Pentium II/III Xeon 


512 , 1 2 . .
 , . 
Xeon  , 
. , 
. 
Pentium II Xeon 7,5 . ,
Pentium III Xeon 9,5 . Pentium III
, 28,1 .
 256 , 84 . 1 140 .
 2 , 
.  
, Xeon 64
ECC (Error checking and correction).
Xeon Socket 370,
, Pentium 4,
Socket 603.


Intel, P6 . 
P5 
. AMD Athlon
Duron, P6.
.

Nexgen Nx586 -.

163

AMD-K6
,
P5 (Pentium). 
Pentium Pentium II.
Socket 7, ,
,
Socket 7 . AMDK6
Pentium, 
, Pentium.
AMDK6 
(MMX), AMD K62 
3DNow. AMD K6 Socket 7.
, .
AMDK6:
, ;
RISC, x86 RISC;
();
;
;
;
64 ( 32 
32 );
(FPU);
MMX;
SMM;
Socket 7 Ceramic Pin Grid Array (CPGA);
0,35 0,25 .
K62 :
;
100 ( Super 7);
21 , 3DNow.
63  256 , 
.
63  ,
, . 6
Celeron Pentium
Intel. 3DNow!, 62/3
, 
.
AMDK6 ,
x86, .. Intel, MMX.
 ,
Socket 7, AMD 
64 (.. , Pentium II).

164

3.

, K6
Pentium, Pentium II.
AMDK5 K6 Socket 7. 
,
BIOS. AMDK6 ,
.
AMDK6166 (200 ) 2,9 , 
3,3 , AMDK6 233 3,2 , 
3,3 . 
2,8 3,3 ; 2,8
AMDK6,
. ,
Socket 7 , : 2,9 3,2
(233 ) (Vcc2); 3,3 
(Vcc3). 7,5 A (9,5 A
233 ). 200 

145 (2,9 145 ). 233 , 
100
(3,2 100 ).
,
, , . 
,
. , K6 . , 
.
BIOS AMDK6. BIOS Award
1 1997 . AMI
K6 BIOS CPU Module 3.31
. BIOS 4.0 ( 6.0 5.1 4/7/97 
) Phoenix AMDK6.
, ,
Web AMD , 
AMDK6. , , 
AMDK6, , 
,
.
, K6 
. 3.19. AMDK6 . 3.41.
3.19. AMD-K6

,
-,

K6-3
K6-3
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6-2

450
400
475
450
400
380
366
350
333
333

4,5x
4x
5x
4,5x
4x
4x
5,5x
3,5x
3,5x
5,0x

100
100
95
100
100
95
66
100
95
66

2,4
2,4
2,4
2,4
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2

3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3

165

. 3.19

,
-,

K6-2
K6-2
K6-2
K6
K6
K6
K6
K6

300
300
266
300
266
233
200
166

3x
4,5x
4x
4,5x
4x
3,5x
3x
2,5x

100
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
3,2
2,9
2,9

3,3
3,3
3,3
3,45
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3

. 3.41. AMDK6

, 3,5
1,5x. 
3,5x AMDK6 Intel.
4x , , BF,
BF2. BF. 
. 3.20.
3.20. AMD-K6

BF0

BF1

BF2

2,5x
3x
3,5x
4x
4,5x
5x
5,5x

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

,
.

.

166

3.

Cyrix Intel, AMD 


. Intel AMD 0,25
( Athlon XP 0,13 ).
K6 8,8 . 0,35 
2
. 12,7 , 162 .
K6 0,25 .
Socket 7
K6
, Pentium
Pentium MMX. AMDK6 Socket 7, 
Intel 
. BIOS.

AMD Athlon Athlon XP


Athlon K6 AMD.
Pentium III. AMD 
Slot A, Pentium II/III
(. 3.42). Athlon 512  , 
, 
. 2000 AMD Athlon ( 
Thunderbird),  256 
.
Intel. 
, PGA Socket A, Slot A.
Athlon, Athlon XP,
, 3DNow! Professional,
Intel SSE. Athlon XP 
512 , .
Slot A Slot 1, Socket A Socket 370, 
. AMD 
Intel.
Slot Socket
.

. 3.42. AMD Athlon Slot A

167

AMD Athlon 5501 400 ,


EV6 200/266 
North Bridge . Digital Equip
ment, Alpha 21264. EV6 
100 133 , ,
, 200 266 . 
64 (8 64 ), 1,6 2,1
( 8 200 233 ). 
PC1600 PC2100 DDR,
. EV6
, 
. EV6
Athlon Duron .
AMD Athlon 
128 ,  512 ,
, . 
 256 , ,
 512 Athlon XP. 
PGA Socket A .
AMD Athlon MMX Enhanced 3DNow,
45 , .
3DNow SSE Intel, 
. Athlon XP 
SSE, 3DNow! Professional. 
, 
SSE ( ) 3DNow! Professional.
Athlon 0,25 , 
0,18 0,13 .

. , 
, 
.
. 3.21 Athlon
Slot, . 3.22 AMD Athlon PGA (Socket A,
Model 4).
3.21. Athlon Slot A

,
.

650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000

100x2
100x2
100x2
100x2
100x2
100x2
100x2
100x2

6,5x
7x
7,5x
8x
8,5x
9x
9,5x
10x

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256

650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000

1,7
1,7
1,7
1,7
1,7
1,75
1,75
1,75

23,8
25,2
26,6
28,0
29,4
31,7
33,2
34,6

36,1
38,3
40,4
42,6
44,8
49,7
52,0
54,3

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18

37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37

168

3.

3.22. Athlon Socket A

,
.

650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1000
1100
1133
1200
1200
1300
1333
1400

200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
266
200
266
200
266
200
266
266

3,25x
3,5x
3,25x
4x
4,25x
4,5x
4,75x
5x
3,75x
5,5
4,25
6
4,5
6,5
5
5,5

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256

650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1000
1100
1133
1200
1200
1300
1333
1400

1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75

22
23
25
26
27
29
30
31
31
34
36
38
38
39
40
41

38,5
40,3
43,8
45,5
47,3
50,8
52,5
54,3
54,3
59,5
63,0
66,5
66,5
68,3
70,0
72,0

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18

37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37

AMD Duron
2000 AMD Duron ( Spitfire) 
AMD Athlon
, Celeron Pentium II III (. 3.43). , Duron 
Athlon  ;
. AMD Duron  
64 Socket A
Slot A.

. 3.43. AMD Duron

169

Duron Celeron
, Athlon Pentium III.
Duron ,
, Duron,
Athlon, Athlon XP.
Duron Athlon, 
Athlon 200 3DNow! (Model 3).
Model 7 3DNow! Professional (
SSE).
Duron, 1,6 , Model 3,
1,75 Model 7, 
Morgan. AMD Duron Socket A (PGA)
. 3.23.
3.23. Duron

,
.

550

200

2,75x

64

550

1,6

15,8

25,3

0,18

25

600

200

3x

64

600

1,6

17,1

27,4

0,18

25

650

200

3,25x

64

650

1,6

18,4

29,4

0,18

25

700

200

3,5x

64

700

1,6

19,6

31,4

0,18

25

750

200

3,75

64

750

1,6

20,9

33,4

0,18

25

800

200

64

800

1,6

22,1

35,4

0,18

25

850

200

4,25

64

850

1,6

23,4

37,4

0,18

25

900

200

64

900

1,6

24,7

39,5

0,18

25

950

200

4,5
4,75x

64

950

1,6

25,9

41,5

0,18

25

1000

200

5x

64

1000

1,75

26,3

46,1

0,18

27

1100

200

5,25x

64

1100

1,75

28,7

50,3

0,18

27

1200

200

5,5x

64

1200

1,75

31,3

54,7

0,18

27

1300

200

5,75

64

1300

1,75

34,3

60

0,18

27

AMD Athlon XP
, Athlon
Athlon XP. , Athlon
, Intel SSE, 
, Pentium 4.
Athlon XP AMD 
QuantiSpeed, , .
.
, .


, .
, $
. 
AMD Intel.

170

3.

. 

,  .
(TLB).
,
 .
, 
, Athlon XP
Pentium 4 
.
Palomino, Athlon XP, 
Athlon 4 ( ). 
Thoroughbred, 
. Thor
oughbredA ThoroughbredB. Athlon XP Barton
 512 , .
, 
Athlon.
3DNow! Professional ( 70
SSE Pentium III 144
SSE2 Pentium 4).
FSB 266/333 .
 128 
256 512 , .
( ),
.
Athlon XP 
, , 
Intel. . 3.44 Athlon XP
Barton.

. 3.44. Athlon XP ( Socket A), 


0,13
 512

171


. Athlon XP 0,13
, , 
,
, . 0,13 
Athlon XP 2 . . 3.24 
Athlon XP.
3.24. AMD Athlon XP

(P-Rating)

,
.

1500+1
1600+1
1700+1
1800+1
1900+1
2000+1
2100+1
1700+2
1700+3
1800+2
1800+3
1900+2
2000+2
2000+3
2100+2
2100+3
2200+2
2200+3
2400+3
2500+4
2600+3
2600+5
2700+5
2800+4
3000+4

1333
1400
1467
1533
1600
1667
1733
1467
1467
1533
1533
1600
1667
1667
1733
1733
1800
1800
2000
1833
2133
2083
2167
2083
2167

266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
333
266
333
333
333
333

5
5,25
5,5
5,75
6
6,25
6,5
5,5
5,5
5,75
5,75
6
6,25
6,25
6,5
6,5
6,75x
6,75x
7x
5,5x
8x
6,25x
6,5x
6,25
6,5

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
512
256
256
256
512
512

1333
1400
1467
1533
1600
1667
1733
1476
1476
1533
1533
1600
1667
1667
1733
1733
1800
1800
2000
1833
2133
2083
2167
2083
2167

1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,5
1,6
1,5
1,6
1,5
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,65
1,6
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65

34
36
37
38
39
40
41
33
37
34
37
35
38
38
39
39
41
39
41,4
41
41,4
41,4
41,4
41
45

60,0
62,8
64,0
66,0
68,0
70,0
72,0
49,4
59,8
51,0
59,8
52,5
60,3
61,3
62,1
62,1
67,9
62,8
68,3
68,3
68,3
68,3
68,3
68,3
74,3

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13

37,5
37,5
37,5
37,5
37,5
37,5
37,5
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
40
54,3
37,2
37,2
37,2
53,3
54,3

1 Model 6 Athlon XP.


2 Model 8 Athlon XP, 680.
3 Model 8 Athlon XP, 681.
4 Model 8 Athlon XP, 333 .
5 Model 10 Athlon XP.

172

3.

Athlon MP
AMD, 
, . 
, Athlon Athlon XP.
Model 6 (1 1,2 ). Athlon Model 4.
Model 6 OPGA ( 1500+ 2100+). Athlon XP Model 6.
Model 8 (2000+, 2200+, 2400+, 2600+). Athlon XP Model 8.
Model 10 (2500+, 2800+, 3000+). Athlon XP Model 8 
512 .
Athlon MP Socket A, 
Athlon, Duron Athlon XP.
Web
AMD.

Cyrix/IBM 6x86 (MI) 6x86MX (MII)
-.

VIA C3
Cyrix III Socket 370,
Pentium III Celeron. C3, 
Joshua Samuel,  128 ,
 . 
, 500 .
Cyrix III/C3 (Joshua) Cyrix, VIA
1998 . Samuel Centaur
Winchip ( Centaur VIA 1999 ). Samuel
0,18 , Samuel 2 
64 0,15 . C3,
0,13 , Ezra, ,
C3, Pen
tium III (Tualatin). EzraT 1
Tualatin. C3
Nehemiah, 1
. C3 100 ( 
750 900 ) 133 ( 733, 800, 866,
933 ).
C3 x86,
Pentium III Celeron. C3 

. C3 
, , , ,
. Nehemiah
11,25 ,
Socket 370.
, 
C3
, .
, .

173

C3, EBGA (Enhanced Ball Grid Array), 


E. 
MiniITX, VIA.
C3 Web VIA.

P7 (Intel Pentium 4)
Pentium 4, 2000 , 
(. 3.45). ,
786, ,
686. Pentium 4 . 3.46.

. 3.45. Pentium 4

. 3.46. Pentium 4 Northwood


(0,13 , 55 . , 131 2).
Intel

174

3.

Pentium 4.
1,33,2 .
42 ., 0,18 ,
2
217 (Willamette).
55 ., 0,13 ,
2
131 (Northwood).
32 Intel.
400, 533 800 .
 ()
.
(20 ).
.
.
 20 (
12 8 ).
128 
256 , .
 4
(ECC).
144 SSE2 .
.
.
Intel ,
. Pentium 4 
NetBurst, ,
, 400/533/800 
. 
Pentium III , 
.
. 
 () 
, .
400/533/800 , 
100/133/200 , 
.  
, 12 
.
, .
, 
. 
100/133/200 ,
(4x) 400/533/800 .
64 (.. 64 8 ), , 3 200,
4 266 6 400 /.
. 3.25 RDRAM DDR SDRAM.

P7 (Intel Pentium 4)

175

3.25. Pentium 4 RDRAM/DDR


SDRAM

Pentium 4,



( ,
8), / RDRAM, /



DDR DIMM, /

400
533
800

3200
4266
6400

3200
4266
6400

3200
4266
6400

. 3.25, Pentium 4
RDRAM DDR SDRAM.
. PC1600,
PC2100 PC3200 DDR SDRAM , RDRAM.
, 865 (Springdale) 875
(Canterwood) Pentium 4, DDR SDRAM.
20 
, , , RISC. 
, , 
, , , . 
, , ,
Pentium III AMD Athlon
,  Pentium 4. , 
Pentium 4,
.
Pentium 4 Socket 423,
423 , 3939 SPGA.
Socket 478, ,
. Celeron 4 
Socket 423, Socket 478.
Socket 478,
.

,
, Pentium 4, 
RDRAM DDR SDRAM, ,
Pentium III. ,
Pentium 4 RDRAM 
(.. RIMM). Pentium 4
RDRAM. ,
.
Pentium 4
RDRAM. 
, SDRAM DDR SDRAM. Intel
Rambus 2001 , DDR SDRAM 
.


Pentium 4 ,

, 12 3,3 5 , 
. , 3,3 5 ,
, .

176

3.

,
. PC , 
ATX ,
12 ( 6 ).
12 ,
.
, ATX12V.
20 ATX 
6 (3,3/5 ). , 
, 
. , PC Power and Cooling 
, Molex
ATX12V. , 300 ( ) 

, ATX12V.
300 , , 
.
Pentium 4 . 3.26.
3.26. Pentium 4

S-

S-

CPUID

,
.

1,30
1,30
1,30
1,40
1,40
1,40
1,40
1,40
1,40
1,40
1,50
1,50
1,50
1,50
1,50
1,50
1,50
1,50
1,50
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60A
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,70

SL4QD
SL4SF
SL5GC
SL4CS
SL4SG
SL45X2
SL5N7
SL59U
SL5TG
SL5TG
SL4TY
SL4SH
SL4X3
SL4WT
SL5TN
SL5N8
SL5UF
SL5TJ
SL62Y
SL4X4
SL5UL
SL5VL
SL5UW
SL5UJ
SL5VH
SL668
SL57V
SL57W
SL5TP
SL5N9
SL5UG
SL5TK

SL4SF
SL4SF
SL5FW
SL4SG
SL4SG
SL4WS
SL59U
SL59U
SL5TG
SL5TG
SL4SH
SL4SH
SL4WT
SL4WT
SL5SX
SL59V
SL5TJ
SL5TJ
SL63Y
SL4WU
SL5VL
SL5VL
SL5US
SL5VH
SL5VH
SL668
SL57W
SL57W
SL5SY
SL59X
SL5TK
SL5TK

0F07h
0F07h
0F0Ah
0F07h
0F07h
0F0Ah
0F0Ah
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F12h
0F07h
0F07h
0F0Ah
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F12h
0F12h
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F12h
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F12h
0F24h
0F0Ah
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F12h

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
512
256
256
256
256
256
256

69
69
70
70
70
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
73
73
73
73
73
73
71
75
75
75
75
75
75
66
76
76
76
76
76
76

48,9
48,9
51,6
51,8
51,8
54,7
55,3
55,3
55,3
55,3
54,7
54,7
57,8
57,8
57,8
57,9
57,9
57,9
62,9
61
61
61
60,8
60,8
60,8
46,8
64,0
64,0
64,0
63,5
63,5
63,5

423
423
423
423
423
423
478
478
478
478
423
423
423
423
423
478
478
478
478
423
423
423
478
478
478
478
423
423
423
478
478
478

400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18

42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42

B2
B2
C1
B2
B2
C1
C1
C1
D0
D0
B2
B2
C1
C1
D0
C1
D0
D0
D0
C1
D0
D0
C1
D0
D0
B0
C1
C1
D0
C1
D0
D0

P7 (Intel Pentium 4)

177

. 3.26

S-

S-

CPUID

,
.

1,70
1,80
1,80
1,80
1,80
1,80
1,80
1,80A
1,80A
1,80A
1,80A
1,80A
1,80A
1,90
1,90
1,90
1,90
1,90
2,00
2,00
2,00
2,00A
2,00A
2,20
2,20
2,20
2,26
2,26
2,40
2,40
2,40B
2,40B
2,53
2,53
2,53
2,53
2,53
2,53
2,60
2,60
2,66
2,66
2,66
2,66
2,80
2,80
2,80
2,80
3,00
3,00
3,06
3,06
3,06
3,06

SL62Z
SL4X5
SL5UM
SL5VM
SL5UV
SL5UK
SL5VJ
SL63X
SL62P
SL6LA
SL6E6
SL68Q

SL5WH
SL5VN
SL5WG
SL5VK
SL6BF
SL5TQ
SL5UH
SL5TL
SL5ZT
SL5YS
SL5ZU
SL5YS
SL5YS
SL683
SL67Y
SL67R
SL65R
SL684
SL67Z
SL685
SL682
SL6EV
SL6EG
SL6DW
SL6D8
SL6HB
SL6GU
SL6SK
SL6S3
SL6EH
SL6DX
SL6SL
SL6S4
SL6K6
SL6HL
SL6WU
SL6WK
SL6SM
SL6S5
SL6K7
SL6JJ

SL62Z
SL4WV
SL5VM
SL5VM
SL5UT
SL5VJ
SL5VJ
SL62P
SL62P
SL6LA
SL6S6
SL66Q
SL62R
SL5VN
SL5VN
SL5VK
SL5VK
SL67C
SL5SZ
SL5TL
SL5TL
SL5JR
SL5YS
SL5YS
SL5YS
SL5YS
SL67Y
SL67Y
SL65R
SL65R
SL67Z
SL67Z
SL682
SL682

SL6S2
SL6DW
SL6D8
SL6SB
SL6GU

SL6S3

SL6DX

SL6S4

SL6HL
SL6WU

SL6S5

SL6JJ

0F12h
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F12h
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F12h
0F24h
0F24h
0F27H
0F27H
0F24H
0F24H
0F12h
0F12h
0F12h
0F12h
0F13h
0F12h
0F12h
0F12h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F27h
0F27h
0F24h
0F27h
0F27h
0F27h
0F27h
0F27h
0F27h
0F27h
0F27h
0F27h
0F27h
0F29h
0F29h
0F27h
0F27h
0F27h
0F27h

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
512
512
512
512
512
512
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512

73
78
78
78
77
77
77
67
67
*
*
67
68
73
73
75
75
77
74
76
76
68
68
69
69
69
70
70
70
70
70
70
71
71
71
72
72
71
72
72
74
74
74
74
75
75
73
73
69
69
69
69
69
69

67,7
66,7
66,7
66,7
66,1
66,1
66,1
49,6
49,6
*
*
49,6
41,6
69,2
69,2
72,8
72,8
72,8
71,8
75,3
75,3
52,4
52,4
55,1
55,1
55,1
56,0
56,0
57,8
57,8
57,8
57,8
59,3
59,3
59,3
61,5
61,5
59,3
62,6
62,6
66,1
66,1
66,1
66,1
68,4
68,4
68,4
68,4
81,8
81,8
81,8
81,8
81,8
81,8

478
423
423
423
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
423
423
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478

400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
533
533
400
400
533
533
533
533
533
533
533
533
400
400
533
533
533
533
533
533
533
533
800
800
533
533
533
533

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13

42
42
42
42
42
42
42
55
55
55
55
55
55
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55

D0
C1
D0
D0
C1
D0
D0
B0
B0
C1
C1
B0
B0
D0
D0
D0
D0
E0
D0
D0
D0
B0
B0
B0
B0
B0
B0
B0
B0
B0
B0
B0
B0
B0
B0
C1
C1
B0
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
D1
D1
C1
C1
C1
C1

* , .

178

3.

, Pentium 4,
. 0,5 , 

. , ATX
,
Socket 423 .
. 

. , Asus P4T
, ATX.
Socket 478,
. ,
, 
. Socket 478
ATX .
Pentium 4 Socket 423 478 . 
(. 3.47),
, 
. , Intel,
.

 ,
.

(64-)
2001 Intel 64
Itanium, 2002 Itanium 2. 2003 
AMD 64
Athlon 64 64 Opteron.
.

. 3.47. ( )
Intel Pentium 4

(64-)

179

Itanium Itanium 2
Itanium 2001 
Intel,
.
Intel , Itanium
886,
Intel.
386.

Itanium Itanium 2
Itanium IA64 (64 Intel),
, ,
.
Itanium Itanuim 2 Pentium 4/III
( ). 
, 
.
Itanium/Itanium 2 . 3.27.
3.27. Itanium/Itanium 2

- /

(L1/L2),

--

(L3),

, .

Itanium

733; 800

32 L11; 96 L2

22 42

266

644

2,1

Itanium 2

900;
1000

32 L11; 256 L2

33

400

1284

6,4

:
25; L3:
300
2215

1 (16 /16 ).
2 , , 128$.
3 , , 128$.
4 8 ECC.
5 $ .

. 3.27, Itanium/Itanium 2
. 
.
,  .
Itanium .
733/800 1 .
:
 2 4 ,
, 128
;
 96 , 
;
 32 (16
 /16  ).

180

3.

64 ( 8 )
266 2,1 / ( Itanium).
128 ( 8 )
400 6,4 / ( Itanium 2).
25 . 300 .  .
221 .,  
( Itanium 2).
16 T () (44 ).
32 .
EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing),
20 .
,
.
FMAC (Floatingpoint Multiply Accumulate) 82 .
FMAC
.
MMX,
FP .

FP (Floatingpoint).
128 , 128 ,
8 , 64 .
35 ( 75125 ) 
4 2 .
.
Intel HewlettPackard P7 1994 . 
1997 , 
, .
Itanium , 64 
IA64 ( Itanium 2). ,
VLIW (Very Long Instruction Words
), , ,
, .
RISC, CISC.
, Intel EPIC (Explicitly Parallel
Instruction Computing ); 
. Itanium 128 
, 
, 32 . 

.

. , 
, Itanium
.

(64-)

181

64 ,
Itanium/Itanium 2 32 
Intel x86. , Itanium 64
32 . 
, 32 
, ,
Pentium 4 .
IA64, 
. 1985 , Intel 80386
32 . 
32 . 386
32 , 16
. 32 ,
386, . , 

. 10 386, Microsoft
Windows 95 32 .
Itanium/Itanium 2 ,
, Microsoft Windows (64
XP Edition 64 Windows Advanced Server Limited Edition 2002), Linux ( 
: Red Hat, SuSE, Caldera Turbo Linux) Unix
(HPUX 11i v 1.5 HewlettPackard AIX IBM).
, , , , 
64
64 . 32 
, 32 Itanium
32 ,
, .
Itanium Itanium 2 0,18 ;
0,13 , 
.
Itanium Pin Array Cartridge (PAC).
 PAC418
(418 ), .
75125 , 170 . ,
(. 3.48). Itanium ,
.
Itanium 2, McKinley (. 3.49),
2002 . 
(6,4 /),
 ( 
Itanium). 
. McKinley Madison, 
Itanium 2, 0,13 .

AMD Athlon 64
AMD Athlon 64 ( ClawHammer), 
2003 , 64 , 
. 64 AMD 
Opteron ( SledgeHammer),
.

182

3.

>

. 3.48. Itanium

. 3.49. Itanium 2 Itanium

(64-)

183

Athlon 64.
72 (64 , ECC) PC2700
(DDR 333), ( NorthBridge MCP,
).
 128 .
 256 1 .
1,62,0 .
x8664 ( 32 x86).
Hypertransport (6,4 /) .
4 ,
, 32 .
AMD 
Athlon XP, 
Athlon 64. , Athlon XP, 
.
, Athlon 64
. Athlon 64
NorthBridge 
, 32 . AMD 
Athlon 64,
, 
Athlon XP. 
4.
Athlon 64 Socket 754, 754
 x86.
Socket 754 Socket 478 Pentium 4 Socket 603
Xeon. 
mPGA. , 
Athlon XP, Athlon 64
20%. Pentium 4, 
12 Athlon 64 ATX12V.
Athlon 64 0,13 . 
San Diego ( ) Odessa ( )
0,09 2003 .

AMD Opteron
Opteron AMD Athlon 64
, x8664.
2003 .
AMD Opteron.
 128 .
 1 .
1,82,0 .
Hypertransport (6,4 /) .
940 .
.
128 ECC.

184

3.

1 (40
) 256 (48 ).
x8664.
Itanium, 
Intel, Opteron ( Athlon 64) 
, VIA, SiS, ALi, NVIDIA ATI.

x86%64
Athlon 64, Itanium Itanium 2, 64 
, 64
Intel. , Itanuim/Itanium 2 
IA64, 
. Athlon 64 Opteron
x8664, x86,
64 .
, Athlon 64/Opteron 32 
, 32 , , 
.

x86 x86-64 Web- : http://www.x86-64.org.

x8664 IA64 :
;
x86, 
x8664;
32, 64 .
, x8664 IA64
64 .
, x8664 ,
IA64, .


486 Intel, , 
,
Socket, . ,
Socket 3, 486, 
Socket 7, Pentium. 
, 
(Pentium III/Celeron/ Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP, Pentium 4/
Celeron 4 ..).
,
.
, , 
,
, . ,
,
BIOS.

185

, Socket 370,
Pentium III 1,4 .
!
micro-ATX, HP, .
.

,
, Socket 478 
Socket 423, Socket 370 Slot 1 ..
, Evergreen PowerLeap.
.
, Pentium 4,
Athlon XP Athlon 64. 
ATX, ,
, .
Intel OverDrive.
, ,
, OverDrive .


, .
, ( 
).
, 
, .

. 
. , ,
, ,
, . ,
, .
: , 
, , , ,
CDROM, ,
, .
. ,
.
, . ,
.

Futuremark ( MadOnion.com)

SysMark
PCMark Pro
3DMark
Winstone
WinBench CD WinBench
NetBench WebBenc
MobileMark

SPECint
SPECfp
Sandra



, , ,

Lionbridge (Veritest)
( PC Magazine)
Business Applications Performance
Corporation (BAPCo)
Standard Performance
Evaluation Corporation
SiSoftware

186

CD/DVD Web-

3.


, , , 
. , , 
, , .
, 
. , ,
; ,  .

. 3.28.
3.28.

,
,

,

, , .
,
,
.

/ ;






BIOS




,


POST
, ,



POST


POST





BIOS

, -

;







.

187

, POST ( )
, 
BIOS. 
.
, BIOS .
, , , 
. , 
, .

. ,

BIOS. 
.

188

3.


(system board), 
(motherboard), (main board).
.
,
. (form factor) 
, . 
(.. ) 
. , ,
, . 
.
:
BabyAT;
AT;
LPX;
WTX ( );
ITX ( flexATX, ).
:
ATX;
microATX;
flexATX;
MiniITX ( flexATX);
NLX.
:
( Compaq, Packard Bell, Hewlett
Packard, / ..).

BabyAT, IBM PC XT,
ATX NLX, 
. ATX,
microATX ( ATX,
) flexATX ( ,
). miniITX,
flexATX,
. NLX 
; WTX, , 
, .
. 4.1.
BabyAT, AT LPX,
. 
, 
. , ATX
, NLX NLX ..

. 
,
.

190

4.

4.1.

ATX

mini-tower full-tower; , ,
, . ATX

ATX, , ATX.
ATX Mini-ATX.
Mini-ATX
mini-tower
mini-tower,

flex-ATX ,
. PCI. mini-ITX,
flex-ATX, micro-ATX ATX
mini-tower,

Mini-ATX

Micro-ATX
Flex-ATX
Mini-ITX

NLX

,  
, .
.
,
, . 
PC, ,
.

PC , -. , 60% . ( flex-ATX micro-ATX , LPX), SFX


micro-tower, PC. , ,
.
, , ,
. mini-tower ,
, , , LPX.
,
, , Dell ( 1996 ).
ATX, . , , Dell- . ,
, .
, ,
micro-ATX ATX mid-tower ( ),
.
Baby-AT, AT LPX
-.

191

ATX
ATX .
BabyAT LPX .
, ATX BabyAT 
. , , ATX
BabyAT, LPX. ,
ATX .
ATX Intel
1995 .
ATX 1996 
BabyAT. 1997 2.01 ATX,
. 2000 
( ) ATX (
Engineering Change Revision PI), 2.03. Intel
ATX, . 
ATX,
Web Desktop Form Factors : www.formfactors.org. 
ATX , 
. 
, BabyAT.
ATX BabyAT LPX.
$.
 6,25
1,75 .
,
, BabyAT.
.
BabyAT. ATX 
, 
.
3,3 , , ATX
, . 
ATX , 
(3,3 5 ), ATX12V,
, ,
.
. :
, ,
.
,
, 
. . 
, ,
70 (2,8 ).
$. 

, .
,
.

192

4.


.
. ,
. Intel ,

, (). ,
, , . , , 45 Pentium III , 40
Pentium 4 .
, Intel ,
.
, (), . OEM- , .
, ,
.

. 
, .

(, , ). 

. ATX
,
. 
, . 
ATX
, ,
. 
. 
,
ATX , , .. 
.
21, .
. ATX
, BabyAT, 
3,3 .
 . , 
.
, ,
.

193

. 4.1 , ATX
.
: ,
(, 
, , ), , ,
. , .
ATX, , BabyAT,
. 
, . ATX,
Intel miniATX, :
ATX 305244 (129,6 );
miniATX 284208 (11,28,2 ).
, ATX, 
microATX flexATX ( ).
, BabyAT, 
ATX BabyAT . ,
ATX 
Slimline. ATX miniATX . 4.2.

3,5" 5,25"


,

USB, ,
,

ATX

. 4.1. ATX, , ,
( 
, , )

194

4.

BabyAT, 
. 
ATX.
, ,
ATX. . ATX
. , 
; , LPX NLX. 
. , ATX 
(. 4.3 . 4.2).

12,7
(0,500")

10,14
(0,400")

20,32 (0,800")
0,0

131,98
(5,196")
78,74
(3,100")
20,625 (0,812") >


PCI ISA

157,75 (6,250")

20,32 (0,800")
17,5 (0,689") >


PCI AGP
22,86
(0,900")

15,24
(0,600")
56,69
(2,232")


31,12
(1,225")
AGP

15,49
(6,100")
227,33
(8,950")
243,84
(9,600")

4 ISA
3 PCI

3,81 (0,15")

16,51
(0,650")

124,46
(4,900")
281,94
(11,100")
304,8
(12,000")

. 4.2. ATX 2.1

195

USB

PS/2
PS/2

VGA

Ethernet 10/100

PS/2
PS/2

VGA


USB

IEEE>1394a

10/100 Ethernet

PS/2

USB
PS/2

. 4.3. ATX 
 , LAN IEEE1394/FireWire legacyfree

196

4.

4.2. ATX

PS/2
PS/2
USB


VGA
/MIDI
: , / ,
LFE-,
TV- S-Video
IEEE-1394/FireWire
Ethernet 10/100/1000
S/PDIF
DVI ( )
S/PDIF ( )
SCSI ( )
( )
( )

6- mini-DIN
6- mini-DIN
2- USB
25- D-Submini
9- D-Submini
15- HD D-Submini
15- D-Submini
3,5 Mini-Phone

-
-
-

-, -,
,

4- Mini-DIN
6- IEEE-1394
8- RJ-45
TOSLINK
DDWG-DVI
RCA
50/68- HD SCSI
4- RJ-11
RCA

DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung e.V.


LFE low frequency effects ( ()).
S/PDIF Sony/Philips Digital Interface ( ).
TOSLINK Toshiba optical link ( ).
DDWG Digital Display Working Group.

ATX (. . 4.2).
. , ,
. , (
6- Mini-DIN) ,
. ,
, . .

, ATX, mini
ATX, microATX, flexATX NLX, Web Form Factors (
Platform Developer), : http://www.formfactors.org.
Web Form Factors 
, ,
.

, , ATX, .
ATX 305244 , ATX 305330 .
ATX ,
. , ,
. Xeon
,
ATX.

197

ATX Riser
1999 Intel
ATX. 22 (211)
, PCI , 
, , , . 
PCI. ,
AGP.
ATX 
,
. ATX PCI 
4,2 , 67 .
Slimline NLX, 
. 
, 
ATX Slimline.
PCI. 14 2000 
Peripheral Component Interconnect Special Interest Group (PCI SIG)
PCI LowProfile,
( 2,5 ) PCI. PCI 
, Intel ATX Riser,
PCI 
Slimline.
22 PCI
, ATX Riser,
. PCI 
. ,
ATX Riser, . ATX Riser ,
PCI ; ,
ATX Riser. ATX Riser 
PCI ( AGP ISA). . 4.4
ATX ATX Riser.

PCI
ATX Riser

PCI

22>

. 4.4. ATX Riser microATX

198

4.

22 PCI
( ). , , 
, , .
ATX Riser . 4.5.

B1

A1

PCI_GNT1#

PCI_ CLK1

B2

A2

B3

A3

PCI_GNT2#

PCI_REQ1#

A4

B4

A5

B5

PCI_CLK3

PCI_CLK2

A6

B6

RISER_ID1

A7

B7

PCI_REQ2#

A8

B8

RISER_ID2

A9

B9

NOGO

PC/PCI_DREQ#

A10

B10

+12

PC/PCI_DGNT#

A11

B11

SER_IRQ

. 4.5. ATX Riser

PCI ATX Riser PCI


.
, ATX Riser,
. PCI AGP, ,
. ATX Riser
, , 
. , 
. , ATX Riser
. ATX Riser 
, Slimline.
ATX Riser,
Slimline ATX.

Micro-ATX
microATX Intel
1997 ATX, 
. ATX
,
. , microATX ATX, 
microATX ATX. 
ATX microATX, , .
1999 .
minitower PC,
.
microATX ATX :
(244 (9,6 ) 305 (12 ) 284
(11,2 );
;
( SFX/TFX).

199

microATX 9,69,6
(244244 ) ATX (129,6
305244 ) miniATX (11,28,2 284208 ).
,
.
, 
, , , ,
. 
. USB, 10/100 Ethernet, SCSI 1394
(FireWire) . 
microATX . 4.6.
30,48
(1,200")

20,32
(0,800")

53,24
(2,096")
20,62
(0,812") >

>

ISA PCI

10,16
(0,400")

31,12
15,24
(1,225")
(0,600")
56,7
(2,232")
2 ISA

158,75
(6,250")


20,32 (0,800")

22,86
(0,900")

17,51 (0,689") >



PCI AGP

154,84
(6,100")
227,33
(8,950")
AGP

243,84
(9,800")

2 PCI

9X 3,96
(0,156")

20,32
(0,800")

45,72
(1,800")
34,20
(1,350")

203,2
(8,000")
243,84
(9,600")

. 4.6. microATX 1.1

microATX 
ATX. , , 
, SFX/TFX.
, , 
. 
SFX/TFX 

200

4.

.
, microATX
ATX, microATX,
Compaq, HP, eMachines
SFX TFX.
microATX ATX :
20 ;
;
.
microATX
ATX, , mi
croATX, SFX/TFX.
microATX . ,
, : 304,8 355,6
(12 14 ), 177,8 (7 ), 304,8 (12 ), 
microtower desktop. microATX 
. 4.7.
microATX Intel 
. , 
microATX, Web www.formfactors.org.

AGP
PCI

. 4.7. microATX

201

Flex-ATX
1999 Intel microATX,
flexATX. , ATX,
. 
flexATX , 
, , 
, . flexATX
USB IEEE1394/FireWire.
flexATX ,
ATX. 229191 (9,07,5 ).
flexATX , , 
. flexATX
ATX, , 
 (. 4.8).

FlexATX
MicroATX

B, C, F, H, J, S
B, C, F, H, J, L, M, R, S

ATX

A, C, F, G, H, J, K, L, M

S R
micro-ATX. B Full-AT
H ,
ATX 2.03. ATX 1.1

304,80
(12,000")
243,84
(9,600")
228,60
(9,000")

158,75 (6,250") >



>

C
F

flex>ATX

190,50
(7,500")

micro>ATX

ATX

243,84
(9,600")


flex>ATX
ATX micro>ATX

. 4.8. 
ATX, microATX flexATX

202

4.

flexATX
SFX/TFX, microATX. ,
, ATX.
flexATX ATX
, . 4.3.
4.3. ATX

, ()

,
()
, 2
( )

ATX
Mini-ATX
Micro-ATX
Flex-ATX

305 (12,0)
284 (11,2)
244 (9,6)
229 (9,0)

244 (9,6)
208 (8,2)
244 (9,6)
191 (7,5)

743 (115)
593 (92)
595 (92)
435 (68)

20%
20%
41%

, . 4.3 .
, 
, 
. 
, .. mini, micro flexATX 
, ATX. ,
miniATX ATX 
, micro flexATX.

ITX mini-ITX
flexATX 
22,8619,05 . , 
, , .
flexATX (
) , flexATX 
(C, F, H J). . 4.8.
flexATX H J 15,74 ,
J 0,63 . 
H 17 (0,63 +
15,74 + 0,63), flexATX. 
, ,
flexATX, 170170 .
Platform Solutions VIA Technologies
(, ),
, .
2001 , flexATX (21,6
22,8 ), . 6%
flexATX  flexATX. 
ITX, 6%
, ITX .
2002 VIA c , 
, flex
ATX. miniITX. ,
ATX flexATX 
. , , 
/ 
flexATX. miniITX.

203

miniITX VIA
Eden C3 E. 
VIA . C3 
, Celeron 4
AMD Duron, miniITX
, 
. ITX miniITX flexATX 
. 4.4.
4.4. ITX, mini-ITX flex-ATX

,
()

,
()

, 2
( )

Flex-ATX
ITX
Mini-ITX

229 (9)
215 (8,5)
170 (6,7)

191 (7,5)
191 (7,5)
170 (6,7)

435 (68)
411 (64)
290 (45)

6%
34%

, ITX
miniITX flexATX.
miniITX. ITX 
flexATX ( ITX ),
miniITX 170170 (6,7"6,7"), , 34% 
, flexATX.

, miniITX.
, .
miniITX VIA EPIAV . 4.9.
. 4.9, miniITX
. miniITX ATX
.
miniITX ,
.
miniITX TFX, 
, , 
.
TFX ,
240 .
AGP.
miniITX 
, 
. , miniITX flexATX,
flexATX, microATX
ATX . ,
miniITX flexATX, microATX ATX; , 
, , TFX.
miniITX, , 
,
.

204

4.

20> ATX

ATA/IDE

BIOS

DIMM

PCI

VIA SouthBridge
VT1612A
0205CD TAIWAN
2IA1012954 C

VIA Eden C3
( )

VIA NorthBridge

/ PS/2

Ethernet 10/100

VGA
S>video

USB

S/PDIF

. 4.9. VIA EPIAV

VIA C3 E, VIA Eden x86,


( Windows/Linux) ,
Intel AMD. C3 Eden 
, Celeron 4, Pentium 4 Athlon XP, 
. . 4.5 VIA.
4.5. VIA Eden C3

-
,

Eden ESP 4000


Eden ESP 5000
Eden ESP 6000
C3 E
C3 E
C3 E
C3 E
C3 E

400
533
600
733
800
866
933
1000

100
133
133
133
133
133
133
133

1,05
1,20
1,20
1,35
1,35
1,35
1,35
1,35

128
128
128
64
64
64
64
64

64
64
64
128
128
128
128
128

205

Eden ESP , 
.
Internet,
C3 E.
VIA Eden ESP ,

.
C3 E, , Celeron,
. C3 
, ,
C3 , Eden. , 
,
C3 E .
miniITX North
Bridge South Bridge. North Bridge PLE133
CLE266, South Bridge VT8231 VT8235.
PLE133 North Bridge PC100
PC133, Trident AGP 4x.
, CLE266 S3 Savage 4
AGP 4x, MPEG2 DVD
DDR266 SDRAM.
VT8231 South Bridge AC'97, MC'97,
ATA100. , USB 1.1. 
. VT8235
South Bridge , ATA133,
USB 2.0 10/100 Ethernet, PCI, MC'97. ,
8X VLink North Bridge.
VPSD (VIA Platform Solutions Division) VIA 
miniITX, :
EPIA;
EPIA V (. . 4.9);
EPIA M;
EPIA M10000.
. 4.6 .
4.6. mini-ITX, VPSD

South Bridge;
North Bridge


(
)

ATA
(
)

USB
(
)

IEEE-1394a
(FireWire)

EPIA

PLE133; VT8231

100 (1)

USB 1.1 (4)

EPIA V
EPIA M

PLE133; VT8231
CLE266; VT8235

PC100
PC133 (2)
PC133 (2)
DDR266 (1)

100 (2)
133 (2)

USB 1.1 (2)


USB 2.0 (2)

EPIA M 
USB 2.0
IEEE1394a (FireWire), MPEG2.
, 1 ,
Celeron, miniITX 
. miniITX

206

4.


Internet.
, 
.

Web- ITX : www.via.com.tw/en/VInternet/


mini_itx.jsp. , Web- www.mini-itx.com ,
mini-ITX .

NLX
NLX, Intel 1996 , 
, 
LPX. 1996 Intel,
NLX Slimline , Compaq,
HP, Toshiba . 2000 Slimline
flexATX.
, NLX
LPX, 
. NLX , , 
LPX, .. NLX 
, LPX.
LPX 
, (,
AGP). NLX (. 4.10). 
NLX Pentium III,
Slot 1.

. 4.10. NLX

207

LPX .
NLX , , LPX, 
. 

. , NLX  
. ,
( , , , 
..), . ,
,
,
. ;
NLX 30 !
NLX Riser, . 4.11,
.
,
. 
,
, .

PCI


IDE

PCI/ISA

ISA



IDE

PCI

PCI/ISA

ISA

. 4.11. NLX

208

4.

.
.
,
.
.

NLX, ,
. ,
NLX , AST,
Digital, Gateway, HewlettPackard, IBM, Micron, NEC .
. 
, AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port), USB (Universal Serial Bus), 
RIMM DIMM.
/. 
NLX 
, .
,
, 
, .

, .
NLX . 4.12. 
, , ATX, 
. , 
( LPX ) 
, NLX Riser 
. 
.
AGP,
. 4.11. , , , PCI
ISA, . , AGP
, NLX. NLX 
AGP, .
AGP, , 
, . , AGP, NLX, 
,
NLX (. 4.13).
NLX: 13,6 , 11,2
10 (. 4.14). , 
, .
NLX, , 
 . 
, . . 4.15 
 NLX.

, .

209

AGP

. 4.12. NLX

. 4.13. AGP,
ATX/BabyAT NLX.
AGP
NLX

210

4.

340, 33
(13,400")

5, 08
(0,200")

158,12
(6,225")
4X 4,01 (0,300")

345, 44
(13,600")

4X 3,00 (0,156")

30,48
(1,200")

223,50
(5,100")
.

31,36
(3,400")

213,20
(4,000")
.

198,12
(7,800")
111,76
(4,400")

. 4.14. NLX. NLX 345,44 (13,6 ).


NLX 284,48 (11,2 )
254 (10 )

RJ>45

USB> 1

USB> 0


PS/2


PS/2

. 4.15. NLX

211

, NLX 
.
 , 
( , ,
BabyAT).
NLX
Web Desktop Form Factor : http://formfactors.org. ATX,
miniATX, microATX, flexATX NLX
. 
, , (, BabyAT).
LPX , 
. , LPX
, 
. , ATX 
, ,
, .

WTX
WTX 
. WTX ATX /
, , 
.
WTX 1.0 1998 , 1999
(1.1). WTX
Web http://www.wtx.org. , 
, . ,
 .
WTX
. . 4.16 WTX . 
,
.
WTX, 14 (356 ),
16,75 (425 ), ATX. 
, 
.
WTX 
, .
; WTX 
, 
. WTX
.


, (
AT, BabyAT, ATX, miniATX, microATX NLX), 
.
,
, , 
. .
,
. 

212

4.

. ,
,
. , ,
, , .

. 4.16. WTX

, 
, . 
, 
(overdrive)
(turbo). ,
. , 
, .
LPX 
. .
Compaq, HewlettPackard
( Vectra) Packard Bell ( ).
, 
.
, , ATX,

.
BabyAT,
.
, . 
, ,

213

. ,
, , .
, , Dell, Gateway Micron,
ATX, microATX NLX,
. 
, ,
.


-.


, , 
. :
;
( North/South Bridge Hub);
Super I/O;
 (ROM BIOS/Flash BIOS);
SIMM/DIMM/RIMM;
ISA/PCI/AGP;
;
.
, 
, SCSI, AMR (Audio Modem Riser) CNR
(Communications and Networking Riser), ,
.
.


Socket Slot.
, Intel ( 486), 
. Socket, 
. Socket
Slot . Socket Slot;
,
. 3,
.
486 ; 
. . 4.7 ,
Socket Slot.

214

4.

4.7.

