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Linux Mint

100 %:
Linux Mint

Linux Mint

- - - -
-- - - -
- -

2011

32.973.2-018.2
004.451
72

72

. .
Linux Mint 100 %. .: , 2011. 240 .: . ( 100 %).
ISBN 978-5-49807-803-8

100 % Linux Mint GNU/Linux. From freedom came elegance ( )


, Ubuntu , ,
mintlnstall, mintUpdate, mintMenu . . , ,
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Linux. , , , Linux Mint, Linux Ubuntu, Debian GNU/Linux.
Linux Mint 100 %
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32.973.2-018.2
004.451

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ISBN 978-5-49807-803-8

, 2011

1. Linux

2. Linux Mint

23

3. Linux Mint

73

4.

Linux

Mint

115

5. Linux Mint

148

6. Linux Mint

212

1. Linux

Linux ?

10

Linux?

14

17

19

Linux Mint

20

2. Linux Mint

23

24

Linux

24

Linux

25

UUID?

26

Linux

27

Linux

36


Linux Mint

43

Linux Mint

46

55

55

58

GNU GRUB

59

Windows

68

Linux

71

3. Linux Mint

73

GNOME

76

84

88

4.

91
96

104

111

GConf

112

Linux

Mint

115

116

123

130

mount

131

/etc/fstab

134

/home

135

137

procfs

140

143

145

5. Linux Mint
Linux

148
149

151

aptitude

161

166

Linux Mint

173

181

183

, Linux Mint

184

184

GIMP

194

F-Spot

195

198

MPIayer

199

VLC

202

204

207

ID-

OpenShot

209
210

6. Linux Mint

212

213

Ethernet-

216

218

222

Linux Mint

224

228

228

229

230

232

Mozilla Thunderbird

232

Evolution

233

234

234

235

ICQ, IRC Jabber

236

VoIP Ekiga

238

Gwibber

239


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2. Linux Mint

Unix FreeBSD, OpenBSD .


(BSD Partitions) , (. slices).

, /dev/sdal /dev/sda3, , /dev/sda5


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lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 2010-05-03 11:24 0DC1-0000 -> ../../
sda1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 2010-05-03 11:24 8aeecl90-857a-4d7b9065-a3de316f72f6 -> ../../sda2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 2010-05-03 11:24 ff8becfc-d3c4-4956afb0-c4f4 55bb0ba3 -> ../../sda5

, /dev/sda5 UUID ff8becfc-d3c4-4956-afb0c4f455bb0ba3.


FAT NTFS UUID,
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pathname.com/fhs/, OpenNET http://www.opennet.ru/
docs/RUS/file-sys/.

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2. Linux Mint

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/mnt,
FHS /media.
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, /media /mnt

2. Linux Mint

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Windows.
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/media. ,
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2. Linux Mint

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NTFS FAT32, NTFS, Linux
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(. 2.2):
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/home

ext2 ext3 , tune2fs - j . , tune2fs -j /dev/hda5.

ext3 , ext4.

ext4
ext3 ,
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ext3, ext4.

41

2. Linux Mint

ReiserFS
1990- ., TreeFS. Namesys.
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Graphics Inc. (. SGI) Irix EFS.
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IBM, XFS,
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Linux Mint
, Ubuntu Linux, Linux Mint 9 Isadora Live-,
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Model Environment, http://www.gnome.org/):
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700 , , Live- (
);
Live DVD (757 ), (Java, VLC, F-Spot, OpenOffice.org-base, Samba, ttf-dejaVu),
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OEM installation disks , ,
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USA/Japan distribution disks
, .

2. Linux Mint

. 2.3. GNOME Linux Mint

LiveDVD Universal Edition,


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32- 64- .


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2. Linux Mint

Linux Mint 9 2013 .,


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CEs
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Main Edition Openbox PCManFM. Xfce Xubuntu,
Xfce. Linux
Mint Xfce LXDE 256
800 600 , 3
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.

Linux Mint
ISO-,
CD (Standart Edition) DVD, BIOS
- .
(. 2.6), .
Live-, , Start Linux Mint.

