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2008

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11 11. .
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20 20. GSM ..
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4
7
9
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45
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[14]:
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sion Multiplexing).

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WDM
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- (ADM) .
STM-4
622 /.
37

19.

20.

, ( ,
) - (MD),
.
22 (
), Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

21.

38

22.


.

. (Network Element - NE)
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Source - PRS) ().
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( )
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).
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(Telecommunication)

. , ,
.
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(1856-1943) 32 ,
. 1901
. 1921 2
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(DPLM).
DPLM 1946 . - (St. Louis).
145 - 155 . 1947
- ,
35-40 . 1947 D. H. Ring Bell Laboratories
& .
,
, (cell , ).

. , ,

1950- .

41

GSM 80- ,
, , .
, ,
.
, , .
, ,
. ,
, .
.
(, , , )
1969
.

(Nordic Mobile Telephone NMT),
.

42

NMT-450i. Nordic Mobile Telephone) - .

1973 NMT ,
,
, .
.
450 1981
Ericsson. NMT- 450 1985
NMT 900 900 ,

. 1983
AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service),
Bell Laboratories.
AMPS 1985 TACS (Total Access
Communications System). 1987
ETACS (Enhanced TACS).
.

, GSM
.
NMT (NMT
(Nordic Mobile Telephone)
453 468 .

43


, ,
.

( 100 ,
) ,

.

, 800, 900 1800 .
.
, ,
.
. NMT-450 ,
- .
.
, ,
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.
.
,
,
.
NMT450 .
NMT-450
.
, TACS (TACS (. Total Access Communications System
- ) TACS (. Total Access Communications System)
. ETACS -
( ) . 1985
TACS (Total Access Communications System),
AMPS. .

44

31
2001 ( Vodafone).
935950 (917933 ETACS), 890905 (872
888 ETACS). 25 . 600 (640 ETACS).
FSK. 2-20 . 290 .

AMPS.( AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service


)
825 890 ,
, .
, NMT-450, .
. , NMT-450, .
,
.

1982
Groupe
Special Mobile GSM. 1990
,
GSM, " I", 1991
.
GSM ,
- Global System for Mobile telecommunications
.

,

,
.
1982
() Groupe Special Mobile (GSM),

45

900 . GSM
Global System for Mobile Communications.
GSM 1991
, 1 .
DCS 1800 (Digital Cellular System 1800 MHz),
GSM 1710-1880 . GSM
,
,
AMPS TACS . ,

,
/.
GSM GSM ISDN
. 1993 , MoU ( ).
MoU 70 .
GSM , , , .
GSM .
DCS 1800. 1994 MoU
100 60 . GSM.
GSM 3 . 1995
(PCS).
GSM, 1900 . 1998
200 . MoU
253 100 . GSM
70 . GSM
31% . 2004
GSM 207 ,
1046 . 2007 GSM 2,1
920 222 .
GSM 80% , CDMA
WCDMA 13,2% 3,8% .
0,1%. , GSM
,
,
.

?

46

1) ()
2) SMS (. Short Message Service )
3) MMS (. . Multimedia Message Service
)
4) ( ) GPRS, EDGE, WAP
5) Roaming ( roam ). ,

.
6) Bluetooth c (/blutu/, ,
I [2][3])
(. Wireless personal area network, WPAN). Bluetooth

(, , ),
, , , , , ,
, , ,
.
Bluetooth ,
1 200 (
), .
. Bluetooth
ISM- (. Industry, Science and Medicine),
(
2,4-2,4835 )[8][9]. Bluetooth
[10]
(. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum, FHSS). FHSS
, ,
.
FHSS, Bluetooth
1600 [7] ( 79 1
, , 23 ).

,
625 ( )
47

. ,
-, .

:
.
(64 / )
: ( ),
.
Bluetooth point-to-point,
point-to-multipoint[7].

: [1, .8-28].

12. GSM
:
:
, ,
GSM 900, 1800 1900
(
).
GSM .

. , .
,
.
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.
,
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900
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.
, , .

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,
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90.
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.
.

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, - 1 .
25. GMSK-
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. ,
.
, .
.
sin cos .

25.
, GMSK-,
26.

50

26. GMSK-
GMSK ,
:
- ,

;
- ,
;
- .
GSM

.

(Discontinuous Transmission - DTX),
, ,
. DTX (Voice Activity
Detector - VAD),
,
.
,
, .
GSM
27, .

51

27. GSM
GSM
,
,
.
28.

52

28. PRE/LTP-LPC-
13 / :
- LPC - ;
- LIT - ;
- RPE - .
: [1, .175-201; 2; 5].

13.