Socket 1

169

1717 PGA

486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2*, DX4 OverDrive

Socket 2

238

1919 PGA

Socket 3

237

1919 PGA

5/3,3

Socket 4

273

2121 PGA

486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2*, DX4


OverDrive, 486 Pentium OverDrive
486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2, DX4, 486
Pentium OverDrive, 5x86
Pentium 60/66, OverDrive

Socket 5

320

3737 SPGA

3,3/3,5

Pentium 75-133, OverDrive

Socket 6**

235

1919 PGA

3.3

486 DX4, 486 Pentium OverDrive

Socket 7

321

3737 SPGA

VRM

Socket 8
Socket 370
(PGA370)
Socket PAC418
Socket 423
(PGA423)
Socket A
(Socket 462)
Socket 478
Socket 603
Socket 754
Slot A
Slot 1 (SC242)
Slot 2 (SC330)

387
370

dual pattern SPGA


3737 SPGA

Auto VRM
Auto VRM

Pentium 75-266+, MMX, OverDrive,


6x86, K6
Pentium Pro
Celeron, Pentium III PPGA/FCPGA

418
423

38x22 split SPGA


39x39 SPGA

Auto VRM
Auto VRM

Itanium PAC
Pentium 4

462

3737 SPGA

Auto VRM

Duron, Athlon PGA

478
603
754
242
242
330

26x26 PGA
31x25 SPGA
29x29 mPGA
Slot
Slot
Slot

Auto
Auto
Auto
Auto
Auto
Auto

Pentium 4 FC-PGA2, Celeron FC-PGA2


Xeon (P4)
AMD Athlon 64
Athlon SEC
Pentium II, Celeron SEP, Pentium III
Pentium II Xeon, Pentium III Xeon

VRM
VRM
VRM
VRM
VRM
VRM

* DX4 ( OverDrive) 3,3 .


** Socket 6 .
OD OverDrive ( , ).
PGA Pin Grid Array.
SPGA Staggered Pin Grid Array.
PPGA Plastic Pin Grid Array.
FCPGA Flip$Chip Pin Grid Array.
PAC Pin Array Cartridge.
VRM Voltage Regulator Module ( ).
Auto$VRM Voltage Regulator Module ( , $
VID ).
SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge.
SC242 Slot, 242 .
SC330 Slot, 330 .

( 
). Pentium II Athlon,
Intel AMD , ,
 , 
Static RAM (SRAM) . 
, , 
, , , . 
,
, , ,
, . 
, ,
.

215

Celeron Intel
 , 
 . Pentium III
( Coppermine), K63, Duron ( Spitfire)
Athlon ( Thunderbird) AMD (
Thunderbird Athlon Slot A)  
. 
, .
 ,
, , .
. ,

.
Itanium , 
, .



. . , 
.
( FrontSide
Bus FSB), , ,  ..
. 
, ,
, . , 
.
, , , , ,
, . ,
.
, , 
. ,
. 
,
.

.
, , , . 
, , , 
, , . 
, ,
, .
, .
,
, ,
, .

IBM PC -.

216

4.

Intel
Intel 
. ,
Compaq, Intel
.
, 1989 Compaq EISA, , 
, . 
(.. 
, EISA ).
Intel 
EISA. EISA, , 
, . Intel,
, 
. 286 386 , ,
, 
,
. , 286
, , ,
386 . 
Intel Intel
. Intel 
, . 
, 
.
. 1989
486 Intel 420.
,
486 . , 
: Intel 
.
1989 Intel
, 90% .
,
Pentium,
? 1993 Intel Pentium
430LX, 
. , ,
. , Intel
, ( 
), 
. 1994 Intel 
, , , .
, , Intel 
, .. 
. 
, 
, .
, .
1993 , .. Pentium,
.

217

, Intel.
. Intel 
, Intel .
, Intel, 
Intel, . 
, Dell, Gateway Micron
Intel?
, , 
, .
,
Athlon Duron AMD, Intel. , ,
, 
AMD, Intel.
, 
microATX, ,
.
Intel ,
, Intel 
OEM .

Intel
Intel.

420xx
430xx
440xx
8
450xx
E72xx
E75xx
460xx
E88xx

P4 (486)
P5 (Pentium)
P6 (Pentium Pro/Pentium II/Pentium III)
P6 (Pentium II/Pentium III) hub-
P6 Server (Pentium Pro/Pentium II/III Xeon)
Xeon c hub-
Xeon hub-
Itanium
Itanium 2 hub-


. , Pentium II/III
440BX, 
: 82443BX North Bridge 82371EX South Bridge. 845 
Pentium 4 : 82845 Memory Controller Hub (MCH)
82801BA I/O Controller Hub (ICH2). (Intel  
), ,
, .
Intel :
North/South Bridge hub, 
800.


AMD Athlon/Duron
Athlon, Athlon XP, Athlon MP
Duron, AMD : 
, ,
Intel Pentium II/III Celeron. 

218

4.

Intel AMD
Athlon/Duron.
AMD 750 ( Irongate) 
Socket/Slot A. 751 System Controller (
North Bridge) 756 Peripheral Bus Controller ( South Bridge). AMD
AMD760 Athlon/Duron, 
, DDR SDRAM.
: AMD761 System Bus Controller ( North Bridge)
AMD766 Peripheral Bus Controller ( South Bridge). AMD

, , VIA Technologies, NVIDIA SIS,
AMD, Slot A,
Socket A Socket 754.
, Athlon
Intel.

North/South Bridge
Intel ( 
)
North Bridge South Bridge, Super I/O.
North Bridge.
(400/266/200/133/100/66 ) AGP
(533/266/133/66 ) PCI (33 ). North Bridge 
; , 440BX
North Bridge 82443BX.
South Bridge. PCI (66/33 )
ISA (8 ).
Super I/O. , ISA, 

, National Semiconductor Standard Microsystems Corp.
(SMSC). Super I/O 
, .
, ,
, .
AMD Socket A,
North/South Bridge, . 4.17.
North Bridge PAC (PCI/AGP Controller).
, , 
, , ( 
).
North Bridge; , 
North Bridge.
South Bridge
. South Bridge 
. ( North Bridge, ,
, South
Bridge.) 

. South Bridge PCI (33 ) ISA
(8 ). , ,

219

IDE USB (Universal Serial Bus 


), , CMOS . South Bridge 
, ISA, 
.
Super I/O, , 
ISA (8 ) , 
. , Super I/O 
, , , 
/. CMOS RAM/Clock,
IDE, . , IEEE
1394 SCSI, .
AC '97 Audio
Codec (
)

AGP Pro

MIDI/

USB

Modem In

Video/Audio In

PS/2

Audio/Modem
Riser (AMR)

Socket A
(Socket 462)

AMD Athlon/Duron

VIA Apollo KT>133

PCI

20>

ATX

USB (

USB)

DIMM

Flash BIOS

Flash BIOS

IDE

. 4.17. Socket A (AMD Athlon/Duron)

North Bridge South Bridge


SuperSouth Bridge, 
South Bridge Super I/O.

Hub-
800 hub,
North Bridge Memory Controller Hub (MCH), South Bridge
I/O Controller Hub (ICH). PCI 
North/South Bridge. hub 
hub,

220

4.

PCI. Hub 
North/South Bridge.
. Hub 8
4X () 66 (466 1 =
266 /), PCI
(33 32 = 133 /).
PCI. Hub PCI 
PCI
Super I/O. ,
PCI, .
. PCI 
, hub , 8 , 
15 . PCI, , 
64 , 
, ,
.
hub 
PCI, South Bridge,
Super I/O PCI. , hub
, 
I/O Controller Hub ( South Bridge), 
ATA100 USB 2.0.
hub, 8 , .
,
. 8 15 ,
32 PCI, North/South
Bridge, 64 . 
, . 
, .
8 , hub
,
66 . 266 /
(466 1 ). PCI,
32 , 33
133 /. 
hub 
.
MCH
(400/133/100/66 ) hub (66 ) AGP (533/266/133/66 );
ICH, , hub (66 ) ATA (IDE)
(66/l00 ) PCI (33 ).
, ICH LowPinCount (LPC),
4 PCI,
ROM BIOS Super I/O.
,
, 13 . 
, ROM BIOS Super I/O. 
: North/South Bridge 
ISA, 96. 

221

LPC 6,67 /, ISA


, ROM BIOS Super I/O.
. 4.18 Intel D845PEBT2, 
Intel Pentium 4.
Intel, hub, 
Intel 845 .

North Bridge/South
Bridge, , hub- Intel. , VIA
hub- V-Link, 266 North South Bridge.
HyperTransport AMD
NVIDIA, VIA ALI Corporation. ,
SiS MuTIOL Connect.


Pentium II/III/Celeron/Pentium 4 Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP/Athlon 64.
CNR ()

PCI

Intel 82562ET

AGP


12 (AGP 12V)

IEEE 1394a>2000
()


mPGA478


IEEE 1394a>2000
()

Intel 82845PE
Memory Controller
Hub (MCH)

SATA/SATA RAID
IDE RAID

SATA/SATA RAID
()
IDE RAID
()

DIMM

>



IDE
Intel 82802AB Firmware Hub
Intel 82801DB I/O Controller Hub (ICH4)

. 4.18. Intel D845PEBT2

222

4.


386/486 Pentium (P5) -. Intel 430LX/NX/FX/MX/HX/VX/TX, AMD 640, Apollo VP1/VP2/VPX/VP3/MVP3/MVP4 VIA, Alladin IV/V/7 Acer Laboratories, Inc. (Ali) SiS
SiS540/ 530, 5595/598/5581, 5582, 5571/5591 5592.


Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)
Intel
Pentium, P6 .
, 1993 Intel
( ) .
 , . ,
,
Intel .
Pentium Pro, Celeron Pentium II/III , , ,
, ,
Socket 8 (Pentium Pro),
Socket 370 (Celeron), Slot 1 (Celeron Pentium II/III).
P6.
Slot 1/Socket 370 
Socket 8.
. 4.8 , Pentium Pro.
4.8. Pentium Pro

450KX

450GX

440FX



,
SMP

/ECC
,
-
,
PCI
AGP
AGP
South Bridge

Orion Workstation
1995 .
66

FPM

8

1
2.0

Orion Server
1995 .
66
(4 )
FPM

1

1
2.0

Natoma
1996 .
66

FPM/EDO/BEDO

1

1
2.1

PIIX3

PCI 2.1 PCI.

. 4.9 4,
North/South Bridge Celeron Pentium
II/III. . 4.10 8
P6/P7 (Pentium III/Celeron, Pentium 4 Xeon), , ,
hub.

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

223

4.9. P6
North/South Bridge

440FX

440LX

440EX

440BX

440GX

440NX

440ZX

Natoma

1996 .

1997 .
82443LX

1998 .
82443EX

1998 .
82443BX

1998 .
82443GX

1998 .
82443ZX

66

66

66

66/100

100

1998 .
82451NX,
82452NX,
42453NX,
82454NX
100

66/100*

Pentium II

Pentium II

Celeron

Celeron,
Pentium II/III

Pentium II/III
Xeon

Pentium II/III
Xeon

Celeron,
Pentium II/III

FPM/EDO/
BEDO

FPM/EDO/
SDRAM

FPM/EDO/
SDRAM

FPM/EDO/
SDRAM

SDRAM

, 4

FPM/EDO

SDRAM

256

1 EDO/ 256
512
SDRAM
4
2

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

AGP 1x

AGP 1x

AGP 2x

AGP 2x

AGP 2x

82371SB
(PIIX3)

82371AB
(PIIX4)

82371EB
(PIIX4E)

82371EB
(PIIX4E)

82371EB
(PIIX4E)

82371EB
(PIIX4E)

82371EB
(PIIX4E)

SMP

/
ECC

PCI

AGP
South Bridge

82441FX,
82442FX

* , 440ZX$66, 440ZX,
66 .
4.10. P6/P7 (Pentium III/Celeron,
Pentium 4, Xeon) hub-

810

810E


Whitney
Whitney
1999 .
1998 .
82810
82810E

66/100
66/100/133
,

Celeron,
Celeron,

Pentium II/III
Pentium II/III
SMP

( )

SDRAM
SDRAM
(PC100), EDO (PC100), EDO

/ECC

224

815

815E

815EP

820

Solano
2000 .

Solano
2000 .

Solano
2000 .

82815
66/100/133

82815
66/100/133

82815
66/100/133

Camino

1998 .
82820
66/100/133

Celeron,
Pentium II/II

Celeron,
Pentium II/II

Celeron,
Pentium II/II

Pentium II/III,
Celeron

SDRAM
(PC133)

SDRAM
(PC133)

SDRAM
(PC133)

RDRAM
(PC800)

4.

. 4.10

810

810E

815

815E

815EP

820

PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

South Bridge

512

512

512

512

512

1000

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

Direct AGP

Direct AGP

AGP 4

AGP 4

AGP 2x1

AGP 2x1

AGP 2x2

AGP 2x2

AGP 4

AGP 4x

82801AA/AB
(ICH/ICH0)

82801AA
(ICH)

82801AA
(ICH)

82801BA
(ICH2)

82801BA
(ICH2)

82801AA
(ICH)

820E

840

815P

815EG

815G

SMP
( )

Camino
2000 .

Carmel
1999 .

Solano
2001 .

Solano
2001 .

Solano
2001 .

82820
66/100/133

82840
66/100/133

82815EP
66/100/133

82815G
66/100/133

82815G
66/100/133

Pentium II/III,
Celeron

Pentium II/III
Xeon

Celeron,
Pentium III

Celeron,
Pentium III

Celeron,
Pentium III

RDRAM (PC800)

RDRAM (PC800)

SDRAM
(PC100/133)

SDRAM
(PC66/100/133)

SDRAM
(PC66/100/133)

1000

4000

512

512

512

2.2
33/32

2.2
66/64

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

AGP 4

AGP 4x

AGP 4x

AGP 2x2

AGP 2x2

82801BA (ICH2)

82801AA (ICH)

82801AA/AB
(ICH/ICH0)

82801BA (ICH2)

82801AA/AB
(ICH/ICH0)

/ECC

PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

South Bridge

1 810, AGP 2x,


AGP.
2 815/815E, AGP 2x, $
APG 4x.
815E $ (South Bridge),
815.
SMP (Symmetric Multi$processing) ( ).

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

225


- Pentium Pro, Celeron Pentium II/III
. , -
, .

Intel ,
( ) North Bridge South Bridge. South
Bridge
North Bridge. . 4.11 South Bridge .
4.11. South Bridge Intel

SIO

PIIX

PIIX3

PIIX4

PIIX4E

ICH0

ICH

ICH2

IDE
USB
CMOS
LPC

82378IB/ZB

82371FB

82371SB

82371AB

82371EB

82801AB

82801AA

82801BA

SMM

BMIDE

SMM

BMIDE
1C/2P

SMM

UDMA-33
1C/2P

SMM

UDMA-33
1C/2P

SMM/ACPI

UDMA-33
1C/2P

SMM/ACPI

UDMA-66
1C/2P

SMM/ACPI

UDMA-100
2C/4P

SMM/ACPI

SIO System I/O.


PIIX PCI ISA IDE Xcelerator.
ICH I/O Controller Hub.
USB Universal Serial Bus.
IDE Integrated Drive Electronics (AT Attachment).
BMIDE Bus Master IDE.
UDMA Ultra$DMA IDE.
SMM System Management Mode.
ACPI Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.
1C/2P 1 (controller)/2 (ports).
2C/4P 2 (controller)/4 (ports).


P6 (Pentium II Pentium Pro).

Intel 450KX/GX (Orion Workstation/Server)


, Pentium Pro,
450KX GX; Orion. 450KX
( ) , 450GX .
GX ,
Pentium Pro ,
8
PCI. Orion 450KX 
( )
(1 ), GX.
North Bridge 450GX 450KX
82454KX/GX PCI Bridge, 82452KX/GX Data Path (DP), 82453KX/GX
(DC) 82451KX/GX Memory Interface Controller (MIC).

226

4.

450 , 
Pentium Pro . 
,
PCI. ,
,  , 
.
450
. 440FX Orion 
 .

Intel 440FX (Natoma)


P6 (Pentium Pro Pentium II) 440FX 
Natoma. Intel 450KX .
, 
EDO.
440FX ,
. (
PCI 2.1), (USB), ,
.
PCI : 
, PCI ISA . 
PCI , 
, , .
.
:
EDO 1 ;
1 (
);
USB;
Bus Master IDE;
.
North Bridge 440FX .
82441FX PCI Bridge, PCI 82442FX.
PCI ISA 82371SB
( South Bridge PIIX3),
IDE USB.
: P6,
EDO; , 
SDRAM. , PIIX3, ,
Ultra DMA IDE.
440FX Pentium II, 
, Pentium Pro. Pentium II
440LX, 
. , Pentium II,
440FX, . (Intel 440LX 
,
Pentium II. 440FX
Pentium II, 440LX .)

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

227

Intel 440LX
1998 440LX
. , 
Pentium II. 440FX, 
440LX :
AGP;
SDRAM 66 ;
Ultra DMA IDE;
(USB).

Intel 440EX
440EX 440LX.
1998 Intel Pentium II Celeron.
440LX, ,
.
, 66 , Intel
Celeron. 440EX Pentium II,
440LX 440BX .
440EX:
;
Intel Celeron;
AGP;
;
.
440EX 82443EX PCI AGP ( PAC),
North Bridge, 82371EB (PIIX4E),
South Bridge. , 
, 440BX,
.

Celeron 266 300 ,


440EX, ,
- . Celeron , Celeron 300A
300 , - 128 ,
SIP; , - Celeron
Socket 370. , 440EX,
Celeron, - .

Intel 440BX
Intel 440BX 1998 .
, ( )
100 . 
Pentium II/III, 350, 400, 450 500 .
440BX
Pentium II/III.

228

4.

440BX LX , ,
66 100 . 66
100 , 
Pentium II/III, 233 500 .
Intel 440BX:
SDRAM 100 (PC100);
100 66 ;
1 ( DIMM);
;
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface);
Intel Pentium II .
Intel 440BX North Bridge, 82443BX Host
Bridge/Controller, 82371EB PCIISA/IDE Xcelerator
(PIIX4E), South Bridge.
ACPI 1.0. . 4.19 
440BX.
440BX 19981999 .

Pentium II

> DVD
>
> VCR

> VMI
> Video capture

2x AGP

Pentium II

82443BX
Host Bridge

66/100

EDO
SDRAM, 3,3

PCI

PCI

TV

(PCI bus #0)

Video BIOS


MGMT (SM)
2 IDE
(Ultra DMA/33)

2
USB

USB

82371EB
(PIIX4E)

PCI>to>ISA

IO
APIC

ISA

USB
ISA

BIOS

. 4.19.  440BX

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

229

Intel 440ZX 440ZX-66


Intel 440ZX 440BX.
66 100
Celeron Pentium II/III. 440ZX 440BX
, .
440ZX,
66 100 , 440ZX66,
66 .
440ZX :
microATX;
Celeron Pentium II/III, 100 .
440ZX 440BX :
;
( DIMM);
256 .
440ZX 440BX. 
.

Intel 440GX

. , 440BX, 
Slot 2, Pentium II/III Xeon.
, Slot 1. Intel 440GX 
2 , , Intel 440BX.
. 
, , 
, .
Intel 440GX :
Slot 1 Slot 2;
, 100 ;
SDRAM 2 .

Intel 450NX

Pentium II/III Xeon. Intel 450NX 
: PCI (PCI Expander Bridge PXB) 82454NX, 
 (Memory and I/O Bridge Controller MIOC) 82451NX,
RAS/CAS (RAS/CAS Generator RCG) 82452NX (Data Path Mul
tiplexor MUX) 82453NX.
450NX Pentium II/III Xeon 
100 . PCI 
.
32 PCI, 33 , 
64 , 33 .
. 4.20  
Intel 450NX.

230

4.

Intel 450NX .
RCG MUX.
DIMM 8 .
Intel 450NX :
Slot 2 100 ;
;
PCI;
32 64 PCI.
Intel 450NX AGP, 
.

Intel 810, 810E 810E2


1999 Intel 810 (
Whitney) , 
North Bridge South Bridge .
810E, 133 .
.
>
L1 L2

>
L1 L2

>
L1 L2

>
L1 L2

Pentium II
XeonTM

Pentium II
XeonTM

Pentium II
XeonTM

Pentium II
XeonTM

AGTL+ 100

MD(71:0)


>,
MIOC

X1

PCI,
PXB #1
1B

1A

MUXs
MA(13:0)

RCGs

,
1 2

X0

BMIDE

PCI,
PXB #0
0B

0A

PCI

I/O
APIC

32> PCI
(33 , 3,3 5 ).

64>

USB

PIIX4E
South Bridge

BIOS
Flash
EPROM

IDE CD>ROM
ISA

XCVR
KBC
8042

SND

. 4.20. 
Intel 450NX

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

231


810E2 GMCH 82810E, 810E,
82801BA I/O Controller Hub (ICH2), 815E.

Intel 810E :
66, 100 133 ;
Intel 3D AGP 2x;

;
4 ( );
Digital Video Out, DVI 
;
MPEG2 DVD Hardware Motion Compensation;
hub 266 /;
UDMA66;
AudioCodec 97 (AC97);
;

;
USB;
ISA.
Intel 810 (. 4.21).
82810E Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) 421 BGA.
82801 Integrated Controller Hub (ICH) 241 BGA.
82802 Firmware Hub (FWH) 32 PLCC (Plastic Leaded Chip
Carrier) 40 TSOP (Thin Small Outline Package).

. 4.21. 82810 (GMCH), 82801 (ICH) 82802


(FWH) Intel 810E.
Intel

232

4.


( North Bridge South Bridge) Intel 810 
. North Bridge 
, PCI South Bridge. 
Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) Integrated
Controller Hub (ICH) Accelerated Hub,
66 .
UDMA66, ,
IDE.
. 4.22  Intel 810.
 AGP
( 82810). DVD,
. 82810 (GMCH) System
Manageability Bus, Intel 810 .
ACPI.
, GMCH : 82810
82810DC100. DC100 (Display Cache 100 ) 
4 SDRAM,
100 . GMCH .

:
Intel Pentium III,
Intel Pentium II,
Intel CeleronTM
(66/100/133 )

Intel 810E

Intel 82810E (GMCH)


TV

64 /
100



3D
2D

PCI

PCI

(4 SDRAM,
100/133 )
2 IDE
Ultra-ATA/66

ICH
(I/0 Controller Hub)

2
USB
USB

Super
I/O
AC97

ISA
(.)
LAN
(.)

USB
FWH
(Firmware Hub)

. 4.22.  Intel 810

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

233

GMCH 82801 ICH Accelerated Hub Architecture


(AHA), (266 /) 
North Bridge South Bridge PCI
. AHA
.
ICH IDE,
33 / (UDMA33 UltraATA/33) 66 /
(UDMA66 UltraATA/66). ,
: 82801AA (ICH), 66 /
PCI, 82801AB (ICH0),
33 / PCI.
ICH AudioCodec 97, USB 
PCI. AudioCodec 97
. .
.
82802 (FWH) BIOS. 
flash . , 82802
. 
. , , 
: 82802AB 82802AC. AB 512 (4 ) flashBIOS, 
AC 1 (8 ).
Intel 810/810E,
AGP.
, 
.
815 , AGP.
Direct AGP 
/ ,
.
,
. 810 ,
, Intel 
.
810 .

; AC'97 
. , ICH CMOS, BIOS
FHW. 810
, ,

.

Intel
Intel 8xx RNG
(Random Number Generator). 82802 FWH,
ROM BIOS, 8.
.
, 
, , ,
. 
, .
, 

234

4.

, . 
 , Intel RNG
, FWH (.. ROM BIOS
8xx). , , 
8xx, .

Intel 815
815 815, 2000 , 
, 
AGP 4x. 815EP, , 
, , . 2001
815EP 815P.
815G 815EG. ,
G .
815 Celeron Pentium III (Slot 1
Socket 370) , Intel
PC133 SDRAM. 815, 
Intel 8, hub,
266 /. ,
North/South Bridge, PCI.
815,
: hub (82815EP MCH
North Bridge ), hub
(82815 81815G GMCH North Bridge
) hub  (ICH ICH2). . 4.12 
815.
4.12. 815

82815 GMCH

815
815E
815EP
815P
815G
815EG

*
*

82815G GMCH

82815EP MCH

82801AA ICH

82801BA ICH2

*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*

815 82815 GMCH 82801BA ICH2 (. 4.23).

. 4.23.
Intel 815E, 82815 (GMCH)
82801BA (ICH2). 
Intel

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

235

815:
66/100/133 ;
hub Intel (266 /);
ATA100 (815E/EP) ATA66 (815);
SDRAM PC100 PC133CL2;
512 RAM;
AudioCodec 97 (AC97);
;
(RNG) 
;
(815) (815E/EP) USB
;
LPC, Super I/O Firmware Hub (ROM BIOS);
ISA.
815/E/G/EG :
Intel AGP 2x;

;
4 ( );
Digital Video Out, DVI 
;
MPEG2 DVD
.
ICH2, 815E/EP/EG, 
ATA100, 100 /.
, ,
.
USB .
USB , ,
.

Ethernet%
815
Ethernet. (LAN) 

:
Ethernet 10/100 /,
Alert on LAN;
Ethernet 10/100 /;
1 /.

PC ( ) , 
CNR. CNR PC
.

236

4.

AGP
815/815E
AGP 2x, .
Graphics
Performance Accelerator (GPA), . 4.24, AGP 4x. GPA
( AGP Inline Memory Module, AIMM), , 
,
AGP 4x
30%.
AGP 4, AGP 4 
.
. GPA AGP 4,
,
100% .

AGP 4x

. 4.24. GPA/AIMM (4 ),
AGP , 815 815E

PC133
815 PC133,
100. PC133, Intel 
PC133. ,
.
Intel PC133, 222, 
CAS2 (Column Address Strobe ) CL2.
.
Precharge$Active. 
.
Active$Read. .
Read$Data Out.
.
PC133
, PC133 333, CAS3
CL3. , CL3
PC133 CL2, .
PC133 CL2 
30 ( PC133 CL3 45 ).
34%.

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

237

815 
PC RDRAM.
, 815 440BX.

Intel 820 820E


800, 
hub (. 4.25). Intel 820 Pentium III
Celeron (Slot 1 Socket 370), RDRAM,
133 AGP 4.
82820 Memory Controller Hub (MCH) ,
AGP. : (82820)
(82820DP). 82801 I/O Controller Hub (ICH)
800. 82802 Firmware Hub (FWH)
BIOS (Intel Random Number Generator RNG).
MCH ICH Intel
Hub Architecture, PCI,
North/South Bridge.
266 /.
820 RDRAM (Rambus DRAM), , ,
PC100 SDRAM. 820 
RDRAM: PC600, PC700 PC800. PC800
RDRAM 400 16 (2 )
(24002 = 1,6 /). RIMM 1 .
AGP 820 
AGP 4x ( 1 /), AGP 2x.
. 4.26  Intel 820.

. 4.25. 82820 (MCH), 82801 (ICH) 82802 (FWH)


Intel 820. 
Intel

238

4.

Intel 820 :
100/133 ;
hub Intel (266 /);
RIMM PC800 RDRAM;
AGP 4x;
ATA100 (820E) ATA66;
(Intel Random Number Generator RNG);
Low Pin Count (LPC);
AC97;
(820E) USB.
Intel 820 324 82820
( ) 82820DP ( ) Memory Controller Hub Ball
Grid Array (BGA). 82801 I/O Controller Hub 241
Ball Grid Array (BGA), 82802 Firmware Hub 
Flash ROM BIOS. ISA 
82380AB PCIISA Bridge.

PSB 1 /


Intel Pentium III

82820

82820 MCH
Memory
Controller Hub
324

AGP 4x
AGP 4x
1 /

HI8 266 /

SMBus

PC800
Direct RamBus
1, 6 /

AC97

AC97
+

USB 12 /
82810 ICH
I/O Controller Hub
241

ATA>66
66x2 /

PCI
133 /

IDE x 4
AOL
SMBus

GPIO

LPC IF 4 /
LPC SIO

FWH IF

USB x 2

GPIO

82802 FWH
Firmware Hub

PCI>>ISA

ISA

82559 Ethernet>

PCI

256>1 000 /

1>10 /

ISA

128>132 /

1 /

. 4.26.  Intel 820

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

239

820E 82801BA I/O Controller Hub


(ICH2), ATA100 USB, ..
USB.

820
820 RDRAM (Rambus DRAM).
SDRAM. Intel 
RDRAMSDRAM, Memory Translator Hub (MTH). 
, , Intel 2000
MTH. 
Pentium 1994 .
2000 Intel ,
MTH . 
. ,
SDRAM Intel 820. RDRAM
.
, ,
Intel MTH I.D. : www.intel.com/support/mth.

Intel 840
Slot 1, Slot 2
( Xeon) Socket 370 
. 840 , 800. . 4.27 
Intel 840.

. 4.27. 82840 (MCH), 82801


(ICH), 82802 (FWH), 82803 (MRHR), 82804
(MRHS) 82806 (P64H) 
Intel 840. 
Intel

240

4.

, Intel 840
.
82806 64$ PCI Controller Hub (P64H). 64
PCI, 33 66 . 
MCH Intel Hub Architecture. 64
PCI 66 .
82803 RDRAM$based memory repeater hub (MRH$R).
, .
82804 SDRAM$based memory repeater hub (MRH$S). RDRAM
, SDRAM. 
SDRAM.
. 4.28  Intel 840.


Intel Pentium III
Intel Pentium III XeonTM

PSB 1 /

PCI 64 533 /

PCI>64
82840

82806
PCI>64 Hub

HI16
533 /

82840 MCH
Memory
Controller Hub
544

HI8 266 /

SMBus

AGP 4x 1 /

Direct RamBus
1,6 /
Direct RamBus
1,6 /

AC97

AGP 4x


PC800 RDRAM
(
)

AC97
+

USB 12 /
82801 ICH
I/O Controller Hub
241

ATA>66
662 /

IDE x 4

PCI 133
/

AOL
SMBus

GPIO

LPC 4 /
LPC SIO

FWH IF

USB x 2

GPIO

82802 FWH
Firmware Hub

82559 Ethernet>

>
>
RM960

PCI

256>1 000 /

1>10 /

128>132 /

1 /

. 4.28.  Intel 840

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

241

840 :
100/133 ;
RDRAM,
3,2 /;
16 Intel Hub Architecture (HI16)
PCI;
AGP 4x;
(Intel Random Number Generator RNG);
USB.
840 RAID.
.


( Intel)
(P6)
ALi
. 4.13 Ali P6.
4.13. Ali Pentium Pro/II/III/Celeron

Aladdin Pro II

Aladdin Pro 4

Aladdin TNT2

Aladdin Pro 5

1999 .

2000 .

1999 .

M1621
60/66/100
Pentium II/Pentium Pro

M1641/M1641B
100/133/200/266 (B)
Pentium II/III/Celeron

M1631
66/100/133
Pentium II/III/Celeron

SMP
( )

Slot 1, Socket 370

Slot 1, Socket 370

Slot 1, Socket 370

2000 ., 2001 .
( T)
M1651, M1651T
66/100/133/200/266
Pentium II/III/Celeron
( T
Tualatin)
Slot 1, Socket 370

FPM, EDO, PC100

/ECC

,
PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

South Bridge

ECC

PC100/133,
DDR200/266 (B)
ECC

PC66/100/133/ED
O
ECC

1 (SDRAM), 2 (EDO)

1,5

1,5

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

1x/2x

1x/2x/4x

TNT2

1x/2x/4x

M1533/M1543

M1535D

M1543C

M1535D

. 4.14 South Bridge,


Ali.

242

4.

4.14. Ali South Bridge P6

South Bridge

USB

ATA

Super I/O

M1533

ATA-33

M1543

ATA-33

M1535D

ATA-66

M1535D+

62

ATA-100

M1543C

ATA-66

1 Sound Blaster 16.


2 Legacy USB (/).
3 PCI , Direct3D (DirectX), MIDI, SPDIF, SoundBlaster.


, .

VIA Technologies
VIA P6 . 4.15.
4.15. VIA Pentium Pro/II/III/Celeron

Apollo Pro

Apollo Pro Plus

Apollo KLE133
(PM601)

ProSavage
PM133

Apollo Pro133

SMP (
)

VT82C691

VT82C693

VT8601

VT8605

VT82C693A

66/100

66/100

66/100/133

66/100/133

66/100/133

Pentium Pro/
Pentium II/
Celeron
Socket 8, Slot 1

Pentium II/
Celeron

Pentium II/III/
Celeron/VIA C3

Pentium II/III/
Celeron/VIA C3

Pentium II/III/
Celeron/VIA C3

Slot 1, Socket 370

Slot 1, Socket 370

Slot 1, Socket 370

Slot 1, Socket 370

FP, EDO,
FP, EDO,
PC66/100 SDRAM PC66/100 SDRAM

PC66/100/133
SDRAM

PC66/100/133
SDRAM

PC66/100/133
SDRAM

1,5

1,5

2.1
33/32

2.1
33/32

2.1
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.1
33/32

1x/2x

1x/2x

1x/2x
1

2x/4x

1x/2x

VT82C596
VT82C586B

VT82C596A

VT82C686A

VT8231

VT82C596B
VT82C586A

/ECC

PCI

PCI, /
AGP

South Bridge

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

243

. 4.15

Apollo Pro133A

Apollo ProPL133T

Apollo Pro266/266 T

SMP
( )

VT82694X
66/100/133
Pentium II/III/Celeron/VIA C3
Slot 1, Socket 370

VT8605
66/100/133
Pentium II/III/Celeron
(Tualatin)/VIA C3
Slot 1, Socket 370

VT8653
66/100/133
Pentium II/III/Celeron
(Tualatin)/VIA C3
Socket 370

PC66/100/133/EDO

PC100/133 SDRAM

/ECC

,
PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

South Bridge

1,5

PC100/133 SDRAM,
DDR200/266

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2x/4x

2x/4x
2

2x/4x

VT82C686A

VT8231

VT8233C3

1 Trident Blade3D.
2 S3 Savage 4 (3D) Savage 2000 (2D).
3 VIA 4x V$Link (266 ) NorthBridge
SouthBridge.

. 4.16 VIA South Bridge P6.


4.16. VIA South Bridge P6

South Bridge

USB

ATA


Super I/O


10/100 Ethernet

V-Link

VT82C596
VT82C596A
VT82C686A
VT82C586B
VT8231
VT82C596B
VT82C586A
VT8233(C)

2
2
4
2
4
4

ATA-33
ATA-33
ATA-66
ATA-33
ATA-100
ATA-66
ATA-33
ATA-100

AC'97

AC'97
AC'97

AC'97

South Bridge


10/100 Ethernet

V-Link

VT82C596
VT82C596A
VT82C686A
VT82C586B
VT8231
VT82C596B
VT82C586A
VT8233(C)

* 3Com 10/100 Ethernet C.

244

4.

Apollo Pro
Apollo Pro Slot 1, 
. 
, PC100 SDRAM AGP 2x. Apollo Pro Intel 440BX.
VT82C691 (North Bridge)
VT82C596 (South Bridge). VT82C691
VT82C586B.
Apollo Pro , Slot 1 (Intel
Pentium II) Socket 8 (Intel Pentium Pro), 66 100 , AGP
1.0 PCI 2.1, FPM, EDO SDRAM, 1 ,
ACPI APM, USB UltraDMA66 EIDE.

Apollo Pro Plus



Slot 1/Socket 307 . Apollo Pro Plus :
AGP 1;
66/100 ;
PC100 SDRAM ( 1 );
UltraDMA33;
USB;
ACPI APM.
Apollo Pro Plus : VT82C693 (North Bridge) VT82C596A
(South Bridge), , VT82C686A (South Bridge)
.

Apollo Pro 133


PC133 SDRAM.
Pentium III, Celeron
VIA Ciryx III ( Slot 1 Socket 370). Apollo Pro 133 :
AGP 2;
66/100/133 ;
PC133 SDRAM;
ATA66;
USB;
AC97;
;
.
VIA Apollo Pro 133 : VT82C693A (North Bridge)
VT82C596B VT82C686A (South Bridge).

Apollo KLE133
( PM601)
,
Internet. Trident
Blade3D 10/100 Ethernet; Pentium III, Celeron
VIA C3 (Slot 1 Socket 370).

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

245

Apollo KLE133 :
AGP 2x;
Trident Blade3D;
66/100/133 ;
PC133 SDRAM;
10/100 Ethernet;
AC97, MC97, Super I/O;
;
USB;
ATA66;
.
Apollo KLE 133 : VT8601 North Bridge Controller
VT82C686 South Bridge Controller.

Apollo Pro 133A



Pentium III, Celeron VIA Ciryx III ( Slot 1 Socket 370).
Apollo Pro 133 :
AGP 4;
66/100/133 ;
PC133 SDRAM;
ATA66;
USB;
AC97;
;
.
VIA Apollo Pro133A : VT82C694X (North Bridge)
VT82C596B VT82C686A (South Bridge).

ProSavage PM133
VIA ProSavage PM133  S3
Savage 4 S3 Savage 2000 Apollo Pro133A. 
Apollo Pro 133A :
2 32 , 
Savage 4 3D Savage 2000 2D;
Z, 32 ,
, .;
DVD, DVI LCD, TV;
PCI 2.2.
AGP 4x 
AGP 4x . ProSavage PM133 
VT8605 North Bridge VT8231 South Bridge.
VT8231 South Bridge Super I/O 
LPC.

246

4.

Apollo Pro 266


North/South Bridge, 
Socket 370 (Pentium III, Celeron, C3
VIA). Apollo Pro266 Apollo Pro133A
DDR200/266 RAM, PC100/133 SDRAM VCSDRAM.
Apollo Pro266 :
AGP 2x/4x;
133/100/66 ;
PC100/133 SDRAM PC200/266 DDR SDRAM;
ATA100 IDE;
USB;
AC97;
MC97;
10/100 BASET Ethernet 1/10 Home PNA;
;
ACPI/On Now!.
Apollo Pro266 (. 4.29) , BGA:
552 VT8633 North Bridge Controller 352 VT82C686B South Bridge
Controller.

(Slot 1/Socket 370)

DDR/SDRAM

AGP 4x

1066 /

DDR/SDRAM
DDR/SDRAM

V>Link 4x,
266 /
2
ATA100

AC '97
MC '97
PCI

LAN MII

6 USB

LPC Super I/O


Flash
BIOS

. 4.29. Apollo Pro266

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

247

Silicon integrated Systems (SiS)


SiS P6 . 4.17.
4.17. SiS Pentium II/III/Celeron

SiS620

SiS630

SiS630E

SiS630ET

SiS630S

SiS630ST

SMP (
)

66/100

66/100/133

66/100/133

66/100/133

66/100/133

66/100/133

Pentium II

Celeron/
Pentium III

Celeron/
Pentium III

Celeron/
Pentium III

Slot 1

Socket 370

Socket 370

Celeron/
Pentium III/
PIII Tualatin
Socket 370

Socket 370

Celeron/
Pentium III/
PIII Tualatin
Socket 370

SDRAM
PC66/100

SDRAM
PC100/133

SDRAM
PC100/133

SDRAM
PC100/133

SDRAM
PC100/133

SDRAM
PC100/133

1,5

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

AGP 2.0

AGP 2.0

AGP 2.0

AGP 2.0

AGP 2.0

AGP 2.0

ATA-33/66
1.1/2

ATA-33/66
1.1/5

ATA-33/66
1.1/5

ATA-33/66/100
1.1/5

ATA-33/66/100
1.1/6

ATA-33/66/100
1.1/6

SiS 5595

/ECC

,
PCI

PCI,
/
AGP

ATA
/
USB
10/100 Ethernet

South Bridge

SiS

SiS630
( 
) Pentium III, Celeron
Cyrix III (Slot 1 Socket 370). 128 
 , 
. SiS301 Video Bridge
NTSC/PAL TV. SiS630
10/100 Fast Ethernet AC97. Low Pin Count (LPC),
USB USB.
SiS630 :
Intel/AMD/Cyrix/IDT Pentium CPU
66/83/90/95/100 ;
 2 ;
PC133 SDRAM;

248

4.

PC99;
PCI 2.2;
Ultra DMA33/66;
AGP 2;
;
;
Low Pin Count;
ACPI 1.0;
USB;
10/100 Ethernet.

SiS633/635
SiS633/635 ,
Pentium III Celeron (Socket 370). 
Pentium III Tualatin, 0,13 
, 2001 .
S1S633 S1S633T PC133 SDRAM,
SiS635 SiS635T, , PC133 SDRAM, DDR266 DDR SDRAM
PC133 DDR266 SDRAM.
:
AGP 4x;
PCI;
UDMA/100 IDE;
1,5 RAM;
USB;
AC97 AMR.
S1S635/635T ACR CNR
10/100 BASET Ethernet 1/10 Home PNA.
677 BGA.

SiS620/5595

Slot 1 Socket 370.
SiS620/5595 :
66/100 ;
PC100 SDRAM;
PCI 2.2;
Ultra DMA33/66;
;
.

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

249

SiS600/5595 5600/5595
SiS600/SiS5595 North/South Bridge,
.
:
66/100 ;
PC100 SDRAM ();
AGP 2x;
Ultra DMA/33;
USB;
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) 1.0.


Pentium 4 (P7)
Intel
Pentium 4 , Socket 423 (
Pentium 4) Socket 478 
SiS ALi. .
. 4.18 4.19 Pentium 4/
Celeron 4.
4.18. Intel Pentium 4/Celeron 4,
20002002 .

850

850E

845

845E

845GL

Tehama

Tehama-E

Brookdale

Brookdale-E

Brookdale-GL

2000 .

2002 .

2002 .

2002 .

SMP
( )

82850
400
Pentium 4,
Celeron1

82850E
400/533
Pentium 4,
Celeron2

2001 .
(SDRAM);
2002 .
(DDR)
82845
400
Pentium 4,
Celeron2

82845E
400/533
Pentium 4,
Celeron2, 4

82845GL
400
Pentium 4,
Celeron2

RDRAM (PC800)

PC133 SDRAM,
DDR200/266
SDRAM

DDR200/266

/ECC

RDRAM
(PC800/1066)

ECC

ECC

PC133
SDRAM,
DDR200/266
SDRAM

2 (PC800), 1,5
(PC1066)

PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2 (PC2100
DDR); 3 (PC133
SDRAM)
2 (PC2100);
3 (PC133)
2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

AGP 4x (1,5 )

AGP 4x (1,5 )

AGP 4x (1,5 )

AGP 4x (1,5 )

ICH2

ICH2

ICH2

ICH4

Intel Extreme
Graphics
200
ICH4

South Bridge

250

4.

. 4.18

845G

845GE

845GV

845PE

SMP
( )

Brookdale-G

Brookdale-GE

Brookdale-GV

Brookdale-PE

2002 .
82845G
400/533
Pentium 4, Celeron2, 3

2002 .
82845GE
400/533
Pentium 4, Celeron2, 3

2002 .
82845GV
400/533
Pentium 4, Celeron2, 4

2002 .
82845PE
400/533
Pentium 4, Celeron2, 4

PC133 SDRAM, DDR


200/266 SDRAM
ECC

DDR 333/266
SDRAM

DDR 200/266
SDRAM

DDR 333/266
SDRAM

2
2.2
33/32

2
2.2
33/32

2
2.2
33/32

2
2.2
33/32

AGP 4x (1,5 )
Intel Extreme
Graphics 200
ICH4

AGP 4x (1,5 )
Intel Extreme
Graphics 266
ICH4

Intel Extreme
Graphics 200
ICH4

AGP 4x (1,5 )

/ECC

,

PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

South Bridge

ICH4

1 Socket 423 Socket 478.


2 Socket 478.
3 B$1 HT (HyperThreading).
4 HT (HyperThreading).

4.19. Intel Pentium 4/Celeron 4, 2003 .


865P

865PE

865G

875P

SMP
( )

Springdale-P
2003 .
82865P
533/400
Pentium 4, Celeron1

Springdale-PE
2003 .
82865PE
800/533
Pentium 4, Celeron1

Springdale-G
2003 .
82865G
800/533
Pentium 4, Celeron1

Canterwood
2003 .
82875P
800/533
Pentium 4, Celeron1, 2

DDR266/333

DDR333/400

DDR333/400

DDR333/400
ECC

2
2.2
33/32

2
2.2
33/32

2
2.2
33/32

2
2.2
33/32

AGP 8x

AGP 8x

AGP 8x

AGP 8x

ICH5/ICH5R

ICH5/ICH5R

ICH5/ICH5R

ICH5/ICH5R

/ECC

,

PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

South Bridge

1 Socket 478 Prescott, 2003 .


2 .

Pentium 4 (P7)

251

. 4.20 ICH,
Pentium 4/Celeron 4 Intel.
4.20. I/O Controller Hub
Pentium 4/Celeron 4

ICH0

ICH

ICH2

ICH4

ICH5

ICH5R


ATA
SATA
SATA Raid
USB
USB 2.0
CMOS/

PCI
ISA
LPC

10/100 Ethernet

82801AB
UDMA-33

1C/2P

82801AA
UDMA-66

1C/2P

82801BA
UDMA-100

2C/4P

828201DB
UDMA-100

3C/6P

828201EB
UDMA-100
SATA-150

4C/8P

828201ER
UDMA-100
SATA-150
RAID 0
4C/8P

2.2

SMM/ACPI 1.0

2.2

SMM/ACPI 1.0

2.2

SMM/ACPI 1.0

2.2

SMM/ACPI 2.0

2.3

SMM/ACPI 2.0

2.3

SMM/ACPI 2.0

ICH I/O Controller Hub.


xC/xP x /x .

Intel 850/850E
,
Intel Pentium 4 NetBurst. 850,
,
hub , 
Intel 8xx. Intel 850 . 4.30.

. 4.30. Intel 850.


Intel

252

4.

Intel 850 ,
800.
82850 Memory Controller Hub.
RDRAM 400 3,2 /, 
100 . 82850 MCH 1.5V AGP 4x
, 1 /.
82801BA I/O Controller Hub 2. ICH2 ( 82801, 
800) 32 PCI, 
UDMA 33/66/100 IDE, USB,
LAN,  AC97, FWH, SMBus,
Alert on LAN Alert on LAN 2.
10BASET Fast Ethernet 850
Intel 82562ET/82562EM Platform LAN,
LAN 82801BA ICH2.
850 , 
CNR. . 4.31 
Intel 850.
850E 850. 
82850E MCH 850 
Rambus RDRAM 533 PC1066 RIMM. 
ICH2.