Universal Edition
Start Linux Mint in Russian [ru].

,
, Start Linux Mint (compatibility mode), VESA (. Video Electronics Standards Association)
APIC (. Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller ).

Linux Mint

. 2.6. Linux Mint

Live-
.

8 Start Linux Mint (OEM installation mode),


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, ISO-
, .
,
Check the integrity of the CD. Check
finished: no errors found, .
- . ,
Memory Test, memtest ,
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, Boot from local drive .

2. Linux Mint

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. .

Start Linux Mint ,


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Linux Mint, . ,
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Windows. ,
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Install Linux Mint, (. . 2.3). ,
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Network Time Protocol (NTP). NTP- , , NTP-,
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GParted, . GParted , .
sudo apt-get update sudo
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2. Linux Mint

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Windows, ,
mint4win.exe, ,
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Ubuntu Linux Windows, Wubi (http://wubi-installer.


org/), .

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- usbcreator, usb-creator-kde, usb-creator-gtk. ,
$ sudo apt-get install usb-creator
USB- (Live
USB creator) (. 2.13).
- ISO, . USB- ,
, . BIOS
. -.

2. Linux Mint

. 2.13. Live USB-Creator

Linux. Windows, ,
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Universal USB Installer (. 2.14), Pendrivelinux. http://
www.pendrivelinux.com/downloads/Universal-USB-Installer.
. Universal-USB-Installer-v1.5.1.exe
Linux, .
Linux Mint, Ubuntu Linux . Ubuntu 10.04 Desktop i386.
Browse , Linux Mint.
USB -, ,
Create.

. 2.14. Universal USB Installer

UNetbootin (. 2.15),
- Linux/BSD
, Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7 Linux.
http://unetbootin.sourceforge.net/.

. 2.15. UNetbootin

2. Linux Mint

UNetbootin Universal USB Installer:


, , ISO-
. O -.
Linux
- .
.

-
,
- -, .
GRUB. Linux Mint . Windows GRUB grub4dos (http://grub4dos.sourceforge.net).
. ISO- .
Linux ISO- ,
/mnt:
$ sudo mount - loop /home/grinder/iso/LinuxMint-Universal.iso
/mnt
/mnt ISO-.
/mnt:
$ sudo mount /dev/sdal /linuxmint
$ sudo cp -vR /mnt/* /linuxmint
, , ( GRUB
),
initrd-, isolinux.cfg, isolinux ISO-:
title Linux Mint
root (hd0,0)
kernel /casper/vmlinuz init=/linuxrc looptype=squashfs unionfs
doload=squashfs, unionfs loop=/filesystem.squashfs file=/cdrom/
preseed/mint.seed boot=casper initrd=/casper/initrd.lz locale=ru
quiet splash -initrd /casper/initrd.lz
quiet
Linux Mint.
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GNU GRUB

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,
MBR (Master Boot Record),
( ). MBR
512 . (. Partition Table). 64 , , ( , ).
.
, 1 . .
446 -.
(512 ), Boot Record. -, MBR,
, , , , .
512 ,
. ,
.

2. Linux Mint

Linux LILO (Linux LOader) GRUB


(GRand Unified Bootloader). Linux Mint
, . http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/.
1995 . Hurd , , .
, Hurd - -, (. Multiboot Specification), . , ,
. 1999 . GRUB GNU,
2000 . GRUB .
GRUB 2,
.
.

GRUB 1 /boot/grub/grub.conf
.

Linux Mint
GRUB /boot/grub/grub.cfg.
, (. 2.16)
$ cat /boot/grub/grub.cfg
GRUB , /boot/grub/grub.cfg, 1 ,
. DO NOT EDIT
THIS FILE ( . ) . /usr/sbin/grub-mkconfig ,
/etc/grub.d, /etc/default/grub.
GRUB , /boot/grub/grub.cfg.
, , ,
.

# DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE

# It is automatically generated by /usr/sbin/grub-mkconfig using


templates

GNU GRUB

. 2.i6. GRUB v.2

# from /etc/grub.d and settings from /etc/default/grub

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/00_header ###


if [ -s /boot/grub/grubenv ]; then
have_grubenv=true
load_env
fi
set default="0"
s e t d e f a u l t , , 0 ,
menuentry. Linux Mint 9, 2.6.32-21-generic (dev/sda1).

2. Linux Mint

insmod reiserfs
set root=(hd0,5)
ReiserFS ,
GRUB.
if [ ${recordfail} = 1 ]; then
set timeout=-1
else
set timeout=10

### END / e t c / g r u b . d / 0 0 _ h e a d e r ###


set timeout , .
. PNG/boot/grub/linuxmint.png.
### BEGIN / e t c / g r u b . d / 0 5 _ d e b i a n _ t h e m e ###
set menu_color_normal=white/black
set menu_color_highlight=black/white
### END / e t c / g r u b . d / 0 5 _ d e b i a n _ t h e m e ###
### BEGIN / e t c / g r u b . d / 0 6 _ m i n t _ t h e m e ###
insmod reiserfs
set root=(hd0,5)
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set
c4f455bb0ba3

ff8becfc-d3c4-4956-afbO-

insmod png
if background_image /boot/grub/linuxmint.png ; then
set color_normal=white/black
set color_highlight=white/light-gray

GNU GRUB

else
set menu_color_normal=white/black
set menu_color_highlight=white/light-gray

### END /etc/grub.d/06_mint_theme ###


, :
### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###
menuentry "Linux Mint 9, 2.6.32-21-generic (/dev/sda1)" {
recordfail=1
if [ -n ${have_grubenv} ]; then save_env recordfail; fi
set quiet=l
insmod reiserfs
set root=(hd0,5)
search no-floppy fs-uuid s e t ff8becfc-d3c4-4956afb0-c4f455bb0ba3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic root=UUID=5bc61bd938b5-43a4-b3e8-11f9fd8ab389 ro
quiet splash
initrd

/boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic

### END /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###


### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ ###
menuentry "Memory test (memtest86+)" {
linuxl6 /boot/memtest86+.bin
}
### END /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ ###
### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###

2. Linux Mint

menuentry "Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition (on /dev/sdal)" {


set root=(hd0,1)
chainloader +1

### END /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###


, menuentry,
. 10 ,
, s e t d e f a u l t .

linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic root=UUID=ff8becfc-d3c44956-afb0-c4f455bb0ba3 ro quiet splash


/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic ,
. root .
, UUID, .

Initrd (Initial RAM Disk) ,


,
, , .

, /boot/grub/grub.cfg . ,
.
/etc/default/grub,
cat :
$ cat /etc/default/grub
# If you change this file, run `update-grub afterwards to update
# /boot/grub/grub.cfg.
GRUB_DEFAULT=0
GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT=0
GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT_QUIET=true
GRUB_TIMEOUT="10"
GRUB DISTRIBUTOR=`lsb release -i -s 2> /dev/null || echo Debian`

GNU GRUB

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash"
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=""
# Uncomment to disable graphical terminal (grub-pc only)
#GRUB_TERMINAL=console
# The resolution used on graphical terminal
# note that you can use only modes which your graphic card supports via VBE
# you can see them in real GRUB with the command 4vbeinfo'
#GRUB_GFXMODE=640x480
# Uncomment if you don't want GRUB to pass "root=UUID=xxx" parameter to Linux
#GRUB_DISABLE_LINUX_UUID=true
# Uncomment to disable generation of recovery mode menu entrys
#GRUB_DISABLE_LINUX_RECOVERY="true"
. , , ,
="". , #,
. , ,
, . /boot/grub/grub.cfg . ,
GRUB_DE FAULT=0
set def ault="0", , ,
. saved,
, .
, menuentry. :
GRUB_DEFAULT="Linux Mint 9 Isadora,
(/dev/sda5)"

linux 2.6.32-21-generic

GRUB_TIMEOUT="10",
. -1,
, , .