:
: CDMA,
CDMA, CDMA
CDMA?
Code Division Multiple Access
CDMA -
. CDMA? CDMA -
GSM. GSM CDMA
53

, . -
.
.
, GSM .
. , (,
) 8
.
. ,
. , - .
, . , ,
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, 1 8. .
.
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,
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7 ).
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.
.

54

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. .
, - , .
. ,
,
. , .
,
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.
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.
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, 10 (). .

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,
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. ,
55

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. , CDMA
,
.
( ?).

CDMA Qualcomm
800 , AMPS, -AMPS DAMPS. ( TIA IS-19, IS-20, IS-54, IS-55, IS-56, IS-88, IS-89, IS-90, IS-553).
1,25 . CDMA Qualcomm

64 , .

CELP 8000 / (9600 / ).
4800, 2400 1200 /.
CDMA
1/2 ( ) 1/3 (
), ,
. ,
, .
.

4 , - 3
.
(Soft Handoff) .

.
29
CDMA, (BS, BSC, MSC,
OMS) (NMT-450/900,
AMPS, TACS) (GSM, DCS-1800, PCS-1900, D-AMPS, JDC)
. ,
CDMA (SU). ,
,
(BSC), SU
BSC (Inter BSC Soft andoff).

56

29. IS-95
CDMA, ,
. CDMA
(Forward), (Reverse). IS-95 30.

30. IS-95
CDMA:
- () -

, ;
- - ,
,
.

57

;
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,
.
,
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);
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() ;
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,
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.
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-;
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58

;
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;
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- .
BS .
6 - , MS
BS.
()
( , ,
. .).
.

BS
(System Parameter Message).
: [1, .9-15].

14.

:
:
, ,


.
,

.
.

P G G
W

(1)

;
; , ;
G, G ; ,

59

; W
.

. (1)

( / ) = ( / ) + ( ) + G ( ) + ( ) +

+ G ( ) + ( ) + ( ) W ( )

(2)

, ,
,
, ,
R
2

.
= G G

4R

(3)

, -
, , ,

.
,
3.
3

W = W 4,78( lg f c ) + 18,33 lg f c 40,49,


()

W = W 2 lg f c 128 5,4,

W = 69,55 6,16 lg f c + 13,82 lg h + a ( h )

( 44,9 6,55 lg h ) lg R , ,
a ( hMC ) = (1,1lg f c 0,7 ) hMC (1,56 lg f c 0,8);

b = 1R 20
b = 1 + ( 0,14 + 1,87 10 4 f c + 1,07 10 3 h )( lg R / 20 )
20 R 100
60

0 ,8

- , ;

- , ;

- , ;

R - , ;
f c - , ; hMC , h ,

.

,

W = W W .

(4)

,
4.
4

61


L = L + L

L = K 2 20 lg hMC 20 lg h + 40 lg R,
K1 = 118,7,

L = L + ( L L ) + L

L = K 2 20 lg R,
2

2 1/ 2

+ L + , ,

K 2 = 32,45, ,
L = 20 lg

h0 hMC
+ 16,
548 0,002d m f c

- 200
h0 -
d m -

L = L + L + L

2 1/ 2

, L = 32,45 + 20 lg f c + 20 lg R, ;

2
2
4h 2
4hMC 2


MC

,
L = 10 lg
+
+
d

d m
(
)
(
)

m
MC

- ,
, MC -

()
L = 20 lg f c +
+ 40 lg R
20 lg h +

76,3 10 lg hMC ,
h 10;
MC
+
85,9 20 lg hMC ,
hMC 10,

L = 20 lg f c + 40 lg R 20 lg h +

76,3 10 lg hMC , hMC 10;


+
85,9 20 lg hMC , hMC 10,

, ,
, , ,
( ) ( )
. ,
.
: [1, .30-45; 2; 11].

15.
62

:

:
,
,
,

( 31).

31.


, .

.
,
:
, ,
.


.

.
. ,

63

W = W0 + Wrd + Wmd

(5)


W0 = 10 lg

- ;

2
1
1
Wrd = 10 lg 2

2 R 2 + - ,
- ;

( )

Wmd = 10 lg Qm2

- ,

.

.

32. 1
1

Qm =
W

1 d
=
m R.