Pentium 4
3,2 /
RDRAM
> 1 /
AGP 4x

MCH

3,2 /

RDRAM
RDRAM
RDRAM

Hub> Intel

ATA 100 /
2 IDE

ICH2

LAN

133 /

PCI

4 USB

Flash BIOS

. 4.31.  Intel 850

Pentium 4 (P7)

253

Intel 845
850 850E, 
845 Intel .
Pentium 4, 2001 2003 , 
845. 845
Brookdale, Pentium 4, ,
RDRAM, SDRAM. 845 
DDR SDRAM DDR333, ATA100 USB 2.0.
Intel 845 :
845;
845GL;
845GV;
845G;
845GE;
845E;
845PE.
845 hub 
, CNR Ethernet 10/100.
,
, AGP ICH.
845 PC133
SDRAM, 845D (,
Web, Intel) DDR SDRAM 
200/266 . Intel 845 82845 MCH 
Celeron/Pentium 4, Socket 478, 
DDR SDRAM SDRAM ( ).
DDR SDRAM 200
(PC2100)/266(PC2700) , (FSB) 400 . 
(ECC) AGP 4x, 
.
845 ICH2 I/O Controller Hub
(82801BA), Intel 850/850E ( Rambus) 815EP
( SDRAM). ICH2 
ATA100, AC'97 USB 1.1.
845 G 
Intel Extreme Graphics, 
, 
810/815. 845G 845GE
AGP 4x .
845E 845,
ECC 533 ,
845PE 533 , DDR
266/333 , ECC.
845 ( 845D) ICH4 I/O Controller Hub
82801DB, USB 2.0 Ethernet.
( 845 845GL) 20 .
. 4.32 845 845GE.

254

4.

845

845GE

Pentium 4

Celeron

Pentium 4

Celeron

400 FSB

MCH
6>

ATA>100

533/400 FSB

AGP 4x

RAM PC>133
DDR200 DDR266

AGP 4x

DDR333/266
RAM
GMCH

Dolby Digital

ATA>100
PCI

LAN

ICH2

Flash BIOS

USB 1.1

PCI
LAN

ICH4

USB 2.0

Flash BIOS

. 4.32. 845GE ()
,
845 (), USB 2.0

Intel Extreme Graphics


845 ( 845G)
Intel Extreme Graphics,
,
.
/. 
 , 8
.
. 
,
.
. 
, . 
, .
.
, .
Extreme Graphics (EG)
Intel ( , 
810/815
). EG  
NVIDIA ATI. EG
T &L (Transform & Lighting), ,

Pentium 4 (P7)

255

EG NVIDIA GeForce 2
MX200. , 845G 845GE
, . 
845PE 845GE, 
AGP 4x DDR333.

Intel 865
865 ( Springdale) 
2003 . 865 845

(communications streaming architecture CSV). CSV 
, 
( Gigabit Ethernet
Serial ATA). 865/875 . 4.19.
865 865P, 865PE 845G. 865P
865PE  DDR266,
DDR333/400 800 . 
, 
. 845P DDR266/333
533 . 856 AGP
8x, G Intel Extreme Graphics 2,
Intel Extreme Graphics, 
845 G.
865 ICH5 I/O controller hub. 
Hub Link 1.5
266 MCH/GMCH ICH.

ICH5 ICH5R
ICH5 ICH5R (RAID) 
I/O Controller Hub, South Bridge hub Intel,
8xx.
USB 2.0 
, ATA/100 Serial ATA/150. ICH5R 
RAID 0 ( ) SATA. ,
PCI 2.3 Ethernet 10/100.

Intel 875P
Intel 875P ( Canterwood)
2003 . Intel HP (HyperThreading), 
Pentium 4 3,06 , Prescott,
90 .
875P
( ECC) DDR333/400 ( 4 ), 
, Turbo, 
DDR400 MCH.
, 875P
, 
. Serial ATA RAID, 
ICH5 I/O Controller Hub, 865.

256

4.


Pentium 4 (P7)
SiS, Ali Corporation, ATI NVIDIA
Intel Pentium 4/Celeron 4.
Intel 
,
, .
...


North Bridge South Bridge
, Intel hub,
North Bridge South Bridge. 266
,
( North Bridge)
I/O Controller Hub ( South Bridge) Intel 8xx, 
Pentium III/4.
Intel ,
PCI North/South Bridge , 
PCI. ,
.
VIA. VLink North/South Bridge
, hub Intel. 
VLink 8 ,
VLink 4x VLink 8x. VLink 4x
266 (466 ), PCI
hub Intel. , VLink 8x
533 / (4133 ), 
hub. VT82xx VLink 
South Bridge. VLink
VIA 266 Pentium III/4
Athlon. , VLink VIA 333/400.
SiS. MuTIOL , VLink
4x. , MuTIOL,
, DMA, / I/O bus master.
MuTIOL / 
16 , 
. South Bridge SiS961/962 
MuTIOL 533 / (4133 ),
SiS963 MuTIOL 1G,
1 /. North
Bridge, MuTIOL,
, SiS Pentium 4 Athlon.
ATI. IGP
ALink. 266 /,
, hub Intel, 
VLink MuTIOL. RS RX
HyperTransport. ,
HyperTransport Technology Consortium (www.hypertransport.org),
IP 

...

257

. 8x8 HyperTransport, 
ATI,
800 1,6 /.
NVIDIA. nForce, nForce2 nForce3 HyperTrans
port, AMD.
North Bridge South Bridge 
, VLink,
MuTIOL, ALink HyperTransport, hub,
Intel 8xx.

SiS Pentium 4
SiS Pentium 4, 
,
RDRAM. . 4.21 4.22 SiS.
, Pentium II/III/Celeron, 
Pentium 4 South Bridge
( Media I/O SiS96x), North/South Bridge 
. North Bridge South Bridge Pentium 4
16 MuTIOL (MultiThreaded I/O Link), 
PCI, .
4.21. SiS North Bridge Pentium 4 (Socket 478)

SiS650

SiS651

SiS645

SiS645DX

SiS648

SiS655

SiS
R658

HyperThreading

SMP (
)

400

400/533

400

400/533

400/533

400/533

400/533

PC133,
DDR266

PC100/133,
DDR200/
266/333

PC133,
DDR200/
266

PC133,
DDR200/
DDR266/333 266/333

1066/800
RDRAM

/ECC

PCI

PCI, /

AGP

South Bridge

MuTIOL, /

DDR266/
333,

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

4x

4x

4x

4x

8x

8x

8x

SiS961
533

SiS962
533

SiS961
533

SiS961
533

SiS963
1000

SiS963
1000

SiS963
1000

* B.

258

4.

4.22. SiS Media I/O (South Bridge) Pentium 4


South
Bridge

USB

USB

ATA

10/100
Ethernet

HomePNA
1.0/2.0

IEEE-1394

MuTIOL,

SiS961

1.1

33/66/100

AC'97, ,
5.1

266

SiS961B

1.1

33/66/100/133

AC'97, ,
5.1

266

SiS962

1.1,
2.0

33/66/100/133

AC'97, ,
5.1

266

SiS962L

1.1,
2.0

33/66/100/133

AC'97, ,
5.1

266

SiS963

1.1,
2.0

33/66/100/133

AC'97, ,
5.1

533

SiS963L

1.1,
2.0

33/66/100/133

AC'97, ,
5.1

533

SiS650/651
SiS650/651 
Pentium 4, 
AGP 4x.
DVD, SiS301B, TV
DVI .
North Bridge
South Bridge
(266 /533 /).
SiS650/651 SDRAM/DDR SDRAM.
, SiS651 DDR333,
533 Pentium 4 HyperThreading B.
South Bridge SiS961 USB 1.1, ATA100
( ATA133 961B), AC'97,
Ethernet/HomePNA. 651 SiS962 South
Bridge, ATA133 USB 2.0.

SiS645/645DX
645, 65x, 
, : SDRAM
DDR SDRAM, AGP 4x MuTIOL 
North Bridge/South Bridge. 645DX DDR333, 
533 HT, Pentium 4.
645/645DX SiS961 South Bridge.

...

259

SiS648/655
SiS648 SiS645DX
:
DDR ( DDR333);
AGP 8x;
SiS963 South Bridge (USB 2.0, IEEE1394a).
655 SiS648
DDR266/333 4 .

SiS R658
SiS 658R Rambus.
:
Pentium 4 533
HT ( B);
1066/800 RDRAM ( 
);
4 ;
AGP 8x;
MuTIOL 1G ( 533
1 /) SiS963 South Bridge.
R658 655 RDRAM 
SiS963 South Bridge.

ALi Corporation
Pentium 4
Ali Corporation ( Acer Laboratories)
Pentium 4/Celeron 4. . 4.23 4.24 
Ali.
4.23. Ali Pentium 4

ALADDiN-P4

M1681

North Bridge
,
SMP ( )

/ECC
,
PCI
PCI, /
AGP

South Bridge
HyperTransport

1671
400

PC100/133, DDR200/266/333

3
2.3
33/32
4x

M1535

1681
400/533*

PC100/133, DDR200/266/333/400

3
2.2
33/32
8x

M1563
400 /

* HT$.

260

4.

4.24. Ali South Bridge Pentium 4/Athlon XP

South
Bridge

USB

USB

ATA

10/100
Ethernet

Super I/O

HyperTransport,
/

M1535D
M1535D+
M15634

1.1
1.1
2.0

4
6
6

33/66
33/66/100/133
33/66/100/133

1
1, 3
5, 3

2
2

400

1 DirectX 3D , SoundBlaster 16;


AC'97.
2 Fast IR, , / (PS/2).
3 S/PDIF.
4 Memory Stick SD (Secure Digital).
5 .

Aladdin P4
ALi, Pentium 4.
M1535 South Bridge,
Pentium II/III, P4 North/South
Bridge. , North/South Bridge 
PCI (133 /).
P4 :
400 ;
PC100/133 DDR200/266/333;
ATA133 ( M1535D+ South Bridge);
AGP 4x;
USB 1.1;
ACPI.
P4 ALADDiNP4M,
D1535+ South Bridge.

M1581/M1563
M1581/M1563 Pentium 4
. PCI
North Bridge South Bridge
HyperTransport.
:
HT 533 ;
DDR (DDR400) PC100/133 SDRAM;
ATA133;
USB 2.0;
AGP 8x;
flash Memory Stick SD (Secure Digital);
ACPI;
HyperTransport North Bridge
South Bridge, 400 /
( 800 /).
...

261

ATI Pentium 4
ATI Pentium 4 ( 
North/South Bridge) Radeon VE,
DVD .
North Bridge South Bridge 
ALink; South Bridge
PCI. 
.
Radeon IGP Ali VIA South Bridge.
Radeon IGP North Bridge Pentium 4 :
Radeon IGP 330 ( South Bridge IXP );
Radeon IGP 340 ( South Bridge IXP );
RS250 ( SB);
RS300 ( SB);
RS300VE ( SB).
ATI South Bridge :
IXP 200 ( IGP);
IXP 250 ( IGP);
SB300C ( RS);
SB380 ( RS);
SB210 ( RS).
. 4.25 North Bridge, . 4.26 
South Bridge.
4.25. Radeon IGP (North Bridge) Pentium 4

Radeon IGP 330

Radeon IGP 340

RS250

RS300

RS300VE

,
SMP
( )

/ECC

,
PCI
PCI,
/
AGP


NB/SB, /

NB/SB

400

400/533

400/533

400/533/8001

400/533/8001

DDR200/266

DDR200/266/333

DDR200/266/333

DDR333/4002

DDR333/400

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

4x
Radeon VE3

4x
Radeon VE3

4x
Radeon VE3

8x
Radeon 9000

8x
Radeon 9000

266

266

266

1280

1280

A-Link

A-Link

A-Link

HyperTransport
8x8

HyperTransport
8x8

1 HT.
2 .
3 ATI Radeon 7000, .

262

4.

4.26. ATI South Bridge Pentium 4 Athlon

South
Bridge

USB

USB

ATA

10/100
Super
Ethernet I/O

NB/SB

IXP 200/2501 2.0


SB300C
2.0

6
6

33/66/100
33/66/100/133

3Com
3Com

A-Link
A-Link

SB380

2.0

33/66/100/133

3Com

SB2102

2.0

33/66/100

AC'97, SPDIF
AC'97,
6-
AC'97,
6-
AC'97,
6-

3Com

HyperTranspor
t 8x8
A-Link

1 IXP 250 IXP 200, WOL (Wake On LAN), DMI


(Desktop Management Interface), MBA (manage boot agent) ASF (Alert Standarts Forum).
2 SB300C SB380, ,
IXP 200.

VIA Pentium 4
VIA 
Pentium 4, Intel Socket 478. VIA 
Socket 478, 
, Intel. 
VIA VPSD (VIA Platform Solutions
Division), .
. 4.27 4.28 VIA Pentium 4,
ProSavage.
4.27. VIA Pentium 4

P4X266

P4X266A

P4X266E

P4M266

P4X400

P4X400A

North Bridge

SMP (
)

VT8753
400

VT8753A
400

VT8753E
400/533

VT8751
400

VT8754
400/533

VT8754CE
400/533/800

PC100/133,
DDR200/266

PC100/133,
DDR200/266

DDR200/266

PC100/133,
DDR200/266

DDR200/266/
333/400
ECC

DDR200/266/
333/400
ECC

32

32

2.2
33/32*

2.2
33/32*

2.2
33/32*

2.2
33/32*

2.2
33/32*

2.2
33/32*

4x

4x

4x

8x

8x

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A

VT8235

VT8235

266

266

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A,
VT8235
266

4x
S3 Graphics
ProSavage8
3D
VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A
266

533

533

/ECC

PCI

PCI, /
AGP

South Bridge

V-Link, /

* 64$ PCI, 66
VPX$64 (VT8101).

...

263

. 4.28 South Bridge, 


VIA Pentium 4. , 
VIA Athlon.
VIA VLink
North Bridge South Bridge, VT1211 LPC 
Super I/O. , 
, .
4.28. VIA South Bridge Pentium 4

South Bridge

USB

USB

ATA

10/100
Ethernet

HomePNA

V-Link,
/

VT8233

1.1

33/66/100

266

VT8233A

1.1

33/66/100/133

266

VT8233C
VT8235

1.1
2.0

6
6

33/66/100/133
33/66/100

AC'97,
6-1
AC'97,
6-1
AC'97, 6-1
AC'97, , 5.11

266
533

1 $
; MC'97.
2 3Com 10/100 Ethernet.

V%MAP Pentium 4
VIA North Bridge South Bridge Pentium 4
VMAP (VIA Modular Architectural Platforms),
,
. North Bridge, 
P4X266, 266A, 266E, P4M266 P4X400, 
South Bridge
8233/8235. ,
. 
VLink North Bridge South Bridge.

VIA Apollo P4X266


VIA Apollo P4X266 Pentium 4/Celeron 4,
AGP 4x, 400 , 
Pentium 4/Celeron 4, 
4 . P4X266 
12, ,
.
P4X266E 533 ,
Pentium 4 ( 2,53 ). ,
South Bridge VT8233 VT8235.

ProSavage P4M266
VIA ProSavage P4M266
S3 Graphics ProSavage8 2D/3D P4X266.
, P4M266 
AGP 4x, .
ProSavage8 32 , 
AGP 8x 128
, DVD

264

4.

DVD DXVA Motion Compensation.


South Bridge 8233/8235.

Apollo P4X400 P4X400A


Apollo P4X400
P4X333. /
, P4X400 32 ECC, 
400/533 DDR 333 .
South Bridge VT8235
 (USB 2.0 ATA133).
Apollo P4X400A ,
DDR400 VT8235 South Bridge.


Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP
Athlon Duron, AMD,
Slot A Socket A. Pentium III Celeron, AMD 
.
Athlon AMD, VIA Technology, ALi Coprora
tion, SiS, NVIDIA ATI ,
. .

AMD
Athlon/Duron
AMD
Athlon Duron: AMD750 AMD760. . 4.29,
.
4.29. AMD Athlon/Duron
North/South Bridge

AMD-750

AMD-760




,

SMP ( )


/

PCI
AGP
South Bridge
ATA/IDE
USB
CMOS/
ISA
LPC

Irongate
1999 .
AMD-751
200
Athlon/Duron

SDRAM
PC100

768
2.2
AGP 2x
AMD-756
ATA-66
1C/4P

SMM/ACPI

2000 .
AMD-761
200/266
Athlon/Duron

DDR SDRAM
PC1600/PC2100

2 4
2.2
AGP 4x
AMD-766
ATA-100
1C/4P

SMM/ACPI

SMP Symmetric Multiprocessing ( ).


SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic RAM.

AGP Accelerated Graphics Port.


ATA AT Attachment (IDE).

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

265

DDR SDRAM Double Data Rate SDRAM.


ECC Error Correcting Code.
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect.

USB Universal Serial Bus.


ISA Industry Standard Architecture.
LPC Low Pin Count.

AMD%750
Athlon/Duron AMD
Slot A Socket A AMD750.
North/South Bridge, Athlon Duron.
AMD750 AMD751 (North Bridge) AMD756 (South Bridge).
AMD751 , ,
AGP PCI. AMD756 PCItoISA,
USB ATA33/66.
AMD750 :
AMD Athlon 200 ;
PCI 2.2;
AGP 2x;
PC100 SDRAM ;
768 ;
ACPI;
ATA33/66;
USB;
256 CMOS RAM ;
.

AMD%760
AMD760, 2000 , 
, DDR SDRAM.
, PBGA (Pin Plastic BallGrid Array): 569
AMD761 (North Bridge) 272 
AMD766 (South Bridge).  AMD760 
. 4.33.
AMD761 North Bridge AMD Athlon, 
DDR SDRAM PC1600 PC2100, AGP 4x,
PCI. 761 
200 266 , Athlon, 
266 .
AMD766 South Bridge USB,
UDMA/100 ATA/IDE, LPC,
Super I/O, ROM BIOS.
AMD760 :
AMD Athlon 200/266 ;
;
PCI 2.2, ;
AGP 2.0, 4x;
PC1600 PC2100 DDR SDRAM ECC;
2 4
DDR SDRAM;

266

4.

ACPI;
ATA100;
USB;
LPC, Super I/O.
AMD760MP, North Bridge AMD762,
AMD760, 
Athlon MP. AMD760MP 
AMD760 :
AMD Athlon MP 200/266 ;
4 PC2100 DDR ( );
32 64 PCI 33 .
AMD760MPX AMD762 North
Bridge Athlon MP, AMD760MPX
AMD768 (South Bridge).
AMD760MPX 760MP:
32/64 PCI 66 
AMD762 North Bridge;
32 PCI 33
AMD768 South Bridge.

AMD Athlon{
64> +
8> ECC
13> SADDIN +
13> SADDOUT


32>
AGP 4x
AGP 4x

AMD>761{

SERR#
SBREQ#
SBGNT#
WSC#
DCSTOP#

DDR SDRAM

64>
+
8> ECC

SMBus

32> PCI

AMD>766{

LAN

,
, ,

SCSI

SM
ISA
USB
EIDE
LPC

BIOS

SIO

. 4.33.  AMD760

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

267

64 PCI 66
760MPX ,
760MP .
USB 2.0,
ATA133, DDR333 . 
Athlon, Duron Athlon XP 
. 760MP 760MPX 
. 

Athlon, Duron Athlon XP.

VIA Technologies
AMD Athlon/Duron
VIA Technologies, Inc.
Intel AMD. 1987
, 
. VIA Technologies 
, .. , 
. 1999 VIA
National Semiconductor Cyrix, IDT
Centaur, , 
. VIA
Technologies SonicBLUE ( S3). 
S3 Graphics, Inc.
VIA Technologies Intel,
AMD Cyrix (VIA). . 4.30
Athlon/Duron, VIA Technologies. 
.
4.30. VIA Athlon/Duron (
North/South Bridge)

Apollo KX133

Apollo KT133

Apollo KT133A Apollo KT266

Apollo KLE133


North Bridge


,
AGP

1999 .
VT8371
Athlon

2000 .
VT8363
Athlon/Duron

2000 . 2001 .
VT8363A
VT8363
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron

2001 .
VT8361
Duron

Slot A

Socket A (462)

Socket A (462)

Socket A (462)

Socket A (462)

200

200

200/266

200/266

200/266

4x

4x

4x

4x

PCI

,
South Bridge
ATA/IDE
USB

Super I/O
CMOS/

2.2
SDRAM
PC 133
2

2.2
SDRAM
PC 133
2

2.2
SDRAM
PC 100/133
2

2.2
SDRAM, DDR SDRAM
PC 100/133, DDR200/266
4

AGP 2x
2.2
SDRAM
PC 100/133
2

VT82C686A
ATA-66
1C4P
SMM/ACPI

VT82C686A
ATA-66
1C4P
SMM/ACPI

VT82C686B
ATA-100
1C4P
SMM/ACPI

VT8233
ATA-100
2C6P
SMM/ACPI

VT82C686B
ATA-100
1C4P
SMM/ACPI

268

4.

VIA VLink,
North Bridge South Bridge.
VLink hub Intel, HyperTransport
( Ali, NVIDIA ATI) ALink (ATI). VLink
VIA, Pentium 4. . 4.31
4.32 , VLink
VMAP (VIA Modular Architecture Platform). VIA Pentium 4
VMAP , North Bridge
South Bridge VLink. , 
, .
4.31. VIA V-Link Duron/Athlon XP

Apollo KT266

Apollo
KT266A

Apollo KT333

ProSavage
KM266

Apollo
KT400

Apollo KT400A

North Bridge

SMP (
)

VT8366
200/266

VT8633A
200/266

VT8753E
200/266/333

VT8375
200/266

VT8377
200/266/333

VT8377A
200/266/333

PC100/133,
DDR200/266

PC100/133,
DDR200/266

DDR200/266/
333

PC100/133,
DDR200/266

DDR200/
266/333

DDR200/266/
333/400

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

4x

4x

4x

4x
8x
S3 Graphics

ProSavage8 3D

8x

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A

VT8235

VT8235CE,
VT8237

266

266

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A,
VT8235
266

266

533

533

/ECC

PCI

PCI, /
AGP

South Bridge

V-Link, /

4.32. VIA South Bridge Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

South Bridge

USB

USB

ATA

10/100
Ethernet

HomePNA

V-Link, /

VT8233

1.1

33/66/100

266

VT8233A

1.1

33/66/100/133

AC'97,
6-1
AC'97,
6-1
AC'97,
6-1
AC'97,
6-1
AC'97,
6-1

266

266

533

533

VT8233C

1.1

33/66/100/133

VT8235

2.0

33/66/100

VT8237

2.0

33/66/100/133;
Serial ATA;

SATA RAID

1 $
; MC'97.
2 3Com 10/100 Ethernet.

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

269

VIA Apollo KX133


VIA Apollo KX133 :
200 ;
AGP 4x;
PC133 SDRAM;
2 ;
ATA66;
USB;
AC97;
;
.
VIA Apollo KX133 : VT8371 (North Bridge) VT82C686A
(South Bridge).

Apollo KT133 KT133A


VIA Apollo KT133 KT133A 
AMD Athlon Duron Socket A (462).
KX133 (Slot A) 
Socket A (462).
VIA Apollo KT133 KT133A : VT8363
North Bridge VT82C686A South Bridge (KT133) VT8363A North Bridge VT82C686B
South Bridge (KT133A).
KT133 KT133A:
Athlon/Duron Socket A (462);
200 ;
AGP 4x;
2 RAM;
PC100/PC133 SDRAM;
PCI 2.2;
ATA66;
USB;
AC97;
Super I/O;
;
ACPI.
KT133A (VT8363A North Bridge VT82C686B South Bridge) 
:
266 ;
ATA100.

270

4.

ProSavage PM133
VIA ProSavage PM133  S3
Savage 4 S3 Savage 2000 S3 Graphics Apollo Pro 133A. 
Apollo Pro 133A :
2 32 , 
Savage 4 3D Savage 2000 2D;
Z, 32 ,
, .;
DVD,
DVI, TV;
PCI 2.2.
AGP 4x 
AGP 4x . ProSavage PM133 
VT8365 North Bridge VT8231 South Bridge.
VT8231 South Bridge Super I/O 
LPC.

Apollo KT266 KT266A


KT266, Athlon, 
VLink. VLink 552 
VT8366 North Bridge 376 South Bridge VT8233
266 /, .. 
, PCI.
KT266 200/266 , 
AGP 2x/4x 4 DDR200/266 PC100/133. 
South Bridge (VT8233, VT8233A VT8233C).
North Bridge KT266A
North Bridge KT266. VT8366A ( KT266A) 
VIA Performance Driving ( , ), 
,
. KT266A KT266.

ProSavage KM266
ProSavage KM266
KT266 ProSavage 8 2D/3D S3 Graphics.

, KM266 AGP 4x, 
.
ProSavage8 32 , 
AGP 8x 128
, DVD 
DVD DXVA Motion Compensation. South
Bridge VT8233, North Bridge South Bridge
4x VLink 266 /.

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

271

Apollo KT333
Apollo KT333 KT266A 

333 (DDR333). KT266A, KT333
PC100/133, South Bridge KT8233.

Apollo KT400
Apollo KT400 Athlon XP
AGP 8x, VLink South
Bridge (VT8235), 533 /. VT8235 
USB 2.0 ATA133.
, , VLink
KT400 
Athlon XP.

Apollo KT400A
A North Bridge 
, South Bridge . 
KT400A North Bridge (VT8377A) South Bridge
(VT8237). KT400A:
333 ;
DDR SDRAM DDR400;
4 ;

(
FastStream64);
AGP 8x;
6 AC'97 ;
USB 2.0;
MC'97;
10/100 Ethernet;
Serial ATA;
ATA 33/66/100/133;
ACPI/OnNow.
FastStream64 / 
3,2 / .
. 4.34 KT400A.

Silicon Integrated
Systems (SiS) AMD Athlon/Duron
SiS Athlon
Duron (. 4.33 4.34), .

272

4.


AMD
Athlon XP
Duron

200/266/333 FSB

200/266/
333/400

KT400A
North
Bridge

AGP 8X

PHY
6X V>Link

VT6103

10/100 Ethernet
Serial ATA

PCI
PCI

VT8237
South
Bridge

ATA 133

EPR03

AC>Link

8X USB 2.0

LPC

LPC
/

VT1211
LPC
Super
I/O


VT1616 AC97


MC>97

. 4.34.  VIA VT400A


4.33. SiS Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

SiS730S

SiS740

SiS733

SiS735

SiS745

SiS746

,
SMP
( )

200/266

266

200/266/333

200/266

266

266

PC133 SDRAM

PC133, DDR266

PC133

PC133, DDR266

DDR266/333

/ECC

,
PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

South Bridge

DDR266/
333

1,5

1,5

1,5

1,5

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

4x
1

4x

4x

4x

8x

SiS96x

SiS963

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

273

. 4.33

SiS730S

SiS740

SiS733

SiS735

SiS745

SiS746

MuTIOL, /
ATA

533

10004

ATA-100

ATA-100

ATA-100

ATA-100

USB/

1.1/4



4


5


5


5


5

1.1/6

1.1/6

1.1/6

AC'97

S/PDIF

AC'97

S/PDIF

AC'97



5


5


5


5


5

10/100
Ethernet
IEEE-1394a

SiS746FX

SiS748

,
SMP ( )

/ECC
,
PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

South Bridge
MuTIOL,
/
ATA
USB/

10/100 Ethernet
IEEE-1394a

266

DDR266/333/400

3
2.2
33/32

400

DDR266/333/400

3
2.2
33/32

8x

SiS963
10004

8x

SiS963
10004

5
5
5
5
5

5
5
5
5
5

1 2D/3D DVD SiS301


Video Bridge TV$ .
2 , DirectX 7.0, $

.
3 ( North Bridge/South Bridge).
4 HyperStreaming MuTIOL.
5 MuTIOL South Bridge.

274

4.

4.34. MuTIOL South Bridge Athlon XP


South
Bridge

USB

USB

ATA

10/100
Ethernet

HomePNA
1.0/2.0

IEEE-1394
MuTIOL,
/

SiS961

1.1

33/66/100

266

SiS961B

1.1

33/66/100/
133

266

SiS962

1.1/2.0

33/66/100/
133

266

SiS962L

1.1/2.0

33/66/100/
133

266

SiS963

1.1/2.0

33/66/100/
133

533

SiS963L

1.1/2.0

33/66/100/
133

AC'97, ,
5.1
AC'97, ,
5.1
AC'97, ,
5.1
AC'97, ,
5.1
AC'97, ,
5.1
AC'97, ,
5.1

533

SiS MuTIOL
North Bridge South Bridge
South Bridge SiS96x
MuTIOL, North Bridge.
MuTIOL ( SiS961/962) 16 
266 533 /,
hub Intel, 
Intel 800.
South Bridge SiS963 North Bridge
MuTIOL, MuTIOL
1G. 16 533
1 /.
SiS748 North Bridge SiS963
MuTIOL HyperStreaming,
.
.
, 543%.
$
.
. , 

.
. 
Internet, IP 
.
.
.

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

275

SiS730S

2D/3D, AMD Athlon Duron (Socket A).
, 128
AGP 4x, 
, . 
S1S301 Video Bridge TV NTSC/PAL.
S1S730S, , AGP 4x,
AGP.
SiS730S 10/100 Fast
Ethernet, AC97, 
, , ,
DMA. SiS730S , ,
LPC, Super I/O, 
USB USB. 
LPC/ISA SiS730S ISA.
SiS730S:
AMD Athlon/Duron 200 ;
PC133 SDRAM;
PC99;
PCI 2.2;
PCI;
Ultra DMA 100;
AGP 2x 2D/3D ;
;
DVD;
CRT CRT, LCD
TV ;
LPC;
PCI H/W ( Sound Blaster 16
DirectSound 3D), ;
ACPI 1.0 APM 1.2;
PCI 1.0;
;
USB USB;
10/100 / Ethernet.

SiS733 SiS735
, AMD
Athlon Duron Socket A. SiS733 SiS735, 
SiS, North Bridge, South Bridge Super I/O
.
SiS733, 682 BGA,
PC133 SDRAM. SiS735 PC133 DDR266 SDRAM, 
10/100 Fast Ethernet HomePNA 1/10 / Home
Network. SiS735 682 BGA.

276

4.

SiS733 SiS735:
AGP 4x;
PCI;
UDMA/100 IDE;
1,5 RAM;
AC97 AMR;
RTC (RealTime Clock);
Low Pin Count, MIDI, 
BIOS;
PC2001.
. 4.35  SiS733.

SiS740
SiS740
Athlon. North Bridge
South Bridge MuTIOL. SiS740 :
Real256 2D/3D DirectX;
128 ;
DVD;
DDR266.
South Bridge SiS961 SiS962.
AMD
Athlon/Duron 200/266

AGP2.0 4x
AGP

ATA33/66/100

3 DIMM
SDR 1,5

IDE
AC 97

6 USB

AC 97
Codec

USB

V.90
AMR
PCI

6 PCI

BIOS
SiS900

MIDI

LPC
S/IO

BIOS

BIOS

. 4.35. SiS733

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

277

SiS745
SiS745
IEEE1395a (FireWire 400) .
legacyfree. 
:
DDR266/333 3 ;
Athlon XP ;
USB 1.1;
IEEE1394a;
, , , MIDI ;
ATA100;
AC'97 AMR (audio modem riser) 
V.90.

SiS746 746FX
SiS746 Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP 
, AGP 8x.
South Bridge SiS963.
SiS746 266 ,
DDR266/333 MuTIOL 
1 /, North South Bridge.
, SiS963L South Bridge :
ATA133 USB 2.0, AC'97 
MII HomePNA 10/100 Ethernet.
SiS963 South Bridge IEEE1394a (FireWire 400).
SiS746FX SiS746,
333 DDR400.
SiS963 South Bridge.

SiS748
SiS746 SiS748 SiS963 South
Bridge,
HyperStreaming. :
400 ;
DDR266/333/400;
AGP 8x.
. 4.36 SiS748, 
SiS963L South Bridge. SiS963
SiS963L IEEE1394a.

ALiMagik 1
AMD Athlon/Duron
Acer Labs ALiMagik 1 : M1647 Super
North Bridge 528 BGA M1535D+ South Bridge (
Pentium III/Celeron).

278

4.


AGP 8x Fast Write

DIMM
,

DDR 1

AMD

AMD Athlon XP
Duron FSB 400
, 16>
MuTIOL 533

SIS
748

IDE ATA 66/100/133


AC3
6
MuTIOL 1G
V.90

SIS

6 USB 2.0/1.1

AC link

963L

10 / HPNA
MII

PHY

6 PCI
PHY

,
MIDI,

LPC ROM
()

LPC 5/10

BIOS/Legacy

RJ 45
10/100 / LAN

PC2001

. 4.36. SiS748 SiS963L South Bridge

M1647 North Bridge SDRAM 


66/100/133 , DDR SDRAM 200 266 . 
RAM 3 ,
(). SDRAM
x1111111. M1647 , DDR
SDRAM,
.
M1647 AGP 4x, PCI 2.2,
PCI, PCI, ACPI,
. ,
PCI Mobile CLKRUN# AGP Mobile BUSY#/STOP#.
MobileMagik 1, 1535+ South Bridge, 
, Athlon Duron.
, ,
DDR, North Bridge South Bridge 
PCI 133 , AliMagik1
Athlon.

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

279

NVIDIA
Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP
NVIDIA, 
GeForce, 
AMD Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP, nForce nForce2.
nForce.
HyperTransport ,
400 /.
nForce.
,
, .
64.
NView ( 420 )
.
AGP 4x.
DASP (Dynamic adaptive speculative preproces
sor), 
.
StreamThru, () 
10/100 Ethernet,
.
GeForce2 MX ( 420) c
DVI.

Dolby Digital (AC3) 5.1 (
SoundStorm).
nForce2 .
DualDDR DDR400
DIMM.
IEEE1394a.
GeForce 4x.
AGP 8x.
. 4.35 North Bridge nForce nForce2,
. 4.36 South Bridge. 
, NVIDIA 
Pentium 4. nForce
Xbox Microsoft.
North Bridge 
IGP (Integrated Graphics Processors), ,
AGP, SPP (System Platform Processors). South Bridge 
MCP (Media and Communications Processors). IGP/SPP
MCP HyperTransport 
800 /.

280

4.

4.35. IGP/SPP (North Bridge) nForce/nForce2


nForce 420

nForce 415

NForce2 IGP

nForce2 SPP

,
SMP
( )

200/266

266

200/266/333

200/266

PC100/133,
DDR200/266

PC100/133,
DDR200/266

DDR200/266/333/4001

DDR200/266/
333/4001

2
2.2
33/32

2
2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

4x
GeForce2 MX

4x

8x
GeForce4 MX

8x

400

400

400

400

nForce MCP, MCP-D

nForce MCP, MCP-D

nForce2 MCP, MCP-T

nForce2 MCP,
MCP-T

/ECC
,


PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

HyperTransport, /
South Bridge

1 DDR400 AGP.
2 .

4.36. nForce/nForce2 MCP (South Bridge)

South Bridge

USB

USB

ATA

10/100
Ethernet

IEEE-1394

North Bridge

nForce MCP

1.1

33/66/100

nForce IGP, SPP

NForce MCP-D1

1.1

33/66/100

nForce IGP, SPP

nForce2 MCP

1.1/2.0

33/66/100/133

nForce2 IGP, SPP

nForce2 MCP-T1

1.1/2.0

33/66/100/133

AC'97, , 5.1

NVIDIA Audio
Processing Unit,

Dolby Digital 5.1,


DirectX 8, S/PDIF
AC'97,
6-

NVIDIA Audio
Processing Unit,

Dolby Digital 5.1,


DirectX 8, S/PDIF

(NVIDIA
2
3Com)

nForce2 IGP,SPP

1 NVIDIA SoundStorm.
2 HomePNA.

, , 
HyperTransport 
MCPD MCPT nForce2 
Athlon XP.
. 4.37 nForce2 IGP MCP, 
. IGP SPP North
Bridge, . ,
MCPT MCP South Bridge IEEE1394a, Dolby Digital
5.1 .
Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

281

Athlon XP


DDR DIMM
nView
GPU

MC0
DDR DIMM

AGP

MC1

AGP8X
HyperTransport

IGP2

HyperTransport
800 /

10/100 Ethernet

HyperTransport

NVIDIA 802.3

2X 10/100
Ethernet

USB 2.0

USB 2.0
IEEE 1394a

2x ATA 133

3Com
Mz0

1324z

APU (Audio
Processing
Unit)

PCI
MCP2
LPC

. 4.37. NVIDIA nForce2 IGP/MCP2

ATI Radeon IGP


Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP
ATI Athlon 
Radeon VE, DVD
, North
Bridge South Bridge. 
ALink, , 
PCI. Radeon
IGP South Bridge , Ali VIA.
North Bridge Athlon Radeon IGP
320. ATI Radeon
IGP 320 South Bridge IXP 200 IXP 250,
USB 2.0 ATA33/66/100.
. 4.37 Radeon IGP 320, . 4.38
IXP 200 IXP 250.

282

4.

4.37. Radeon IGP (North Bridge) Athlon


North Bridge

Radeon IGP 320

,
SMP ( )

/ECC
,
PCI
PCI, /
AGP

A-Link, /

200/266

DDR200/266

1
2.2
33/32
4x
Radeon VE*
266

* ATI Radeon 700 .


4.38. ATI South Bridge Athlon
South Bridge

IXP 200/250*

USB
ATA

Ethernet
Super I/O

6 USB 2.0
ATA-100
AC'97, S/PDIF
3Com 10/100

A-Link

* IXP 250 IXP 200 WOL (Wake On LAN), DMI (Desktop


Management Interface), MBA (Manage Boot Agent) ASF (Alert Standards Forum).
Intel...

Intel

Pentium 4 Xeon
Intel
Pentium 4 Xeon. 
(. 4.39).
4.39. Intel

860

E7205

E7505

Colusa
2001 .
82860
400
Xeon

Granite Bay
2002 .
E7205
400/533
Pentium 41

SMP
( )

Placer
2002 .
E7505
400/533
Xeon
533 -
512 1

4 RDRAM PC8002

/ECC
,

4 ( MRHR)
3
2.2
33/324

DDR200/266 SDRAM
( )

16

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/325

PCI
PCI,
/

Intel...

DDR200/266 ( )

283

. 4.39

860

E7205

E7505

AGP

South Bridge

1x/2x

ICH2

1x/2x/4x

ICH4

TNT2
ICH4

1 HT.
2 MRHR.
3 MRHR.
4 64$ 33/66 P64H.
5 64$ 33/66 PCI$X $

P64H2.

Intel 860
,
Socket 602 Xeon, DP.
860 82801BA ICH 2 ( , Intel 850) 82860 MCH
(Memory Controller Hub), Socket 602 Xeon
( Foster). 82860 MCH
RDRAM 400 3,2 /,
100 . 
1.5V AGP 4x 1 /.
Intel 860
82860AA (P64H) PCI Controller Hub (6 ) 82803AA MRHR.
82860AA 64 PCI 33 66 ,
82803AA RDRAM, 
.

Intel E7205
Intel E7205, Granite Bay, 

. Pentium 4 
HT 3,06 , DDR200/266 SDRAM, 
533 ICH4 I/O Controller Hub (
845). Intel E7205 
/ECC, ,
, AGP 1x8x 
AGP Pro ( AGP 3,5 , 
3dfx, ).

Intel E7505
Intel E7505, Placer, 
Intel 860, 
.
Intel E7505 533 , 
Xeon 
512 HT. ,
DDR200/266, 16 (
, 860 E7205).
ECC . SDDC
(singledevice data correction) Intel

284

4.

,
.
AGP Pro AGP
1x8x ( AGP 3,5 )
ICH4 I/O Controller Hub. 64 PCI
66 PCIX 133 
P64H2 (82807P2)
P64H, Intel 860.


Athlon 64
Athlon 64 , 
64 
( North
Bridge ). 
AMD, VIA Technologies, NVIDIA, ATI Ali Corporation.
. 4.40 Athlon 64.
4.40. Athlon 64

Opteron

ATA/Serial ATA

AMD
Ali
ATI
VIA
VIA

8151
M1687/M1563
IGP 380
K8T400
K8M400

DDR200/266/333
DDR266/333
DDR200/266/333
DDR200/266/333
DDR200/266/333

ATA-133/SATA
ATA-133
ATA-133
ATA-133/SATA
ATA-133/SATA

VIA
NVIDIA
NVIDIA

K8T400M
Crush K8
Crush K8G

DDR200/266/333
DDR200/266/333
DDR200/266/333

AGP 8x
AGP 8x
AGP 8x, Radeon 9000
AGP 8x

SavageXP
AGP 8x
AGP 8x
AGP 8x, GeForce4 MX

ATA-133
ATA-133
ATA-133


. , ALi M1678/M1653 16
HyperTransport 800 . HyperTransport 16x8
3,2 /, 

.
; , 
8151 Graphics Tunnel (North Bridge) 8111 HyperTransport I/O Controller
Hub AMD HyperTransport,
ALi. , PCIX Athlon 64
AMD 8131 PCIX Tunnel.
. 4.38 AMD 8151
Athlon 64.

Super I/O
Super I/O.
,
.

Athlon 64

285

DDR333

AMD
Athlon 64

2,66 /

16>
HyperTransport
6,4 /

AGP 8x

2,1 /

AMD8151
AGP
Tunnel

8>
HyperTransport
800 /
ATA/133
32>
PCI 33

AMD8111
I/O
Hub

Ethernet
USB 2.0
AC 97

LPC

Flash>

Super I/O

. 4.38.  AMD 8151 Athlon 64

Super I/O ( ) :
;
;
.
Super I/O 
, .
.
, 
. Super I/O 
. , , 
UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
). UART. 
UART NS16550A, 
National Semiconductor. Super I/O
, , , , .
Super I/O 
. :
(), EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port
) ECP (Enhanced Capabilities Port ).
ECP , ,

286

4.

8 ISA ( 3 
). 
(, ), ECP .
, 
, ECP, HewlettPackard.
Super I/O . , 
Intel VC820 ( ATX)
Super I/O LPC47V102 SMC (Standard Microsystems Corp.).
:
;
;
(ECP/EPP) ;
8042 .
;
Super I/O.
Super I/O . ,
Intel Super I/O IDE South
Bridge ,
PCI, ISA. Super I/O 
ISA,
, 8 . IDE 
PCI, IDE, ,
PCI (33 ), .
Super I/O LPC,
Intel ( 6,67 /)
, 13 . ISA 
LPC , ,
Super I/O.

. , USB
IEEE1394 , 
, Super I/O
.
, South
Bridge Super I/O ( 
Super South Bridge). , SiS 
, North Bridge, South Bridge Super I/O.

CMOS-
Motorola 146818 
RTC RAM Complementary MetalOxide Semiconductor (CMOS).
, 10 RAM 54 
RAM,  . IBM
.
Motorola
(South Bridge)
Super I/O. ,
NVRAM, Dallas Benchmarq.
CMOS
5, .

Super I/O

287


. . 4.39
Intel DB845PEBT2.
, , , 
, . . 4.414.52 
.
CNR

ATAPI CD>ROM
32> PCI
AGP

ATX 12V

1
4

12

IEEE>1394a

USB

()
()
SATA/SATA
RAID ()

10
2

Socket 478
(
Pentium 4/Celeron 4)

10

10

10

1
7

39
40

i
2

39
40

1
2

2
1

40
39

2
1

40
39

IDE RAID
(: ;
: )


SCSI LED

2
1

34
33

20
10

DDR SDRAM

11
1


IDE (: ;
: )

LED //

. 4.39. Intel DB8450PEBT2

4.41.

1
2
3

+5

IrRx

4
5
6

IrTX
CONIR (Consumer IR)

4.42.

1
2

3
4

+6

288

4.

4.43. ( LED)
(Keylock)

1
2
3

LED (+5 )

4
5

4.44.

1
2

3
4

4.45.

1
2
3

+12

4.46. Wake On LAN

1
2
3

+5

WOL

4.47.

1
2

CHS_SEC

4.48.

1
2
3

+5

WOL

4.49. CD-ROM

1
2

CD-IN ( )

3
4

CD-IN ( )

4.50.

1
2

3
4

4.51.

1
2

( )

3
4

( )

Super I/O

289

4.52.

1
2

RINGA

!
! .

. 3 4,
. , .

, Intel, 
, . 4.40.

. 4.40.

. 4.53 .
4.53.

Speaker

27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

SPKR_HDR
PIEZO_IN

SW_RST

/
PWR_LED

/
HD_PWR
HDActive#

HD_PWR +5

CONIR (Consumer IR)
IrTX

IrRX

+5

SLEEP_PU (pullup)
SLEEP

SW_ON#

Reset

Sleep/Power LED

Hard Drive LED

IrDA

Sleep/Resume
Power On

290

4.

,
,
. (bus) ,
.
PC, ,
.
, . 
 , ( )
.
.
. 
 North Bridge 
. Pentium 66, 100,
133, 200, 266, 400, 533, 800 64 (8 ).
AGP. 32 66 (AGP 1), 133 (AGP 2), 266
(AGP 4) 533 (AGP 8x) .
North Bridge Memory Controller Hub (MCH)
.
PCI. 32 33 ;
486.
66 . PCI
North Bridge Memory Controller Hub (MCH) .
, , 
, SCSI , ,
. PCI South Bridge ,
IDE USB.
ISA. 16 , 8 ;
AT 1984 ( 8
5 ). , PC99 .
South Bridge. 
Super I/O.
,
Audio Modem Riser (AMR) Communications and Networking Riser (CNR).
, 
. , 
,
AMR CNR . ,
 .
, ,
. , 
,
PCI, AMR/CNR .
, 
. ,
, hub LPC. Hub
(4x) 8 66 ,
MCH ICH (hub
). hub 266 /,
.