2. Linux Mint

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash"
.
.
.
. -
,
noapic, nolapic, noacpi, acpi=off, pci=noacpi, nopcmcia ( pcmcia), irqpoll, all generic ide. ,
nVidia nForce noapic nolapic, .
, , . , vga=7 91, 1024 768 64 , vga=7 90 1024 768 32 , vga=787
800 600.
ro s i n g l e
,
.
/etc/grub.d . , , ls (. 2.17):
$ ls /etc/grub.d
00 header

06 mint theme

20 memtest86+

40 custom

05_debian_theme

10_linux

30_os-prober

README

. 2.17. /etc/grub.d

, /boot/grub/grub.cfg,
:
### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###
### END /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###

GNU GRUB

10_linux 30_os-prober Linux , .


20_memtest86+ , . , 40_custom . , - .

40_custom , .

/etc/default/grub /etc/grub.d
/boot/grub/grub.cfg
$ sudo update-grub

GRUB 1 2
upgrade-from-grub-legacy, .

, , Linux Mint
, GRUB,
(. 2.18).

. 2.18. GRUB

2. Linux Mint

, , ,
.
. .

Windows
- Linux
Windows. Linux Mint
,
. ,
Windows, Linux Mint , Windows MBR, , , , GRUB.
Linux :
1) MBR GRUB , Windows MBR;
2) GRUB.
Linux -.
, Linux ( UNIX-)
,
. dd (. dataset definition ) .
512 , MBR, :
$ dd if=/dev/sda of=mbr.bin bs=512 count=1
, ? mbr.bin MBR.
Windows - - MBR

$ sudo dd if=mbr.bin of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=l
cat:
$ sudo cat mbr.bin > /dev/sda
, dd , .
,
-, . dd
Windows, http://www.chrysocome.net/dd.

GNU GRUB

. rescue, ,

. , , Linux, , , , . ,
. , LiveCD Ubuntu , Linux Mint.
GRUB . , , . , Linux Mint - LiveCD-, , . , LiveCD-, Menu .
, Linux Mint, f d i s k :
$ sudo f d i s k / d e v / s d a
, , q.
, Palimpsest (. 2.19),
Menu p a l i m p s e s t .

. 2.19. Palimpsest

2. Linux Mint

, Linux Mint , , /dev/sda5:


$ sudo mount - t e x t 3 / d e v / h d a 5 /mnt
$ sudo mount - t p r o c p r o c / m n t / p r o c
$ sudo mount - t s y s f s s y s / m n t / s y s
$ sudo mount - o b i n d / d e v / m n t / d e v
chroot-
$ c h r o o t /mnt / b i n / b a s h
. GRUB g r u b i n s t a l l , :
$ sudo g r u b - i n s t a l l / d e v / s d a
, , ,
, . r e c h e c k , .
LiveCD, , GRUB. grubmkrescue (. 2.20)
$ sudo g r u b - m k r e s c u e - i m a g e - t y p e = c d r o m i s o / g r u b . i s o
iso ISO- grub.iso,
Brasero ,
ISO-.

. 2.20. ISO- GRUB

GRUB:
grub>

GNU GRUB

, , , , :
grub> root (hd0,4)

Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83


, :
grub> find /boot/grub/stage1
:
grub> configfile /boot/grub/grub.cfg
.
GRUB .
grub> setup (hd0)
:
grub> quit
,
.

GRUB ,
Tab. , , Tab
.

Linux
, Linux , , , .
. Linux Mint GRUB
, . ,
GRUB , .
MBR- . , , Windows,

. .

2. Linux Mint

Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98 Windows Me,


> f d i s k /mbr
MBR. NT, Windows Windows Vista,
R, . fixmbr,
MBR.

Linux Mint
GNOME

3. Linux Mint

, ,
, , Linux Mint,
. ,
GDM
(. GNOME Display Manager, http://projects.gnome.org/gdm/) , (. 3.1).

. 3.1. GDM

, ,
.

, ,
, .
. ,
. GNOME ( ),
, GNOME (), , , xterm
, X Window
(. 3.2).

3. Linux Mint

. 3.2. xterm

, GNOME
( ), , , ( ,
, , . .)
.

, ,
, /tmp . ,
.