2
2
2
1

1
d
10 lg 2
= 10 lg
10 lg

R
2
2

64

(6)

33. 2
2

h
Q 2,35 b
R

2
1
1
= 1 0lg
1 0lg 2
4 R
2 R 2 +

0,9

1,8

h
d

2
b

1 0lg ( 2,3 5)

.
2

34. 3
3

65

(7)

2
2
1

1
= 10 lg
10 lg 2

R
2
2

10 lg
2 ( R d )

= arctg ( hb / d ) .

( hb ) 2

1
1

+ d 2 2 +

(8)

W = W W .

: [1, .316-325; 15].

16.
GSM
:
GSM
:
,

PSTN.
MSC 2 /
SS 7. 2 /
G.732.
ISDN. ISDN
4 2 /,
SS 7
Q.701-Q.710, Q.711-Q.714, Q.716, Q.761-Q.764, Q.766, Q.781, Q.782, Q.791, Q.795.
GSM. GSM
GSM
(SCCP) (GMSC).
MSC BSS (-)
BSS, , . -
. 08 ETSI/GSM.

66

MSC HLR (-) VLR.


MSC
VLR. ,
VLR. , MS
.
, MSC
VLR,
HLR.
MSC HLR (-)
MSC HLR. MSC ()
HLR , .

, MSC HLR
, MS.
HLR VLR (D-)

. , ,
. VLR
HLR MS,
.
MSC (-)
MSC HANDOVER -
.
BSC BTS (A-bis-) BSC
BTS. ETSI/GSM

2,048 /,
64 /.
BSC (-) BSC
, .25.
BSC-

BSC

(); - 2,048 /
16 /
64 /.
MS BTS (Um-) 04
05 ETSI/GSM.
,
, ETSI/GSM

67

12.01 Q.3,
ISO OSI.

SS 7 .25. .25
PSDN .
GSM -
0.3-, ETSI/GSM
12.01.
GSM .
MSC - (SC)
. ETSI/GSM 03.40.
.
,
. --
.30.
.-.
TRC
,
:
- c
13 /, MSC 64
/, TRC;
- ,
GSM 13 /, - 64 /.
TRC ( ) 16
/, .. 1 4 GSM;
- GSM ITU-T
, ( V.35, V.35bis
..) 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 14400 /.
TRC, ,
13 /.
: [1, .192-205; 2].

17. GSM
: GSM
:
,

68

GSM 35. GSM


.
MSC
,
. MSC
(PSTN, PDN, ISDN . .)
.
.
, MSC .
,

.
MSC ,
,
,
, ,
,
. MSC


.
GSM
(), MCS.
,
(HLR) (VLR). HLR
,
. HLR
(IMSI),

(AUC).
HLR
.
, , ,
, ,
(TMSI)
VLR. , HLR,
MSC- VLR-, . HLR, HLR
.

69

IMSI MS ISDN
( ISDN).

35. GSM
VLR
.
, HLR.
BSC
BSC BSC VLR
,
. HLR
VLR . VLR
, HLR. VLR,
. VLR
(MSRN). , VLR MSRN MSC,
, . VLR
. TMSI
,
VLR IMSI, TMSI MSRN.
VLR
, . HLR
.
70

AUC

. AUC
,
(Equipment
Identification Register - EIR).
(SIM),
: (IMSI), Kh 3.
SIM

.
. (RAND) .
Ki 3
(SRES), . . SRES = 3 ,-[RAND].
SRES . SRES SRES,
. ,
.
, .
SRES SIM.
( ])
SIM.
EIR

(IMEI). EIR
IMEI, :
- IMEI, ,
;
- IMEI ,
- ;
- IMEI ,
, .
EIR MSC ,
MSC .
: [1, .166-202].

18. GSM
: GSM

71

:
,


GSM.
.
.25.
, ,
.

.
.
.
NMC
GSM. NMC
.
, NMC
. NMC
.
NMC
, ,
( ) . NMC
, ,
, .
BSS
(BSC) (BTS).
BTS. BSC
, , ,
,
, , ,
, . BSS MSC
, - ,

.

MSC (64 / ) ,
GSM (. GSM 04.08),
13 / - .
6,5 /.

, (LPC),
(LTP), (RPE
72

RELP). , , MSC.
BSC
( ) 13
/ 16 /.
4 64 /.
GSM 30- -,
120 . (64
/) , (64
/) ,
.25 . ,
30x64 + 64 + 64 = 2048 /.
MS ,
GSM .
GSM 5 1-
20 , ,
5- 0,8 .
,
. GSM
(IMSI),
.
, , , .
: [1, .202-246].

19. -
: -
GSM
:


.
. ,
, ,
-, , ,


.

73


.