291

LPC, 4 
6,67 / 
ISA . LPC
Super I/O ROM BIOS .
LPC , .
ISA .
, 
, . . 4.54
, PC.
4.54. (/)


, /

8- ISA (PC/XT)
8- ISA (AT)
LPC
16- ISA (AT-Bus)
DD
HD
ED
EISA Bus
VL-Bus
MCA-16
MCA-32
MCA-16 Streaming
MCA-32 Streaming
MCA-64 Streaming
MCA-64 Streaming
PC-Card (PCMCIA)
CardBus
Hub Interface ( )
PCI
PCI 66
64- PCI
64- PCI 66
PCI-X 66
PCI-X 133
PCI-X 266
PCI-X 533
PCI Express 1.0 1-
PCI Express 1.0 32-
8- Hub- Intel
16- Hub- Intel
AMD HyperTransport 2x2
AMD HyperTransport 4x2
AMD HyperTransport 8x2
AMD HyperTransport 16x2
AMD HyperTransport 32x2
AMD HyperTransport 2x4
AMD HyperTransport 4x4
AMD HyperTransport 8x4
AMD HyperTransport 16x4
AMD HyperTransport 32x4
AMD HyperTransport 2x8
AMD HyperTransport 4x8

8
8
4
16
1
1
1
32
32
16
32
16
32
64
64
16
32
8
32
32
64
64
64
64
64
64
1
32
8
8
2
4
8
16
32
2
4
8
16
32
2
4

4,7
8,33
33
8,33
0,25
0,5
1
8,33
33
5
5
10
10
10
20
10
33
66
33
66
33
66
66
133
266
533
2,500
2,500
66
66
200
200
200
200
200
400
400
400
400
400
800
800

1/3

1/3

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0,8
0,8
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2,39
4,17
6,67
8,33
0,03125
0,0625
0,125
33
133
10
20
20
40
80
160
20
133
266
133
266
266
533
533
1 066
2,133
4 266
250
8 000
266
533
100
200
400
800
1 600
200
400
800
1 600
3 200
400
800

292

4.

. 4.54


, /

AMD HyperTransport 8x8


AMD HyperTransport 16x8
AMD HyperTransport 32x8
VIA V-Link 4x
VIA V-Link 8x
SiS MuTIOL
SiS MuTIOL 1G
AGP
AGP 2x
AGP 4x
AGP 8x
ATI A-Link
RS-232 Serial
RS-232 Serial HS
IEEE-1284 Parallel
IEEE-1284 EPP/ECP
USB 1.1
USB 2.0
IEEE-1394a S100
IEEE-1394a S200
IEEE-1394a S400

8
16
32
8
8
16
16
32
32
32
32
16
1
1
8
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

800
800
800
66
66
133
266
66
66
66
66
66
0,1152
0,2304
8,33
8,33
12
480
100
200
400
800
1600

2
2
2
4
8
2
2
1
2
4
8
2
1/10
1/10
1/6
1/3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1 600
3 200
6 400
266
533
533
1 066
266
533
1066
2133
266
0,01152
0,02304
1,38
2,77
1,5
60
12,5
25
50
100
200

16
16
16
16
16
1
1
1
8
16
8
16
8
16
8
16
16
16
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64

8,33
8,33
16,67
25
33
1500
3000
6000
5
5
10
10
20
20
40
40
40
80
22
33
66
100
133
100
133
150
167
183
200
216

1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

16,67
33
66
100
133
150
300
600
5
10
10
20
20
40
40
80
160
320
177
266
533
800
1066
1600
2133
2 400
2 666
2 933
3 200
3 466

IEEE-1394b S800
IEEE-1394b S1600
ATA PIO-4
ATA-UDMA/33
ATA-UDMA/66
ATA-UDMA/100
ATA-UDMA/133
SATA-150
SATA-300
SATA-600
SCSI
SCSI Wide
SCSI Fast
SCSI Fast/Wide
SCSI Ultra
SCSI Ultra/Wide
SCSI Ultra2
SCSI Ultra/Wide2
SCSI Ultra3 (Ultra160)
SCSI Ultra4 (Ultra320)
FPM DRAM
EDO DRAM
PC66 SDRAM
PC100 SDRAM
PC133 SDRAM
PC1600 DDR DIMM (DDR200)
PC2100 DDR DIMM (DDR266)
PC2400 DDR DIMM (DDR300)
PC2700 DDR DIMM (DDR333)
PC3000 DDR DIMM (DDR366)
PC3200 DDR DIMM (DDR400)
PC3500 DDR (DDR433)

293

. 4.54


, /

PC3700 DDR (DDR466)


PC4000 DDR (DDR500)
PC4300 DDR (SDRAM
PC2-3200 DDR2 (DDR2-433)
PC2-4300 DDR2 (DDR2-466)
PC2-5400 DDR2 (DDR2-500)
PC2-6400 DDR2 (DDR2-533)
RIMM1200 RDRAM
RIMM1400 RDRAM
RIMM1600RDRAM
RIMM2100RDRAM

64
64
64
64
64
64
64
16
16
16
16

233
250
267
216
233
250
267
300
350
400
533

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

3 733
4 000
4 266
3 466
3 733
4 000
4 266
1 200
1 400
1 600

RIMM2400 RDRAM
RIMM3200 RDRAM
RIMM4200 RDRAM
RIMM4800 RDRAM

16
32
32
32

600
400
533
600

2
2
2
2

RIMM6400 RDBAM
RIMM8500 RDRAM
RIMM9600 RDRAM
486 CPU FSB 33
FSB Pentium I/II/III, 66
FSB Pentium I/II/III, 100
FSB Pentium I/II/III, 133
FSB Athlon, 200
FSB Athlon, 266
FSB Athlon, 333
FSB Athlon, 400
FSB Athlon, 533
FSB Pentium 4, 400
FSB Pentium 4, 533

64
64
64
32
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
128

400
533
600
33
66
100
133
100
133
167
200
267
100
133

2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
2
4

FSB Pentium 4, 800


FSB Itanium, 266
FSB Itanium 2, 400

200
133
100

2 133
2 400
3 200
4 266
4 800
6 400
8 533
9 600
133
53
800
1 066
1 600
2 133
2 666
3 200
4 266
3 200
4 266
6 400
2 133
6 400

ISA, EISA, VL$Bus MCA .


/ .
ISA Industry Standard Architecture, 8$ PC/XT 16$ AT$Bus.
LPC Low Pin Count.
DD Floppy Double$Density (360/720 ) Floppy ( ).
HD Floppy High$Density (1,2/1,44 ) Floppy ( ).
ED Floppy Extra$high Density (2,88 ) Floppy ( ).
EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture (32$ ISA).
VL$Bus VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association) Local Bus ( ISA).
MCA MicroChannel Architecture ( IBM PS/2).
PC$Card 16$ PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association).
CardBus 32$ PC$Card.
Hub Interface Intel 8xx.
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect.
AGP Accelerated Graphics Port.
RS$232 , 115,2 /.
RS$232 HS , 230,4 /.

294

4.

IEEE$1284 Parallel .
IEEE$1284 EPP/ECP Enhanced Parallel Port/Extended Capabilities Port.
USB Universal Serial Bus.
IEEE$1394 FireWire, i.Link.
ATA PIO AT Attachment ( IDE) Programmed I/O.
ATA$UDMA AT Attachment Ultra DMA.
SCSI Small Computer System Interface.
FPM Fast Page Mode ( ).
EDO Extended Data Out ( $).
SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic RAM.
RDRAM Rambus Dynamic RAM.
RDRAM Dual RDRAM ( ).
DDR$SDRAM Double$Data Rate SDRAM.
CPU FSB ( Front$Side Bus).
Hub$ Intel 8xx.
HyperTransport AMD.
V$Link VIA Technologies.
MuTIOL SiS.
DDR2 DDR.

, ,
( ). ,
, .
.
,
, .


North Bridge
Memory Controller Hub. 66200 .

 .
Pentium (Socket 7) . 4.41.
, Socket 7, 
,
( 66 100 ). , 
Socket 7 ,  
. , 
Intel Socket 7 233 ,
3,5 66 . , 
66 . , , Socket 7, 
AMD K62 550, 550 : 5,5
100 . , 
100 .
 P6,
, Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Celeron, Pentium III, AMD Athlon Duron.
Socket 8, Slot 1, Slot 2, Slot A, Socket A Socket 370.
, 
.

295

Socket 7

Pentium MMX,
233

CPU
>
L1 233

533 /

L1

Socket 7


66
L2

533 /

> L2
66 , 15
EDO
SDMMS
60
16

North
Bridge

PCI
()

PCI
33

PCI
133 /c

USB

South
Bridge

ATA1
ATA2

ISA
8 /

ISA
8

Flash
ROM
BIOS
CMOS RAM

Super
I/O

16 /

ISA
()

Com1
Com2
LPT1

. 4.41. Pentium (Socket 7)


. 
, .. . , 
, , 
, 1/2, 2/5 1/3 . 
 , , 
Socket 7.
. 4.42 Slot 1 ( Slot )
 , . 
66 100 , , 
800 /. ,
AGP. AGP 66 (..
PCI), AGP 2x,
AGP, 
533 /. ,
PC100 SDRAM DIMM, 800 /.

296

4.

Slot 1
> L2
225

Pentium II
450

CPU

L2
450

L1


Slot 1


800 /

AGP
Video

AGP 2x
533 /

North
Bridge


100


800 /

PCI
133 /

PCI
33

800 /

SDRAM
DIMMS
PC>100

PCI
()

USB
South
Bridge

ATA1
ATA2

33 /

CMOS RAM
ISA
8 /

ISA
8

Flash
ROM
BIOS

ISA
()

Super
I/O

Com1
Com2
LPT1

. 4.42. Pentium II (Slot 1)

Pentium III Celeron Slot 1 Socket 370.


, 
 ( ), , 
, .
133 ,
1 066 /. AGP 4x
1 066 /. . 4.43 Socket 370.
hub Intel, 
North/South Bridge.
hub
266 / ( , PCI), PCI 
, South Bridge, PCI.
, Flash ROM BIOS, Firmware Hub,
LPC. , North/South Bridge
Super I/O.
,

297

Super I/O ISA LPC. hub 


Super I/O. , Super
I/O, (legacy), Super I/O 
(legacy$free) . ,
, USB.
(
USB).
, AMD, Socket A, 
, Socket 370, ,
North/South Bridge. Socket A
(Athlon/Duron) . 4.44. 
, 333 ( 2 664 /),
DDR SDRAM DIMM,
(.. 2 664 /). , 
South Bridge , Super I/O. 
Super South Bridge.
Socket 370
CPU
> L1
1,13

L1

L2

Pentium III
1,13
> L2
1,13

Socket 370

1066 /

AGP 4x
1066 /

AGP
Video


133

Memory
Controller
Hub

Hub>
266 /


1066 /

133 /

PCI
33

1066 /

SDRAM
DIMMS
PC>133

PCI
()

USB1
USB2

I/C
Controller
Hub

ATA1
ATA2

100 /

CMOS RAM
Flash
ROM
Firmware Hub
(BIOS)

Low Pin Count


(LPC)
6 /

Super
I/O

Com1
Com2

LPT1

. 4.43. Pentium III/Celeron (Socket 370)

298

4.

Pentium 4 (Socket 423 Socket 478), hub, 


. 4.45. 
400/533/800 3 200/4 266/
6 400 /. .
PC3200 (DDR400), (3 200 /)
,
. ,
6 400 /, DDR400 
400 , 
6 400 /. 533
(PC2100/DDR266 PC2700/DDR333)
4 266 /.
.

,
. ( ), , 
,
. Pentium 64 ,
64 (8 ).
Socket A
CPU
> L1
2,2


2,667 /

AGP
Video

AGP 8x
2,133 /

L1

L2

Athlon XP 3200+
2,2
> L2
2,2

Socket A

North
Bridge


333


2,667 /

PCI
133 /

PCI
33

DDR SDRAM
DDR>DIMM
PC>2700/DDR333

PCI
()

USB1
USB2

Super
South
Bridge

Flash
ROM

ATA1
ATA2

BIOS

100 /

CMOS RAM

COM1

COM1
LPT1

. 4.44. Athlon/Duron (Socket A)

299

Socket 478
CPU
> L1
3,6

L1

L2

Pentium 4
3,6
> L2
3,6

Socket 423

6,4 /

AGP 8x
2,133 /

AGP
Video


800

Memory
Controller
Hub

Hub>
266 /


6,4 /

133 /

PCI
33

DDR
DDR>DIMM
PC>3200/DDR400

PCI
()

USB1
USB2

I/C
Controller
Hub

ATA1
ATA2

100 /

CMOS RAM
Flash
ROM
Firmware Hub
(BIOS)

Low Pin Count


(LPC)
16 /

Super
I/O

Com1
Com2

LPT1

. 4.45. Pentium 4 (Socket 478)

, ,
. ,
, , 
. , AMD Athlon 3200+ 2,2 ,
333 , Pentium 4 
3,2 , 800 .
(2x, 2,5x, 3x ).
, , 
. ,
64 .

(64 Celeron/Pentium III/4 Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP)
( () ).

300

4.

, Pentium 4 3,6 , 
, 800 , 
6 400 /.
, :
800 8 (64 ) = 6 400 /.
Pentium 4 (Socket 423/478):
400 8 (64 ) = 3200 /;
533,33 8 (64 ) = 4 266 /.
Athlon (Socket A) :
266,66 8 (64 ) = 2133 /.
, (bandwidth)
, .
, , . 4.22.



. North Bridge
Memory Controller Hub. , 
(, , ), 
. ,
. , PC133
SDRAM, 1066 /, ,
133 . : Athlon
Pentium III 266 PC2100 DDR
SDRAM, 2133 / , 
. Pentium 4 400 , 
RDRAM 1 600
3 200 / ,
Pentium 4. Pentium 4, 
533 , RIMM4200, 
, 4 266 /.
, , ,
 .  
.
, Itanium Itanium 2, 
 24 , 
. 
.

, .
.
6, .

301


 
. ,
.  
.
, 
; 
, , , 
SCSI .

. IDE ( ), USB,
, , ,
. South Bridge
Super I/O - .
, - , SCSI, IEEE-1394a.
Super I/O, .
-. , , , , .

-
, PC, , 
. : 
.
:
;
;
.
, 
, PC, ,
, . PC 
,
. , 
, .
, .
 .
.

() ().

ISA, EISA MCA , -.

302

4.

PCI
1992 Intel , 
, VESA, ,
ISA EISA.
1992 PCI 1.0,
. PCI . 4.55.
4.55. PCI
PCI

PCI 1.0
PCI 2.0
PCI 2.1

1992 .
1993 .
1995 .

PCI 2.2
PCIX 1.0
Mini-PCI
PCI 2.3
PCI-X 2.0

1999 .
1999 .
1999 .
2002 .
2002 .

PCI-Express 1.0

2002 .

32/64-

66 , ,

,
133 , 2.2
, 2.2
3,3 ,
266 533 , 64-
32- 16- , 3,3/1,5
2,5 /, 0,8 ,
250 / .
PCI 2.x

PCI , 
.
, (
), 
(. 4.46).
PCI .
 , 
, . PCI
1993 , .

>

DRAM

PCI

SCSI

>

ISA/EISA

. 4.46. PCI

303

PCI 33 , 
. 32 
132 /:
33 32 = 1 056 /;
1056 / : 8 = 132 /.
PCI , . 4.56.
4.56. PCI
PCI


, /

PCI
PCI 66
64- PCI
64-
PCI 66
PCI-X 64
PCI-X 133
PCI-X 266
PCI-X 533
PCI-Express**
PCI-Express**

32
32
64
64

33
66
33
66

1
1
1
1

133
266
266
533

64*
64*
64*
64*
1
32

133
133
133
133
2 500
2 500

1
1
2
4
0,8
0,8

533
1 066
2 132
4 266
250
8 000

* PCI$X 32$ 16$ .


** PCI$Express 8b/10b, 8
10 ,
1 32 .

64 66 133
.
PCI ,
. 
PCI .
PCI (. 4.47).
PCI , .

AGP

PCI

ISA EISA

. 4.47. PCI
ISA/EISA AGP

304

4.

PCI , 
.
32 64 PCI. 5
(PCI 2.2 ),
3,3 ( PCI 2.3),
, 
. 64 PCI 5 
. PCIX 2.0
266/533 3,3 1,5 , 
PCI 2.3 3,3 .
32 64 PCI (5 ) 64
PCI . 4.48. . 4.49 
64 PCI 64 PCI.
, PCI , 
. , 
, , + I/O. 
, .

32>
PCI, 33
(

)
B94

B62

B49

B1

B62

B49

B1

64>
PCI, 33
(
)

B94

B62

B49

B11

B1

64>

PCI,
66/33
(
)

. 4.48. 32 PCI 64 PCI 64


PCI

. 4.49. 64 PCI () 


64 PCI ()

305

PCI ,
Plug and Play Intel. , PCI
. Plug and
Play , , 
Plug and Play, PCI,
Setup BIOS. 1995
BIOS, Plug and Play,
.

PCI Express
2001 , Arapahoe Work
Group ( Intel), 
, 3GIO (ThirdGeneration
I/O  ). 2001
PCISIG (PCI Special Interest Group) , 
3GIO PCI .
3GIO 1.0 2002 ,
PCISIG, PCI Express.
(3GIO),

ISA/ATBus ( ) PCI ( ),
. 
10 15 . PCI Express,
PCISIG, , ,
, 
1015 .
PCI Express :
PCI
;
, ,
;
,
, , , 
, ;
,
() , ;

( ),
() ;
, , 
( ) , , , 
;
(.. 
);
.
PCI Express 
.
,
.

306

4.

, . 
( ) 
, 
. PCI AGP 
32 ,
, 
.
, , 
1 , , 
, .
. 

, .
PCI Express , 

PCI. PCI Express 
(.. )
, . 
250 /,
1 2, 4, 8, 16 32 . , 8 ,
, 8 , 
2 000 /
40 (32
8 ). 
8 000 /
40 . PCI,
100 , 133 /
( ). 
PCI Express , 
PCI.
PCI Express IBM
810, .
, 2,5 , 10 ,
. 
32
PCI Express 32 /.
PCI Express , 
.
,
Intel Hub AMD Hypertransport,
. , PCI Express
, (, AGP), 
( )
, , Serial ATA, USB 2.0, 1394b (FireWire iLink), Gigabit Ethernet ..
PCI Express, ,
, .
, , 
, , , 
, ,
. 
.

307

, PCI
PCI Express .
PCI, AGP .
, PCI ISA/ATBus, ,
. 
PCI 
PCI Express. PCI Express 
. ,
PCI Express ISA/ATBus PCI,
1990 .
, , PCI Express,
. 
, , PCI Express
. 
PCISIG, ,
PCI Express, 2004 . 2004 PCI Express
, .

2005 . , , , 
. PCI Express Bridge 1.0 Mini PCI
Express Card PCI PCIX.
, , PCIX .
PCI Express
Web PCISIG (http://www.pcisig.org).

(AGP)
Intel 
(Accelerated Graphics Port AGP).
PCI, . , ,
PCI. , AGP PCI,
. PCI,
, AGP , 
, 
AGP. AGP 1.0 
Intel 1996 . 
66 1 2 3,3 . AGP 2.0
1998 , 4, 1,5 .
AGP AGP 4x 8x,
1,5 . 
AGP 2x 3,3 . 
1,5 3,3 
, .
AGP . ,
, 1,5 3,3 
1,5 3,3 . , 
. 
AGP 
AGP (. 4.50).

308

4.

AGP 4x/8x (1,5 )


AGP 3,3
()
AGP 1,5
Key

AGP 2X 3,3

AGP
1,5 3,3
AGP 4X/8X 1,5

. 4.50. AGP 4x/8x (1,5 ),


AGP 3,3 ,

. 4.50, AGP 4x 8x (1,5 )


AGP 1,5 3,3/1,5 .
1,5 3,3 .
, AGP 
, ,
. 
AGP 4x/8x, 1,5 .
!
AGP 4x- AGP 4x
1,5 . AGP . , AGP 4x- , . 4.51. AGP 1x/2x , AGP 4x.

AGP Pro 1.0 


AGP,
25 ( 110 ). AGP Pro 
. AGP Pro
, .. AGP. AGP Pro
AGP 1/2, AGP 1/2,
. , AGP Pro,
, . 
AGP Pro .
AGP 1x/2x, AGP 4x AGP Pro . 4.51.
AGP 
AGP 8x, AGP 3.0. AGP 8x 
2 133 /,
AGP 4x. AGP 8x 2000 ;
2003 . AGP 8x 
.

309

AGP 1x/2x
AGP
4x>only
AGP 4x/AGP Pro
AGP 4x

AGP 4x

AGP Pro>only

AGP Pro

AGP Pro
AGP
4x>only
AGP 4x/AGP Pro

. 4.51. AGP 1x/2x, AGP 4x AGP Pro .


AGP 4x AGP Pro AGP 1x, 2x 4x.
AGP 4x AGP Pro AGP 8x

AGP , 66
( 66,66 ), , PCI. AGP, 
1, . AGP
32 (4 ), 66 . 
266 . /! AGP 
2, ,
533 /.
.
AGP 2.0 4 , .. 
.
1 066 /. AGP , ,
4. . 4.57
AGP. AGP 4x, 
NVIDIA ATI AGP 8x.
4.57. AGP
AGP


, /

AGP
AGP 2x
AGP 4x
AGP 8x

32
32
32
32

66
66
66
66

1
2
4
8

266
533
1066
2133

AGP PCI, AGP


PCI ,
IDE/ATA, SCSI USB, .
, AGP
. 
AGP , 
. ,
.
AGP 
,
.

310

4.


, ,
. 
:
;
(IRQ);
(DMA);
.

 .
, 
. 6,
. .
, , IRQ,
DMA, .
IRQ. DMA , .
 , 64 , 
, , .
, ( )
,
.
.

. . ,
IRQ , 
DMA.
16 , IRQ .
,
.
, IRQ . 
,
, IRQ .. 
Windows9, Plug and Play,
.
, ,
.

(IRQ), , 
() 
.

. IRQ
,
. 
, , 
() . ,
, .

311

, 
, . , 
, ;
BIOS, .
, 
,
( ) , 
.
.
, , 
, 
. , ,
(, UART 16550 ),
, .
: ,
.
.
.

. Internal stack overflow system halted.
DOS, ,
Stacks ( ) Config.sys.
ISA ,
, .
.
, , 
, 
. , , 
() () .
. 
PCI. 
BIOS .
PCI PCI
IRQ Steering , Windows 95 OSR 2.x,
BIOS . Windows 
Plug and Play PCI
( PCI INTA#),
PCI.
, .. 
() , .
ISA ,
.
IRQ, .

ISA, EISA MCA -.

PCI
PCI ,
, . INTA#, INTB#, INTC#
INTD#. INT# ,

312

4.

PCI. PCI 
, INTA#,
PCI.
INTB#, INTC# INTD#.
PCI 
ISA. 
, 
PCI, INTA# PCI, , 
ISA. ,
PCI PCI, 
INTA#. 
ISA, IRQ9, IRQ10, IRQ11 IRQ5.
ISA PCI .
ISA . ,
? 
PCI.
BIOS, Plug and Play, 
, Windows 95b (OSR 2), . 
. , 
Windows 95, Windows 95a .
BIOS PCI. 
, 
. , ,
, BIOS.
,
PCI. 
, .
, , 
.
1. (Start)
(Settings Control Panel).
2. (System).
3. (Device Manager).
4. + (System Devices).
5. PCI (PCI Bus). 
IRQ (IRQ Steering). .
Windows 2000/XP ,
IRQ (IRQ Steering) (Device
Manager).
. 
, Get IRQ Table Using 
, 
. Windows 
IRQ:
ACPI BIOS;
MS;
PCIBIOS 2.1 ;
PCIBIOS 2.1 .

313


IRQ. 
IRQ ACPI BIOS, IRQ
PCIBIOS 2.1 . ,
Windows 98; Windows 95 .
, ,
Device Manager ( ) Windows 9x, PCIISA 
ISA.
,
(, USB), 
IRQ , IRQ Holder for PCI Steering. , 
,
; , 
 .
PCI Plug and Play
. Windows 2000/XP
, IRQ Holder .
PCI
PCI. , IDE USB,
, PCI.
PCI IDE ISA 14 ( IDE) 15 ( IDE).
USB 9, 10, 11 5.
PCI bus master () slave
(). bus master
slave. PC 97, PCI 
, .
PCI .
PCI , PCI
. 
. Bus Master
. : 
,
.


, (IRQ) 
COM2, ,
( PC, 
, WinModem). , 
, 
. 2.
2, 
(IRQ) .
: BIOS Setup
COM2. , COM1, 
.
(IRQ) .
IRQ .
, IRQ 3 2, IRQ 4 1. 
,
, .

314

4.

IRQ .
IRQ 3 , IRQ 4 
. 2 4 IRQ 3,
1 3 IRQ 4. , 1 COM3
; 2 4. , ,
IRQ , 
. DOS ,
, Windows OS/2 .

COM, , , 3 4, 
.
 ,
(IRQ 12) 2 (IRQ 5),
. , 
IRQ 5
.
, 
Windows 9 Windows NT/2000/XP.
: ,
. Microsoft
HWDIAG Windows 95B ;
. Windows XP
MSInfo32.


,
. , , 
(DMA), SCSI.
DMA , . ,
DMA 1 , ,
.
DMA.

DMA ISA, EISA MCA -.

-

. , 
.
IRQ , 
. 65 535 , 0000h
FFFFh, , , Intel.
, . 
, .
, Plug and Play,
 ,
.
 , 
, , . , ,
1000h, SIMM DIMM.

315

1000h ,
, , .
, 
.
,
. , 
, . , 
, , .

 0h FFh, 100h FFFFh. . 4.58 
, 
.
4.58. ,

()

000-000F
0020-0021
002E-002F
0040-0043
0048-004B
0060
0061
0064
0070, 7
0070, 6:0
0071
0078
0079
0080-008F
00A0-00A1
00B2
00B3
00C0-00DE
00F0

16
2
2
4
4
1
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
16
2
1
1
31
1

8237 DMA 1
8259 (1)
Super I/O
/ 1
/ 2
Reset IRQ
NMI,
CMD/STAT
Enable NMI
MC146818 ,
MC146818 ,



8259 (2)
APM
APM
8237 DMA 2

, ,
Windows.
, , , 100h. . 4.59 
, .
4.59.
()

0130-0133
0134-0137
0168-016F
0170-0177
01E8-01EF
01F0-01F7
0200-0207
0210-0217
0220-0233
0230-0233
0234-0237
0238-023B
023C-023F

4
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
20
4
4
4
4

Adaptec SCSI ()
Adaptec SCSI ()
IDE
IDE
IDE
IDE/AT (16 )

IBM XT Expansion Chassis
Creative Labs Sound Blaster 16 Audio ( )
Adaptec SCSI ()
Adaptec SCSI ()
MS ()
MS ( )

316

4.

. 4.59
()

0240-024F
0240-0253
0258-025F
0260-026F
0260-0273
0270-0273
0278-027F
0280-028F
0280-0293
02A0-02AF
02C0-02CF
02E0-02EF
02E8-02EF
02EC-02EF
02F8-02FF
0300-0301
0300-030F
0320-0323
0320-032F
0330-0331
0330-0333
0334-0337
0340-034F
0360-036F
0366
0367, 6:0
0370-0375
0376
0377, 7
0377, 6:0
0378-037F
0380-038F
0388-038B
03B0-03BB
03BC-03BF
03BC-03BF
03C0-03CF
03D0-03DF
03E6
03E7, 6:0
03E8-03EF
03F0-03F5
03F6
03F7, 7
03F7, 6:0
03F8-03FF
04D0-04D1
0530-0537
0604-060B
0678-067F
0778-077F
0A20-0A23
0A24-0A27
0CF8-0CFB
0CF9
0CFC-0CFF
FF00-FF07
FF80-FF9F
FFA0-FFA7
FFA8-FFAF

16
20
8
16
20
4
8
16
19
16
16
16
8
4
8
2
16
4
16
2
4
4
16
16
1
7
6
1
1
7
8
16
4
12
4
4
16
16
1
7
8
6
1
1
7
8
2
8
8
8
8
4
4
4
1
4
8
32
8
8

SMC Ethernet ( )
Creative Labs Sound Blaster 16 ()
Intel Above Board
SMC Ethernet ()
Creative Labs Sound Blaster 16 ()
- ( ) Plug and Play
2 (LPT2)
SMC Ethernet ()
Creative Labs Sound Blaster 16 ()
SMC Ethernet ()
SMC Ethernet ()
SMC Ethernet ()
4 (COM4)
, 8514 ATI
2 (COM2)
MPU-401 MIDI ()
SMC Ethernet ()
XT (8 )
SMC Ethernet ()
MPU-401 MIDI ( )
Adaptec SCSI ( )
Adaptec SCSI ()
SMC Ethernet ()
SMC Ethernet ()
IDE ()
IDE ()

IDE ()
()
IDE ()
1 (LPT1)
SMC Ethernet ()
FM-
, Mono/EGA/VGA
1 (LPT1)
3 (LPT3)
, EGA/VGA
, CGA/EGA/VGA
IDE ()
IDE ()
3 (COM3)

IDE ()
()
IDE
1 (COM1)
PCI
Windows ( )
Windows ()
LPT2 ECP
LPT1 ECP
IBM Token Ring ( )
IBM Token Ring ()
PCI
Turbo (Reset Control Register)
PCI
Bus Master IDE
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
Bus Master IDE
Bus Master IDE

317

, , 

Windows.

. , , , 
.

,

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, 
.
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 . 
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;
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Windows 2000/XP.
Windows 2000/XP
. .
.
!
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.
, 
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.
, . 
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.

318

4.


, PS/2, , ISA, . , :

BIOS;

BIOS ,
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BIOS Setup. , 
, Plug and Play (, , Windows 9x/Me/2000/XP),
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(, Windows NT) PnP.

, , , , 
, CDROM DVD.
.
 
, . 

.

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: , ,
,
. , , 
.

(
(Start) (Settings) (Control Panel) (System)
(Device Manger)). ,
.

.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. , MPEG, 3D ..
5. SCSI.
6. .

.

319




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(Device Manager) 
. PnP
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, ROM RAM .
,
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320

4.


:
IRQ, DMA . , ,
. 
Sound Blaster 16, Creative Labs.
. 4.60 Creative Labs
SB512.
4.60. Creative Labs SB512

16-
DMA

8-
DMA

Sound
Blaster 16

Creative

Creative
Creative SB512

0220-022F 0330-03311
0388-038B2
D400-D407

0200-0207

C860-C87F

1 MIDI$.
2 FM$.
3 PCI.

, 
Sound Blaster . SB 
( , DOS),
. 

, IRQ DMA, 
. ,
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PnP. 
, 
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. ,
. - , , .
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,
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.

Sound Blaster 16 
Adaptec SCSI. DMA 5
 330331.
SCSI ,
.

321

(Sound Blaster 16 AHA1542CF) ,


, , 
.
PCI,

DMA. DMA 
PCI, , ,
Windows 95/3.x PCI ISA.
PCI,
Windows 98 ( IRQ Steering) 
BIOS. 
.
ISA, , 
.

PCI
(, DOS), , ISA,
DMA.
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, DMA-
, .
, PC/PCI,
PC/PCI- . DAM ISA- .

SCSI

, , , . 
: 
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 16
ROM , , RAM ( ). , 
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SCSI, 
, IRQ, DMA, 
. ,
, . 

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16 ,
. ,
, 
.

322

4.



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, 
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 .
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 ( , 4).
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, 4 
2E82EF, .
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.
, , , ,
 , , , 
, 
4.
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, . ,
,
BIOS AGP/PCI.
.

(Universal Serial Bus USB)


USB 1.1/2.0 , 
Windows Me/2000/XP . , USB
, !
(, COM LPT).
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USB , ,
( 127),
(IRQ).
USB, .
USB,
CMOS , IRQ, 
. , USB , ,
, ., IRQ . ,
ISA.
,
CD/DVD , , 
, USB 2.0. 
USB 1.1
USB. ,
USB 2.0 .
,

323



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), , 
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, .
,
.
MPEG,
. 
, DVD.

Plug and Play



. 1995 , 
.

, .
Plug and Play , 
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. 
, DMA IRQ. Plug and Play
ISA, PCI, SCSI, IDE PCMCIA.
Plug and Play, :
Plug and Play;
Plug and Play BIOS;
Plug and Play .
Plug and Play, .. 
.


, .
, Plug and Play 
ISA. , , , , 
, .
Plug and Play BIOS
. , BIOS

. .

BIOS
BIOS
BIOS, Plug and Play. BIOS 13 
, 
Plug and Play. BIOS, Plug and Play, 
, Compaq, Intel Phoenix Technologies.
Plug and Play BIOS POST
. BIOS ,
Plug and Play. .

324

4.

1. .
2. ISA Plug and Play.
3. : , IRQ,
DMA .
4. .
5. ROM ISA.
6. , 
.
7. .
8. .
9. .


Windows 9/Me/2000/XP.
Windows NT 4.0, Plug and Play, , 
.  Windows NT 4.0
\DRVLIB\PNPISA.
PNPISA.INF. Windows 2000
Plug and Play.
,
BIOS. , 
( ) 
. 
( ) .
, , .

Plug and Play ACPI , BIOS .


Flash ROM, Plug and Play,
BIOS Web- /
BIOS.



, ,  . 
, . 
, 
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, .
( ) . 
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PC . ,
, .
, . 
( , !).

325

. 
, DIMM
SDRAM RIMM RDRAM ( , 
). , AGP 4 ATA
100/133. , , 
. , ,
,
.
. 
 .
, 
. ; 
. ,  
( ). 
Celeron 4/Pentium 4,
Athlon XP Athlon 64.
Intel AMD, 
, 3
.
. 
,
.
Socket A (Socket 462) Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP, Socket 478 (
Socket 423) Pentium 4/Celeron 4 Socket 758
Athlon 64. , ,
.
.
, , , 400 800
Pentium 4 200/333
Duron/Athlon/Athlon XP. ,
, .
$. 
, ,
. ,
 . ,
 , 
, 
. 
 .
SIMM/DIMM/RIMM. SIMM 
, ,
. DDR DIMM RIMM,
SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM. 
,
, ,
. DDR SDRAM RDRAM 
, RDRAM .
, , 
(), , 
. , 

326

4.

, , 
. .
, 
DIMM  RIMM.
, .
. ISA.
PCI ( ). ,
PCI PCI 2.1. 
, ,

. AGP
4x/8x. , AMR (Audio Modem
Riser) CNR (Communications Networking Riser),
, 
.
BIOS. BIOS 
AMI, Award Phoenix. BIOS 
FlashROM EEPROM.
BIOS ,
Flash ROM.
. ATX
( microATX flexATX), Baby
AT LPX.
NLX flexATX.
.
( 
, , ). 
, Super I/O , ,
USB.
, ,
, . 
, Super I/O.
Ethernet 10/100,
DSL Internet. 
.
, .
. 
Sound Blaster, ,
.
IDE. , ,
IDE, IDE 
. , , UDMA/66
(ATA66),
IDE. UDMA/66/100/133 
, ,
. , 
IDE RAID. 
, 
, , , 
,

327

IDE. 
, RAID,
AMI, HighPoint Promise. 
Serial ATA, RAID. SATA 
, ATA133
SATA .

, ,
.
Motherboard Homeworld's Mobot,
, , , , , , .. , : http://iceberg.pchomeworld.com/cgi-win/mobotGen/mobot.asp.

. 
SL Enhanced APM (Advanced Power Management) SMM (System
Management Mode),
.
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface).
, EnergyStar, 
30 .
.
, 
, , ,
SIMM, DIMM, RIMM ,
. BIOS,
,
. ,
.
,
( , 
!). , ,
, 
, .
, Intel, Acer, ABIT,
AsusTek, Elitegroup, FIC (First International Computer) .. 
, : , 
, , 
. , 
.



. 
. ,  
. , 
900 , ,
600 . , ?
, , ,

328

4.

, .. , 
.
,
30%.
, 
, Intel . 
Pentium 800 
1 066 . , ,
. , , 
1 , , 1000,
.
Intel AMD , 
.
, , , 
. 
(FSB). 
, 
FSB.
Web . 
, .

, !
, , , . Intel Processor Frequency ID Utility, , . ,
Intel, , ,
Pentium III, Celeron ( Coppermine),
. Intel Processor Frequency ID Utility
: http://developer.intel.com/support/processors/ tools/frequencyid/download.htm.
.
, !
.

Norton Utilities Symantec,


.
, 3, 
.

329

330

4.

5

-

BIOS

. .

BIOS.
BIOS $. ,
BIOS
. BIOS .
, BIOS , .
,  BIOS, 
. BIOS,
, firmware. (  
BIOS ).
32 ,
. , 
Windows NT/2000/XP, 16
, (ROM) .
32 
, .
, Windows XP, 
. 
, . 
BIOS , Windows XP
.
. 
,
, , 
.
.

, .
, . 
. 5.1.

""


""

"" ROM BIOS


"" ROM BIOS


(API)

. 5.1. PC

332

5. -

, 
BIOS
. ,
(, , .),
.
API (Application Programming Interface).
, , ,
. 
, ,
.
, , BIOS 
. . ,
.

, , , . , 
, DOS,
Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP, OS/2, Linux .
, 
. , Windows Me Windows 98/95, 
Windows 98 Windows 2000/NT.
BIOS , 
, .
, Windows XP ,
, .., , 
.
. 5.1,
, BIOS , 
, 
. 
, BIOS.

BIOS
, BIOS 
. BIOS ,
, .
BIOS :
;
(, );
, ( ).
BIOS (, ,
, ..), 
. (,
CDROM, SCSI, USB ..) 
BIOS.
,
. , , ,
PC Card (PCMCIA) ..
,
. , , ,
,
BIOS

333

? ,
(readonly memory ROM) .
. , 
,
BIOS. , 
, BIOS.
BIOS .
BIOS BIOS 
. , IBM 
.
. , 
, 
.
BIOS 
BIOS ,
. BIOS, , :
BIOS;
BIOS CMOS RAM
BIOS CMOS RAM . ,
Setup BIOS CMOS
RAM. , , , .
BIOS . ,
RTC/NVRAM,
. ,
. CMOS
, -
(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor CMOS).
Motorola MC146818, RTC/NVRAM,
64 , 10 .
, /
, , . ,
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), , .
CMOS RAM, , , RTC/NVRAM. , RTC/NVRAM,
( ),
. ,
.
Dallas Semiconductor RTC/NVRAM (, DS12885
DS12887), .
BIOS Setup /
, RTC/NVRAM (, , CMOS RAM).
,
CMOS RAM. - (BIOS) CMOS RAM, .

334

5. -

SCSI$ , BIOS SCSI


, ..
CDROM, , Zip SCSI;
SCSI SCSI CDROM,
CDROM;
,
; IPL (Initial program
load ), 

;
IDE 
.

BIOS
, ,
BIOS ROM BIOS. 
, 
. POST ( )
. CMOS,
, . CMOS 
NVRAM (NonVolatile RAM).
, BIOS ,
.
. BIOS PC
.
POST , , 
, , , ,
.
BIOS (Setup BIOS)
. ( 
) POST.
286 386 .
,
. ,
(
55AAh), .
MBR , 
, (Volume Boot
Record VBR). VBR
, IO.SYS (DOS/Windows 9x/Me) NTLDR
(Windows NT/2000/XP), .
BIOS , 
. DOS Windows
BIOS.

ROM,
ROM, PROM EPROM -.

BIOS

335

EEPROM, Flash ROM


ROM 
. Flash ROM, ,
, , .
Flash ROM, ROM ,
.
Flash ROM EEPROM 
. , ,
1994 , . ,
Chevy Impala SS 1994 PCM
Flash ROM.
Flash ROM 28xxxx 29xxxx .
Flash ROM ROM, 
. , 
Web , .
Web ,
BIOS . BIOS
,
. , BIOS, 
LS120 ( 120 ) USB.

, ,
. , ROM . ,
, , ROM
,
. GM, BIOS, Vehicle
Calibration General Motors, : http://calid.gm.com/vci/.
(Vehicle Identification Number VIN)
Web- Flash ROM,
. , VIN Impala
1994 , , Flash ROM, .. . ,
. , , , , check engine ..
Flash ROM , . , Flash ROM Impala Comoro. ,
, .
Flash ROM , Fastchip
(http://www.fastchip.com) Superchips (http://www.superchips.com). (
Vendor List -.) Flash ROM
Web- http://www.diy-efi.org.

336

5. -

, ,
Flash ROM. , , ! ,
Flash ROM ISDN Motorola
Kodak. ,
ROM. ,
, Web 
.
Flash ROM
, CD/DVD .
, X2 K56Flex V.90/V.92
CDROM .

ROM BIOS
BIOS 
.
BIOS.
PC ROM BIOS 
, American Megatrends, Inc. (AMI), Phoenix Software Award Software ( 
Phoenix Software).
ROM BIOS, ,
. ROM
BIOS, ,
. ROM BIOS
. ROM BIOS . AMI, Award, Microid
Research Phoenix BIOS,
.
BIOS .
BIOS Intel Phoenix AMI, Phoenix
AMI. 1995 Intel BIOS Phoenix.
, 1997 BIOS AMI Phoenix.
, 1999 Intel AMI. 
, Intel BIOS , 
. Intel 
, BIOS
. , 
BIOS AMI.
1998 Phoenix Award,
Phoenix. ,
Phoenix AMI. 
 AMI, 
BIOS Phoenix. BIOS
, .
BIOS, Phoenix BIOS 4.0, FirstBIOS Pro,
Phoenix BIOS Award BIOS FirstBIOS.
BIOS
, 32 64 ,
. BIOS .
BIOS, , 
, BIOS 
64 PCI.
BIOS
, .
BIOS

337

BIOS OEM%
OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturers) 
ROM. , Compaq, AT&T Acer BIOS,
BIOS AMI, Phoenix Award, 
BIOS, 
. ROM
BIOS, , , 
( , , ).
OEM BIOS, 
. , HewlettPackard ,
BIOS. HewlettPackard ;
Phoenix .
, Vectra PC HewlettPackard BIOS
Phoenix. : 
Phoenix, HewlettPackard.

BIOS AMI, Award, Phoenix Microid research (MR) -.

BIOS
ROM BIOS . 
BIOS , 
ROM.
ROM BIOS , 
. BIOS
.
BIOS
PC , . BIOS
, .
BIOS,
, American Megatrends, Inc. (AMI), Award Software (
Phoenix), Microid Research Phoenix Technologies Ltd. , 
BIOS, ,
, 
. BIOS ROM
. ,
BIOS .
BIOS, 
. , 
IDE LS120 ( 120 ) 
, BIOS. 
, ,
8 .
ROM BIOS :
LS120 (SuperDisk) Iomega Zip;
USB;
8,4 137 (48
LBA);

338

5. -

UltraDMA/33, UltraDMA/66
UDMA/100 IDE;
CDROM ( El Torito);
Plug and Play;
, 2000
;

;
;

(Advanced System Configuration and Power Interface ACPI);
/ 
;
USB;
.

, ,
BIOS, . 
Plug and Play Windows 9x/Me/2000/XP BIOS.
, 
Web 
.
, , 
, BIOS .
BIOS 
BIOS, Zip/LS120, ACPI,
PCI IRQ .., BIOS Wizard, 
Web eSupport.com ( Unicore) : http://www.esupport.com/
techsupport/award/awardutils.htm.

BIOS

. BIOS . ,
BIOS Web
.
eSupport ( Unicore) Award BIOS 
, , 
, .
Phoenix Micro Firmware ,
BIOS. Microid Research
BIOS (AMI, Award Phoenix)
.
. Web
eSupport.

BIOS

339

BIOS
BIOS :
;
BIOS;
(, Pentium MMX, AMD K6, Cyrix/IBM 6x86MX, MII,
Pentium II, Pentium III/4, AMD Athlon, Athlon XP ..).
BIOS , 
. , BIOS .
CMOS.

POST.
( splash screen).
BIOS Setup -
( BIOS).
Setup BIOS. , , , - POST (quiet boot). BIOS,
, .
, , , Intel, Web- http://developer.intel.com/design/motherbd/
gen_indx.htm.

- . (POST) <Pause>. , .
POST .

, BIOS
BIOS Setup. , 
Super I/O, , 
BIOS Agent.
Web, BIOS.
, BIOS
. ,

. ,
.
, <Pause>, .
.
PC 2001, Intel
Microsoft, Fast POST. 
, ,
, 12 ( , 
SCSI ).
, ATA. , 

340

5. -

ROM, 4 . , Intel Rapid


Bios Boot (RBB), ,
2001 . 6 .

CMOS BIOS
BIOS BIOS
Setup ( RAM) CMOS. , , 
, 
. , Norton Utilities, , 
, BIOS. , 
BIOS
CMOS RAM, 
. ,
CMOS RAM, .
BIOS Setup 
<Shift+Prtsc> 
. ,
( ) , 
CMOS. , 
BIOS, CMOS RAM,
BIOS . 
286/386, Plug and
Play .

,
BIOS.
,
, .


( 286) , , ( (ROM) ), .
Super I/O South Bridge .
40- Intel 8042, ,
, -. , -.
, Super I/O
South Bridge, , , 8042 .
A20,
. A20 .
.
, DOS Windows 95/98/NT/2000.
, ,
1990- , .
, BIOS .

BIOS

341

Flash BIOS
1996 BIOS Flash ROM.

.
PROM 
, Flash ROM
.
Flash ROM BIOS Internet
, , Flash ROM
. Web ;

BIOS. ,
, 
.
, .
Flash ROM ; , 
, . 
, ROM. 
ROM , . 
 ROM BIOS
. BIOS 
Flash ROM ,
. Intel .
: ,
BIOS . Web.
.
BIOS 
. Web
 Vendor List,
.

Flash BIOS
, . , .
Web- .