, ,
.
, Gedit,
Linux Mint,
$ gedit

3. Linux Mint

,
. ,
,
$ sudo gedit
Gedit ,
, .

xterm ,
exit.

, , . , .

Linux
. Linux , , . , USB, , ,
. sync,
.
. , .

GNOME
Windows, Linux
( )
, ,
. , X Window System,
, , ( ) . , X Window , , , .

Linux , ,
, , , ,
, ,
, .

GNOME


, , ,
.
, .
. Linux kwm ( KDE),
Metacity ( GNOME), twm ( XFree86), Xfwm ( Xfce), IceWM, Fluxbox, Openbox, fvwm, WindowMaker, Enlightenment
. , , . , ,
, . Linux
.
KDE, Xfce GNOME. , , . ,
, . , ,
, Linux.
GNOME ( GNU Network Object Model Environment,
GNU, . 3.3) GNU.

. 3.3. GNOME

3. Linux Mint

GNOME
, ,
.
. , , , http://www.gnome.org/.
, , ,
. KDE GNOME
.

GNOME (. GNOME Human Interface Guidelines, HIG), . HIG http://developer.gnome.
org/projects/gup/hig/. HIG , , . GNOME . KDE,
, GNOME .

GNOME KDE, Qt,


Qt ,
, . ,
. 1997 . Qt GNU GPL .

Linux Mint 9
GNOME 2.30.0. , (. . 3.3),
- .

GNOME 60 ,
99 % .

GNOME , . , , Windows. GNOME just work, , . ,


, .

GNOME

GNOME GNOME,
, () (. 3.4).
GNOME , , .

. 3.4. GNOME CentOS

( ) . , Windows,
Linux Mint ,
Windows. GNOME ,
.

GNOME
http://library.gnome.org/users/user-guide/.

Linux Mint. , .
, .

3. Linux Mint

. Nautilus, (. 3.5), - , .

. 3.5.

Windows, . 2,
, ,
.

Nautilus
, ,
. , Windows
(. 3.6).
,
, .
USB -,
Nautilus. , - . , Linux Mint
GNOME. GNOME , , .
(, ) . , . -,
,

GNOME

, , . , , , Linux

. .
, Nautilus,
~/-.gconf/apps/nautilus/preferences/. , Linux Mint .

, , Linux
. , (Ctrl + ).

, ,
. , , .
,
, , .
GNOME
, ,
.

. 3.6. Windows Nautilus

3. Linux Mint

,
- . Linux Mint ,
.

,
, - , . .
- , DVD,
.

, , , , , , , ( , Bluetooth, -),
, .


, . Nautilus
. Nautilus ,
.

Nautilus Linux Mint Nautilus Actions Configurations Tools,


.

Menu, , , Linux Mint (. 3.7). , Windows Linux


, , . , , DVD,
, Linux Mint .
. 5.
.
.
, , .
.
, .
. -

GNOME
, , , , -

, , . . :
. , . : Brasero CD DVD.

. 3.7. Linux Mint

. , : ,
. ,
, , , ,
. Linux ,
.
. , , , , , , . .
, , (. . 3.1),
, . ,
/etc/bash.bashrc:
$ sudo g e d i t / e t c / b a s h . b a s h r c

3. Linux Mint


/usr/bin/mint-fortune
, #,
. fortunes-ru:
$ sudo apt-get install fortunes-ru
, Linux Mint, . 5 , ,
Linux Mint.


, .
, .
, ,
GNOME (. 3.8). ,
,
, ,
.
. , , , , , .

, . ,
.
.

, ,
.

, (gnome-terminal). ,
, gnome-control-center.
. , . , .

. 3.8.

Linux Mint Ubuntu , . ,


Linux Mint
, .
mint Install ( ) ,
, ,
Synaptic.
mintUpdate ( ) , , ,
. ,
.
mintDesktop ,
: , , (. 3.9).

3. Linux Mint

. 3.9. mintDesktop

mintUpload ( ) , FTP, SFTP SCP


. ,
(. 3.10).
: (mintupload), (mintupload-manager) (mintupload-file-uploader).

. 3.10.