,
.
,
, .
(GoS - Grade of Service) -
, ,


.
, ,
:

B. =

AN
Z
N
N! A
Z =0 Z !

(9)

, N- ;
- , .

A = n T
3600

(10)

, n - , , 1
3600 .;
- , ;
,

5%, 0.015
. , ,
( + )
0.025 2%.
, , ,
(0.007 - 0.016) .
,
()
BSS. :
- ;
- .

74

,

BSS ()
,
.
,
.


.
.
, ,

, .
:
- , ;
- ;
- PSTN PLMN.
.
BSS
.
. 3
:
- (3.5 - 35) ;
- (0.5 - 3.5) ;
- 0.5 .
, ,

. ,
, .
, , BS
,
.
,
, ,
.
,
.

.
,
75

,
"-", "" . ,
, :
- ;
- .
:
- ;
- BS;
- BS;
- .
().
, (
, , ..).
,

,

.
, 12.1,
.
, , GSM
- .
.
- C/R Carrier-to-Reflection (
R).
.
- .
, GSM 35 .
(Time Alignment).
, ,
Extended Range,
TDMA , , ,
72 .
: [1, .297-315; 2; 12; 15].

20. GSM
: GSM
: ,

76

,

.
, ,
,
.
,
. , ,
.
-
. ,
(/I, /).
/I - Carrier - to - Interference. . / Carrier - to - Adjacent. (+/- 200, 400 ).
, GSM:
- : /I > 9 dB;
- , (+/-200 ): / < -9 dB;
- , (+/-400 ): / < -41 dB;
,

.
.

.
,
, GSM.
, ,
.
,
, ,

.
,
. ,
,
D, " ".

.
,
.

77

, 21 , ( 19.1)
, 1/21
. Al, 2,
A3, ... Gl, G2, G3 Al, 2,
A3, ... Gl, G2, G3,
, .
1, 1, 1
2, .
,
,
.
7/21 36.

Nc

N ,

N c - ;
N - .
,
1/3.

78

36. 7/21, = 4.58




D,
/I. /I
. ETSI GSM ,
/I 9 , Ericsson,
GSM ,
12 .
:

- (
);
qS - ,
R,

79

qs =

D
= 3 K ,
R

(11)

D - ,


/I.
,
, .
GSM qS

qs =

D
= 3 K = 3 .
R


3R. , /I
12 , 6 .
/I

C / I = 10 log( 1 qsy ) ,
j

(12)

j - ;
qS - ;
- MS BS.
, 7 ( = 7), ( j =6),
D1 = 4.58 Ri .
,

C / I = 10 log( 1 qsy ) = 10 log( 1 ( 3 K ) y ) = 10 log(1 ( 3 7 )4 ) = 18.6


j
j
6
,

> 3.
6 ,
/I .

.
: [1, .316-327; 2; 12; 15].

80


1.
.., .., ...
/ . , 1999.
2. .. . . - .: -,
2001.
3. .., .. ,
. .: , 2001.
4. .. / . .. . - .:
, 2000.
5. .. . .:
, 1999.
6. .. : .
- .: , 1980.

81

7. .. : .
: , 2000.
8. .., ..
: . : , 2002.
9. .. :
. - : , 2003.
10. .., .. .

: 380200-
, 380300-,
380500-,

, 380700- , 380900 . - : , 2004.


11. : / .. ,
.. , .. . . .. .. .
.: , 1997.
12. .., .. .
: / . .. . 2- . .:
, 2003. 232 .
13. ..
.
.: , 1991.
14. .. :
. .: , 2003.
15. .., ..
- ( ).
.: , 2002.
16. ..
: . .:
, 1996.
17. .. . : ,
2001.
18. .., .. .
. .: , 2001.
19.

..,

..,

..
: .
.: , 1996.
20. .., .., ..
.
.: , 1989.

82

21. .., ..
. .: , 1982.
22. .., .., ..
. .: , 1980.
23. .. :
- . - .: MAC, 2001.
24. .., .., ..
. - : ,
1998. . 8.
25. , . .: , 2000. - 256 .
26. ..
(- ). :, 2004160 .
27.
. - .: , 1996. - 106 .
28 .
. - .: , 2001. - 150 .
29. .. . . II.
. B-ISDN, ATM. - .: -, 2000. - 150 .
30.ITU-T Recommendation G.902. Frameworks. Recommendation on
functional accessnetworks. Architecture and functions, access types, management
and service node aspects. (11/95).

. 2008 ., .

83

050719 - ,

..


100 .
__ .-..

60x84 1/16.
1.

050013, , . , 126

84