BIOS ,
, 
.
Flash ROM, 
, . 
Intel.
BIOS Intel ;
BIOS Intel
Windows. Flash BIOS ,
BIOS, BIOS
Setup BIOS.

342

5. -


Flash BIOS USB-, .
BIOS .
, BIOS Byte Merge
Award BIOS FirstBIOS. BIOS . .


CMOS, 
. DOS (.. 
) BIOS . 
.
iFlash, , BIOS, 
,
, Windows 95, MS DOS , , Linux.
Express BIOS Intel ( Windows 98, Windows NT 4,
) BIOS 
GUI ( ) 
InstallShield, Windows. 

Intel iFlash BIOS.
1. , CMOS. 
(<F1> BIOS AMI,
<F2> BIOS Phoenix) CMOS.
BIOS. 
.
. : , 
.
2. BIOS .
DOS.
3. :.
 , :
C:\>FORMAT A:
, (Windows
Explorer).
4. , Web Intel, 
, .
. ,
. ( <Enter>.) 
. , CB-P06.EXE (
Intel D810E2CB),
C:\TEMP>CB-P06
<Enter>.
5. ,
BIOS. Intel Flash BIOS 
: Desc.txt, License.txt, Readme.txt, Run.bat (
) SW.EXE ( BIOS).
BIOS

343

6. Run.bat. 
SW.EXE 
, A:.
7. , .
iFLASH,
, BIOS .
8. BIOS 
<Enter> .
9. Setup BIOS, <F1> <F2>
. BIOS
, .
10. Setup BIOS, BIOS ,
. AMI BIOS <F5>.
Phoenix BIOS Exit, Load Setup Defaults
<Enter>.
!
BIOS , .

11. , , 
. <F10>,
Setup BIOS . 
BIOS.


CMOS, .
BIOS, .

Intel BIOS
. , BIOS BIOS.EXE,
, 12- , -.

Flash BIOS
Flash BIOS
:
The BIOS is currently being updated. DO NOT REBOOT OR POWER DOWN
until the update is completed (typically within three minutes)...
( BIOS.
( ) .)

BIOS  , . 
,
Flash BIOS , 
, BIOSWorld (www.biosworld.com).
BIOS, ,

344

5. -

. , 
, ROM. 
; ,
Flash BIOS,
. 
Andromeda Research ( Vendor List
).
Flash BIOS
, .
,
. , Flash
BIOS, Recovery BIOS.
,  
BIOS. BIOS 
, . , ,
, 
, :.
1. Flash Recovery Recovery.
Intel . 
Recovery/Normal. . 5.2
Intel SE440BX.

"J
8A

1"

3
"J8A1"

. 5.2. Flash Recovery Intel

BIOS

345

2. BIOS (
. 5 ) .
BIOS , 
. , .
BIOS 
. , , 
.
3. , 
. 
; .
, ,
.
4. Flash Recovery .
.
A: BIOS , 
BIOS.

BIOS .
BIOS
.

IML
IBM Compaq Flash BIOS 
IML (Initial Microcode Load ).
BIOS
. , BIOS .
BIOS .
, BIOS, , 
(Setup, Diagnostics Reference Disk), 
. 
.
, BIOS ;

. ,
, Reference Disk.
!
.
, ILM BIOS, .

CMOS-
AT Motorola 146818
(10 ) (54 ),
. 54 IBM AT
.
Motorola 146818 .
( South Bridge) 
Super I/O,
NVRAM (NonVolatile RAM) , Dallas Benchmarq.

346

5. -

. 5.1 64 CMOS.
, . 
Setup BIOS.
5.1. CMOS- AT
HEX DEC
,

00h

- ( BCD)

01h

BCD

02h
03h

2
3

1
1

BCD
BCD

04h
05h

4
5

1
1

BCD
BCD

06h
07h

6
7

1
1

BCD
( BCD)

08h
09h

8
9

1
1

BCD
BCD

0Ah
0Bh

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

23
24

1
1

(extended)
(extended)

25
26
27
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
54
55
62
63

1
1
9
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
7
1
1

0 (0255)
1 (0255)

CMOS-
CMOS-
(extended)
(extended)
BCD
POST

0Ch
0Dh
0Eh
0Fh
10h
11h
12h
13h
14h
15h
16h
17h
18h
19h
1Ah
1Bh
2Eh
2Fh
30h
31h
32h
33h
34h
36h
37h
3Eh
3Fh

BIOS Setup,
( )
(extended) CMOS-
(extended) CMOS-

BCD Binary$coded decimal ($ ).


LSB Least significant byte ( () ).
MSB Most significant byte ( () ).
POST Power on self test ( ).

BIOS

347

,
CMOS 2 4 . 
Plug and Play. . 5.1
, CMOS ,
, BIOS.
,
CMOS RAM.
BIOS , 
.
. 5.2 ,
BIOS CMOS.
, ,
.
5.2.

7
1

HEX
80
40
20

10

08
04
02
01
00


CMOS
POST
POST

,


()

, 0,
CMOS. 
, Setup BIOS.

ROM BIOS
Flash ROM 1995 . 
EPROM. BIOS
EPROM ,
BIOS. BIOS ,
Flash ROM, . ,
BIOS , 1995 .
50 BIOS , 
Pentium Pentium II, Flash BIOS, 
75 ?
BIOS . 
ROM BIOS, .
1. CMOS.
2. .
3. .
4. ,
ROM BIOS. ! 
, .

348

5. -

5. , 
ROM BIOS .
6. ROM BIOS .
7. .
8. , .
9. BIOS.
10. .

CMOS
CMOS RAM 
.
Setup, , .

Setup BIOS

. 
BIOS , 
POST.
AMI BIOS <Delete>.
Phoenix BIOS (FirstBIOS Pro) <F2>.
Award BIOS (FirstBIOS) <Delete> <Ctrl+Alt+Esc>.
Microid Research BIOS <Esc>.
Setup BIOS,
.
Setup BIOS
.
IBM Aptiva/Valuepoint <F1> ( POST).
Toshiba <Esc> ; <F1>.
Phoenix BIOS <Ctrl+Alt+Esc> <Ctrl+Alt+S> ( 
).
Compaq <F10> ( POST).
. 
Setup BIOS Intel D845PEBT2.
,
.

Setup BIOS
Setup BIOS ,
. 5.3.

BIOS ,
Setup, Intel.
- , .. BIOS
.

CMOS

349

5.3. Setup BIOS

Maintenance ()

.
Configure,

Main ( )
Advanced ( )
Security ()
Power ()

(
)


Boot ()
Exit ()

Maintenance

. 
. Intel
, Configure
Maintenance BIOS.
,
. 
Normal Configure (. . 5.2). Intel
, .
BIOS Setup, 
Maintenance, . 5.4. 
, Normal.
5.4. Maintenance*

Clear All Passwords (


)

Clear BiS ( BiS)


CPU Stepping Signature (
)
CPU Microcode Update Revision
( )

BiS (Boot Integrity Service)


* BIOS Intel D845PEBT2.

Intel
( ), 
( ).
, 
Configure, Setup BIOS
Clear All Passwords Maintenance. 
, , 
, .

Extended Configuration
Intel ,
Advanced.

350

5. -

Main
Setup BIOS .
, ,
. Setup BIOS 
, BIOS, , 
(Error Correcting Code ECC).
. 5.5 Main.
5.5. Main

BIOS Version ( BIOS)


Processor Type ( )
Processor Speed (
)
System Memory Speed
( )
Cache RAM (-)

BIOS

-
(L2),
()


DIMM,

Total Memory (
)
Memory Bank 0
Memory Bank 1
Memory Bank 2
( 0, 1 2)
Language ()

System Time
( )
System Date
( )

English (default)
(
( ))
Deutch ()
Espanol ()
Hour, minute, second
(, , )
Month, day, year
(, , )

, Setup BIOS

BIOS , . 5.6.
5.6. Main
ECC Configuration
( ECC)
L2 cache ECC Support
( ECC
-
)

Non-ECC (default) ( ECC


( ))
ECC ( ECC)
Disabled (default) (
( ))
Enabled ()

ECC

ECC -
. ,
-

(Error Correction Code )


.

DIMM. :
, DIMM . 
, 
. 

CMOS

351

64256 . , 
.
, 
. ,
. 

, , .
, ,
.

. , 
(conventional), 640 . 
, 1024 , .
Setup BIOS
, . ,
.

Advanced
,
. . . 5.7
Advanced Intel D845PEBT2 845PE.
5.7. Advanced

PCI Configuration ( PCI)

Boot Configuration (
)

Peripheral Configuration
(
)
IDE Configuration
( IDE)
Diskette Configuration (
)
Event Log Configuration (
)
Video Configuration
( )
USB Configuration ( USB)

(IRQ)
PCI.
PCI Configuration
Numlock Plug and Play,
. Boot Configuration

IDE-

Diskette
Configuration
.
Event Log Configuration
.
Video Configuration

Chipset Configuration (
)

Fan Control Configuration ( )

USB.
USB Configuration
.
Chipset
Configuration
.
Fan Control Configuration

PCI Configuration
PCI Configuration (IRQ)
, PCI. Auto (the default),
 IRQ
, PCI,
. PCI Configuration . 5.8.

352

5. -

5.8. PCI Configuration

PCI Slot 1 IRQ Priority


( PCI #1)
PCI Slot 2 IRQ Priority
PCI Slot 3 IRQ Priority
PCI Slot 4 IRQ Priority
PCI Slot 5 IRQ Priority

Auto (the default) ( (


)), 3, 5, 9, 10, 11

PCI 1

Auto (the default), 3, 5, 9, 10, 11


Auto (the default), 3, 5, 9, 10, 11
Auto (the default), 3, 5, 9, 10, 11

PCI
PCI
PCI
PCI

2
3
4
5

Boot Configuration
. 5.9 Plug and Play ,
.
5.9. Boot Configuration

Plug and Play O/S

No (default) ( ( ))
Yes ()
On (default) (
( ))
Off ()

Yes
Plug and Play. No BIOS

Numlock

Num Lock

Advanced

. ,
, Auto. DIMM/RIMM
ROM, 
. ,
, 
. 
, , , , 
, .
. 5.10 Chipset Configuration.
5.10. Chipset Configuration

ISA Enable bit


( ISA)

Disabled ()
Enabled (default) (
( ))

PCI Latency Timer


( PCI)

32 (default) ( )
64
96
128
160
192
224
248
Default ( )
User Defined (
)


PCIPCI 16-
-, 10- ISA (
-, )

( PCI), PCI

Extended Configuration
( )

CMOS

User Defined
, *

353

. 5.10

*SDRAM Frequency
( SDRAM)

Auto (default)
( ( )) 266
333 (
533 )
Auto (default) (
( ))
Manual (Aggressive) (
( ))
Manual (User Defined) (
( ))

;
,

*SDRAM Timing Control


( SDRAM)

8
7
6
5 (default) ( )
**SDRAM CAS Latency Time 2.0 (default) ( )
( SDRAM 2.5
CAS)
4
**SDRAM RAS#-to-CAS#
Delay ( SDRAM
3
RAS-to-CAS)
2 (default) ( )
4
**SDRAM RAS#
Precharge (
3
SDRAM RAS)
2 (default) ( )

**SDRAM RAS Active to


Precharge Time (
SDRAM RAS)

Auto .
Manual (Aggressive) . Manual
(User Defined)
,
**
tRAS

. BIOS Intel D845PEBT2.

. 5.11 Advanced.
5.11. Advanced

System BIOS Cacheable


( BIOS)

BIOS F0000h
FFFFFh, .

,
BIOS
C0000hC7FFFh, .
,
Enabled
A0000hAFFFFh,
.
,

- ISA PCI

Video BIOS Cacheable


( BIOS)

Video RAM Cacheable


( )

8/16 Bit I/O Recovery Time


( 8- 16-
-)
Memory Hole at 15M16M
(
1516 )
Passive Release
( )
Delayed Transaction
( )

354

1 15 16

, , 16 .

Enabled PCI
32- .
Enabled PCI 2.1

5. -

Peripheral Configuration
(. 5.12) , 
, , 
USB.
5.12. Peripheral Configuration

Serial port A
(
)

Disabled ()

Base I/O address


(
-)
Interrupt
()
Parallel port
( )
Mode
()

Base I/O address


( -)
Interrupt
()
DMA Channel (
DMA)
Audio
()
LAN Device
( )

A.
Auto
Enabled ()
COM-, COM 1, 3F8h
Auto (default) ( ( )) IRQ4. * ,
- 3F8 (default) ( )
A
2F8
3E8
2E8
IRQ 3
IRQ 4 (default) ( )

. LPT1
378h IRQ7. * ,

.
Output Only ( )
Output Only AT-
Bidirectional (default)
( ( )) ; Bidirectional PS/2 ; EPP
EPP
Extended Parallel Port;
ECP
ECP
Enhanced Capabilities Port. ( EPP ECP IEEE-1284
,
IEEE-1284.)
- 378 (default) ( )
B
278
Disabled ()
Enabled ()
Auto (default) ( ( ))

IRQ 5
IRQ 7 (default) ( )
DMA 1
DMA 3 (default) ( )
Disabled ()
Enabled (default) ( ( ))
Disabled (), Enabled
(default) ( ( ))

B
DMA
( ECP)



LAN ( )

IDE Configuration
(. 5.13) IDE,
, CDROM LS120 (SuperDisk), 
..
,
.
.

CMOS

355

5.13. IDE Configuration

IDE Controller
( IDE)

Disabled ()
Primary ()
Secondary ()
Both (default) ( ( ))

Hard Disk Pre-Delay


(
)

Disabled (default) (
( ))
3 Seconds (3 )
6 Seconds (6 )
9 Seconds (9 )
12 Seconds (12 )
15 Seconds (15 )
21 Seconds (21 )
30 Seconds (30 )

IDE. Primary
IDE; Secondary
IDE; Both
IDE

Primary IDE Master


( IDE)
Primary IDE Slave
( IDE)

Secondary IDE Master


( IDE)

Secondary IDE Slave


( IDE)


IDE-. Primary IDE Master

IDE-. Primary IDE Slave

IDE-. Secondary IDE Master

IDE-. Secondary IDE Slave

IDE Configuration
IDE.
Setup BIOS .
IDE,
. BIOS 
.
.
BIOS Identify Drive. 
.
. Auto , 
.
IDE.
Auto, BIOS
47 .
, , . 
.
BIOS User User Defined.
( ).
, Standard
LBA. Standard
528 . , 1998 ,
136,9 . , , 2002
, 137 , 
BIOS. IDE 
, , , 
, .

356

5. -

. 5.14 IDE, BIOS


.
5.14. IDE-

Drive Installed
( )

Type ()

Auto (default) ( ( ))
User ( )

IDE-. Auto .

Maximum Capacity
( )
LBA Mode
Disabled ()
( Enabled ()
LBA)

Block Mode (
)

PIO Mode (

-)

Ultra DMA
( Ultra DMA)

Cable Detected
(
)
ARMD Emulation Type
Floppy ( )
( ARMD)

LBA

,

- (PIO)

DMA
,
IDE: 40-
80- ( Ultra ATA-66/100/133)

LS-120 SuperDisk. ,
Floppy

Auto 
. , 
. 
BIOS .
, 
User . 
: ,
, , , .

Diskette Configuration
(. 5.15).
5.15. Diskette Configuration

Diskette Controller
( )

Disabled ()
Enabled (default) ( ( ))
Auto ()
Disabled ()
360KB, 5 1/4-inch (360 ; 5,25 )
1.2MB, 5 1/4-inch (1,2 ; 5,25 )
720KB, 3 1/2-inch (720 ; 3,5 )
1.44MB, 3 1/2-inch (default) (1,44 ;
3,5 ( ))
2.88MB, 3 1/2-inch (2,88 ; 3,5 )
Disabled (default) ( ( ))
Enabled ()

Diskette A:
( A:)

Diskette Write Protect


( )

CMOS

A:


A:

357

, 
,
.

Event Logging

System Management (SMBIOS), DMI
. DMI (Desktop Management Interface)
,
.
SMBIOS,
. Intel LANDesk Client
Manager, DMI:
BIOS, BIOS ;
, ;
, , 
;
,
.
. 5.16 DMI Events Logging.
5.16. DMI Events Logging

Event Log (
)

View event log (


)
Clear all event logs
( )

<Enter>

Event Logging
( )
Mark event as read (
)

No (default) ( ( ))
Yes ()
Disabled ()
Enabled (default) ( ( ))
<Enter>

, (), 
. ,
( ) , View Log.

Video Configuration
(. 5.17).
5.17. Video Configuration

AGP Aperture Size


(
AGP)
Default Primary Video Adapter
( ,
)

64MB (default) (64 ( ))


256MB (256 )

AGP

AGP (default) (AGP) ))


PCI

358

5. -

BIOS , . 5.18.
5.18. Video Configuration
Palette Snooping
( )
AGP Hardware Detected
( AGP)

Disabled (default) (
( ))
Enabled ()


PCI-
, ISA
, AGP 1,
2, 3 4.

Windows 98
Windows 2000/XP. 
, .. .

USB Configuration
USB Configuration USB. . 5.19 
BIOS.
5.19. USB Configuration

High-Speed USB
( USB)

Disabled () Enabled
(default) ( ( ))

Disabled,
USB 2.0 ; USB
USB 1.1

Legacy USB Support


( Legacy USB)

Disabled ()
Enabled (default) (
( ))

/ Legacy USB

, USB 1.1 USB 2.0, 


.
Legacy USB USB.
,
, USB. DOS,
,
Windows 98/Me/2000/XP. Legacy
USB BIOS.
Legacy USB,
USB, BIOS POST. Legacy
USB ( ),
.
1. Legacy USB.
2. POST.
3. Legacy USB BIOS,
USB Setup BIOS Maintenance.
4. POST Legacy USB ( Setup
BIOS Enabled ()).
5. , USB 
. 
USB.
, USB, BIOS
Legacy USB 
. USB

CMOS

359

Legacy USB USB .


Legacy USB, USB 
DOS DOS 
, USB.
Legacy USB 
USB PS/2. , PS/2 USB 
USB PS/2. , Legacy USB 
USB  
. USB
, USB .

Fan Control Configuration



. . 5.20 Fan Control Configuration
BIOS .
5.20. Fan Control Configuration

Fan Control (
)

Disabled () Enabled
(default) ( ( ))

Lowest Fan Speed


(
)

Slow (default) ( ( ))
Off ()

Slow . Off ,

Resource Configuration
ISA, 
Plug and Play.
12 , .

Security
BIOS Supervisor User.
Supervisor Setup BIOS, User
.
Supervisor, Setup BIOS 
.
BIOS. , 
BIOS .
User, 
. 
. , 
. .
, , ,
BIOS.
, . 
Maintenance, 
Setup BIOS.
, , , BIOS Setup, 
Clear All Passwords. ,
, Set Password <Enter> .
. 5.21 Security.

360

5. -

5.21. Security

Supervisor Password
( Supervisor)
User Password
( User)

Supervisor

User

Set Supervisor Password


(
Supervisor)
User Access Level ( ).

Supervisor

No access ( )


Setup BIOS

Set User Password


( User)
Clear User Password
( User)
Chassis Intrusion
(
)

User

User

Disabled (default) (
( ))
Log ( )

View Only ( )
Limited Full (default) (
( ))

Log, notify once ( ,


)
Log, notify until cleared (
,
)

, , 
. Intel
, Maintenance
BIOS Setup Clear Password.
,
1520 . CMOS,
, , .

Power

. 
: APM (Advanced Power Management),
, 386 486; ACPI (Advanced Configura
tion and Power Interface), 1998 .
: APM
, ACPI BIOS, , ,
.
BIOS Setup ACPI
Windows 98/Me/2000/XP.
. 5.22 BIOS .
BIOS (
) ( 
VESA DPMS Display Power Management Signaling). 
, .. , ,
 . 
.

CMOS

361

5.22. , BIOS

ACPI
After power failure (
)

ACPI (. 5.23)

.
Stay off . Last state

(/).
Power On


PCI

Stay off ( )
Last state (default) (
( ))
Power On ()

Wake on PCI PME (


PCI PME)

Stay off (default) (


( ))
Power On ()

5.23. ACPI

ACPI Suspend State


( ACPI)

S1 (default) ( )

Wake on LAN from S5 (


Wake on LAN, S5)

Stay off (default) (


( ))
Power On ()

ACPI.
S1, USB,
ACPI

ACPI,
Wake on LAN

S3


, BIOS.
, , 
, ACPI.

Boot
(. 5.24). 
 (, Windows XP),
CDROM
.
5.24. Boot

Quiet Boot ( )

Disabled () Enabled
(default) ( ( ))

POST;

Intel Rapid BIOS Boot (


BIOS)

POST

Scan User Flash Area


(
)

Disabled () Enabled
(default) ( ( ))
Disabled (default) (
( ))
Enabled ()

PXE Boot to LAN


(
)

Disabled ()
Enabled (default) (
( ))

USB Boot ( USB)

Disabled ()
Enabled (default) (
( ))

362

BIOS Flash-

,

/
. , Intel
Boot Agent Boot Device
/
USB

5. -

. 5.24

Serial ATA Boot (


SATA)

Disabled ()
Enabled (default) (
( ))

/
SATA

Serial ATA RAID (



Serial ATA Boot)
IDE RAID Boot ( IDE/ATA)

Disabled ()
Enabled (default) (
( ))

/ SATA- RAID

Disabled ()
Enabled (default) (
( ))

/
IDE RAID

Boot device priority (


)

Hard disk drives (


)

Removable devices (


)
ATAPI CD-ROM drives
( CD-ROM ATAPI)


. Boot Device Priority

. Hard Disk Drives

. Removable Devices

. ATAPI CD-ROM Drives

BIOS 
, Hard Drive Removable
Devices.
; , ,
, 
, . ,
.

USB, Zip LS120 SuperDisk.

Boot Device Priority


, 
.
. 5.25 .
5.25. Boot Device Priority

2nd boot device (2- )


3rd boot device (3- )
4th boot device (4- )

. 1-
. 1-
. 1-

Hard Disk Drives ( ) Setup BIOS


Intel D845PEBT2 12 ,
.
, . Hard Disk
Drives ,
BIOS, 

CMOS

363

. 
.
Removable Devices ATAPI CDROM Drives ( ) 
, .

. Zip SCSI
.

Exit
( . 5.26)
.
5.26. Exit

Exit Saving Changes


( )
Exit Discarding Changes
( )
Load Setup Defaults
( )
Load Custom Defaults
( )
Save Custom Defaults
( )
Discard Changes
( )


CMOS-

,




Setup BIOS

, 
. , .
. BIOS 
CMOS, , .

Setup BIOS
Setup BIOS 
, . 5.27.
5.27. Setup BIOS

CPU Hyper-threading
( HT)

BIOS , Intel
Pentium 4 3,06 HT.

, ,
3,3, 5 12 ,
, .
,


Serial ATA

IEEE-1394a DV,


ATA RAID ATA

PC Health

Serial ATA Controller


( Serial ATA)
IEEE-1394a Port ( IEEE-1394a)
ATA RAID Controller
( ATA RAID)

364

5. -

. 5.27

Virus Warning
( )

- - Enabled,
.
. , . , (, FDISK),
- .
,

CPU Internal Cache/External Cache


(/ -
)
Quick Power On Self Test
( )

Enabled
POST. Disabled
POST
.
Swap Floppy Drive
Enabled B: ( )
A, A: B
Boot Up Floppy Seek
Enabled BIOS ( ) (40 80 ). 40 , Disabled

Boot Up System Speed


(
)
Gate A20 Option
( A20)

Typematic Rate Setting


( )
Typematic Rate (Chars/Sec)
( ,
)
Typematic Delay (Msec)
( , )
Security Option ( )
PS/2 Mouse Function Control
(
PS/2)
HDD S.M.A.R.T. capability
(
S.M.A.R.T. )
Report No FDD For WIN 95
( Windows 95
)
ROM Shadowing
( ROM)

Operating Frequency (
)

CMOS

High , Low 8 . .

A20 .
Fast ( ), Normal .
Fast ,
(Windows 9x/2000/XP)
Disabled (Typematic Rate
Typematic Delay) . Enabled

: 6, 8,
10, 12, 15, 20, 24 30
:
250, 500, 750 1 000
,
Setup
PS/2, ,
, Disabled
S.M.A.R.T. . ,

Yes, , IRQ6. Disabled Onboard
FDC Controller,
ROM, ,
( 150 ) 8 ,
RAM (32- 64-)
60 10 .
(shadowing) BIOS ROM RAM,
BIOS, RAM
-
DIP .
CPU Clock Multiplier
CPU Frequency

365

. 5.27

CPU Frequency ( )


(66, 100 133 ),

CPU Clock Multiplier


(
)


, .
Intel , AMD
Athlon Duron

,

CPU Vcore Setting (


)

Plug and Play BIOS


PC 
. , 
DMA, .. , 
.
. ,
: , .
Plug and Play
. , 
.
Plug and Play :
Plug and Play BIOS;
Extended System Configuration Data (ESCD);
Plug and Play.
Plug and Play BIOS ,
Plug and Play. ,
BIOS ESCD, 
. , BIOS ESCD
. , . 
, BIOS 
, .
ESCD.

,
Plug and Play
, Plug and Play, 
, 
.
.
Plug and Play , 
(ID). , 
.

( ).

, Plug and Play,


-.

366

5. -

ACPI
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) 
,
. APM
(Advanced Power Management) 
, . ACPI , 
Plug and Play. ACPI
Plug and Play
, BIOS.
ACPI
( CDROM, , ). ,
, ,
, .
ACPI Windows 98/ME, Windows 2000/XP.

ACPI.  ACPI,
APM.
ACPI
( BIOS) (
) . ACPI . 5.28.
5.28. ACPI

1xxx-

ACPI;
ACPI
ACPI
ACPI

2xxx3xxx4xxx5xxx-


ACPI BIOS . 
ACPI, BIOS.

Plug and Play


POST BIOS , 
Plug and Play,
Card Select Number (CSN). BIOS
. BIOS
, .
( POST) Plug and Play BIOS
.
1. .
2. Plug and Play.
3. .
4. .
5. ROM ISA.
6. .
7. ISA Plug and Play.
8. .
Plug and Play BIOS

367

Plug and Play,


. ,
.

Plug and Play. ,
(Device Manager), Plug and Play.

BIOS
POST. 
, . 
, . , 
 80h. 
, (. 5.3).

. 5.3.

POST , 
.

. , , 
,
.
,
EGA VGA. , ,
, , 
.
, (, 
0) . 
POST.
, POST, 
. BIOS POST,
. POST ISA
PCI JDR Microdevices .
BIOS ,
, ,
. POST ,
, .
, ,
BIOS, .

368

5. -


-, , , - Phoenix, AMI,
Award, Microid Research IBM.

BIOS
, ROM
BIOS , 
, : 0, 0, 1 CHS
0 LBA. RAM,

55AAh. ROM MBR, ..
ROM .
, ROM 

, MBR.
, MBR, , ROM 18h,
.
ROM. 
.

ROM BIOS

, BIOS IBM
ROM BASIC.
The IBM Personal Computer Basic
Version C1.10 Copyright IBM Corp 1981
62940 Bytes free
Ok
IBM ROM BASIC
IBM, Cassette BASIC ( ROM BASIC).
, IBM
. - . , .
, IBM
.
16 . , .
BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic
Instruction Code) . IBM
BASIC, ROM BIOS, , .
, IBM ROM BASIC 1990- !
. ROM BASIC IBM , ,
.

BIOS

369

- ROM BASIC,
IBM . IBM ( 1981 ) ROM BASIC.
ROM BASIC, , , , .
, IBM, Cassette BASIC , ,
IBM . , BIOS AMI, ,
, :
NO ROM BASIC SYSTEM HALTED

,
IBM BIOS , 
, . 5.4.

. 5.4. IBM
,

. 5.4 ,
A: <F1>.
AMI BIOS MBR
:
NO ROM BASIC SYSTEM HALTED
, , ROM BIOS,
! AMI ROM 
BASIC ( ROM, 
IBM). , BASIC

. 
, , 
(MBR)
( ,  ..).
, Compaq BIOS :
Non-System disk or disk error
replace and strike any key when ready

370

5. -

, ( )

(VBR) DOS/Windows 9x/Me. ,
Compaq, , MBR, VBR
.
Award BIOS MBR 
:
DISK BOOT FAILURE, INSERT SYSTEM DISK AND PRESS ENTER
, Phoenix BIOS,
:
No boot device available strike F1 to retry boot, F2 for setup utility

No boot sector on fixed disk strike F1 to retry boot, F2 for setup utility

BIOS, . ,
, 
, .
,
.
( )
FDISK DOS. 
, 
55AAh. ,
ROM , 
, .
,
. ,  
, , ,
.
446 (1BEh), 462 (1CEh), 478 (1DEh) 494 (1EEh) .
,
() . 80h ,
, 00h.
, 80h (
) 80h 00h,
:
Invalid partition table
00h, 
() , 
, BIOS.
FDISK
(
() ) .

8,4 , CHS.
BIOS 8,4 . 
528 8,4

BIOS

371

CHS , 
DOS Windows (8,4 ).
, : ( 
Normal ()), CHS LBA.
CHS BIOS Large, LBA
LBA. 
LBA CHS (Large), 
BIOS , .

(MBR) MBR (VBR). 
MBR :
Missing operating system
,
528 8,4 (7,9 GiB),
BIOS. BIOS HiFlex WinBIOS AMI 
,
Advanced Builtin Peripherals.
BIOS.
!
32- Windows ,
Normal LBA, 528 (504 MiB)
MS DOS LBS . 1024 , Normal,
!
, MBR.
24 MBR ,
.

372

5. -

:
, .
, .
, , . 
, 
.
.
. 
, 
(reset).
, ,
, (
).
.

. , ,
, . ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
RAM (Random Access Memory)
, ,
(Dynamic RAM DRAM)
. DRAM (, 
, ) , , 
, , ,
(.., , ) 
15 ().
(Static RAM SRAM), . ,
.
(RAM), ..
, , 
, .
, 
, (, , 
RAM, ).
, 
, ,
. 
. (
) .
,
 .

.
, 
, . 
, .
, 

374

6.

, . ,
. , , 
. ,
. ,
.

.

.
, 
: , .
: ,

. , 
.
.
(RAM) :
, , ,
. , 
.
,
. 
, , . 
,
. (Save) 
.

, , .
,
, , .
, 
, 
. , , 
, . 1996
40 .
( ) 600 
. 1996 :
, , .
, 
. ,
, .
1996
4 . 1997
, 50 . 1998 ,
. Intel, 
Rambus DRAM (RDRAM) 
. 
, 
,
SDRAM. .
.

375


20 . , 2001 
, 
. 

.
, ,
.
, , 
, . 
.

, ( ).
.
ROM (Read Only Memory). , 
.
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory).
.
SRAM (Static RAM). .

ROM
ROM (Read Only Memory), ( 
), , . 
. ROM
, , , 
. ROM , .. 
, .
, ROM .
ROM . , 
ROM.
, .
BIOS ROM ,
. 
 , , 
, 
, . , 
, ROM,
.
Flash, 
 (Electrically Erasable
Programmable Readonly Memory EEPROM). Flash  
,
ROM,  (,
, SCSI, ..).
ROM 5,
.

376

6.

DRAM
(Dynamic RAM DRAM) 
. 
, , .. 
, , 
.
DRAM ,
. ( ) . , 
, , , .. 
,
. ,
. 
( 
), 
, 15 .
128 . , 1,92 (12815 ) 
.
, , : 
. 
10% ( ) ,
, , , 
1% ( ) . 
CMOS,
,
, .
. 
1%, 
.

, Setup BIOS. 
,
. 

(serial presence detect SPD)
.
DRAM
, , 
.
1 . , 
! Pentium 4 55 . . ?
, 
, , ,
, ,
, .
DRAM 
. , 1;
0. ,
. 
DRAM, , 
. ,
, .

377

;
, , ,
. ,
, 
. DRAM, 
.

- SRAM
, , 
(Static RAM SRAM). , , 
(DRAM), 
. . SRAM ,
DRAM, , .
SRAM 2 ; , 
500 .
SRAM . 
 , . (
, .) , SRAM
, . SRAM
? .

DRAM

SRAM

DRAM SRAM ,
, . , SRAM
, . 
SRAM,

DRAM. , DRAM
64 , SRAM
2 , . ,
SRAM 30 DRAM, .
SRAM 
.
,  SRAM
PC.
SRAM,
.  ,
, 
. 
, ..
DRAM. DRAM 60 (
16 ).
:
1/ 1000 = .
, :
1/ 1000 = .

378

6.

16 ,
DRAM ,
. , 16 , 
DRAM , 
SRAM . 198687 , PC
386, 16 20 . 
, .. ,
SRAM, 
. 
,
. 
, 
, .
 ,
. 
. , , 
; , 
. 
, ,
.
, 
, . ,
 , 
, . 
3 000 (3 ), 
0,33 , 
7,5 , .. 2,5 5 
(Double Data Rate DDR). ,
400 . , ,
3 , 7,5 ,
400 . (wait state). 
, ()
; , , , 
. 
.

,
: $ (L1) $ (L2).
 ; 
.
486  .
 ;
. .
( 386, 486 Pentium.) 
, .
 .
1999  ,
 .
 ,
,  (
1999 ), . 

379

,
.  ,
, , 
, . 
,  
. ,
 , 
,
 .
 , ( ) 
, . 
.
Itanium
.  

/ .
Pentium 4 4,
.
. 6.1 
.
6.1. - () ()

,
()

SIMM/
DIMM,
()

15 (66)

66

60 (16)

1/1

5 (200)

2562

66

60 (16)

1/2

4,4 (225)

512

100

10 (100)

10 (100)

100

10 (100)

1/1

2,2 (450)

256

100

10 (100)

1/1

0,77
(1 300)

64

200

5 (200)

1/1

0,71
(1 400)

256

266

3,8 (266)

1/1

0,45
(2 200)

512

400

2,5 (400)

1/1

0,71
(1 400)

512

133

7,5 (133)

,
()

/
-

Pentium

233

4,3 (233)

16

Pentium Pro

200

5,0 (200)

32

Pentium II

450

2,2 (450)

32

AMD K6-2

550

1,8 (550)

64

AMD K6-3

450

2,2 (450)

64

Duron

1 300

0,77
(1 300)

128

Athlon

1 400

0,71
(1 400)

128

Athlon XP

2 200

0,45
(2 200)

128

Pentium III

1 400

0,71
(1 400)

32

380

6.

. 6.1

,
()

/
-

,
()

SIMM/
DIMM,
()

Celeron/370

1 400

0,71
(1 400)

32

1/1

0,71
(1 400)

256

100

10 (100)

Celeron/478

2 400

0,42
(2 400)

20

1/1

0,42
(2 400)

128

400

2,5 (400)

Pentium 4

3 600

0,28
(3 600)

20

1/1

0,28
(3 600)

1000

800

1,25 (800)

1 $ .
2 Pentium Pro 512 1 024 $ .

 , .. 
.
430FX 1995 
. , 
. pipeline burst mode (
). 
. 
. 
20%.
 North Bridge
PC Pentium 
, Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III .
 .
, 
. , 
430TX Pentium.
64 . 
, ,
64 
,
. , 
. , 32 Windows
, 96 ,
, 32 , 
. .
, 64 . 
, ,
.
Pentium II 
 , . 
Pentium II
.
:

381

, 512 4 , 
Pentium III Pentium 4 4 .

, 1, 2 4 ,
. , Xeon
64 , 
RAM, .
, .
, 
, ( 
Pentium, 
, ) 
( Pentium II, 
, ).


(), 
().
, .. 
. , 299 792 /. 
, 29,98 , .. 
!
(), .. 
, . 
3000 (3 , 3 . ), 2004
4 .
, , , , 
. . 6.2 
, () ().
6.2.

4,77
6
8
10
12
16
20
25
33
40
50
60
66
75
80
100
120
133
150

210
167
125
100
83
63
50
40
30
25
20
17
15
13
13
10
8,3
7,5
6,7

500
533
550
566
600
633
650
667
700
733
750
766
800
833
850
866
900
933
950

2,0
1,88
1,82
1,77
1,67
1,58
1,54
1,5
1,43
1,36
1,33
1,31
1,25
1,20
1,18
1,15
1,11
1,07
1,05

2 300
2 400
2 500
2 600
2 700
2 800
2 900
3 000
3 100
3 200
3 300
3 400
3 500
3 600
3 700
3 800
3 900
4 000
4 100

0,43
0,42
0,40
0,38
0,37
0,36
0,34
0,33
0,32
0,31
0,30
0,29
0,29
0,28
0,27
0,26
0,26
0,25
0,24

382

6.

. 6.2

166
180
200
225
233
250
266
300
333
350
366
400
433
450
466

6,0
5,6
5,0
4,4
4,3
4,0
3,8
3,3
3,0
2,9
2,7
2,5
2,3
2,2
2,1

966
1000
1100
1133
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2 100
2 200

1,04
1,0
0,91
0,88
0,83
0,77
0,71
0,67
0,63
0,59
0,56
0,53
0,5
0,48
0,45

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5

0,24
0,23
0,23
0,22
0,21
0,21
0,21
0,20
0,20

200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
000

,
, , 60 DRAM,
, , 400
. , DRAM,
, 60 , 
16,7 ! , 
300 , 
. 2000 PC100
PC133, 100 133 .
2001 , DDR (200 266 ) RDRAM (800 )
. 2002 DDR 333 ,
2003 400 . 2004
DDR2 400 533 .

, ,
. , , , .
, 
. 
.
7,5 (133 ), 1 (1 ),
6 17
, .. . ,
, 133 .
. 

. . 6.3

, .

383

6.3. DRAM / (,
)

,
/

FPM
EDO
PC66
PC100
PC133
PC1600
PC2100
PC2400
PC2700
PC3000
PC3200
PC3500
PC3700
PC4000
PC4300
PC2-3200
PC2-4300
PC2-5400
PC2-6400
RIMM1200
RIMM1400
RIMM1600
RIMM2100
RIMM2400
RIMM3200
RIMM4200
RIMM4800
RIMM6400
RIMM8500
RIMM9600

SIMM
SIMM
SDR DIMM
SDR DIMM
SDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR2 DIMM
DDR2 DIMM
DDR2 DIMM
DDR2 DIMM
RIMM-16
RIMM-16
RIMM-16
RIMM-16
RIMM-16
RIMM-32
RIMM-32
RIMM-32
RIMM-64
RIMM-64
RIMM-64

60ns
60ns
10ns
8ns
7,5ns
DDR200
DDR266
DDR300
DDR333
DDR366
DDR400
DDR433
DDR466
DDR500
DDR533
DDR2-400
DDR2-533
DDR2-667
DDR2-800
PC600
PC700
PC800
PC1066
PC1200
PC800
PC1066
PC1200
PC800
PC1066
PC1200

22
33
67
100
133
100
133
150
167
183
200
216
233
250
267
200
266
333
400
300
350
400
533
600
400
533
600
400
533
600

1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

22
33
66
100
133
200
266
300
333
366
400
433
466
500
533
400
533
667
800
600
700
800
1066
1200
800
1066
1200
800
1066
1200

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

177
266
533
800
1 066
1 600
2 133
2 400
2 666
2 933
3 200
3 466
3 733
4 000
4 266
3 200
4 266
5 333
6 400
1 200
1 400
1 600
2 133
2 400
3 200
4 266
4 800
6 400
8 533
9 600

ns () .
EDO Extended Data Out ( ).
DIMM Dual Inline Memory Module ( ).
DDR Double Data Rate ( ).
FPM Fast Page Mode ( ).
SIMM Single Inline Memory Module ( ).
RIMM Rambus Inline Memory Module ( Rambus).

, ,
.
(. 6.4), ,
. ,
, 
, .

384

6.

6.4.

,
/

FSB* 468, 33

33

33

133

FSB Pentium I/II/III, 66

66

66

533

FSB Pentium I/II/III, 100


FSB Pentium I/II/III, 133

100
133

1
1

100
133

8
8

800
1 066

FSB Athlon, 200


FSB Athlon, 266

100
133

2
2

200
266

8
8

1 600
2 133

FSB Athlon, 333


FSB Athlon, 400

167
200

2
2

333
400

8
8

2 666
3 200

FSB Pentium 4, 400


FSB Pentium 4, 533

100
133

4
4

400
533

8
8

3 200
4 266

FSB Pentium 4, 800

200

800

6 400

*FSB Front Side Bus.


, 
. , ,
SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM,
. ,
.

(FPM)
EDO -.

SDRAM
(DRAM),
. SDRAM ,
. SDRAM 
, DRAM, 
, , 
.
EDO,
. 430VX 430TX, 1997 ,
Intel SDRAM.
, 2000 2001 .
SDRAM FPM
EDO. SDRAM ,
, FPM EDO, 
. SDRAM : 5111, .. 
( 11 
EDO 14 FPM).
, SDRAM 133 (7,5 ) ,
1998 . 
, 1998 2000 , SDRAM (. 6.1).

385


133,80 (5,260")
133,00 (5,240")

8,89 (0,350")
.

2,00 (0,079") R
(2x)

32,00 (1,260")

3,00 (0,118") R
(2x)
3,00 (0,118")
3,00 (0,118")

17,78 31,50 (1,240")


(0,700")
6,35 (0,250")
42,18
(1,661")
1 ( 85
)
66,68 (2,625 ")

1,27
1,00 (0,39")
(0,039 ")
R (2x)

3,25 (0,128")
(2x)
3,00 (0,118")

1,27
(0,050")

1,37 (0,054")
1,17 (0,046")

84 ( 168
)

115,57 (4,550")

. 6.1. 168 (72) DIMM. 72


ECC, 64 ECC

1999 JEDEC (Joint Electron Device Engineering Council 


) PC133. 133

PC100. PC133
133 . PC133 
7,5 133 , 
7 143 . PC133 
CAS (column address strob
), .
SDRAM DIMM , ,
, (. 6.5).
6.5. SDRAM
,

15
10
8
7,5
7,0

66
100
125
133
143

PC66
PC66
PC100
PC133
PC133

. 6.6 SDRAM.
6.6. SDRAM

, - ,

,
/

PC66

SDR DIMM

10

66

66

533

PC100

SDR DIMM

100

100

800

PC133

SDR DIMM

7/7,5

133

133

1 066

386

6.

DDR SDRAM
DDR (Double Data Rate )
SDRAM,
. ,
: , . 
(
).
DDR 
. DDR SDRAM 
, 
.
DDR SDRAM 2000 , 2001 
.
DDR 184 (. 6.2).
DIMM DDR SDRAM ,
2,5 . 
, , SDRAM DIMM, 
, , SDRAM, 
, .. . 
, SDRAM
(Single Data Rate SDR).
SDRAM DDR SDRAM . 6.7.
4,00 (0,157")
.


133,50 (5,256")
133,20 (5,244")
2,00 (0,079") R
(4x)
2,50 (0,098") D
(2x)
2,30 (0,091")

+
+

2,30 (0,091")

+
1
1,27
(0,050")

6,35
1,02
(0,040") (0,250")
120,65 (4,75")

0,90 (0,35") R

31,88 (1,255")
31,62 (1,245")
17,78
(0,700")
92

1,37 (0,054")
1,17 (0,046")

. 6.2. DIMM DDR SDRAM (184)

6.7. DDR SDRAM

, ,
-

,
/

PC1600
PC2100
PC2400
PC2700
PC3000
PC3200
PC3500
PC3700
PC4000
PC4300

DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM

DDR200
DDR266
DDR300
DDR333
DDR366
DDR400
DDR433
DDR466
DDR500
DDR533

100
133
150
166
183
200
216
233
250
266

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

200
266
300
333
366
400
433
466
500
533

1 600
2 133
2 400
2 667
2 933
3 200
3 466
3 733
4 000
4 266

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

387

DDR2 SDRAM
JEDEC
DDR2, .
DDR2 2003 , 
, DDR2, 
2004 . DDR2 SDRAM 
DDR SDRAM 
,
/
. , DDR2 ,
, 
. 
DDR 533 , 
DDR2 400 , 800 . . 6.8 
DDR2 .
6.8. DDR2 SDRAM

, ,

,
/

PC2-3200
PC2-4300
PC2-5400
PC2-6400

DDR2
DDR2
DDR2
DDR2

DDR2-400
DDR2-533
DDR2-667
DDR2-800

200
266
333
400

2
2
2
2

400
533
667
800

3
4
5
6

DIMM
DIMM
DIMM
DIMM

8
8
8
8

200
266
333
400

,
DDR2 . 
DDR (1,8 2,5 ), DDR2 
. DDR2, 
, FBGA (Finepitch Ball Grid Array)
TSOP (Thin Small Outline Package), DDR
SDRAM. FBGA ( , 
) ,
(. 6.3).
DDR2 2003 ,

2004 . DDR2, , GDDR2 (Graphics
DDR2), . DDR2
,
DDR2, , DDR.
DDR2 DIMM DDR DIMM, 
,
DDR2. , 
DDR2
DDR ( SDR). DDR2 240 , ..
, DDR SDRAM DIMM.

388

6.

4,00 (.)

4,00 (.)

(DATUM >A>)


( )
1

120

63,00

1,27 + 0,10

55,00

121

30,00

17,80

10,00

133,35

240

4,00


( )
FULL R

3,00

. 6.3. DDR2 DIMM (250). : 64


( ECC) 72 ( ECC)

RDRAM
Rambus DRAM (RDRAM)
, 1999
2002 . Intel Rambus 1996 ,
Intel RDRAM 2001 . 
Intel RDRAM, 
,
DDR SDRAM. ,
Intel DDR
DDR2. , RDRAM 
2006 . Intel 
,
2003 , RDRAM.
,
RDRAM .
RDRAM ,

. , 
,
Nintendo 64 GameCube Sony Playstation 2.
(FPM/RDO SDRAM)
. ( Pentium
64 ). SDRAM DIMM
1008 ( ), 800 /.