Mint-Space mintUpload,
.

mintWifi
. , sudo mintwifi.

minNanny ( ) ,
,
(. 3.11).

. 3.11. mintNanny

mintMenu , , GNOME. .
mintBackup ( ) ,

,
(. 3.12).

. 3.12. mintBackup

mintWelcome ,
.

3. Linux Mint

mintAssistant,
mintDisk mintConfig, , GNOME. Linux Mint
, .
.


MIME
. ,
.

MIME (. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension,


) , , .

,
, , . . ,
, , (. 3.13).

. 3.13.

, .
, ,
.
, m Totem, . , Nautilus
( ),
(. 3.14).

. 3.14. - Totem

Rhythmbox, , , .
Linux Mint
, , . ,
, , (. 3.15), ,

3. Linux Mint

. , - .

. 3.15.

. , Debian, Linux
Mint . , .

, /etc/alternatives/.
, , ls:
$ ls -al /etc/alternatives/
lrwxrwxrwx
1 root root
-> /usr/bin/firefox
lrwxrwxrwx
1 root root
editor -> /usr/bin/gedit

16 2010-05-22 13:13 x-www-browser


14 2010-05-22 13:13 gnome-text-

, . .

, less,
Is - al I less.

/etc/alternatives/
. , , -
/etc/alternatives/x-www-browser, Mozilla
Firefox, /usr/bin/firefox.
.
, update-alternatives.
$ sudo update-alternatives --config x-www-browser
2 x-www-browser (
/usr/bin/x-www-browser).

* 0

/usr/bin/epiphany-browser

85

/usr/bin/epiphany-browser

85

/usr/bin/firefox

40

, : Firefox Epiphany.
Epiphany . Firefox.
,
enter, [*],
:
, 2.
update-alternatives: `/usr/bin/firefox `/usr/bin/x-www-browser (x-www-browser)

, .
sudo update-alternatives --all, .


, . , ,
, ,

. ,

3. Linux Mint

: , (. 3.16), . , . ,
, .
Linux Mint Shiki-Wise,
, .

. 3.16. GNOME

http://art.gnome.org/,
,
. , , , ,
, . , Go, . ,
(. 3.17) -

. , .

. 3.17.

http://art.gnome.org/ ,
,
, . . . , ( ),
.
, . , . 5.

,
.
Linux Mint Compiz Fusion
(http://www.compiz.org/) . Compiz Fusion
OpenGL D- . ,

3. Linux Mint

, .
, ,
,
5 % ( ), . , ,
, . , ,
. Linux
, , 3D
Linux ,
.
- .
Compiz Fusion Beryl (
) Compiz
Compiz Extras.
. , D-. ,
, . , (. 3.18).
,
.

. 3.18.


: , , .

.
, .
, CompizConfig (simple-ccsm, . 3.19).

. 3.19. CompizConfig

,
(, .), , ,
( ),

. , Compiz
Fusion, CompizConfig
(. 3.20).
(GNOME KDE), , .
,
, .
-

, . , ,
,
. , ,
.

3. Linux Mint

. 3.20. CompizConfig CompizFusion



, .
GSwitchIt,
, GNOME.
,
, , . ,
, . . , ,
: , , ,

. .

.
, . (. 3.21), ; ,
.

. 3.21.

, /
. , ,
, , ,
,
. (. 3.22),
(Alt, Windows, CapsLock, Ctrl)
, ,
. ()
(, Shift + Alt). ,
, , .
, , ,
.
Linux ,
. ,
-
. ,
(gnome-keybind-

ing-properties, . 3.23),
.

3. Linux Mint

. 3.22.

. 2.23.

, XF86,
.


- , , . . .

,
.

- -, , , , , . -
, . Linux
( ) X Window.
, xev, -. , Event Tester, , (. 3.24):
$ xev

KeyRelease event, serial 31, synthetic NO, window 0x3e00001,


root 0x67, subw 0x0,
root:(1104,687),

time 27 9734 67 6,

(311 , 61 1 ),

state 0x2000, keycode 236 (keysym 0xl008ffl9, XF86Mail),


same_screen YES,
XLookupString gives 0 bytes:
XFilterEvent returns: False
.
,
Event Tester. KeyRelease,
keycode -,
. 236,
-, keysym,
XF86Mail (
).

3. Linux Mint

. 3.24. -

, , - .
, -, , , . -
, dmesg :
Use `setkeycodes 0xec <keycode> to make it known.
-
s e t k e y c o d e s . keycode ,
(
) 128. 0=236, 364. - , getkeycodes dumpkeys.
$ getkeycodes | grep < >
, , .
xev , -, ,
showkey getkeycodes:
$ showkey
( 10
)...
00 0x6 00 0
, ,
.

- X Window
, - , -,
, .
XF86keysym.h.
- ,
x11proto-core-dev, XF86keysym.h
/usr/include/. , , GIT freedesktop.org (http://cgit.freedesktop.org/
xorg/proto/x11proto/tree/XF86keysym.h). :
$ cat /usr/include/Xll/XF86keysym.h
#define XF86XK_Back
#define XF86XK_Forward
#define XF86XK_Mail

0xl008FF26

/* Like back on a browser

*/

0xl008FF27

/* Like forward on a browser */

0xl008FF19

. xev, , keycode 236 keysym 0xl008ff19, XF86Mail (


_). ,
, /usr/share/X11/XKeysymDB.
:
Xmodmap. ,
. ~/.Xmodmap /etc/Xll/Xmodmap,
.
$ gedit

Xmodmap

keycode 161 XF86Calculator


keycode 174 XF86AudioLowerVolume
keycode 176 XF86AudioRaiseVolume
keycode 162 XF8 6AudioPause

, .

, . , ,
.

3. Linux Mint

~/.Xmodmap /etc/X11/Xmodmap , Linux . , , , sudo


grep -iR xmodmap /etc.

, ,
.


. 128, 0 127:
$ setkeycodes 0 118
.
Linux Mint /etc/console-setup/cached.kmap.gz.

, Debian, /etc/console-setup/
boottime.kmap.gz.

, ,
. , , /etc/init.d/rc.local.
.
, X. man keymaps (5) keycode :
{ plain | <cmodifier sequence> } keycode keynumber = keysym
, :
keycode 105 = Decr_Console
,
105.
Alt
106:
alt keycode 106 = Incr_Console
, :
keycode 120 = F100
string F100 = "/sbin/shutdown -h now\n"

, 120 ,
F100, . F100,
, .
/etc/console-setup/
cached.kmap.gz, /etc/init/console-setup.conf.


, , , ,
. ,
. , , (hibernate)
.


, ,
, . ,
- , , .

, Linux Mint
. , ,
, ,
. .

, sudo /etc/acpi/hibernate.sh.

ACPI acpid,
/proc/acpi/event.

Linux (. daemons), , .

/etc/acpi/events/ ,
. /etc/acpi
, .

, Linux Mint,
http://linuxmint.com/wiki/index.php/Linux_Mint_friendly_Laptops.

, ,
/etc/acpi/powerbtn.sh: ,

3. Linux Mint

(. 3.25), , (, ),
/sbin/shutdown -h now "Power button pressed"
. , , .

Linux
Bash Reference Manual (http://www.gnu.org/software/bash/manual/bashref.html)
Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide (http://www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/abs-guide.pdO,
http://www.opennet.ru/docs/RUS/bash_scripting_guide/.

. 3.25. Linux Mint

cat /etc/acpi/lid.sh.
acpid:
$ sudo /etc/init.d/acpid restart


, .
Linux Mint, , , Linux,
.
,
(. 3.26).
|

. 3.26. ,

, , .
, .
. ,
,
.
, . . GNOME. , .


,
. , , ,
, , , -
, . ,
rcconf sys-rc-conf.

,
$ sudo apt-get install rcconf

$ sudo apt-get install sys-rc-conf

3. Linux Mint

, . ,
, :
$ sudo s y s - r c - c o n f
(. 3.27) . , - (), + =. .

. 3.27. sysv-rc-conf

, q.
rcconf .
$ sudo r c c o n f

(. 3.28).