389

, RDRAM 
. , , 16 (2 ), 
,
.
, ,
.
16 RIMM
800 , 8002,
1,6 /, , PC1600 DDR
SDRAM. Pentium 4 , 
3,2 /,
Pentium 4. 
RDRAM . 
,
.
RIMM 800 ,
1066 1200 16, 
32 64 ,
9,6 /.
Rambus 32 RDRAM
( RDRAM), RIMM (Rambus Inline Memory
Modules). (
) . RDRAM RIMM,
RIMM. RDRAM 
, , 
, 
. , RDRAM, 
RIMM,
. , , 
.
RDRAM RIMM1600 , 
16 . , RDRAM
128 , 16 , 
100 . , 10 (100 ) RDRAM
16 . 
RDRAM.

: .
,
:
2 . 400 ;
, .. . 
, .
.
2,5 .
. 6.4 .
.
RDRAM ,
. , 
.

390

6.

PC100 SDRAM
1

100

100


100

DDR200 SDRAM
2

100

100


200

DDRII 400 SDRAM


4

100

200


400

. 6.4. RDRAM

, RDRAM .
RIMM, RDRAM, 2,5 . 
1,0 1,8 , .. 0,8 .
, RDRAM 
,
.
, RDRAM RIMM
(. 6.5), DIMM, . 
RIMM, 1 . 
,
. RIMM ,
RDRAM,
16 RIMM.

4,16 (0,164")
.

133,50 (5,256")
133,20 (5,244")
120,65 (4,750")
+
2,00 (0,079") R
(2x)

1
( 93
)
5,675 (0,2234")

+
+

0,80 1,00
(0,031") (0,039")
11,50
(0,453")
55,26 (2,175")
55,10 (2,169")

45,00
(1,772")
1,00 (0,039") R
(2x)

31,88 (1,255")
31,62 (1,245")
17,78
(0,700")
1,37 (0,054")
92
1,17 (0,046")
( 184
)

78,17 (3,078")

. 6.5. RIMM (184)

391

RDRAM Rambus
RIMM. 
, .
RIMM
, . 
16 ,
,
. RIMM 
. 32 64
, , 
. RDRAM . 6.9.
6.9. RDRAM

,
/

RIMM1200
RIMM1400
RIMM1600
RIMM2100
RIMM2400
RIMM3200
RIMM4200
RIMM4800
RIMM6400
RIMM8500
RIMM9600

RIMM-16
RIMM-16
RIMM-16
RIMM-16
RIMM-16
RIMM-32
RIMM-32
RIMM-32
RIMM-64
RIMM-64
RIMM-64

PC600
PC700
PC800
PC1066
PC1200
PC800
PC1066
PC1200
PC800
PC1066
PC1200

300
350
400
533
600
400
533
600
400
533
600

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

600
700
800
1 066
1 200
800
1 066
1 200
800
1 066
1 200

2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
8
8
8

1 200
1 400
1 600
2 133
2 400
3 200
4 266
4 800
6 400
8 533
9 600

Intel Rambus, , ,
. , 
, 
RDRAM, RIMM
DIMM . RDRAM RIMM
DDR SDRAM, Intel
DDR DDR2.
,
, DRAM
RIMM Pentium 4. 
Pentium 4 400 533 800 ,
, DDR, 
Intel AMD. 2002
DDR
Pentium 4 Athlon XP,
.

, Rambus DDR SDRAM. , ,


SDRAM, DDR RDRAM,
Rambus . , , , . ,
, , ,
Rambus DDR SDRAM.

392

6.


( ) 
, . 
.
.
. ,
, 
.

. 8086 8088 20 
1 (1 024 ). 286 386SX 24 
16 . 386DX, 486, Pentium, Pentium MMX Pentium Pro
32 4 .
Pentium II/III/4, AMD Athlon Duron 36 
64 . Itanium, , 44 ,
16 () !
8088 286
. 8088 8086
PC XT. , Pentium,
1 , 384 .
286 
.
P5 4 , P6/P7
64 . 64 (65 536 ) ,
70 . ! , 
DIMM, , 1 . 64
, 64 DIMM.
, DIMM.
DIMM,
1,53 .
, 
. , , 64 
, 2 4 .
. P5
1993 , 1997 ( )
, SDRAM DIMM. ,
P5, Intel 430TX, 256
, 64 ,
. P5 64 
, 
. 
, , 256, 512 1 RAM.

DIMM RIMM
,
$
(Dual Inline Package DIP). IBM XT
36 , .
, ,
, . ,
.

393

DIMM. DIMM 
SDRAM DDR SDRAM 
. DIMM 168 ,
. DDR DIMM, ,
184 , .
DDR2 DIMM 240 ,
. DIMM 64
( ) 72 (
). DIMM .
.
(25 ) SIMM,
.

, , - .
, , , SIMM DIMM (.. ).
.
DIMM 64- , ..
64- , .
( ), ; ,
,
, . (
) , , ( )
, .
, - - .

, RIMM, .
RIMM: 16/18 184 ,
32/36 , 232 , 64/72 ,
326 . , , ,
RIMM ,
. .
16/18 ;
32 2002 , 64
2004 .
16/18 RIMM 184 ,
. ,
(), 16 ,
18 , 
.
, .
, . . 6.10 
168 DIMM 184 RIMM.

394

6.

6.10. DIMM RIMM

168- DIMM/DDR2 DIMM


8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1 024

1 72
2 72
4 72

1 64
2 64
4 64

8 72
16 72
32 72

8 64
16 64
32 64

64 72
128 72

64 64
128 64
32 16

184- RIMM
64

32 18

128

64 18

64 16

256

128 18

128 16

512

256 18

256 16

1 024

512 18

512 16

256
512

32 72

32 64

64 72

64 64

1 024

128 72

128 64

240- DDR2 DIMM

(DRAM),
(DIMM RIMM), .
, .
, ( 
) (FSB).
,
, . ,

. , , 
, . 
.
DIMM RIMM (ROM), 
,

DIMM/RIMM. DIMM SDRAM, .. 
, 
. DDR DIMM SDRAM,
, .. .

(bank) , , . , . 64- , 64 ().


, .

395


SDRAM DDR DIMM , 
. 
, 
, .
, SDRAM DDR, 
. ,
, . 
Mac PowerPC,
. , .

,
. , 
. , 
(, ),
, , 
. ,
,
.
RAM 
. , 
RAM
. ,
, ,
RAM, , ,
. 
, ,
. , 
, 2 
. , ,
( ). 
,
.

SIMM,
-.

DIMM
. 6.11 168 DIMM.
DIMM Serial Presence Detect (
). DIMM 
EEPROM ,
DIMM .

, DIMM.
DIMM,
, 3,3 5 .
DIMM , 
. , DIMM

396

6.

. 
, DIMM.
DIMM, , 3,3 .
5 3,3 .
, .
6.11. 168- DIMM

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

0
1
2
3
+3,3
4
5
6
7
8

9
10
11
12
13
+3,3
14
15
1
2



+3,3
Write Enable
I/O Mask 0
I/O Mask 1
S0

0
2
4
6
8
10
Bank Address 1
+3,3
+3,3
Clock 0

S2
Byte Mask 2
Byte Mask 3

+3,3


53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107

32
33
34
35
+3,3
36
37
38
39
40

41
42
43
44
45
+3,3
46
47



+3,3
Column Address Strobe
Byte Mask 4
Byte Mask 5
S1
Row Address Strobe

1
3
5
7
9
Bank Address 0
11
+3,3
Clock 1
12

Clock Enable 0
S3
Byte Mask 6
Byte Mask 7
13
+3,3


397

. 6.11

53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84

16
1 7
18
19
+3,3
20

Voltage Reference
Clock Enable 1

21
22
23

24
25
26
27
+3,3
28
29
30
31

Clock 2


Serial Data I/O
Serial Clock Input
+3,3

85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116

48
49
50
51
+3,3
52

Voltage Reference

53
54
55

56
57
58
59
+3,3
60
61
62
63

Clock 3

Serial PD Address 0
Serial PD Address 1
Serial PD Address 2
+3,3

5
Apple, , x86. ,
DIMM , . 6.6, 
.
.

DRAM

5,0

3,3

. 6.6. 168 DRAM DIMM

398

6.

DDR DIMM
. 6.12 184 DDR
SDRAM DIMM. , , 
, .
6.12. 184- DDR DIMM

Reference +1,25
0

1
0
2
+2,5
3

8
9
1
- +2,5
Clock 1
Clock 1#

10
11
Clock Enable 0
- +2,5
16
17
2

9
18
7
- +2,5
19
5
24

25
3
4
+2,5
19
27
2

1
0
1
+2,5
8

48

49
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89

4
5
- +2,5
9
6
7



13

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

- +2,5
12
13
10
+2,5
14
15
Clock Enable 1
- +2,5
2
20
12

21
11
11
+2,5
22
8
23

6
28
29
- +2,5
12
3
30

31
4
5
- +2,5
Clock 0
Clock 0#

399

. 6.12

48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92

0
2

3
1
32
- +2,5
33
4
34

0
35
40
- +2,5
WE#
41
CAS#

5
42
43
+2,5
S2#
48
49

Clock 2#
Clock 2
- +2,5
6
50
51

+2,5 VID
56
57
+2,5
7
58
59

SPD* Write Protect


SPD Data
SPD Clock

93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137

17
10
6
- +2,5
7

36
37
+2,5
13
38
39

44
RAS#
45
- +2,5
S0#
S1#
14

46
47
S3#
- +2,5
52
53
FETEN
+2,5
15
54
55
- +2,5

60
61

16
62
63
- +2,5
SPD Address 0
SPD Address 1
SPD Address 2
SPD +2,5

*SPD Serial Presence Detect ( ).

DIMM DDR SDRAM ,


(. 6.7).
,
. (,
52 53 )
, .

400

6.

52

40
VDDQ = 2,5
VDDQ = 1,8
VDDQ = TBD

. 6.7. 184 DIMM DDR SDRAM

DDR2 DIMM
. 6.13 240 DDR2 SDRAM
DIMM. 1120 , 121240
. .
6.13. 240- DDR2 DIMM

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

VREF
VSS
DQ0
DQ1
VSS
-DQS0
DQS0
VSS
DQ2
DQ3
VSS
DQ8
DQ9
VSS
-DQS1
DQS1
VSS


VSS
DQ10
DQ11
VSS
DQ16
DQ17
VSS
-DQS2
DQS2
VSS
DQ18
DQ19
VSS

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
63
64
65

VSS
DQ4
DQ5
VSS
DM0

VSS
DQ6
DQ7
VSS
DQ12
DQ13
VSS
DM1

VSS
CK1
-CK1
VSS
DQ14
DQ15
VSS
DQ20
DQ21
VSS
DM2

VSS
DQ22
DQ23
VSS
DQ28

401

. 6.13

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86

DQ24
DQ25
VSS
-DQS3
DQS3
VSS
DQ26
DQ27
VSS


VSS


VSS


VSS
VDDQ
CKE0
VDD


VDDQ
A11
A7
VDD
A5
A4
VDDQ
A2
VDD
VSS
VSS
VDD

VDD
A10/-AP
BA0
VDDQ
-WE
-CAS
VDDQ
-CS1
ODT1
VDDQ
SS
DQ32
DQ33
VSS
-DQS4
DQS4
VSS
DQ34

87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140

DQ29
VSS
DM3

VSS
DQ30
DQ31
VSS


VSS


VSS


VSS
VDDQ
CKE1
VDD


VDDQ
A12
A9
VDD
A8
A6
VDDQ
A3
A1
VDD
CK0
-CK0
VDD
A0
VDD
BA1
VDDQ
-RAS
-CS0
VDDQ
ODT0
A13
VDD
VSS
DQ36
DQ37
VSS
DM4

VSS
DQ38
DQ39

402

6.

. 6.13

87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120

DQ35
VSS
DQ40
DQ41
VSS
-DQS5
DQS5
VSS
DQ42
DQ43
VSS
DQ48
DQ49
VSS
SA2

VSS
-DQS6
DQS6
VSS
DQ50
DQ51
VSS
DQ56
DQ57
VSS
-DQS7
DQS7
VSS
DQ58
DQ59
VSS
SDA
SCL

121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154

VSS
DQ44
DQ45
VSS
DM5

VSS
DQ46
DQ47
VSS
DQ52
DQ53
VSS
CK2
-CK2
VSS
DM6

VSS
DQ54
DQ55
VSS
DQ60
DQ61
VSS
DM7

VSS
DQ62
DQ63
VSS
VDDSPD
SA0
SA1

DDR2 DIMM c 240 ,


 
. DIMM
.
64 65 ( 184 185
). DDR2 DIMM 1,8 , 
.

RIMM
RIMM 184 , 92
. RIMM . 6.14.
RIMM , , ,
, .
RIMM 2,5 , 64
1,8 .
(. 6.8).
( DATUM A), ,
( 1 2 )
DATUM A. (2,5 ).
. 6.15.

403

6.14. 184- RIMM

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

LData Bit A8

LData Bit A6

LData Bit A4

LData Bit A2

LData Bit 0

LCTMN

LCTM

LROW1

LCOL4

LCOL2

LCOL0

LData Bit B1

LData Bit B3

LData Bit B5

LData Bit B7

LSCK
VCMOS
SOUT
VCMOS


+2,5
+2,5








VREF

SPD Clock
+2,5
SDA
SVDD
SPD Write Protect
+2,5
RSCK

60
61
62
63
64
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
A77
A78
A79
A80
A81
A82
A83
A84
A85
A86
A87
A88
A89
A90
A91
A92
A93
A94
A95
A96
A97
A98
A99
A100
A101
A102
A103
A104
A105
A106
A107
A108
A109
A110
A111
A112
A113
A114
A115
A116

LData Bit A7

LData Bit A5

LData Bit A3

LData Bit A1

Interface Clock+

Interface Clock

LROW2

LROW0

LCOL3

LCOL1

LData Bit B0

LData Bit B2

LData Bit B4

LData Bit B6

Ldata Bit B8

LCMD
VCMOS
SIN
VCMOS


+2,5
+2,5








VREF

SPD Address 0
+2,5
SPD Address 1
SVDD
SPD Address 2
+2,5
RCMD

404

6.

. 6.14

60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92

Rdata Bit B7

Rdata Bit B5

Rdata Bit B3

Rdata Bit B1

RCOL0

RCOL2

RCOL4

RROW1

RCTM

RCTMN

Rdata Bit A0

Rdata Bit A2

Rdata Bit A4

Rdata Bit A6

Rdata Bit A8

A93
A94
A95
A96
A97
A98
A99
A100
A101
A102
A103
A104
A105
A106
A107
A108
A109
A110
A111
A112
A113
A114
A115
A116
A117
A118
A119
A120
A121
A122
A123
A124
A125

Rdata Bit B8

Rdata Bit B6

Rdata Bit B4

Rdata Bit B2

Rdata Bit B0

RCOL1

RCOL3

RROW0

RROW2

RCFMN

RCFM

Rdata Bit A1

Rdata Bit A3

Rdata Bit A5

Rdata Bit A7

A
( )

DATUM A

11,50
B

DATUM A

12,50
C

DATUM A

13,50

. 6.8. RIMM

405

6.15. RIMM

DATUM A,

A
B
C

11,5
12,5
13,5

2,5

RIMM Serial Presence Detect (SPD),


.
RIMM,
.
.
. 6.9 RIMM. RDRAM

North Bridge. , RIMM 
. 4, 8 16 RDRAM, SPD.
RIMM .
. 
RIMM 
6 (15 ).
, ( 5 ).

RDRAM
RIMM

RDRAM
SPD ROM

RIMM


RDRAM

Rambus

. 6.9. RIMM

, Rambus RDRAM, RIMM;


. Rambus ,
, . Rambus
.


.
, .
, , , 
, . 
.
DIMM 16512 .
Micron Technologies . 6.10.

406

6.

Micron Technology

ES  Engineering Sample
MS  Mechanical Sample

4  DRAM
46  DDR SDRAM
48  SDRAM
6  Rambus

Commerical ( 0o C + 70o C) 
Industrial ( 40o C + 85o C)  IT

C  5 Vcc CMOS
LC  3,3 VDD CMOS
V  2,5 VDD CMOS

L  Low Power
S  Self Refresh


K 
M 
G 

/
DRAM

( )
4  40
5  50
6  60
7  70


DRAM

DJ  SOJ
DW  SOJ (Wide)
F  FBGA (54, 4 )
FB  FBGA (60, 8x16)
FC  FBGA (60, 11x13)
FP  Flip Chip in Package
FQ  Flip Chip in Sealed Package
F1  FBGA (54, 2 )
F2  FBGA (64, 2 )
LG  TQFP
R  FBGA (54, 4 , )
R1  FBGA (54, 2 , )
R2  FBGA (64, 2 , )
TG  TSOP(Type II)
U  mBGA

0 

SDRAM
x32 DDR SDRAM
(
@ CL = 3)
15  66
12  83
10  100
8x  125
75  133
7x  143
65  150
6  167
55  183
5  200

DDR SDRAM (x4, x8, x16)


(
@ CL = 2,5)
8  125
75  133
7  143

Rambus
( )
4D  400 , 40
4C  400 , 45
4B  400 , 50
3C  356 , 45
3B  356 , 50
3M  300 , 53

. 6.10.

75 , 
. 7,5 , 133 .
.
MT48LC8M8A2TG75L :
MT Micron Technologies;
48 SDRAM;
LC CMOS 3,3 ;
8M8 8 8 ;
A2 ;

407

TG TSOP (Thin Small Outline Package);


75 7,5 (133 );
L (Low power).

. . 6.10 .

8 , 
64 DIMM 4 16 .
16 DIMM, 
, ,
8 8 , ,
16 8 . DIMM 8 ,
8 64 , .. , 8 8 .
, 64 . , DIMM, 
16 , 128 . 9 18
72 / ECC.
, 
, ,
. , 0021 ,
21 2000 . 
.
SIMM DIMM ,
. ,
.
. 
Web .
. 6.11 HY57V651620
TC10. Web Hyundai.
, DIMM;
, Hyundai, HY3U1606,

. 
, .

. 6.11. (, , 
.)

408

6.

DIMM, 
10 , , 100 ,
SDRAM DIMM (PC66) 66 .
8 (125 ) PC100 DIMM, 7,5 PC133
DIMM. 64 , .. 16 4 
. , 64
4 64 (4 8 , 32 ). 
,
,
. DIMM 64 , 8
64 (8 8 ), .. 64 . 
Atmel, ,
EEPROM, DIMM,
.
, . 6.11 DIMM
72 DIMM ECC.
, , 
PC66 SDRAM DIMM 64 .

,
, , .., HWinfo SiSoftware Sandra. Web- www.hwinfo.com www.sisoftware.net
.


(DIP, SIMM, SIPP
DIMM) .
, , , 
.
, ,
.
.
. 6.16.
6.16.

(
)

30- SIMM

8088
8086
286
ctlpar386SX, SL, SLC
486SLC, SLC2
386DX
486SX, DX, DX2, DX4, 586
Pentium, K6
Pentium Pro, PII, Celeron, PIII, 4,
Athlon/Duron, Athlon XP

8
16
16
16
16
32
32
64
64

8
16
16
16
16
32
32
64
64

9
18
18
18
18
36
36
72
72

1
2
2
2
2
4
4
8*
8*

72- SIMM

168- DIMM

1
1
2
2

1
1

*
( $ ).

409

168 DIMM.
64 , 72 .
Pentium ,
.
DIMM Pentium 
, 64
Pentium, 64 . DIMM 
, 
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, 
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, 
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.
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, 100 133 .
, PC100 PC133, 
. .
100
.

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. 
().
, , 
,
. , 
, SIMM DIMM.
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, 
.
20 Intel ,
. 
, , , .

, . ,
.

410

6.


. , . ,
16  
16 ! .
.
, 
.
,
, , (signaltoerror ratio SER)
DRAM 5950 (failure units
FU) . 
, ,
.
.

! 
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. 
, , 
 .
, 
; 
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.

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, 
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.
. 
BIOS, , , 
, .

( 
), .

411

, , . ,
.
. , , 
. 
:
;
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. 
, , .
, (ECC ),
. 9, 8 ,
12,5%. , 
, ECC, 
. ,
,
DRAM. ,
,
.
.
.
,
.
,
ECC .

. , 
, , ,
.
: ,
.

, . ,
,
ECC, .
, 
.


, IBM,
, (
) , (parity).

. , 
.
Windows OS/2,
, , , .
SIMM DIMM , . 

. 1994 . 

412

6.

 ! SIMM
1015%. ,
.
,
, :

;
, 
.

. , 
. 
.
,
.
Intel
ECC
( , 
). , , 
. , 
, ECC.
, 
ECC, , 
.


IBM ,
, (
) . , (8 )
, (,
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, 
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. 
, 0
.
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, .. 0, 1, 2, ..., 7).
: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
: 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

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, .
.
: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
: 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

(4),
, , 
, .

413

.
9 , ,
. ,
, ( ).
, ( ), 
; ( ) 
. :
IBM PC:
PARITY
IBM XT:
PARITY yyyyy (z)
IBM PC XT: PARITY

yyyyy

x 1 ( ) 2
( ). yyyyy
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).

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.


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, BIOS. 
.
. IBM 
,

. , , 
. ( ,
.)

,
.
, IBM, , , . ,
BIOS Phoenix
Memory parity interrupt at :xxxx
(S)hut off NMI, Type (R)eboot, other keys to continue

I/O card parity interrupt at :xxxx


(S)hut off NMI, Type (R)eboot, other keys to continue
(Parity Check 1),
(Parity Check 2). , 
: []:[], , 
IBM. .

414

6.

:
<S>,
;
<R>
;

.
, , 
. , <S>,
, .
, . 
( ),
. ,
. , 
. 
POST , 
.
BIOS AMI :
ON BOARD PARITY CHECK ADDR () = ()

OFF BOARD PARITY CHECK ADDR () = ()


, POST
. ,
. AMI BIOS 
:
Memory parity error at

I/O card parity error at


( 
POST); ,
.

( ), 
. , 
, .
,
ROM BIOS, . 
, Windows, 
. ,
, , 
, ROM BIOS. , 
 , , 
. , Windows 98
: Memory parity error detected. System halted.

415

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, , .
, ? , !
, , . ,

( )
.


. ,
. , , 
(,
).


(Error Correcting Code ECC)
, . ,
, ,
. 
, . 
98% , ..
. ECC SEC$DED
(singlebit errorcorrection doublebit error detection , 
). 32 
4 8
(64 Athlon/Pentium). 
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, 8
.
, 
. 

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,
. 
, , 
. 
, 
.
,
.
. ECC 
, ,
, 
.
, ECC
. ,
, , ECC.
, 
ECC, .. 
.

416

6.



,
Windows 9/NT/2000/XP OS/2. 
( ) 
.
,
, .


. , 
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.
.
.
.

(OS/2, Windows 9x/NT/2000 Linux), ,
, .
( 
), .
.

,
. , 
.
.

64 , ,
. Pentium II ,
Athlon Duron, - , ( ) 1 ,
4 .

,
DIMM RIMM

, .
DIMM RIMM,
, .
, , , .. 
, . 
. , .

. ,

417


.

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SIMM
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,
. ,
. , 
.

, 
. , 
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DIMM RIMM.
, . , ,
, 
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; ,
, .
, , ,
, ,
. ,
 , , ,
. ,
, .
, , 
. ,
,
.
,
, Micron (http://www.crucial.com), Samsung
(http://www.mymemorystore.com), Infineon (Siemens), Mitsubishi, Toshiba, NEC .
, (
), Kingston, Viking, PNY, Simple Tech, Smart Modular.
,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
. , 
,
DIMM,  (.. ).
, .

418

6.


, 
, , .
, Samsung Micron,
, , 
. , 
, , 
. Micron 
: http://www.crucial.com, Samsung
Web http://www.mymemorystore.com.

DIMM
DIMM, :
SDR DDR;
() ;
;
;
(Column Address
Strobe CAS).
DIMM (SDR)
(DDR) . 
DDR. ,

, . ,
, ,
, (), 
, . 
DIMM 
, ,
, 
DIMM. DIMM ,
, 
, , . ,
PC2100 DDR DIMM, 
DDR DIMM PC2700, PC1600.
(CAS) ,
. ,
CAS CL, ,
. CAS 
, .
DIMM CL3
CL2, CL2. DDR DIMM
CL2,5 CL2, CL2 .
DIMM, CAS, 
.

419

RIMM
RIMM, :
184 (16/18) 232 (32/36) ;
() ;
.
184 232 RIMM, ,
, .
, 
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, .
, 
.


, 
. , DIMM
( 64
), ,
. , 64
128 , , 128 ,
192 .

. BIOS 
. 
. , 
BIOS.


, , 

. , DIMM
( 64
). 64 ,
128 . 128 
192 .
:
;
;
DIMM;
BIOS.
$
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420

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, .

BIOS Setup .

. , , 
,
BIOS Setup.
,
.
. , , ,
, :
(power on self test POST);
.
POST .

DIMM
SIMM, DIMM ,
, (
), . 6.12.
DIMM, . 
DIMM .
SIMM, DIMM RIMM , .
, 
, .
, . , 
. .

421

DIMM

. 6.12. DIMM DIMM

, ,
.

RIMM
RIMM DIMM.
RIMM , .
.


, 
.
, . 
.

. ,
.
BIOS .
. 
, CheckIt, 
. 
.
POST , .
BIOS, 
. POST
, BIOS , 
. POST
5, .

422

6.


 , BIOS.
BIOS Technical Reference ( )
PDF. ,
BIOS .
POST , , 
POST .
POST, 
.
.
DOS, Windows XP .

.
, , 
.
,
SIMM/DIMM . 
, 
. , 
, SIMM 
DDR DIMM RIMM. ,
, Tanisys (www.tanisys.com),
CST (www.simmtester.com) Aristo (www.memorytester.com).
, ,
, SIMM/DIMM .
:
, ;
general protection fault,
, ;
fatal exception,
;
, ,
.
( ,
..), (
, ..).
, 
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.
,
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,
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, , .
, .
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, RAM, .
, . 6.13.

423

POST
,


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, >

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, >
>
BIOS.
>

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BIOS,


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>



,


BIOS

. 6.13.

.
1. POST (PowerOn Self
Test). POST , , 
. 
.
2. BIOS ( CMOS) Setup.
POST ( ) <F2>.
BIOS Setup, 
. , 
, .

424

6.

3. BIOS Setup . 
,
. 
, : PCTechnician Windsor
Technologies, Norton Utilities Symantec ..
4. , ,
(XMS) . 
, 
.
() . ,
.
5. POST
. 
BIOS Setup, 
.
6.  ,

, , .
SIMM/DIMM . 
( , ), 
, , 
, ..


, , 
.
. 6.14.
1. BIOS Setup.
Advanced Chipset Setup ,
. , 
, 
. ,
, , BIOS.
, , ,
.
2. SIMM/DIMM/RIMM, 
, .
. , Pentium 64
, .. 168 DIMM. 
Pentium 4 184
RIMM ( ) 232 RIMM (, ,
).
3. , ,
. 
, , .
4. .
, , 
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.

425

5. , , 
.
.
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6. ,
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.
SIMM/DIMM.

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>
BIOS


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BIOS

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SIMM/
DIMM/RIMM:

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.
,

. 6.14.

426

6.


PC 1 , 384
.
( 640 1 )
( 0 384 ) $
. 

PC. 
.
20 , Pentium 4  
, .
,
Windows 9, Windows NT/2000, Windows XP, Linux, OS/2 UNIX 
.
, 32 
. 
32 , 
16 ,
16, . ,
16
. , ROM BIOS, POST, BIOS, 
, 16 .
, Intel 16 
. 32 , 
32 .
, .

. , (, 
Windows),
.
. 
.

. , , 
(Windows 9x, NT, 2000, XP, Linux ..), .
DOS
Windows ( <F8> Starting Windows) Command Prompt Only DOS. Windows 9x (
Me) MS DOS.

16 , .
Windows 2000 Windows XP 
MS DOS Format (
(My Computer),
(Format)).
, Windows 9x 16
DOS, CDROM Windows
16 . OEM
Windows 98, Windows Me 
. ,
BIOS, .

427

, DOS . 16
 , 
, .. 
, ,
( 640 ) 16
.
() , :
(Conventional Memory);
(Upper Memory Area UMA);
( High Memory Area HMA);
(eXtended Memory Specification XMS);
(Expanded Memory Specification EMS);
;
(Video RAM Memory); ;
ROM RAM ;
;
ROM BIOS; .
,
,  
.
. 6.15
PC .
1 , 16, 4 096 65 536 .
64 ,
2 .

, .


PC/XT 1 
(Random$Access Memory RAM)
. , 
. DOS
1 , , $
(conventional memory), PC 512 .
512 ,
, , .
PC IBM , 
384 ,
640 . 640
, DOS
( 640 ). 640 
, ROM BIOS.
, 640 16 , ,
DOS Windows 3.1. 32 Windows 9 NT/2000/XP,
.

428

6.

.
G
M
C
V

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BIOS
( PS/2 )
a -
( UMA)
r - BIOS PS/2
( UMA PS/2)
R - BIOS
b -
( IBM- R)
h - (HMA) HIMEM.SYS
:
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-000000: ................................................................
010000: ................................................................
020000: ................................................................
030000: ................................................................
040000: ................................................................
050000: ................................................................
060000: ................................................................
070000: ................................................................
080000: ................................................................
090000: ................................................................
:
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0A0000: GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG
0B0000: MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0C0000: VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
0D0000: aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0E0000: rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr
0F0000: RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbRRRRRRRR
:
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-100000: hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
(XMS):
110000: ................................................................
120000: ................................................................
130000: ................................................................
140000: ................................................................
150000: ................................................................
160000: ................................................................
170000: ................................................................
180000: ................................................................
190000: ................................................................
1A0000: ................................................................
1B0000: ................................................................
1C0000: ................................................................
1D0000: ................................................................
1E0000: ................................................................
1F0000: ................................................................

. 6.15.

429


(Upper Memory Area UMB) 384 , 
PC/XT
AT.
A0000 FFFFF.
.
128 , ,
.
, . 
A0000BFFFF.
128 BIOS ,
ROM , 
. VGA
BIOS 32 , 
.
. ROM 
C0000DFFFF.
128 BIOS,
ROM RAM. POST 
, 
.
64 ( ), 64
.
Setup CMOS.
BIOS E0000FFFFF.
AT
384 . , IBM 
A0000, .. . 
VGA, 
B0000B7FFF B8000BFFFF.
( VGA) B000.
.
128 . , .
384 ,
16 (,
Ansi.sys) (, Mouse.com),
.
; ,
. , SCSI 
.


-.

, ,
. ,
VGA.

430

6.

64 ,

, 4 .
VGA, DOS Windows
, 
128 A0000BFFFFh.
BIOS, C0000 C7FFFh;
 
. , ,
, 
( 128 ) . 
, , , 
.

128 . 
A000 B000. BIOS
C000.

640 DOS.
DOS ,
.. . , MDA CGA, DOS
, 640 . EGA, MCGA VGA A0000; MDA CGA , DOS -.
, -.

VGA
VGA , SVGA, EGA.
( ) 128 A0000BFFFF.
, 
. EGA ,
VGA 32 (C0000C7FFF),
BIOS . VGA . 6.16.
.
G
M
C
V
R


() VGA
() VGA
() VGA
ROM BIOS VGA
ROM BIOS
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0A0000: GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG
0B0000: MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0C0000: VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV................................
0D0000: ................................................................
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0E0000: ................................................................
0F0000: RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR

. 6.16. VGA SVGA

431

. 6.16, VGA BIOS 


32 , .
VGA . EGA, 
. ,
A000, 
B000. VGA 
, B000 ( B0000B7FFF) 
. . 6.16 ROM BIOS.
.
BIOS BIOS
VGA, . , BIOS
32 C000, VGA, 
. VGA
, 
. 
,
, , 
VGA BIOS.

ROM
000 128 ,
BIOS ,
. BIOS ROM
. ROM ,
.
, , 
.
EEPROM, .
.
386

.
BIOS Plug and Play: Windows 9
Windows 2000 
.

BIOS
ROM BIOS
, (, DOS). ,
ROM BIOS Windows 
. (PCI AGP) BIOS 
32 C0000C7FFF.
VGA ( ,
VGA), ( ) 128 ,
000. , 
64
, .

BIOS SCSI
0000DFFFF BIOS
. . 6.17 ,
BIOS .

432

6.

6.17. ,

BIOS,

BIOS

XT-
AT
IDE
EIDE
SCSI

8
0
0
16
16

C8000C9FFF
( BIOS)
( BIOS)
C8000CBFFF
C8000CBFFF DC000-DFFFF

SCSI
, 
800, IBM PC. 
SCSI BIOS, , 
000 D000.
. 6.17 .
 , , 
BIOS .
SCSI AHA2940 Adaptec 
. 6.17.
.
G
M
C
V
S
R


() VGA
() VGA
() VGA
ROM BIOS VGA
ROM BIOS SCSI
ROM BIOS
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0A0000: GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG
0B0000: MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0C0000: VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV................................
0D0000: ................................................SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0E0000: ................................................................
0F0000: RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR

. 6.17. SCSI
AHA2940U SCSI Adaptec



000 D000.
. .
:
IPL ROM, ;
.
ROM IPL ( 8 )
,  .
, 
. ,
, IPL  
, .

433

, ROM IPL . ,
, 8 ,
, , ROM
.
,
. , 
, , .
IBM Token Ring,
. , 

. 16 ISA 
.
, ,
, .

, 
16 .
ROM IPL
Token Ring . 6.18. ,
Ethernet, .
VGA,
. 6.18 BIOS VGA. 
. ROM IPL 
, .
ROM,
.
, Windows 9, Windows ME Windows 2000/XP
, 
. , 32 
.
.
G
M
C
V
I
N
R


() VGA
() VGA
() VGA
ROM BIOS VGA
IPL ROM Token Ring
Token Ring
ROM BIOS
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0A0000: GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG
0B0000: MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0C0000: VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV................IIIIIIII........
0D0000: ................................NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN................
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0E0000: ................................................................
0F0000: RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR

. 6.18. Token Ring

434

6.

BIOS
128 BIOS,
ROM. BIOS
, .
,
. , 
, ROM .
E000 F000
BIOS,
AT. PC/XT F000, E000
ROM RAM . AT F000
BIOS, E000 , .
, 16 
, . ,
.
E000 . 
64 , 386 

E000 
. , ! DOS
386..
. 6.19 BIOS 16
.
. -
R - ROM BIOS
: 0--1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9--A--B--C--D--E--F-0E0000: ................................................................
0F0000: RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR

. 6.19. ROM BIOS


, BIOS F000
(64 ). E000 , 
.

(extended)
, 286
1 . 286 386SX
16 , 386DX, 486, Pentium Pentium MMX 4
(4 096 ). Pentium II
64 (65 536 ).

( ).
286 , 
. 386
, . 
1 (
)
. DOS
640 ,
BIOS .

435

( ) 
, . 
Windows 9, Windows NT OS/2.
286 , 
PC/XT 8088.
AT DOS,
PC/XT. AT ( 
386, 486, Pentium P6) .
286 8086 8088,
. 386 
. 
Windows 9/NT/2000 OS/2, .

, .

XMS
XMS (eXtended Memory Specification) 
1987 Microsoft, Intel, AST Corp. Lotus Development.
, . 
286
, (, DOS),
, DOS.
XMS , 
. 
, ,
.
Himem.sys. ,
, XMS. 
, XMS, DOS
, 
. XMS , 
. Windows 3.
, 
, Windows
XMS. Windows 95 ,
. Windows NT, Windows 2000
OS/2 , .
XMS , 
Config.sys. Himem.sys,
Windows DOS ( DOS 6).
, QEMM,
Config.sys XMS.
Windows 9 Windows NT/2000 MS DOS 
XMS.

DOS ,
-.

436

6.

ROM BIOS
, C000 D000 ROM RAM .
ROM RAM  , ,
. ,
, .
,
.
.
. 
, , 
. 
.
,
, . 
,
, . 

, , 
, .
Plug and
Play ,
. ,

.

(.. , 384
) -.


Plug and Play (..
).
, .
, 
, IRQ DMA , 
, .
BIOS
RAM. ,
, 
. , ,
. 

.


.
,
.
.

437

( ).
Microsoft Diagnostic (MSD), Windows 3.x DOS 6 (
). 
(Device Manager) Windows 9/ME/2000/XP.
,
IRQ.
MSD
. , , 
.



, .

,
. , Plug and Play,
Windows 9x/ME/2000
.
.
1. , .
2. ,  ,
.
3. , ,
.
4. ,
 .
, , 8000CBFFF,
CA000CCFFF, , 
.

438

6.

7
ATA/IDE


,
PC, IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics).
, .

. IDE, 
, .
, IDE, 
, CDROM
DVD, SuperDisk 
. ATA
, , 
. 
() ATA ()
Serial ATA, ATA Serial ATA. ATA 

, .

Apple ATA
Macintosh.

IDE

. 
.
, , 
.

ST-506/412 ESDI
-.

, ,
. , 
, 
.
. ,
, .

. . 7.1 .
7.1.

ST-506/412
ESDI
SCSI
IDE
Serial ATA

19781989 .
19831991 .
1986 .
1986 .
2003 .

440

7. ATA/IDE


. SCSI IDE , 
( )
. , SCSI, IDE SATA , 
, ESDI. SCSI 
,
IDE/SATA .
, SCSI, ATA Serial ATA 
, , 
. 
ATA, Serial ATA SCSI.

IDE
, IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)
, . 
IDE (AT Attachment), 
ANSI. IDE ,
.
, 
, .. ,
,
, 
, 
.
( /)
,
, .
,
( )
. , ,
, ; ,
. 

/,
.

, .

.
IDE . , Plus
Development ( Quantum), :
3,5 ( ST506/412 ESDI) 
.
. , 
, , ,
, , , 
.
, 
.
. ,
,
. , .

441

IDE
IDE,
:
Serial AT Attachment (SATA);
AT Attachment (ATA) IDE (16 ISA);
XT IDE (8 ISA);
MCA IDE (16 MCA).
ATA.
ATA Serial ATA; ,
ATA ATA2 .
EIDE (Enhanced IDE), FastATA, UltraATA UltraDMA. 
ATA7, Serial ATA 
.
1987 IBM IDE
MCA (Micro Channel Architecture), PS/2 70 
,
. (
) , 
, IDE
. 

, . 
MCA IDE 72 ,
MCA.
IDE 8 8
ISA, , , PS/2 30. IDE
XT 40 , , 
16 , . MCA XT
IDE
.

, ATA IDE. XT IDE


MCA IDE .
.

ATA 
. , 
ATA,
RAID.  ,
ATA IDE ISA PCI.
, 
ROM BIOS .
ATA
IDE, .

442

7. ATA/IDE

ATA
ATA IDE, 40 IDE, 
CDC, Western Digital Compaq. ATA IDE
5,25 40 , 
CDC. Western Digital, 
Compaq 386 (1986 ).
Compaq 
, 98 (
ISA), , 40 
, .
, 40
ISA. , 2,5 ,
, 44 , 
. 
ISA, . ,

14 (IRQ 14),
, IRQ. ,
South Bridge I/O Controller Hub ( 
) 
, 
ISA.

, , IDE , . : . ,
.

40
ANSI. 
 
, , 1989 , 
CAM ATA. , 
Conner Peripherals, CDC
. ATA 
, .
ATA ,
. ,
IDE
. 
, 
. , 
.
16 , ..
16 (). 
, Serial ATA, 2000
2003 . Serial ATA (SATA) 
,

, 

443

. SATA ,
. ,
, , 
(.. Serial ATA) SATA. . 7.1 
SATA 
.
,
, 
, SCSI IEEE1394 (iLink FireWire),
.  
,
, .

, ,
.
. 
,  .

, 
.


( )


( >)
SATA

SATA

. 7.1. / Serial ATA ,


444

7. ATA/IDE

ATA
ATA ,
, 
. , 13 (http://www.t13.org),
Parallel AT Attachment. 13 
(InterNational Committee on
Information Technology Standards INCITS), 
ANSI ( ).
Serial ATA , Serial ATA Workgroup,
ANSI.
, , ATA7 (ATA/133),
Serial ATA ( ).
ATA:
ATA1 (19881994 .);
ATA2 (1996 ., FastATA, FastATA2 EIDE);
ATA3 (1997 .);
ATA4 (1998 ., UltraATA/33);
ATA5 (1999 ., UltraATA/66);
ATA6 (2000 ., UltraATA/100);
ATA7 (2001 ., UltraATA/133).
ATA , .. ATA1 ATA2
ATA4 ATA5. ATA
. , ATA5, ,
ATA6. . 7.2
ATA, .
7.2. ATA

PIO

DMA

UDMA

,
/

ATA-1
ATA-2

19861994 .
19951996 .

02
04

0
02

8,33
16,67

ATA-3

1997 .

04

02

16,67

ATA-4

1998 .

04

02

02

33,33

ATA-5

19992000 .

04

02

04

66,67

-6

2001 .

04

02

05

100,00

-7

2001 .

04

02

06

133,00

CHS/LBA
8,4

S.M.A.R.T.
Ultra-DMA,
137,4
BIOS
Faster UDMA,
80-
UDMA 100 /;
144
BIOS
UDMA 133 /

SMART Self$Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology.


; 1 1 .
CHS Cylinder Head Sector.
LBA Logical Block Address.
UDMA Ultra DMA (Direct Memory Access).

ATA

445


ATA-1, ATA-2 ATA-3
-.

ATA-4
ATA4 1998 .
ATA4 ATAPI , 
ATA, . , ATA4
UltraDMA ( UltraATA) .
, DMA/33,
33 /.
ATA4:
UltraDMA, 33 /;
ATAPI;
;
80 ;
Compact Flash Adapter (CFA);
BIOS ( 9,4 . ),
ATA  136 .
ATA4 ANSI NCITS 317$1998 ATA with Packet Interface Extension.

.
, South Bridge I/O
Controller Hub, ( ). ,
/33, /66, /100 /133, 
.
BIOS Setup,
UltraDMA ( ). 
, 1998 , /33; 2000 
/66, 2000 /100. ,
2002 , /133.
1998 13 ANSI NCITS 3161998 1394 to AT Attacment
Tailgate, IEEE1394 (iLink/FireWire) 
.
FireWire. ( ,
, ), IEEE
1394 (iLink/FireWire) , FireWire.
Maxtor, Western Digital
IEEE1394 (FireWire), 
.
FireWire .

ATA-5
ATA 2000 
ATA4. :
UltraDMA (UDMA), 66 / (
UDMA/66 UltraATA/66);
80 , UDMA/66;

446

7. ATA/IDE

40 80;
UDMA33 ( 80
).
ATA5 UltraATA/66,
UltraATA 
. 40
, ATA UltraATA.
80 40 . 
ATA4, ATA5 UltraATA/66.
40 40
, .
, UltraATA, 
, 40 , .
40 80 
. ()
ATA ( ). ( ) 
; . () 
.
UDMA/33 UDMA/66, ATA, , BIOS
, . 
, .
Windows 95 OSR2, Windows 98 Windows 2000 
, Windows 95 Windows NT ( 
Service Pack 3) .
UltraATA/66 UltraATA/66
80 . , UltraATA/33.
UltraDMA
CRC. , 
. CRC 
UltraDMA.
CRC , . 
, .

ATA-6
ATA6, 2000 , 
2002 . :
UltraDMA (UDMA), 
100 / ( UDMA/100, UltraATA/100
ATA/100);
, , 8
(256 , 131 ) 16 (65 536 , 33,5 ),
;
28

48

LBA 2 2 (281 474 976 710 656) ,


144,12 (1 1 );
CHS ; 28
48 LBA.
ATA6 UltraATA/100 (
UltraDMA UDMA/100), UltraATA
.

ATA

447

, ATA5, 80 .
ATA/100
.
100 /, ATA6 
. ATA5
136,9 ,
. 2001 3,5 ,
137 . SCSI
, . 
28
48
ATA6 LBA 2 2 . ,
28 , ,
ATA6 , 48 . 
, 512 ,
144,12 , 144,12 ! 
, 48 
, 137 . ,
137 , 28, 48 .

ATA-7
ATA7 2001 ,
. 7, , ,
(ATA6), .
ATA7 , 
UDMA Mode 6, 133 /.
, UDMA Mode 5 (100 /) UDMA Mode 4
(66 /), 80 . 
80 ,
, 40 .
, UDMA 
, , , ,
. , , ATA,
, UDMA Mode 6 (133 /),
,
60 /. , ATA, 
133 /, 
, ,
. , , 
, UDMA Mode 6 (133 /), 
, UDMA Mode 5 (100 /), 
. ,
 ATA, 100 /,
133 /,
, 
. , 
, , 
.
, ATA7
ATA. ATA Serial ATA, 
. ATA6 ATA7
,
ATA7 Serial ATA,
, ATA7.

448

7. ATA/IDE

ATA
ATA
IDE ISA/PCI. ATA
40 , , .. 
, .

- ATA
40/44 ATA (. 7.2),
( ) . 20,
. 
(. 7.3). 
IDE , 
, .
,

IDE


(+5 )

()
4

()
1

(+12 )

. 7.2. ATA (IDE)

39

20

40

. 7.3. 40 ATA

ATA

449

ATA IDE . 7.3.


7.3. ATA IDE

-RESET
, 7
, 6
, 5
, 4
, 3
, 2
, 1
, 0

DRQ 3
-IOW
-IOR
IO CH RDY
-DACK 3
IRQ 14
, 1
, 0
-CS1FX
-DA/SP
+5 ( )

1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44

, 8
, 9
, 10
, 11
, 12
, 13
, 14
, 15
( )

SPSYNC:CSEL

-IOCS16
-PDIAG
, 2
-CS3FX

+5 ( )
-TYPE (0=ATA)

. , $, (, $RESET),
.

2,5 
50 ,
2 (0,079 ) . 40 ,
ATA ( 
), .
44 ,
ATA. 
: (Master),
(Slave) (Select Cable). 50 , 
2,5 ATA, . 7.4.
43

C
A
B

44

20

2

E F

. 7.4. 50 ,
2,5
44

AD E F. 
, , 
B D. 41 42 5 
( ) ;
43 (.. ); 44 

450

7. ATA/IDE

. , 2,5 , 
, 5 .
50 ATA,
2,5 ( 
), . 7.4.
7.4. 50- ATA



( )
-RESET
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

DRQ 3
-IOW
-IOR
I/O CH RDY
-DACK 3
IRQ 14
1
0
-CS1FX
-DA/SP
+5 ( )

A
C
E
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43

B
D
F
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44



( )

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
( )

CSEL

-PDIAG
2
-CS3FX

+5 ()


, ,
. , , 20 , .
. .
, .
, ,
, . , ,
, , (..
), . ( . 7.6 ,
.)
, ,
20 ( ) , 20 . 20 , , .
, ,
20 , .
, 1
, .

ATA

451

- ATA
() 
40 (. 7.5).
, ,
46 (18 ).
, IDE 
, , . 
,
. , ,
UDMA Mode 4 (66 /), Mode 5 (100 /) Mode 6 (133 /), 
80 . ,
UDMA Mode 2 (33 /). 
80 IDE
, ,  .

, 80- ,
40- .

40 80 (. 7.6).


40 , 80 
.
UltraATA/66 . 80
40, , 
.
, 80
40. 
, . , ,
. 40, ,
40 , 80 .
, : 80 ,
40, .
25,4 (10"),
45,72 (18")
12,7 (5"),
30,48 (12")
39

40

12,7 (5"),
15,24 (6")

40 80




()


IDE
()


IDE
()

. 7.5. ATA (IDE)

452

7. ATA/IDE

40>

80>

. 7.6. : 40 ()
80 ()

, 80 , 
. 40
, . 7.6, . 40
; , ,
.
80 .

ATA
,
. , 
, Cable Select ( ).
20 .

ATA. ,
. , 20 .
39 DA/SP (Drive Active/Slave Present), 
. 39 
, .
, .
28 : SPSYNC (Spindle Synchronization
) CSEL (Cable Select ).
, .
SPSYNC , 
CSEL.
( 0),
( 1), 
. CSEL, , (
), ; 
( ), .
CSEL ( 
) , Y . ,
IDE, , 
. CSEL
( ), .

ATA

453


( )
IDE ,
,
. ,
.
ATA 
. ( )

( Master Slave ),
CSEL (Cable SELect ).

, . ( , 
), . ,
.
() Master/Slave CSEL.
,
, 
. Master Slave 
,
( DRV) Drive/Head Register .
, 
, ,
.
IDE :
( );
( );
( );
.
: , 
. ,
, ,
.
, , , ,
DASP, 
. 
, 
. , ,
, 
.
, ,
(/). ,
. . 7.5
.
7.5. ATA (IDE)

Master (M/S)
Slave Present (SP)
Cable Select (CS)

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

454

7. ATA/IDE


, , CS On, Off.
, ,
.

. 7.7 .
Master , ,
. Slave, 
, 
, . 
. 
.
,
. , 
. 7.5.


39

40
(#20)

DS (Drive Select)
CS (Cable Select)

( )


( )

PK

PK ( Park
)

" "

CS
DS

( )

CS
PK

CS
DS

PK

DS

. 7.7. ATA (IDE)

ATA

455


, ,
, .

(Cable Select),
/.
. , ,
( 28) 
. 28 
( ). 
CS 
.
, 28, 
, .
,
28,
. 28 .
, , ,
, Master, Slave System,
, , .
CS ,
, ,
.

. ,
.

ATA
ATA IDE . 
IBM AT
WD1003, ATA IDE 
. , ,
IDE . PC
WD1003, , ATA IDE BIOS.
WD1003, ATA
, 
. ATA,

.
, .
512
. ( 
BIOS) , , 
, .
BIOS , 
CMOS.
. ,
,
( ,
).

456

7. ATA/IDE

, , 
, :
, LBA;
, , PCHS;
,
LCHS;
( ) ;
 ;
;
;
, 
.

. IDEINFO
(http://www.tech-pro.co.uk/ideinfo.html), , , . 
IDEDIAG
(http://www.penguin.cz.~mhi/idediag) HWINFO (http://www.hwinfo.com).
( ,
, BIOS 
, . 
.)
Read Multiple Write Multiple.
(.. , 
). 
 (Programmed I/O PIO)
( ).
, ,
, .
,
, 
. 
, IDE.

ATA
ATA1 , BIOS, 

. ,
.
ATA2ATA7 :
;
;
;
ATAPI (ATA Program Interface).

ATA
 ,
, .
ATA2 , 
ATA

457

. , 
.

, , ,
PCI.  
, BIOS , 
. , ,
BIOS (
).
Promise Technologies, MicroFirmware, GSI 
ATA, , 
.


ATA/IDE 136,9 .
, BIOS,
, 8,4 512 .
ATA BIOS, 
.
. 7.6 ,
ATA BIOS.
7.6. ATA/IDE


CHS: BIOS w/o TL
CHS: BIOS w/bit-shift TL
CHS: BIOS w/LBA-assist TL
CHS: BIOS INT13h
CHS: ATA-1/ATA-5
LBA: ATA-1/ATA-5
LBA: ATA-6+
LBA: EDD BIOS
,
528 482 304
7 927 234 560
8 422 686 720
8 455 716 864
136 902 082 560
137 438 953 472
144 115 188 075 855 360
9 444 732 965 739 290 430 000


10241663
102424063
102425563
102425663
6553616255
228
248
264
( )
528,48
7,93
8,42
8,46
136,90
137,44
144,12
9,44

1 032 192
15 482 880
16 450 560
16 515 072
267 386 880
268 435 456
281 474 976 710 655
18 446 744 073 709 551 600
( )
504,00 MiB
7,38 GiB
7,84 GiB
7,88 GiB
127,50 GiB
128,00 GiB
128,00 PiB
8,00 ZiB

CHS Cylinder Head Sector (, , ).


LBA Logical Block (sector) Address ( ).
w/ (with).
w/o (without).
TL Translation.
INT13h 13h.
EDD Enhanced Disk Drive (Phoenix/ATA).
MiB mebibyte.
GiB gibibyte.
PiB pebibyte.
ZiB zebibyte.

458

7. ATA/IDE


, MiB (mebibyte), GiB (gibibyte) 
, , .
,
,
. SI ( ,
) .
, , ,
(.. 2). 
, : , 1
3
10
() 1 000 (10 ) , 1 024 (2 ) . 1998
()
,
. . 7.7.
7.7.

103
106
109
1012
1015
1018
1021

(k)
(M)
(G)
(T)
(P)
E
Z

(kilo)
(Mega)
(Giga)
(Tera)
(Peta)
c (Exa)
(Zetta)

1 000
1 000 000
1 000 000 000
1 000 000 000 000
1 000 000 000 000 000
1 000 000 000 000 000 000
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000

210
220
230
240
250
250
250

Ki
Mi
Gi
Ti
Pi
Ei
Zi

Kibi
Mibi
Gibi
Tibi
Pibi
Exbi
Zebi

Kilobinary
Megabinary
Gigabinary
Terabinary
Petabinary
Exabinary
Zettabinary

1 024
1 048 576
1 073 741 824
1 099 511 627 776
1 125 899 906 842 624
1 152 921 504 606 846 980
1 180 591 620 717 411 300 000

. , /kilo (k)
SI ,
.

1 ()
1 000 000 , 1 MiB (mebibyte) 1 048 576 .

,
, Web-
(NIST): physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/prefixes.html.

BIOS
ROM BIOS ,
. . 7.8 ,
.

ATA

459

7.8. ROM BIOS


BIOS

1994
1998
2002

528
8,4
137

. ,
BIOS, 1984 , , 
528 ; BIOS, 1998 , , 
8,4 . BIOS, 1998 ,
, 137 . , BIOS,
2002 , , 137 .
;
.
BIOS Wizard (http://www.unicore.com.bioswiz/index2.html), 
BIOS , Enhanced Hard Disk
Drive (.. 8,4 ).
, BIOS EDD (..
8,4 ), .
BIOS, , 1998 ,
8,4 .
BIOS, ATA Pro Flash (http://wwwfirmware.com)
PCI Ultra ATA 133 (http://www.maxtordirect.com).
, ,
8,4 .
,  .
, BIOS,
, Web .
, ATA Pro Flash Micro Firmware
Ultra 133 PCI, Maxtor.
,
,
, .

CHS LBA
, ( )
ATA. CHS (Cylinder Head Sector). 
,
. , LBA (Logical Block Address),
. CHS
( ).
LBA, ,
, .
CHS 
0, 0 1 (
), . 
, . 
, .


460

7. ATA/IDE

. CHS ( ):
, ; 
, .
LBA
0, 1, 2 .. ,
CHS 0,0,1. LBA
0.
, , 
( ),
() . , 
( ), ( ),
.
(222) . ,
0, , , 1. 
CHS
0, 0, 1 (0,0,1); 0,0,2; 0,1,1;
0,1,2 .., , 1,1,2.
, , 
, , 0 7. 
, ,
0,1,2 CHS 3 LBA.
CHS LBA
. 7.9.
7.9. CHS LBA ,
, (
)

CHS:
LBA:


0,0,1
0

0,0,2
1

0,1,1
2

0,1,2
3

1,0,1
4

1,0,2
5

1,1,1
6

1,1,2
7

, LBA
. ,
BIOS CHS.

CHS/LBA LBA/CHS
CHS, LBA. 
CHS LBA,
, , CHS LBA .
ATA1 ,
CHS LBA:
LBA = (((C HPC) + H) SPT) + S 1.
, .. 
LBA CHS:
C = int (LBA/SPT/HPC),
H = int ((LBA/SPT) mod HPC),
S = (LBA mod SPT) + 1.

ATA

461

:
LBA logical block address;
C (cylinder);
H (head);
S (sector);
HPC ( );
SPT ;
int X X;
X mod Y () X/Y.
LBA
CHS . 16 383 , 16 63 
. CHS LBA . 7.10.
7.10. CHS LBA
, 16 383 , 16 63
( 16 514 064)

LBA

0
0
1
999
1 000
9 999
10 000
16 382

0
0
1
15
0
15
0
15

1
63
1
63
1
63
1
63

0
62
63
1 007 999
1 008 000
10 079 999
10 080 000
16 514 063

BIOS ATA
(CHS LBA), 
, . 
 (
BIOS); 
( ATA). ,
CHS, LBA. . 7.8
.


BIOS INT13h (L>GHS LBA)

BIOS ()

13h
( )

ATA > (P>CHS LBA)


>

. 7.8. BIOS
. ( LCHS 
CHS, PCHS CHS)

462

7. ATA/IDE

BIOS , 
INT13h, 
BIOS, .
INT13h ,
LBA CHS. 
BIOS ATA,
 . ATA
CHS LBA, 
. 
CHS LBA, ,
BIOS, BIOS Setup .

CHS ( 528 ), 2,1/4,2 LBA-Assist -.

8,4
CHS
528 , ,
8,4 . ,
8,4 , CHS LBA
BIOS. ATA LBA
ATA1. , LBA ATA ,
, BIOS LBA 
. , BIOS
LBAAssist,
LBA CHS BIOS.
Phoenix Technologies
BIOS CHS LBA 1994
BIOS Enhanced Disk Drive Specification (EDD),
INT13h BIOS,
CHS, LBA.

BIOS Phoenix 1996
13 (National Commit
tee on Information Technology Standards NCITS) 
, BIOS Enhanced Disk Drive Specification
(EDD). 1998 BIOS 
EDD , 
LBA BIOS ATA,
8,4 . , 8,4 
.
EDD INT13h BIOS, 
64
LBA 2 , 
21
9,44 . , 9,44 . ; 9,4410
, , 9 444 732 965 739 290 430 000 ! 
, , 1998 BIOS 
264 , ATA 28
28
(2 ) ATA. ATA

ATA

463

268 435 456 , , 137 438 953 472


, 137,44 . , 8,4
137 ,
28 LBA ATA. ,
.

----------------------------------------
268 435 456
----------------------------------------
137 438 953 472

137 439
Mebibyte (MiB)
131 072

137,44
Gibibyte (GiB)
128,00
64 LBA BIOS,
28 LBA ATA
, LBA .
LBA BIOS 
CHS. , 
8,4 , BIOS,
EDD (.. BIOS, 1998 ), 
BIOS LBA.
,
. ,
LBA (, DOS Win95), 
, 8,4 , 16 383 ,
16 63 , 8,4 .
BIOS 120
8,4 . , ,
120 , 8,4 ,
. 8,4
, 1998 , BIOS
BIOS EDD (
MicroFirmware ).

137
2001 , 137
, 
3,5 137 .
ATA6, 2001 . 
, LBA, 28 
48 ,
.
ATA6 LBA, 48
. , 
48
2 ( 281 474 976 710 656).
512 , , 
.

464

7. ATA/IDE


------------------------------------------------
281 474 976 710 656

144 115 188 075 855 888
------------------------------------------------
144 115 188 076
Mebibyte (MiB)
137 438 953 472

144 115 188


Gibibyte (GiB)
137 217 728

144 115
Tebibyte (TiB)
131 072

144,12
Pebibyte (PiB)
128,00
, 48 LBA, ATA6, 
, 144 ( ).
EDD BIOS, 64 ,
.

-----------------------------------------------------
18 446 744 073 709 551 600
------------------------------------------------------
9 444 732 965 739 290 430 000

9 444 732 965 739 291


Mebibyte (MiB)
9 007 199 254 740 993

9 444 732 965 739


Gibibyte (GiB)
8 796 093 022 208

9 444 732 966


Tebibyte (TiB)
8 589 934 592

9 444 733
Pebibyte (PiB)
8 388 608
c
9 445
Exbibyte (EiB)
8 192

9,44
Zebibytes (ZiB)
8,00
BIOS, 64 LBA, 
64
, 2 , 144 ,
ATA6, .
1,52 . , 
, 160
2001 , , 144 2031
2041 (,
). , EDD BIOS
9,44 2055 2073 ! 
Phoenix , EDD 2020 , ,
, .
137 , 
. , BIOS
,  ,
. ,
137 , 48 LBA (Logical Block
Address), BIOS, 
. , .

ATA

465

BIOS 48 LBA (


2002 ).
, , Intel Application
Accelerator ( , Intel).
Web http://www.intel.com.support/chipset/iaa.
Windows XP Service Pack 1 (
).
BIOS, 
BIOS,
PCI Ultra ATA 133 Maxtor. 
Intel, (Intel Application
Accelerator) , Web http://www.intel.com.support/
chipset/iaa. , , 
,
48 LBA.
, Windows XP
( Windows 2000/NT Windows 95/98/Me)
, 137 .
Windows XP, Service Pack 1 .


, 
, , , 
CHS, 8,4 .

. 7.11.
7.11.

DOS/Windows 3x

DOS 6.22 8,4 . DOS 7.0


( Windows 95 ) 8,4
Windows 95a ( ) INT13h, ,
8,4 , FAT16 2 . Windows 95B OSR2 ( Windows 98) INT13h,
8,4 , FAT32,
Windows NT 3.5x 8,4 . Windows NT 4.0
8,4 ; , , Windows NT (
Service Pack 4)
Windows 2000 8,4
OS/2 3,1 4,3 . IBM Device Driver Pack,
8,4 . HPFS
64
NetWare 5.0
8,4

Windows 9x/Me

Windows NT

Windows 2000/XP
OS/2 Warp

Novell

,
8,4 , ,
 . 
() , 

466

7. ATA/IDE

.
, ,
. (), 
Windows . 7.12.
, Windows XP ( Windows 2000/NT
Windows 95/98/Me) ,
137 . 
Windows XP, Service Pack 1
. , 
USB, FireWire, SCSI .
7.12. ()

,

FAT16

FAT32

NTFS

() (9x/Me)
() (NT/2000/XP)
() (9x)
() (Me)
() (NT/2000/XP)
()

2,092
2,092
2,147
2,147
4,294
4,294

33,554
33,554
136,902
8,796
8,796
4,294

1,000

281,475
16,384


ATA2/EIDE ATA3
. 
, .

PIO 3 PIO 4, . 
.
PIO .
( 0)
600 . 16 ,
0 3,3 /. 
PIO 4, 16,6 /.
PIO . 7.13.
7.13. PIO
PIO

, /

0
1
2
3
4

600
383
240
180
120

3,3
5,2
8,3
11,11
16,67

ATA
ATA
ATA
ATA-2, EIDE, Fast-ATA
ATA-2, EIDE, Fast-ATA

ATA2/EIDE
IDE, , , . 
486 Pentium 
PCI,
ISA 0, 1 2.

PIO DMA, .
BIOS
, .
, , .

ATA

467

, ATA2,
(Block Mode PIO) Read/Write Multiple. 
, 
, .
.

DMA
BIOS , 
ATA2 . (DMA)
, , PIO,
() , .
: (8)
(16). DMA 3, 
. DMA,
, (busmastering), 
Bus Master ATA. ,
DMA .
, . , 
, .
Intel PIIX (PCI IDE ISA eXcelerator) 
South Bridge Bus Master IDE.
Bus Master PCI . 
Bus Master IDE . 7.14 7.15.
7.14. (8-) DMA
8-
DMA

,
/

0
1
2

16
16
16

960
480
240

1,04
2,08
4,17

1
1
1

2,08
4,17
8,33

-1
-1
-1

7.15. (16-) DMA


16-
DMA

,
/

0
1
2

16
16
16

480
150
120

2,08
6,67
8,33

1
1
1

4,17
13,33
16,67

-1
-2
-2

. ATA$2 EIDE (Enhanced IDE) Fast$ATA.

, Bus Master IDE 2 


16,67 /, PIO 4. , DMA 
ISA .
.
PIO 4, .
Bus Master IDE
UltraDMA, ATA4 7.
. 7.16 UltraDMA,
ATA4 ATA7.

468

7. ATA/IDE

7.16. Ultra-DMA
Ultra-DMA

0
1
2
3
4

240
160
120
90
60

, /
16,67
25,00
33,33
44,44
66,67

5
6

40
30

100
133

ATA-4, Ultra-ATA/33
ATA-4, Ultra-ATA/33
ATA-4, Ultra-ATA/33
ATA-5, Ultra-ATA/66
ATA-5, Ultra-ATA/66
ATA-6, Ultra-ATA/100
-7, Ultra- 133

ATAPI (ATA Packet Interface)


, ,
CDROM IDE.
, ATAPI, 
. CDROM,
, 
, ; .

, ATAPI,
. CDROM , 
, . 
, SCSI. 
CDROM ATAPI,
. , 
ATAPI CDROM CDROM .
!
BIOS ATAPI. ATAPI - - ATAPI,
. Windows 95/NT/2000/XP
ATAPI, BIOS ATAPI- CD-ROM. , Windows 98
Windows 2000/XP.

, IDE 
. , 
, ,
. 

IDE, , , 
, .
,
, IDE, SCSI, ()
. , , 
.

Serial ATA
ATA7 , ATA,
10 , . ,
100 /, ,
. 
Serial ATA

469

(Serial ATA),
. Serial ATA (SATA) , ..

. , , 
, ATA,
. Serial ATA
ATA ATAPI, CDROM, CDRW DVD,
, SuperDisk, ,
.
, , : , , 
ATA  ATA 
. SATA 7 ,
.
SATA
. ,
ATA.
SATA 
, ,
. SATA, 
, , . 
,
SATA ,
. , 
, 10 ,
, SATA.
2000 Intel,
, 
Serial ATA. APT Technologies, Dell,
IBM, Intel, Maxtor, Quantum Seagate. 60 
, . 2000 
SATA 1.0, 2002
SATA, 
. Web
Serial ATA Working Group : http://www.serialata.org. 
, SATA 100 ,
. , SATA, 
2002 .
SATA .
SATA, 
. .
,
. . 7.17 , 
SATA; , 
300 /, 2005 ; 600 /
2007 .
7.17. SATA
Serial ATA

, /

SATA-150
SATA-300
SATA-600

1
1
1

1500
3000
6000

1
1
1

150
300
600

470

7. ATA/IDE

, ATA
. 7
14 (0,55 ) .
,
ATA. ,
. , , 
( ).
/ ,
. , ..
. 
SATA (39,37 ), 18
ATA. 
, , ,
150 / ( ATA/100).
300 600 /.
, , SATA
, 8B/10B. 8B/10B
( ) IBM 1980
.
, Gigabit Ethernet, Fibre Channel,
FireWire . 8B/10B , 
( ) .
RLL 0,4 (Run Length
Limited RLL), 0 , 4 
.
10
().
. ,
, , 
. , 
. 8 10
10 
. , 
,  .
SATA 
(NonReturn to Zero NRZ). 
, ,
0,25 ( ). :
+0,25 , 0,25 .
, 0,5 ( ). 
,
, . 
.
SATA 5 12 4
, 15 ,
3,3 . 15
24 (0,945 ). ,
3,3, 5 12 , 4,5 , 
. 
SATA 4
, 15 .

Serial ATA

471

SATA . 7.9.
. 7.10  SATA ATA,
.
. 7.18 7.19 SATA 
.

. 7.9. SATA
SATA

SATA

ATA

. 7.10. 

7.18. Serial ATA

S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7

A+
A
BB+


Host Transmit+
Host Transmit
Host ReceiveHost Receive+

. 1,27 (0,05 )
. , ,
. .

472

7. ATA/IDE

7.19. Serial ATA

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

+3,3
+3,3
+3,3

+5
+5
+5

+12
+12
+12

+3,3 ()
+3,3 ()
+3,3 ()



+5 ()
+5 ()
+5 ()



+12 ()
+12 ()
+12 ()

. 1,27 (0,05 )
. , ,
. .
4,5 .

SATA ,
/ , ,
.
BIOS SATA . 
SATA ,
SATA , 
Parallel ATA. , SATA

Setup BIOS. 5.
SATA ,
100 133  SATA 
, HighPoint RocketHead 100 (. 7.11).
 HighPoint RocketHead ATA RAID; 
, .

( )


SATA (
> SATA)

. 7.11. HighPoint RocketHead 100

Serial ATA

473

SATA , 
 SATA,  SATA PCI
(. 7.12). ATA RAID.
 SATA, HighPoint 3Ware, 
ParallelSerial ATA, 
. , ,
Promise Technology, 
SATA, ,
.
SATA,
Parallel ATA, , 150 /.
SATA 7200 / (,
Seagate Barracuda V) 4050 /.

Parallel ATA

SATA

SATA

SATA

. 7.12. () 
()  SATA RAID. 


474

7. ATA/IDE

SATA, Parallel ATA,


, , 
. SATA
,
SCSI, USB 2.0 IEEE1394 (FIreWire). ,
SATA .

ATA RAID
( ) (Redundant
Array of Independent/Inexpensive Disks RAID) 
.
RAID 1987 . 
,
, 
.
RAID 
. , ,
. , , 
, , ,
. 
RAID.
(), 
.
1992 RAID Advisory Board (RAB), 
, RAID. 
Web (http://www.raid.advisory.com). RAB 
RAID, ,
RAID.
RAB RAID
RAID 0 RAID 6. (RAID)
RAID. , RAID
(, , ). 
RAID.
RAID 0 .
, .
/,
. , , .
RAID 1 . , , 
, ( 
). 

. , , .
RAID 2 . 
() 
. ,
( SCSI ATA 
).
. .
, RAID 2 
, .

ATA RAID

475

RAID 3 . RAID 0
,
.
RAID 0,
. 
, ,
. , 
, ( ).
RAID 4 c . 
RAID 3 ,
, 
. ,
, ( ).
RAID 5 .
RAID 4, ,

. , , 
( ).
RAID 6 $
. RAID 5 , 
.

. , , 
( ).
RAID, 
. RAID Advi
sory Board. ,
; RAID .
RAID 
SCSI. , SCSI RAID 
, RAID SCSI ,
. 
ATA RAID, RAID.
, ATA RAID
, .
ATA RAID , SCSI RAID,
. ATA RAID
, 
. 
ATA RAID RAID 0, 
. ,
, , , 
. , RAID 0,
. ,
. 
.  ,
, 
( , ).
,  .

476

7. ATA/IDE

ATA RAID
RAID 1, .
, .  
, . , 
; ,
. , , ,
, ( ).
, ,
. , ATA RAID, 
ATA RAID 1 160 ( 80 ),
200 ( 100 ).
ATA RAID 100 . , 
, Serial ATA RAID, 
SATA, .
,
RAID 3 RAID 5. , 
RAID, ,
RAID 5. 
. , RAID 5 , , .
ATA RAID RAID, 
0 1,
. , 
RAID 0. 
, RAID 1.
, .
IDE RAID Arco Computer
Products, Iwill, Promise Technology, HighPoint . ATA
RAID Promise FastTrak 100/TX4.
, , , RAID 0, 1
0+1. () ATA
, . Promise
Technology ATA RAID,
FastTrak 100/TX2.
,
. ,
, .
ATA RAID 
:
RAID ( 0, 1 0+1);
;
ATA/100 ATA/133;
PCI 33 66 ;
ATA SATA ( SATA ,
, SATA 2004 ).

RAID.
( ). ,
Windows NT/2000 XP Server RAID , 

ATA RAID

477

, . 
RAID,
Disk Administrator.
, ,
ATA SCSI RAID,
RAID 3 5.

478

7. ATA/IDE

8
SCSI

(SCSI)
SCSI , Small Computer System Interface; 
, 
SASI (Shugart Associates System
Interface). SCSI 
, ,
. SCSI , , ..
, . 
7 15 . 
, 7 15 .
, (host) ,
SCSI . SCSI 
(, ),
.
, SCSI 8 16
, SCSI ID.
, ; 
.
, , CDROM, ( 7
15).
, SCSI 15 , 
60! ,
, .
, SCSI
,  , 
. Ultra4
(Ultra320) SCSI 320 /.
Ultra5 (Ultra640),
640 /. 133 / (ATA6)
150 / Serial ATA.
SCSI, : 
, SCSI. , SCSI
IDE SCSI. 
, . 
, 
. SCSI
, , 
SCSI.
Apple SCSI 
, . Apple ,
Macintosh 
. ,
SCSI . , 
Apple, SCSI. ,
USB (Universal Serial Bus) FireWire (
iLink IEEE1394), Apple SCSI
Mac . PC
, 
SCSI . , , 
, .
,

480

8. SCSI

USB, SCSI
. ,
USB 2.0 IEEE1394a/b
SCSI, 
, .
( ) 
USB 2.0 IEEE1394a/b.
SCSI PC 

SCSI. , 
, . SCSI, 
, , .
.
SCSI ,
SCSI.
,
. BIOS, 
,
ST506/412, ESDI ATA. SCSI
,
ROM BIOS. , BIOS
 SCSI; BIOS ,
 . BIOS
SCSI  SCSI.

ST-506/412 ESDI
, -.

Apple 
SCSI,
. PC .
Windows 95, 
SCSI . 
Windows 98/Me Windows 2000/XP SCSI
, .
SCSI 
PC . SCSI
, . 
IDE, SCSI 
 . , SCSI 
( ), IDE ,
. , ( ),
SCSI, . 
: , CDROM , ,
SuperDisk LS120 LS240, Zip .. SCSI
, 
SCSI, .

(SCSI)

481

ANSI SCSI
SCSI
,
. 
, , CDROM.
SCSI1 (ANSI X3.1311986) 1986 , SCSI2 1994 ,
1995 SCSI3. ,
SCSI3 , .
SCSI ANSI,
T10.
(National Committee on Information Technology Standards
NCITS), ANSI
. NCITS X3, SCSI
T9. SCSI1 
X3T9 1986 ANSI X3.1311986.
, SCSI,
Web 10 : http://www.t10.org.
SCSI1 ,
, 
. 18
SCSI, (Common Command Set CCS). 

SCSI2.
CCS, SCSI2
: CDROM
( , ), , 
, , .
,
(Fast SCSI2) 16 (WIDE SCSI2).
SCSI . ,

, . 
, SCSI
.
X3T9 SCSI2 X3.1311990 1990 ,

. SCSI2 1994 , 
. SCSI2
ANSI X3.1311994.
, 
X3.1311986 (SCSI1) X3.1311994 (SCSI2). , SCSI2
SCSI1, , 
SCSI1, SCSI2. 
SCSI2, 
, () 
, .
, () 
, ( 5
10 /) . (Fast) 16
Wide SCSI, 20 /. SCSI2
( ) (32),

482

8. SCSI

32 
. SCSI 8
 (Fast/Wide) . , 
,
SCSI2.
SCSI3 . SPI (SCSI Parallel Interface)
SCSI. 
: SPI, SPI2, SPI3 SPI4. , 
.
, SPI, . 8.1.
8.1. SPI (SCSI Parallel Interface)
SCSI-3

, /

SPI Ultra
SPI-2
SPI-3
SPI-4
SPI-5

20/40
40/80
160
320
640

SCSI
Ultra2 SCSI
Ultra3 SCSI
Ultra4 SCSI
Ultra5 SCSI

Fast-20
Fast-40
Fast-80DT
Fast-160DT
Fast-320DT

SPI3 (Ultra3 SCSI) Ultral60


Ultral60+, SPI4 (Ultra4 SCSI) Ultra320 Ultra320+. Ultra160/320
, 
Ultra3/4 SCSI. Ultra320 
Ultra160+, .
. 8.2 , ,
SCSI.
8.2. SCSI

SCSI

SCSI

,
/

(SE),

-

(HVD),

(LVD),

SCSI-1

Async

25

SCSI-1

Fast-5

25

SCSI-2

Fast-5/
Wide
Fast-10

Wide

16

10

15

25

Fast

10

10

25

Fast-10/
Wide
Fast-20

Fast/
Wide
Ultra

10

16

20

15

25

20

20

3/1,51

25

Fast-20/
Wide
Fast-40

Ultra/
Wide
Ultra2

20

16

40

3/1,51

25

40

40

122

40

16

80

15

122

403

16

160

15

122

803

16

320

15

122

SCSI-2
SCSI-2
SPI
(SCSI-3)
SPI
(SCSI-3)
SPI-2
(SCSI-3)
SPI-2
(SCSI-3)
SPI-3
(SCSI-3)
SPI-4
(SCSI-3)

Fast-40/
Wide
Fast-80DT

Ultra2/
Wide
Ultra3
(Ultra160)
Fast-160DT Ultra4
(Ultra320)

ANSI SCSI

A (50)
A (50)
(68)
A (50)
(68)
A (50)
(68)
A (50)
(68)
(68)
P (68)

483

. 8.2

SCSI

SCSI

,
/

SPI-5
(SCSI-3)

Fast320DT

Ultra5
(Ultra640)

1603

16

640

15

(SE),

(68)

-

(HVD),

(LVD),

122

* .
SE (Single$ended) .
HVD (High Voltage Differential) , .
LVD (Low Voltage Differential) .
SPI SCSI Parallel Interface, SCSI$3.
1 1,5 , ( $

). .
2 .
3 .

A 50- SCSI, P 16- SCSI. .

SCSI , , ..
 
. .

.
SCSI ( , ),
. ,
SCSI1 SCSI2 (
SCSI3), , , .
, , Ultra3 SCSI, 
SCSI . ,

8 16 .

SCSI-1
SCSI.
SCSI1 ANSI X3.1311986. SCSI1 :
8 ;
5 ;
4 / ( ) 5 / (
);
50 ;
;
;
.
SCSI1
SCSI2 SCSI3.

484

8. SCSI

SCSI-2
SCSI2 ANSI X3.1311994.
SCSI1.
. 
, SCSI1 SCSI2,
, SCSI2 SCSI1 .
SCSI2 .
, SCSI1 , SCSI2 
. , 
, ,
, .
SCSI2 ()
:
(Fast) 10 ;
SCSI (Wide) 16;
;
;
.
SCSI , 16;
. ,
. 50 (8)
A. SCSI2 
68 B, A 
, 
68 P, SCSI3.
, P
16 , , , A B.
Fast SCSI 
. 8 10 /.
16 (Fast/Wide SCSI),
20 /.

.
SCSI1 , , ,
. SCSI2
256 : , 
SCSI . 
,
. 
, OS/2 Windows NT.
SCSI2
CCS. , 
. SCSI2
( CDROM,
, , , ..).
SCSI ,
. ,
SCSI1 132 
.

SCSI-2

485

,
, , . SCSI2
( ) ,
110 .
, 
. , Fast SCSI
, , .

SCSI-3
SCSI2
( ),
SCSI3. SCSI1 SCSI2, SCSI3 
SPI (SCSI Parallel Interface), , 
, . 
, , 
RAID . SCSI
(SCSI Architectural Model SAM).
SCSI3 :
Ultra2 (Fast40) SCSI;
Ultra3 (Fast80DT) SCSI;
Ultra4 (Fast160DT) SCSI;
Ultra5 (Fast320DT) SCSI;
(Low Voltage Differential LVD);
(High Voltage Differential
HVD).
SCSI3
SCSI3. 
SCSI3,
.
. 8.1 SCSI.
SCSI 
Fast40 (Ultra2), Fast80DT (Ultra3) Fast160DT (Ultra4). 
320 /.
LVD (Low Voltage Differential),
. , 
(High Voltage Differential HVD).
,
SCSI. , 
(), .
8 1 ,
40 (Fast40 Ultra2 SCSI) 40 /.
, (16) 
, 80 /, ,
40 . Fast80DT 40 ,

160 /. Ultra4 SCSI, 
80 , 2 .
Ultra4, Ultra320,
SCSI . Ultra5
(Ultra640) .

486

8. SCSI

>
(,
)
(SBC, SBC>2)

>

>
(,

(,

(, (, DVD) (, RAID)
)
)

(MMC, MMC>2,
(SCC, SCC>2)
(RBC)
(SSC, SSC>2)
)
MMC>3)
(SMC, SMC>2)

>>

(OSD)

(SES)


(MSC)

( )
(SPC, SPC>2, SPC>3)
(SAM, SAM>2)

SCSI
(SPI>2, SPI>3,

SPI>4, SPI>5)
(SBP>2, SBP>3)

(SDV,
PIP, SSM,
SSM>2, EPI)

Fibre Channel
(FCP, FCP>2)

SSA SCSI>3
(SSA>S3P)

SCSI
Over ST
(SST)

SCSI RDMA
(SRP)

iSCSI

(ST)

Infini Band

Internet

SSA>TL2

IEEE 1394

Fibre
Channel
(FC)

SSA>PH1
SSA>PH2

. 8.1. SCSI

, . 
SCSI
. 8.2 .

SPI Ultra SCSI


SCSI Parallel Interface (SPI) SCSI3,
ANSI X3.2531995. Ultra SCSI. SCSI
Interlock Protocol (SIP) .
SPI2 SPI3.
SPI Ultra SCSI :
Fast20 (Ultra) 20 40 /;
68 P , Wide SCSI.
Fast20 (Ultra) SCSI
Fast SCSI. Ultra SCSI, 
ANSI X3.2771996,
20 / 8 SCSI. 16 Wide
SCSI 40 /.

SCSI-3

487

SPI-2 Ultra2 SCSI


SPI2, Ultra2 SCSI,
ANSI X3.3021998 
:
Fast40 (Ultra2) 40 80 /;
(Low Voltage Differential LVD);
Single Connector Attachment (SCA2);
68 Very High Density Connector (VHDC).
Fast40 SCSI 40 /
8 80 / 16.

LVD.
Fast20; Fast40 LVD . LVD
12 25 
. LVD SE 
, SE,
Fast20 1,5 . LVD 
LVD LVD/SE.
SE, LVD.
, SPI2 SIP (SCSI Interlink Protocol) 
80 SCA2 (Single Connector Attachment),
. 68
(Very High Density Connector VHDC),
, .

SCSI
SCSI (single$ended SE),
. ,
.
. 
, .
SE (
), .
,
.
, .
.
SCSI 
. ( ,
), .
( ).

. SCSI 
25 , 6
3 Fast.
. 8.2 ()
() .

488

8. SCSI

>

. 8.2. ()
()

SCSI ,
.
, ,
(High Voltage Differential HVD)
SCSI3.

(Low Voltage Differential LVD).
.
, .. 
. 
. LVD 
, .
, LVD/SE SCSI 
LVD SE. ,
SE, LVD, , 
SE. SE SCSI, 
20 (Fast20 UltraSCSI), 
1,5 3 ;
. , 
. , Ultra3 SCSI,
LVD/SE SCSI, 
.
, Ultra2 Ultra3 LVD,
40 (Ultra2) 80 (Ultra3).
LVD Ultra SCSI (20 ) ,
, LVD 
Ultra2 Ultra3.
,
. , ,
. .
, 
SCSI (. 8.3).
,
, 21 22 . 
, 
, . 
, , SCSI 
, .

SCSI-3

489

SCSI

SE

SCSI

LVD/SE

SCSI

LVD


SCSI

DIFF

. 8.3. (
) 
SCSI

SPI-3 Ultra3 SCSI (Ultra160)


SPI3, Ultra3 Ultra160 SCSI, 
160 / (
SCSI). SPI3 (Ultra3)
:
DT (Double Transition);
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check);
;
;
Quick Arbitrate and Select (QAS).

REQ/ACK. Ultra3 SCSI
160 / 40 . 16 .
Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC) Ultra3
SCSI. SCSI 
. CRC 
, .
, .. 
. 
.
SCSI
INQUIRY 5 . :
, ,
. 
.
.
SCSI
. 
: , , . 

490

8. SCSI

. 
, .. , , 
. , Ultra3
Ultra160 SCSI . Ultra3,
, Ultra160+ SCSI.
Quick Arbitrate and Select (QAS) Ultra3 SCSI 

. QAS 
BUS FREE.

Ultra160 Ultra160+
Ultra3 SCSI ,
Ultra3 .
,
. Ultra160 Ultra160+,
160 /, 
.
Ultra160 Ultra3 (SPI3) SCSI
Ultra3 SCSI:
Fast80DT (Double Transition) 160 /;
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check);
.
Ultra160 SCSI LVD
Ultra2 SCSI (LVD). : 
(SE) . Ultra2
Ultra160 (Ultra3) 
,
.
Ultra160+ :
;
Quick Arbitrate and Select (QAS).
Ultra160+ 
.

SPI-4 Ultra4 SCSI (Ultra320)


SPI4, Ultra4 Ultra320 SCSI, 
, Ultra3 (Ultra160), , 
.
Ultra320 SCSI ,
, Ultral60+ SCSI 
.
Ultra320 SCSI .
. Ultra320 2 (16 ) 
80 , (Double Transition DT) 
, .. . 
320 /.

SCSI-3

491

/ . 
,
, 
, .
() .

.
. 
, ,

, .

SPI-5 Ultra5 SCSI (Ultra640)


SPI5 SCSI, 
Ultra5 Ultra640 SCSI. ,
Ultra320, ,
640 /.

RAID
, , ,
SCSI, 
. 
. RAID 
, .. SCSI ATA. RAID SCSI
Ultra320 Ultra160, 
, .
RAID 7, ATA/IDE.

Fiber Channel SCSI


Fiber Channel SCSI
, 
SCSI.
200400 /.
Fiber Channel , 
, , 

(SAN) . Fiber Channel SCSI
, Ultra160 Ultra320 SCSI,
.
Fiber Channel SCSI 200 /
GBIC (gigabit interface connector), 400 /
SFP (small form factor pluggable)
HSSDC (highspeed serial data connec
tor) .

iSCSI
iSCSI, SCSI, 
SCSI Ethernet, 
.
Ethernet, iSCSI , 
Ethernet. , Internet. iSCSI 

492

8. SCSI

, ,
. iSCSI ,
Ethernet,
, .
, iSCSI Fiber Channel SCSI, 
SAN (storage area network), (NAS)
. iSCSI, Fiber Channel, 
,
Ethernet. iSCSI Adaptec Cisco
Systems 2002 .

SCSI
SCSI . 
50 ,
Centronics ( ). 
Alternative 2. 
, ( 
). 50 SCSI A.
8 SCSI
Centronics. . 8.4 50 .
SCSI2 A 50 
D . Alternative 1 (. 8.5).
Alternative 2 Centronics SCSI2 . 16 32
SCSI2 68 B,
A. B
SCSI3 .
B SCSI3 68 P.
( A P) , 
D. ,
, Centronics. 
. . 8.6 68 .
25

50

26

. 8.4. 50 SCSI (Alternative 2)

25

50

26

. 8.5. 50 SCSI (Alternative 1)

SCSI

493

34

68

35

. 8.6. 68 SCSI

80 , Alternative 4
(. 8.7). ,
.. SCSI .
Apple ,
, SCSI 25
. 
, .
SCSI, .
, , DB25,
, ( ) 
.
, DB25 SCSI 
SCSI DB25 . 
SCSI , 
, DB25 SCSI
DB25. DB25 SCSI . 8.8.

SCSI.
Fiber Channel SCSI, 200 /, 
, GBIC, 
. (SC)
 HSSDC/ DB9
. . 8.9, GBIC .
, 400 /,
HSSDC, . 8.10. 
SFP (. 8.11).
40

80

41

. 8.7. 80 SCSI


(Alternative 4)
13

25

14

. 8.8. 25 SCSI

494

8. SCSI

. 8.9. GBIC, Fiber Channel


200 /, DB9
( ), SC HSSDC

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

. 8.10. HSSDC ( Fiber Channel


400 /)
SPF
>

SPF

>

. 8.11. SPF ( Fiber Channel 


400 /) 

SCSI

495

SCSI

SCSI. ,
SCSI . ,
, . , 
. 
( ) :
A ( 8 SCSI);
P (16 Wide SCSI).
SCSI1 SCSI2
A. Wide SCSI (16)
P. ,
16 , A P 
. 32 SCSI3 
Q.
SCSI
, , (. 8.12).
SCSI .
, SCSI.
( )
.
A
( ) ( ), 
. P, 
, .


( )

( )


(REQ, ACK, )

. 8.12. SCSI

496

8. SCSI

SCSI
SCSI PC
. . 8.3 8.4 
( ), ( 
) A. 
. , ,
. A SCSI 
( , .. ), , 
, .
P Q 
SCSI, .
8.3. A

1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50

, 0
, 1
, 2
, 3
, 4
, 5
, 6
, 7
,

TERMPWR

ATN

BSY
ACK
RST
MSG
SEL
C/D
REQ
I/O

8.4. A

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

, 0
, 1
, 2
, 3
, 4
, 5
, 6
, 7
,

TERMPWR

SCSI

497

. 8.4

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

ATN

BSY
ACK
RST
MSG
SEL
C/D
REQ
I/O

SCSI IBM PS/2,


1990 . SCSI MCA,
SCSI, . 
SCSI 60 mini
Centronics. 50 Centronics, 
SCSI, .
60 miniCentronics
. 8.5. : , 
, 
A. IBM ,
PS/2 SCSI.
8.5. 60-
SCSI PS/2

, 0

, 1

, 2

, 3

, 4

, 5

, 6

, 7

TERMPWR

498

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

I/O

REQ

C/D

SEL

MSG

RST

ACK

BSY

ATN

8. SCSI

P ( )
16 Wide SCSI2 (
. 8.6).
8.6. P
( )

TERMPWR
TERMPWR

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

, 12
, 13
, 14
, 15
, 1
, 0
, 1
, 2
, 3
, 4
, 5
, 6
, 7
, 0

TERMPWR
TERMPWR

ATN

BSY
ACK
RST
MSG
SEL
C/D
REQ
I/O
, 8
, 9
, 10
, 11

SCSI
(High Voltage Differential HVD) SCSI
PC , 
, ,
.
(Low Voltage Differential LVD),

SCSI.

/ , 
/, /, 
SCSI. 
, .
PC ,
SCSI, SE, ..
SCSI

499

. HVD,
SE (
) . , SE 
LVD, SE. 
( ) LVD,
,
. SE SCSI 
1,53 , 20 .
LVD 12 ,
80 . HVD SCSI 25 .
SCSI Ultra2 Ultra3,
.. LVD LVD/SE.

SCSI SCSI ,

. SCSI,

.
SCSI, SE HVD SCSI
.
,
. ,
, , , 
, .

, .
, ; ,
, HVD, SE
LVD.


SCSI. 
:
;
( Alternative 2);
Forced Perfect Termination (FPT): FPT3, FPT18 FPT27;
High Voltage Differential (HVD);
Low Voltage Differential (LVD).
SCSI. 

220 330 .
(8) SCSI, 5 . , 
, 
0,51 , 
Fast SCSI.
. 8.13.
(. 8.14) 
, . 

500

8. SCSI

, . 
SCSI2
, Fast SCSI Wide SCSI 
. 
, , , .
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

330

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

220

. 8.13.

110

26
1
27
2
28
3
29
4
30
5
31
6
32
7
33
8
34
9
35
10
36
11
37
12
38
13
39
14
40
15
41
16

. .

42

. . 2,85

17
43
18
44
19
45
20
46
21
47

4,7

22

22

0,1
48

23
49
24
50
25

. 8.14.

SCSI

501

Forced Perfect
Termination. , , 
(, , ) (. 8.15). 
+5
, .
(, , ) ,
.
FPT. FPT3 FPT18
8 SCSI, FPT27 16 (Wide) 
SCSI. FPT3 SCSI
8 SCSI, FPT18 8 
SCSI, . FPT27
16 Wide SCSI, .
TP>3

TERM PWR

110+5%
_
0,2

60+2%
_
0,2

D1

D2

C2

6,2
1,0

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

10

35

11

36

12

37

NC 13

38

14

39

15

40

16

41

17

42

18

43

19

44

20

45

21

46

22

Q1

C3

C1

23

TERM PWR

47
TP>2

C2 24

48
49

25

50

TP>1
191 (18 .)

(36 .)

. 8.15. : Forced Perfect Termination

502

8. SCSI

LVD LVD.
() LVD/SE,
LVD LVD, SE 
. , SE, 
SE, LVD. 
. SE
SE SE.


SCSI, Aeronics Data Mate Methode. , Aeronics
FPT.

LVD HVD SCSI ( 


), 
.
; LVD
HVD .

, . , ; , FPT-.

SCSI
SCSI , SCSI.
()
SCSI ID ( 0 7 0 15) .
SCSI ID . SCSI
, SCSI ID. 
,
.
ID 7. ID, 
. 
, 
ID. Adaptec ID 0,
.
SCSI ID , 
. ,
SCSI ID. 
, .. ,
ID , .
SCSI ID ; , ID
, .
, (.. Off 
), 000b, ID 0.
001b, ID 1

SCSI

503

( ID 010 2, 011b 3 ..). ,


7 ( ID) .
, 0 = 000b, 1 = 001b, ..., 7 = 111b, b ,
.
, 
: , . . 8.7 8.8
. , 
, .
8.7. SCSI ID
( )
SCSI

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

1 (
On ).
0 (
Off ).

8.8. SCSI ID
( )
SCSI

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

1 (
On ).
0 (
Off ).

SCSI . 
, .
,
, , 
.
. 8.16 SCSI. 
SCSI, CDROM. 
CDROM,
.. .
SCSI
, . 
, SCSI 
(. 8.17).
, 
. , 
, 
SCSI, (. 8.18). 
, ,
.
SCSI 
:
( );
;
;
.

504

8. SCSI

DVD

Zip

CD>Recordable



CD>ROM

. 8.16. SCSI;

. 8.17. SCSI

. 8.18. 
SCSI

SCSI

505

( )
,
, . , 
, 
, 34 ,
.
,
, .
, SCSI 
. SCSI,
, , ID 
(Start Unit). , 
Start Unit 
. ID ,
(ID 7)
(ID 0), .
Start Unit ; 
, .
SCSI
, .
, .
,
SCSI.
, ,
.
.


. 
SCSI,
.
,
.




, SCSI.
, (,
SCSI) . , 

; , 
. 
. , 
( ,
).

506

8. SCSI


SCSI : ( )
. 
. 
() ()
. .
,
.
, , 
,
. ,
( ),
,
SCSI.
.

Plug and Play SCSI


(Plug and Play) SCSI
1994 .
, 
. , , 
, CDROM.
,
ISA PCI.
, Plug and Play, 
 SCSI.
Plug and Play SCSI 1.0 :
;
SCSI;
SCAM (SCSI Configured AutoMagically),
SCSI ID;
SCSI.

AutoMagically . X3T9.2/93-109r5.


SCSI.
( ), 
SCSI, .
BIOS 
SCSI. ,
, .

, 
.
,
,

Plug and Play SCSI

507

. 
.
() .

ASPI (Advanced SCSI Programming Interface), 
.
Adaptec, .
DOS ASPI , .
Windows 9, Windows NT/2000/XP, OS/2 2.1 
ASPI SCSI.
Future Domain NCR
CAM (Common Access Method ). ANSI ,
.
ASPI OS/2 2.1
CAM. Future Domain
 CAMASPI.

SCSI
SCSI .
:
BIOS ;
PCI ;
SCSI, ;

;
, , 
;
;
SCSI, PCI
( );
bus mastering PCI ,
SCSI.
, ,
SCSI. ,
SCSI ,
. SCSI 
, BIOS. ,
, SCSI .
SCSI.
, , SCSI, , 
, .
, BIOS Setup
No Drives Installed.  PC
( IDE),
 ,
SCSI.

508

8. SCSI

, , , 
. FDISK, DOS
Windows9x/Me, Windows Disk Management,
Windows 2000/XP.
, .
FDISK
Disk Management.
,
SCSI, 
, Format,
.
SCSI .
.
. 
, ,
.
, .
. SCSI, 
SCSI ID,
(, ). BIOS,
DMA, , , 
(,
), .
. 
.
(FPT). Fast
SCSI2 ,
.
() SCSI.
, 
.
, 
( ), 
, , .
.
. , .
SCSI .
,
.
.
, 
SCSI.

SCSI

509

SCSI IDE
IDE SCSI 
.
PC , 
, .

.
IDE
SCSI.
SCSI. SCSI 
. , SCSI
IDE, ST506/412 ESDI.

SCSI
, SCSI , , 
, , ,
. SCSI PC
ST506/412 ESDI 
SCSI ( ), , , 
ST506/412 ESDI, SCSI.
,
.
, SCSI
, .. SCSI .
,
ST506/412 ESDI,
, ,
. , 
ST506/
412 ESDI 
. SCSI, 
, ,
, ST506/412 ESDI.
. ATA IDE
WD1003 Western Digital.
, ST506/412
ESDI ( ). 
WD1003 ( , ),
.
, , 
ATA IDE SCSI.
, IDE 20 ,
SCSI ,
HDA ( IDE).
:
, SCSI ,
SCSI (SCSI Bus Interface Controller SBIC).
. 8.19 8.20  ATA IDE
SCSI. HDA,
SBIC SCSI.

510

8. SCSI

12
16 ROM

16

>

>

>

16 RAM
PSD301
1

80C196

80C196

16 ROM

16
16 RAM
PSD301
1

HDA

WD60C11

AT

GAL20V8
WD42C22C

DMA

25,3122

15

+12

64

+5

. 8.19.  ATA IDE

SCSI IDE

511

SCSI


SCSI (SBIC)
WD33C93A/B

16 ROM

16
16 RAM

>

>

>

16 ROM

16

16 RAM

1
J

>

WD60C11

WD42C22C

HDA

WD10C23

HDA

RAM
64

. 8.20.  SCSI

512

8. SCSI

, .
SCSI SCSI 
WD33C93. ,
.
SCSI SCSI 
.
,  WD1006VMM1
ST506/412 (. 8.21).
, (LSI)
WD42C22, ATA SCSI.
:
WD42C22
Winchester. WD42C22
Winchester, ,
, / , /, $
/ CRC/ECC (Cyclic Redundancy Check/Error Correction Code) $
84$ PQFP (Plastic Quad Flat Pack).
ATA IDE SCSI Western
Digital, . ,
, 
. , SCSI 
ATA IDE SCSI.

WD37C65A

MFM

SD0>SD7

SA0>SA9

SD8>SD15
WD42C22

BD0>BD7

WD10C22

AD0>AD7

BA0>BA13

/
WD1017

. 8.21.  WD1006VMM1 ST506/412


Western Digital

SCSI IDE

513

: SCSI2 320
400 , IBM; 
WD10C00 Programmable Disk Controller,
PLCC (Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier). :
ST412, ESDI, SMD Optical.
27 /. ,
48$ 32$ ECC, 16$ CRC$
CCITT ECC $
. , 1,25$ $
, CMOS .
, SCSI 33C93 SCSI
Bus Interface Controller, SCSI.
SCSI.

( ST506/412 ESDI)
, SCSI ( 
). .
SCSI
SCSI Bus Interface Controller, ?
, HDA, , 
, , ATA IDE SCSI.
ATA IDE , SCSI
SCSI,
, SCSI
. ,
,
, ATA IDE.
, SCSI , IDE, ,
, . , 
SCSI ISA . 16 Ultra4 SCSI 
320 /, Ultra
ATA/133 IDE 133 /. , SCSI 
, , 
, , HDA
.
, 
. .

IDE

SCSI



,
, /
, /
-,
, /
,
/

, /
,
/

Maxtor DiamondMax+ 60ATA


Ultra-ATA/100
3
6
60
15,4
7 200
2
100
57

IBM Ultrastar 73LZX SCSI


Ultra4 (Ultra320) SCSI
6
12
73,4
13,2
10 000
4
320
58

28,5-57

29,8-58

42,750

44,4

514

8. SCSI

, SCSI, 
320 /, ,
100 /. , , 
. , ,
, . , 

, ; ,
. , 
, .
SCSI 
( 300 ) SCSI.
.
, 
. 
IDE, SCSI, ,
SCSI.
, SCSI 
. , , .
, (, Windows NT/2000) 
, 
. ,
.

PC 
, .
Serial ATA 
SCSI. ATA SCSI, 
HDA, 
.
IDE SCSI 
HDA. , 
(IDE SCSI). , 
HDA, 
. IDE
AT. SCSI 
, SBIC
SCSI, .. SCSI, SCSI.
, SCSI IDE 
SBIC.

SCSI IDE:
,
SCSI, , IDE, 
. , 
SCSI. 
, .
, Windows NT/2000/XP,
. (striped
drive set) , 
. / 

SCSI IDE

515

, .
SCSI
.
Ultra4 (Ultra320) SCSI IDE.
Ultra320 SCSI ( 140%) , ATA/133, 
133 /. , Ultra320 SCSI
, 
, Windows NT/2000/XP.
IDE 18 ( 0,5 ), 
. ,
Ultra4 (Ultra320) SCSI 12
. , IDE ,
Ultra320 SCSI 15 . ,
Ultra320 SCSI , 
 .  
IDE ( UDMA/100 UDMA/133), 
IDE .
IDE 
, SCSI. 
, , 
SCSI ,
, , , , 
, , . 
IDE
, . 
,
SCSI, SCSI .
SCSI IDE, 
. SCSI
, , 
. ,
SCSI.
IDE , 
, , . 
IDE
, .. .
, ,

, ,
.
.
, SCSI IDE,

. , .
SCSI:
. SCSI ,
,
. .
, , 
. 
SCSI , .

516

8. SCSI

, SCSI 
, USB FireWire. 
, ( USB)
.

SCSI
Adaptec.

. Windows 9, Windows NT/2000/XP OS/2 SCSI
Adaptec. , 
.
( Fast) SCSI ISA.
FastWide SCSI UltraWide,
, PCI. , 
, ISA, 
8 /; Ultra4 (Ultra160) 320 /! ,
, PCI ( 
).
.

, DMA, 
,
. .
, .
, DMA, ,
, SCSI ID .
(
!).
( BIOS).

.
.
SCSI ID.
SCSI Adaptec
Plug and Play. , 
Plug and Play, 
,
. SCSI,
Plug and Play, , !
,
. 
Adaptec,
, .
SCSI CS Electronics
(http://wwwy.scsi-cables.com), 
SCSI. East/West
Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc. ( Aeronics)
, . Web
: http://www.ewme.com.

SCSI IDE

517

518

8. SCSI


,
.

, .
.
,
. ,
, 
, , .
,
; , ,
. , 
, ,
, , ,
.
.

,
. :
10, ;
11, ;
12, ;
13, ;
14, .




. 1949 IBM 
. 
, 
. 21 1952 IBM IBM 726
IBM 701.
, 13 1956 ,
IBM 305 RAMAC
(Random Access Method of Accounting and Control).
5 . (5 !) 50 24
( 61 ). , RAMAC
.
, 
, .
RAMAC 
75 3,5 .
IBM; , 
(Alan Shugart) 1971 
8 . , IBM
MFM (Modified Frequency Modulation) RLL (Run Length Limited),

520

9.

, 
PRML (Partial Response Maximum Likelihood) S.M.A.R.T. (SelfMonitoring Analy
sis and Reporting Technology).




, .
1820 . , 
(. 9.1).
.
. 
, , 
.
: ,
, .
(. 9.2).

. 9.1. 

()

(+)

. 9.2.

521

, ,
, , 
.
,
.
/ U 
(),
. ()
(. 9.3).
. ,
, ,
.

()


()

. 9.3. /


, U. 
( ), 
, , 
. , , , 
() .
, , 
.
,
, .
. , 
, 
 () 
, .
, /,
U . , 
, , 

. , 
, ,
. ,
, , 
, .
. 
/ 
.
,
, , , .

522

9.

, ,
, ,
/.
, ,
.
, ,
, .
,
/
() .
,
, .
, .
( ) 
. .
, ,
. 
, 
. ,
.
, .
, (
) 
, .

(Modified Frequency Modulation MFM)


(Run Length Limited RLL). MFM,
MFM RLL.
.

, 
.
() , . 
, ,
; , , 
, .
,
, .
, , ( ).
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524

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GMR. GMR
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1 ) 100 .

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.
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, ,
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1991 IBM PS/2.
, Seagate
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,
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, ). 
AFC .
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/, 130 
, , MMC Technology,
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, 100
. , 
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528

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;
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538

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542

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0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

617
598
578
559
540
520
501
482
462
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424
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385
366
346
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286,208
276,309
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552

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554

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556

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558

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560

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Maxtor DiamondMax D540X
Maxtor DiamondMax D536X
Maxtor DiamondMax Plus 9
Maxtor DiamondMax Plus 9
Maxtor DiamondMax Plus 9
Maxtor DiamondMax Plus 9
Maxtor DiamondMax Plus 9
Maxtor DiamondMax Plus 9
WD Caviar (SE)
WD Caviar (SE)
WD Caviar (SE)
WD Caviar (SE)
WD Caviar (HP)
WD Caviar (HP)
WD Caviar (HP)
WD Caviar (HP)
WD Caviar (HP)
WD Caviar (Std.)
WD Caviar (Std.)
Seagate Barracuda 7200.7
Seagate Barracuda 7200.7
Seagate Barracuda 7200.7
Seagate Barracuda 7200.7
Seagate Barracuda ATA V
Seagate Barracuda ATA V
Seagate Barracuda ATA V
Seagate Barracuda 180
Seagate Barracuda 180
Hitachi Deskstar 180GXP
Hitachi Deskstar 180GXP
Hitachi Deskstar 120GXP
Hitachi Deskstar 120GXP
Hitachi Ultrastar 146 Z10
Hitachi Travelstar 80GN

4G120J6
4G160J8
4W100H6
6Y160P0
6Y160L0
6Y160M0
6Y120P0
6Y120L0
6Y120M0
WD2000JB
WD1800JB
WD1200JB
WD1000JB
WD2000JB
WD1800JB
WD1600JB
WD1200BB
WD1000BB
WD1200AB
WD1000AB
ST3160021A
ST3160023A
ST3160022A
ST3120026A
ST3120023A
ST3120024A
ST3120023AS
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ST1181677LWV
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IC35L120AVV207-1
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IC35L100AWA07
IC35L146UWDY10
IC25N080ATMR4

120
160
100
160
160
160
120
120
120
200
180
120
100
200
180
160
120
100
120
100
160
160
120
120
120
120
120
180
180
180
120
120
100
146
80

5 400
5 400
5 400
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
5 400
5 400
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
7 200
10 000
4 200

,
/
31
ATA-133
ATA-133
31
ATA-100
26
ATA-133

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ATA-133

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SATA/150

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44
ATA-100
44
ATA-100
42
ATA-100
40
ATA-100
44
ATA-100
44
ATA-100
44
ATA-100
42
ATA-100
40
ATA-100
36
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36
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44
ATA-100
44
ATA-100
44
ATA-100
44
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44
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44
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44
Ultra-160
36
Ultra160
36
ATA-100
43
ATA-100
43
ATA-100
42
ATA-100
42
Ultra320
50
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17

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1
3, 9
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8
8
8

2
2, 3
2
2
2
2, 3
2
4
4
2, 3
2, 3
5
5
2, 3, 4, 5, 6
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ATA$100 100 /., ATA$133 133 /., Ultra160 160 /., Ultra320 320 /.
1. $ ( ) ATA 133 PCI ( Maxtor), $
BIOS 137 ,
IDE/ATA.
2. .
3. Caviar Special Edition 8 , $
2 .
4. SCSI, $
, .
5. (AFC$) $
, IBM.
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7. 2,5$ 9,5 ,
.
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,
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, 
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5 400 /.
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), ! ,

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, 1986 , 
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, , 1998 ,
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137 , ,
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, , , 
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2002 . ATA 
, BIOS, Disk
Manager Ontrack EZDrive Phoenix Technologies ( StorageSoft,
EZDrive, Phoenix
2002 ). BIOS.
, EZDrive, Disk Manager 

576

10.

(Drive Guide, MAXBlast, Data Lifeguard .) 


/ 
.
,
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2002 137 ,
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.
 , ,
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 ATA. , 
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 ATA, .
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. 
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, /

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 ATA/100 ATA/133
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IBM 120GXP, ATA
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 133 /). . 10.7
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, /

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,
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IBM 120GXP
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580

, /


, /

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100

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10.

, ,
(133 /, 100 /),
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 ( 33%) 
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120 , 
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, 133 / (ATA133).
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.
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Ultra4SCSI/320 Seagate Cheetah X1535LP (ST336732LW) 
. 10.8.
10.8. Seagate Cheetah X15-36LP (ST-336732LW),
15 000 /


()
()
()
()
()

2560
709
522
522
408
480

320,0
88,6
65,3
69,0
51,0
60,0

. 10.9 Ultra4SCSI/320
Seagate Cheetah 36ES (ST336746LW), 10 000 /.
10.9. Seagate Cheetah 36ES (ST-336746LW),
10 000 /


()
()
()
()
()

2560
682
520
506
393
449

320,0
85,3
65,0
63,2
49,1
56,2

581

,
15 000 / ( 50%),
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Ultra4 SCSI
(320 /). ATA SCSI 
, , SCSI 
.
, .
 , ,
, 
. 
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. 
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, RPM (Rotations Per Minute) (
), 60 .
, IBM Deskstar 120GXP,
7 200 /, 688 . 
:
688512(7 200/60)/1 000 000 = 42,27 /.
,
. 
.


, (), 
 .
, , 

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.

582

10.

, 
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.
,
.


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.
10.10.

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4 200
5 400
7 200
10 000
15 000

60
70
90
120
167
250

8,33
7,14
5,56
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7 200 /,
, 4,17 .
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, ,
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583



. .
(
) ,
.

%
,
, SMARTDRV (DOS) VCASHE
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, 
, ( 
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. 
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.
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, (
)!

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, 
.
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. 
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. 3,5 
16 , .

,
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SCSI ( 
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584

10.


,
(Mean Time Between Failures MTBF),
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( ). 
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.
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.
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.

S.M.A.R.T.
, (Self$Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting
Technology S.M.A.R.T.) , 
. S.M.A.R.T.
,
. 
.
, S.M.A.R.T. BIOS 
, 
, .
S.M.A.R.T. .
Seagate, 60% . 
S.M.A.R.T. , ,
, , ..
S.M.A.R.T. IBM 1992 . IBM
3,5 Predictive Failure Analysis (PFA), 

585


. IBM ANSI 
, ANSI
S.M.A.R.T. SCSI ( X3T10/94190).
IDE/ATA S.M.A.R.T.
1995 . Seagate Technology,
Conner Peripherals ( Seagate), Fujitsu, Hewlett
Packard, Maxtor, Quantum Western Digital.
S.M.A.R.T. IDE/ATA SCSI,
.
IDE/ATA SCSI S.M.A.R.T.
, . IDE/ATA 
, 
S.M.A.R.T. report status. 
. , 
, , ,
. .
,
report status. SCSI S.M.A.R.T. 
.
S.M.A.R.T. BIOS
(, ,
, ). S.M.A.R.T. 
, Norton Smart Doctor Symantec, EZ
Microhouse International Data Advisor Ontrack Data International.
, , Scandisk
Norton Disk Doctor,
.
, .
, S.M.A.R.T. ,
 .

S.M.A.R.T., 
.
. ,
. 
, .
:
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
, ,
.
.

586

10.

, 
S.M.A.R.T.; S.M.A.R.T. 
, , 
. BIOS
S.M.A.R.T., (),
. Norton Utilities
Symantec, EZ Drive StorageSoft Data Advisor Ontrack.
,
SMARTDefender, Web Hitachi Global Storage ( IBM):
www.hgst.com/hdd/support/download.htm.
S.M.A.R.T. , 
. SMART Monitor,
S.M.A.R.T.
SMARTDefender.
SMARTDefender. 
(SMART Monitor) SMARTDefender,

.
S.M.A.R.T. Status Check ( S.M.A.R.T.$). S.M.A.R.T.
.
S.M.A.R.T. Short Self$Test ( S.M.A.R.T.). 
( 90 ).
S.M.A.R.T. Extended Self$Test ( S.M.A.R.T.). 
, .
.
, ,
S.M.A.R.T., . ,
,
, , . 

S.M.A.R.T.,
IDE/ATA SCSI ( ) 
, BIOS. ,
:
Immediately back up your data and replace your hard disk drive.
A failure may be imminent.
( 
. .)
, 
, , 
(), , , 
.

, 
. .
,
, .

587

, ?
S.M.A.R.T. 
. , 
, 
. ,
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, 
, .
,  ,
. 
, , . 
; 
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 .
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,
.


. 0,125 !
 30 
, 100 .

588

10.

11


,
. , 
.
,  (
El Torito), 
.
, El Torito ( ), 
,
.
2002
. , 
( ,
USB).
, USB .
2003 
. 2003 Dell 
, .
Zip LS120 (SuperDisk),
,
. , , Mt. Rainier,
CDRW .
CDRW ,
.

, .
, , 
, 5,25 3,5 ,
.


IBM, (Alan Shugart) 1960 
. 1967 ,
IBM. . (David Noble),
, ,
( 8 ) . 1969
IBM, 1976 Shugart
Associates (minifloppy) 5,25 ,
, , 
8 . Shugart Associates
Shugart Associates System Interface (SASI), ANSI
1986 Small Computer System Interface (SCSI).
1983 Sony
3,5 . 1984 HewlettPackard
HP150 . Apple 3,5
Macintosh, 1986 IBM.
, 
. , SCSI
, . 
PC ( ).

590

11.



. 
, ,
USB. , 
,
USB 
 . USB 
,
USBtofloppy.
legacyfree ,
USB. 
FireWire (IEEE1394) .
USB 
17, , .


,
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, . 
, ,
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594

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.


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,
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300 360 /
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.

Shugart Associates SA400, 1970 . 

.

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.
( ),
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DMA 2;
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595

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, 27 

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 405 (). Bluray 
, .
2003 , 
2003 2004 .

668

13.

, Bluray Disc, :
Hitachi, Ltd;
LG Electronics, Inc.;
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd;
Pioneer Corporation;
Royal Philips Electronics;
Samsung Electronics Co.;
Sharp Corporation;
Sony Corporation;
Thomson Multimedia.

, 
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, , 
. ,
Bluray ( 13
). Bluray,
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/ 
780 0,45. DVD 
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, . , , 
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, Sin(58,2) = 0,85.
, 
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, ,
.

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669

. 13.9 Bluray.
13.9. Blu-ray

23,3/25/27

405 (-)

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1291317

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MPEG2

, Bluray  ,
, DVD.


/ CDROM DVD.
CDROM/DVD,
.

-
Red Book CDDA, , 
Philips Sony , 
 , . 
, .
, ,
,
. ,
 , Red Book,
CD. 
, CDDA.
2 352 ,
, , ..
CD
Philips . 
Web http://www.licensing.philips.com.

670

13.

. 13.10 .
13.10. -

Red Book

CD-DA (
1980 . Philips
-) Sony

Yellow Book

CD-ROM
(
-)
CD-i (
-)

1983 . Philips
Sony

CD-ROM XA

CD-ROM XA
(
)

1989 . Philips,
Sony Microsoft

Orange Book

CD-R (recordable)
CD-RW (rewritable)

1989 . Philips
Sony ( I/II);

Green Book

1986 . Philips
Sony

1996 . Philips
Sony ( III)
Photo-CD

CD-P

1990 . Philips
Kodak

White Book

Video CD

1993 . Philips,
JVC, Matsushita
Sony

Blue Book

CD EXTRA (
CD-Plus)

1995 . Philips
Sony

Purple Book

CD Double-Density

2000 . Philips
Sony

-,

CD
ECC EDC
, , Mode 1 Mode 2
/
( ) ,
. Mode 2, Form 1 Mode 2, Form 2,
- (MPEG-1)
(ADPCM)
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- CD-i
, :
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CD-i CD-ROM XA
(MPEG-1)
(ADPCM)
74
, , , ,
-
CD-ROM, CD-R CD-RW (1,3 ) (DD-ROM, DD-R DD-RW)

Red Book CD%DA


Red Book, Philips Sony 1980 ,
.
CDDA Red Book.
, Red Book,
.
Red Book , ,
, , ,
. Red Book
1999 .

Yellow Book CD%ROM


Yellow Book Philips, Sony Microsoft
1983 . Yellow
Book ,
CDDA Red Book,
, . 
, 

671

. Yellow Book
: 1 (Mode 1), , 2 (Mode 2), 
. 
(, ), .
, , 
, . ,
, 
, .
1989 Yellow Book 
(ISO) , ISO/IEC 10149, Data Inter$
change on Read$Only 120mm Optical Discs (CD$ROM). Yellow
Book 1999 .

Green Book CD%i


Green Book Philips Sony 1986 . Green Book
(CDi)
, (), 
, , 
, . CDi
, Motorola 68000
Microware OS/9 Real Time Operating System.
CDi 
,
. , 
, , 
. 
MPEG1 (Moving Picture Experts Group1), , ,
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Modulation ADPCM). ,
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, . , 
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8  16 .
ADPCM ( 4 ),
. ADPCM
CDi CDROM XA.
Yellow Book CDROM,
1 (Mode 1) 2 (Mode 2). Green Book (CDi)
Mode 2 , 
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Yellow Book, 2 048 . ,
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, 
.

672

13.

 CDi 
, , , . , 
CDi. ,
 OS/9, !
, ,
CDi, CDiCE,
CDi . 
CDiCE :
http://www.emuhq.com/cdi.
CDi .
1994 , 1998 Philips 
CDi Infogrames Multimedia. CDi 
Philips 1999 , ,  .
CDi , 
,  CDi. , Mode 2, Form 1 Form 2
CDXA, MPEG1
White Book (CDVideo).

CD%ROM XA
CDROM XA Philips, Sony Microsoft
1989 Yellow Book.
, Green Book (CDi),
Yellow Book (CDROM). Yellow Book
. Mode 2,
(forms); ( )
; ADPCM.
CDROM XA 1991 .


CDROM XA , (interleaving).
, XA, , 
. 
, ,
,
. ,
. 
. , ,
, ..
, , 
, .
, (),
, 
.


1 (Mode 1) Yellow Book,
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1 . 13.11 13.12.

673

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. 13.1313.16.
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.
CDROM 
XA.
, , , 
ADPCM.

Orange Book
 Orange Book 
Philips Sony 1989 . Orange Book : I 
CDMO (), 
 ; II (1989 ) CDR,
III (1996 ) CDRW. , 
CDR CDWO (WriteOnce ), CDRW,
, CDE (Erasable ).
CDR, II Orange Book,
(Write Once Read Mostly WORM).
 CDR 
. CDR Red Book Yellow Book, .. 
CDDA CDROM. CDR,
II Orange Book, , , . 1 

675

1x, 2x 4x ( ); 
( 3.1) 1998 . 2 
, 16x; 
0.9, 2000 .
III Orange Book CDRW. , 
CDRW , 
.
CDRW, III Orange Book, . 1
1x, 2x 4x; 2.0, ,
1998 . 2 4x 10x 
CDRW; 1.0 2002 .
Orange Book
.


Orange Book,  
. (session) ,
, 
(). 4 500 (1 9,2
). , , ,
, (, ,
). ( , 
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13,8 ).
2 250 (30 4,6 ).
 ,
. 
,
. , 48 , , 
74 ! , , 
, .
CDDA CDROM ,

. Orange Book
() .
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TrackatOnce (TAO).
.

Disk-at-Once
, ,

, .
, ( ) 
. 
 .
, CDROM 
.

676

13.

Track-at-Once
TrackatOnce (TAO),
. TrackatOnce
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. ,
. ,
, .
, TAO,
. 150 ,
, , . CDR/RW 
, CDDA
CDROM .
, ,
. , 
, .. 
. 
CDDA CDROM.


, 
.
, .
, , 
, , 
.
UDF (Universal Disk Format),
 , 
. ,
.. 
UDF. CDR ,
. , , 
. . CDRW 
, 
, .
, Windows, Windows XP, 
UDF.
, , 
, . , 
CDRW .
DirectCD, 
Roxio. Web Roxio 
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UDF 1.5 ( )
CDROM CDRW.
, Mount Rainier,
, 
CD DVD. Mount Rainier 
, 
,
.
Mount Rainer .

677


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Application Program Interface IMAPI), ()
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,
50 . UDF 1.5 ,
, , Windows,
UDF. IMAPI
- , UDF. Easy DVD-CD Creator ( Roxio),
DirectCD, Nero Burning ROM ( Ahead) InCD.

Microsoft Windows XP, Mount Rainier.


drag-and-drop CD-MRW, DVD+MRW.

PhotoCD, CDR,
, 1990 ,
1992 . , 
Kodak CDR,
. ,
PhotoCD, CDROM,
, . Kodak 
PhotoCD,
, 
.
PhotoCD , , ,
CD, (CDR) Orange Book
. , CDROM XA 2, 2,
.
PhotoCD

( Adobe Photoshop).
Kodak 
. 
. 
, , 
1520 .
, Kodak, .
 ,
.


PhotoYCC, 
Kodak. 
(. 13.17).

678

13.

13.17. PhotoCD

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128192

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256384

512768

1 0241 536

16

2 0483 072

64

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25 100 (4 0966 144).
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.
$ (PhotoCD Catalogue) 600
().
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( ),
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.
, , .
, .
Kodak
. PhotoCD 
, Adobe Kodak PhotoCD 
Adobe Photoshop
Adobe PageMaker.


.
Kodak :
(Picture CD). .jpeg (.jpg). 
.

White Book Video CD


White Book 1993 Philips, JVC, Matsushita
Sony. Green Book (CDi) CDROM XA 
MPEG1,
ADPCM 74 , .
1995 .
 DVD,
. , 
VHS .

679

CDROM
Windows (Windows Media Player) . 
DVD , Sony Playstation
( ). , 
. ,  VideoCD 
DVD ( 5 ).

Super Video CD
Super Video CD 1.0, 1999 ,
White Book Video CD.
MPEG2, NTSC 480480 PAL 480576;
MPEG2 5.1
.
DVD  Video
CD Super Video CD.

Blue Book CD EXTRA


CDDA
. , 

, . , 

, ,
.
 ,

.
,
, 
.
1995 Philips Sony CD EXTRA, 
Blue Book. , ,
CD EXTRA ( CD Plus CD Enhanced Music).

, CDROM XA.  CD EXTRA
. 
98 Red Book. ,
, 2 ( CDROM XA) 
, , .. 
CD EXTRA, CDDA
. 
 , 
CDROM.
CD EXTRA, , . 
 , 
, . CDROM,
, 
, .

680

13.


-, CD EXTRA, , , , . 1996
Tidal (Fiona Apple),
CD EXTRA Sony Music. CD EXTRA
Web- http://www.cdextra.com.

Purple Book
Purple Book
CDROM (DDROM), CDR (DDR) CDRW (DDRW). 
Sony Philips 2000 ,
1.0 2001 .
, Purple Book,
CDROM, CDR CDRW,
, 1,3 ( 650 )
CDROM, CDR CDRW.
1,6 1,1 (), ,
0,833 , 0,623 ,
.
CIRC CIRC7.
ATIP.
DD ,
 DD. . 13.18 13.19 
, DD.
13.18. 2, 2,
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276


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12

2 048

DD CD , 
, . 2001 Sony 
, ,
DD CD .

681

CD-ROM
CDROM, 
, . , 
Yellow Book , 
, 
, .
,
CDROM .
19851986
High Sierra,
CDROM . , High Sierra
, CDROM 
. ,
:
High Sierra;
ISO 9660 ( High Sierra);
Joliet;
UDF (Universal Disk Format);
Mac HFS (Hierarchical File Format);
Rock Ridge;
Mount Rainier.

CD. 
. 13.20.
13.20. CD

DOS/Windows 3.1

Windows 9x/Me

Windows NT/2000

Mac OS

High Sierra
ISO 9660
Joliet
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Rock Ridge
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3

1
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Mac HFS Rock Ridge DOS


Windows, .

High Sierra

, CDROM. 
, ,
. 1985 High Sierra

682

13.

(), TMS, DEC, Microsoft, Hitachi, LaserData, Sony,


Apple, Philips, 3M, Video Tools, Reference Technology Xebec ,
CDROM. 1986
:
CD$ROM, (1986 ).
High Sierra.
, , 
(, MSCDEX.EXE, MS DOS), 
High Sierra, 
. , , 
DOS, UNIX ..
CDROM , 
, .
High Sierra
(ISO), ( 1988 ) 
ISO 9660. , , 
High Sierra, 
 High Sierra, ISO 9660, 
.
1988 Microsoft MSCDEX.EXE (Microsoft CDROM Exten
sions)
CDROM, . 1993
MS DOS 6.0, MSCDEX.EXE 
. MSCDEX 
ISO 9660 High Sierra DOS. 
ATAPI (AT Attachment Packet Interface) ASPI (Advanced SCSI Programming
Interface), .
ISO 9660 Joliet Windows 95 , 
.

ISO 9660
ISO 9660
. , High Sierra, 
1988 .
ISO 9660 High Sierra, , ,
,  ISO 9660, High Sierra.
ISO 9660 , ,
.
1 ISO 9660
CD, ,
UNIX Macintosh. 
, :
AZ, 09
(_);
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DOS);
(
);
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683

2 , 1,
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.). , 3
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255 , ,
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MS DOS , Windows 95, 
8.3 . 

DIR .
Windows ( ) ,
(~) , 1,
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, . ,
This is a.test THISIS~1.TES.
, 
, ISO 9660,
,
. , 
. , ,
ISO 9660 .
, , .
ISO 9660 16 , 16$ $
. ISO 9660
, CDROM.
(, 
). , 
, . 13.10.
 , DOS, ,
, 
. 
, , , 
, .

. 13.10.
 ISO 9660

684

13.

ISO 9660
. , ,
( ), 
, , .. 
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Joliet
ISO 9660, Microsoft
Windows 95 . Joliet ,
64 , 
Unicode. , ,
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Joliet:
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, (The Blues Brothers).

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UDF (Universal Disk Format) ,

(Optical Storage Technology Association OSTA)
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.
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UDF ; 
.
, UDF .
 Windows CDROM
DirectCD . , 
Joliet 64 .
(2.01) Universal Disk Format
Web OSTA : www.osta.org/specs/index.htm.

Macintosh HFS
, Macintosh.
CDROM, 
. , 
Joliet HFS ISO 9660 HFS.
PC, Mac. 
( ISO 9660 Joliet).

Rock Ridge
RRIP (Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol) 
, Rock Ridge. ,
1994 (IEEE),
ISO 9660 CDROM, 
UNIX/POSIX. 
Rock Ridge DOS Windows, ISO 9660.
, , , RRIP 
.

: Rock Ridge Western, Blazing Saddles.

Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier Philips, Sony, Microsoft
Compaq. Mount Rainier, EasyWrite (. 13.11), 
Windows , 
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( 
), 
CDRW DVD+RW .

686

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CDRW MRW , 
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.
Software Architects (www.softarch.com) WriteCdRW
Pro!, Mount Rainier
UDF, UDF,
.
Mount Rainier (Philips RWDV1610B) 2001 ,
. Mount
Rainier 
, Mount Rainier .
, DVD+RW Mount Rainier; 
, .
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Mount Rainier.) DVD+RW, Mount
Rainier/EasyWrite, 2003 .
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SuperDisk, , , 
.

687

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RW DVD+RW. Web Philips Intellectual Property and
Standards : www.licensing.philips.com. 
Web Mount Rainier (www.mt-rainier.org).

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DVD, , , 
DVD .
DVDVideo DVDROM , 
DVD . , 
DVD, ,
( )
! DVD+RW
, DVD
, DVD 
. .
DVD, , . 13.21.
13.21. DVD

120
120
120
120
120
80
80
80
80

4,7
8,5
9,4
13,24
17
1,4
2,7
2,9
5,3

2+
4
4,5
6,5
8+
0,5
1,3
1,4
2,5

3,95
7,4
2,58
5,16
4,7
9,4
1,4
4,7
4,7
9,4

0,65
0,194

DVD-ROM
DVD-5
DVD-9
DVD-10
DVD-14
DVD-18
DVD-1
DVD-2
DVD-3
DVD-4

DVD
DVD-R 1.0
DVD-R 2.0
DVD-RAM 1.0
DVD-RAM 1.0
DVD-RAM 2.0
DVD-RAM 2.0
DVD-RAM 2.0
DVD-RW 2.0
DVD+RW 2.0
DVD+RW 2.0

120
120
120
120
120
120
80
120
120
120

CD-ROM ( )
CD-ROM
CD-ROM

120
80

DVD 
. HDDVD, 
20 .
, HDDVD
.
DVD , , 
.  

688

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DVD 40x ( ) CDROM.


, , CDROM, 
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DVD MPEG$2 accelerated,
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DVD ,
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, MultiPlay,
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: MultiRead.

DVD%
DVDROM DVD ( 
DVDRAM)
DVD, MyDVD SoftDVD. DVD
, DVD.
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689

. 
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,
DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA) Macrovision.
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691

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, ,
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692

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,
. , 
.

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( CopyGuard) Macrovision
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,
DVD. 
APS  DVD.
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.

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CDROM DVD 
:
;
, ;
.


CDROM/DVD,
, ,
, .


, 
 .
, .

CD/DVD

693

. , 
CD/DVD, ,
. ,
, CDROM 153,6 /. 
, 2 , 2, 40 40
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, 20 , 20. 
, 
(CAV), , ,
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.
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CDRW, C . CDRW 2/2/6;
54/24/52.


DVD, .

%
, 
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, 
.
 ,
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,
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,
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.
,
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, , 12, 
2 568 5 959 /,
.
, 
,
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694

13.

( ).
( ) ,
(Constant Angular Velocity CAV).
CAV, , , CLV. ,
.
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Partial$CAV P$CAV ( ). , 
CLV, 
CAV. . 13.23 CLV CAV.
13.23. CLV CAV
CLV

CAV

,
(
, )

,
(
, )

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, 12, , 
CLV; 16x 
CAV. CAV 

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. 16x CAV, , ,
, 16x (2,46 /). ,

6,9x (1,06 /). , 16x 
11,5x 1,76 /.
, (.. )
. ,
.
, 12x CLV , 16x
20x! , CAV
, ,
.
. 13.24 CDROM, 
.
. 13.24 ,
.
1. , 
CLV ( , 12x
) CAV.

CD/DVD

695

13.24. CD-ROM
1

CD-ROM
(. CAV)

74- CD (CLV)

80- CD (CLV)

, /
(. CAV)

CD-ROM
(. CAV)

,
/ (CAV)
61 440
138 240
261 120
399 360
522 240
660 480
798 720
1 059 840
1 320 960
1 582 080
2 119 680
2 641 920
3 179 520
3 317 760
3 440 640
3 701 760

1
2
4
6x
8
10
12
16
20
24
32
40
48
50
52
56

74,0
37,0
18,5
12,3
9,3
7,4
6,2
4,6
3,7
3,1
2,3
1,9
1,5
1,5
1,4
1,3

80,0
40,0
20,0
13,3
10,0
8,0
6,7
5,0
4,0
3,3
2,5
2,0
1,7
1,6
1,5
1,4

153 600
307 200
614 400
921 600
1 228 800
1 536 000
1 843 200
2 457 600
3 072 000
3 686 400
4 915 200
6 144 000
7 372 800
7 680 000
7 987 200
8 601 600

0,4
0,9
1,7
2,6x
3,4
4,3
5,2
6,9
8,6
10,3
13,8
17,2
20,7
21,6
22,4
24,1

23. , CLV
. CAV , 
, . 4 
, CAV 
.
46. CAV,
, ,
, ( 
;
).
(/); .
78. , , 
(/) (/). 
CLV ; CAV 
.
912. . 11 
. 
(CLV CAV). CAV 
, .
CLV.
, 12 , CAV, , 
16 , .
, , 
, . 
CDROM 
, . 
CD DVD ,
. 
, ,
.

696

13.

10

11

12

CD-ROM (CAV)

,
/ (CAV)

, /

, /

(. CAV, .
CLV), /

(. CLV),
/

2,9
5,8
11,6
17,4
23,3
29,1
34,9
46,5
58,2
69,8
93,1
116,3
139,6
145,4
151,2
162,8

214
428
856
1 284
1 712
2 140
2 568
3 425
4 281
5 137
6 849
8 561
10 274
10 702
11 130
11 986

0,7
1,5x
2,9x
4,3x
5,7
7,2
8,6
11,5
14,3
17,2
22,9
28,6
34,4
35,8
37,2
40,1

107 520
222 720
437 760
660 480
875 520
1 098 240
1 320 960
1 758 720
2 196 480
2 634 240
3 517 440
4 392 960
5 276 160
5 498 880
5 731 920
6 151 680

1,3
2,6
5,2
7,8
10,4
13,0
15,6
20,8
26,0
31,2
41,6
52,0
62,4
65,0
67,6
72,8

497
993
1 986
2 979
3 973
4 966
5 959
7 945
9 931
11 918
15 890
19 863
23 835
24 828
25 821
27 808

1990 Zen Research , 


TrueX, 
.
, TrueX, Kenwood
, .
2002 Zen Research , 
TrueX . TrueX
ZCLV (zoned CLV ) PCAV (partial CAV
), 
, .

DVD
, DVD (
)
, CLV (Constant Linear Velocity). , ( ,
)
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,
. , 
. ,
, 
. 1 (
1 3,49 /) 1 515 / , 
( ), 570 / 
( ).
(1) DVDROM ,
1,385 /, 9 CDROM (
1 CDROM 153,6 / 0,1536 /).
, 1 DVDROM 
: DVD
CDROM. , 1 DVD

CD/DVD

697

, 2,7 CDROM. DVD


ROM , DVD,
. , DVDROM
16/40, DVD  .
,
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). ( )
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(Constant Angular Velocity CAV).
, , 
, .
, 
.
DVDROM, 20 ,
CAV, 
, . . 13.25 
DVDROM, DVD,
CDROM.
1. , 
CLV CAV
( DVDROM CAV).
23. , CLV
. CAV ,
, . 4
, CAV 
.
48. CAV,
, ,
, ( 
;
). 
(/), .
910. , , 
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CLV ; CAV 
.
1112. . 
, .
(CLV CAV). 
CAV
. 12 
CLV.
CAV, , , .

698

13.

13.25. DVD-ROM
1

DVD-ROM
(. CAV)

DVD
(CLV)


DVD (CLV)

, /
(. CAV)

DVD-ROM
(. CAV)

,
/ (CAV)

DVD-ROM
(CAV)

51,4
25,7
12,8
8,6
6,4
5,1
4,3
3,2
2,6
2,1
1,6
1,3
1,1
1,0

1 384 615
2 769 231
5 538 462
8 307 692
11 076 923
13 846 154
16 615 385
22 153 846
27 692 308
33 230 769
44 307 692
55 384 615
66 461 538
69 230 769

1
2
4
6x
8
10
12
16
20
24
32
40
48
50

56,5
28,3
14,1
9,4
7,1
5,7
4,7
3,5
2,8
2,4
1,8
1,4
1,2
1,1

0,4
0,9
1,7
2,5x
3,3
4,1
5,0
6,6
8,3
9,9
13,2
16,6
19,9x
20,7

553 846
1 107 692
2 353 846
3 461 538
4 569 231
5 676 923
6 923 077
9 138 462
11 492 308
13 707 692
18 276 923
22 984 615
27 553 846
28 661 538

0,7
1,4x
2,9x
4,3x
5,7
7,1
8,5
11,5
14,2
17,0
226
28,3
34,0
35,4

13. DVD 
CDROM.
, . , 12x
DVD  , 32x CDROM. 
 DVD 
. 
PCAV (Partial CAV) , .


CDROM/DVD ,
. 
. , 
24x 95 .
, .
, ,
. 
, 
.
, , , ,
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. , CDROM ,
(100200 CDROM 8 ).
:
, . 
CDROM/DVD ,
. 
,
. 
, .

CD/DVD

699

13.25. DVD-ROM ( )
8

10

11

12

13


,
/ (CAV)

, /


,
/


DVD (. CAV,
. CLV), /


DVD (.
CLV), /

CD-ROM

3,5
7,0
14,0
20,9
2,9
34,9
41,9
55,8
69,8
83,8
111,7
139,6
167,5
174,6

7,8
15,6
31,2
46,8
62,5
78,1
93,7
124,9
156,1
187,4
249,8
312,3
374,7
390,3

969 231
1 938 462
3 946 154
5 884 615
7 823 077
9 761 538
11 769 231
15 646 154
19 592 308
23 469 231
31 292 308
39 184 615
47 007 692
48 946 154

570
1 139
2 279
3 418
4 558
5 697
6 836
9 115
11 394
13 673
18 230
22 788
27 345
28 485

1 515
3 030
6 059
9 089
12 119
15 149
18 178
24 238
30 297
36 357
48 476
60 595
72 714
75 743

2.7x
5.4x
11x
16x
21x
27x
32x
43x
54x
64x
86x
107x
129x
134x

CDROM/DVD 
. ,
, . . 13.26 
CDROM .
13.26. CD-ROM

(1x)
(2x)
(3x)
(4x)
(6x)
(8x12x)
(16x24)
(3252)

400
300
200
150
150
100
90
8575

. 
( ) 
. 
,
: 
DVD, . 
DVD 1020 , .

%
CD/DVDROM , .

,
. 256 ,
, ( !). 
CD/DVD 28 , 

. , .

700

13.

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. , 
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256 , 
.


.
,
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. 
, , 
. , .
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Bus Master IDE, 
, . 
CD/DVDROM ( ) 11%.
Bus Master IDE,
CDROM .
CDROM (12 )
Pentium .
, , 
(System) (Control Panel).
(Device Manager) +
(Hard Disk Controllers). Bus Master, ,
.
Bus Master IDE, (
CDROM), . 

. CDROM, 
MultiWord DMA Mode 2 (16,6 /), UltraDMA Mode 2 (33 /), UltraDMA
Mode 4 (66 /) , .

CDROM, :
(Settings)
DMA.

CD/DVD

701


,
(Safe Mode) DMA (Ultra-DMA).
, DMA . ,
.
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Ultra-DMA ( Ultra-ATA), ATA
80-. ,
18 . 80- , 40-
Ultra-DMA. 80- ,
Ultra-DMA, 33 /. ,
Serial ATA (SATA).

Bus Master IDE 


.
Web www.hardwaresite.net/drvbmide.html. ,
1995 , Bus Master. ,
, 1997 , UltraDMA (Ultra
ATA/33, 33 UltraATA/66 66 ).
, DMA , , , 
DVD.

CDROM