. 3.28. rcconf

,
. , , .


Linux Mint , - Unix System V.
.
, , , /etc/init.d , .
, .
, , , ,
. , ,
/etc/init/d/networking. ,
( ),
$ sudo /etc/init/d/networking restart

3. Linux Mint

, , restart force-reload .

, , start, stop, restart force-reload.

/etc/init.d, ,
. , , . : ?
. Unix- : /etc/init.d
, ,
. Linux Mint . /etc
, rc /etc/rc.local,/etc/rc0.d,/etc/rc1.d,
/etc/rc2.d, /etc/rc3.d, /etc/rc4.d, /etc/rc5.d, /etc/rc6.d /etc/rcS.d.
, ,
/etc/init.d. , /etc/rc5.d/.
I s .
$ ls -al /etc/rc2.d/
lrwxrwxrwx
1 root root
-> ../init.d/fancontrol

20 2010-05-22 13:14 K20fancontrol

lrwxrwxrwx
1 root root
-> ../init.d/hddtemp

17 2010-05-22 13:14 S20hddtemp

lrwxrwxrwx
1 root root
-> ../init.d/bluetooth

19 2010-05-22 13:14 S25bluetooth

lrwxrwxrwx
1 root root
-> ../init.d/rc.local

18 2010-05-22 13:14 S99rc.local

, /etc/rc5.d/K20fancontrol
/etc/init.d/fancontrol.

, . (.)
, (..) .

, . /etc/rcS.d
, .
(runlevels) Linux,
. , .

1. , , , .
- .
2.

,
.
3. ,
, .
4. / .
5.

,
.
: 0 6 .
,
( ,
. .). , , ,
. Linux Mint, ,
2 - 5 . runlevel, Linux Mint, 2 :
$ runlevel

,
who -r.

, Linux Mint 2,
/etc/rc2.d/.
, S , . .
, . ,
, : ,
, . ,
. ,
, 99. ,
99 /etc/init.d/rc.local. /etc/rc.local
, .
,

3. Linux Mint

.
:
$ ln -s /etc/init.d/samba /etc/rc2.d/S20samba
S (start) , , (Kill) .
, ,
, S :
$ sudo mv /etc/rc2.d/S20hddtemp /etc/rc5.d/K20hddtemp
, ,
. , , .
. Linux Mint update-rc.d, .
man, ,

$ man update-rc.d
. program ,

$ sudo update-rc.d program remove


,
, -n. -f .
d e f a u l t s .
$ sudo update-rc.d program defaults
:
$ sudo update-rc.d program start 20 2 3 4 5 . stop 20 0 1 6 .
2 - 5 0,1
6. 20 , S
, S20 20.

insservis
LSB- , .
Linux Mint, .


, GNOME
, . , -.
XML- ( . extensible
Markup Language ),
. ,
,
. , ,
.

GNOME
, http://library.gnome.org/admin/systemadmin-guide/stable/.

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, ( )
~/gtkrc-2.0. .
$ gedit ~/gtkrc-2.0
# , , 100
gtk-menu-popup-delay

# , ,

gtk-menu-popdown-delay

#
gtk-menu-bar-delay = 0
Gtk
http://library.gnome.org/devel/gtk/2.20/GtkSettings.html. .
:
$ echo "find /usr/share/pixmaps/ | xargs cat > /dev/null" >> ~/
mystart
$ echo "find /usr/share/icons/shiki-wise/ | xargs cat > /dev/
null" >> ~/mystart

3. Linux Mint

:
$ chmod + ~/mystart
, : , -

. .

GConf
GConf, GNOME. GConf , gconfd-2, , gconftool-2. Windows,
, XML-. , , , .
GNOME,
$ gconftool-2 -s /desktop/gnome/peripherals/keyboard/general/
disable_indicator -t bool true
GNOME , g e t . ,
$ gconftool-2 --get /apps/metacity/general/reduced_resources
:
$ gconftool-2 --type bool --set /apps/metacity/general/reduced_
resources true
GNOME Metacity
. ,
. enable_animations
false.

GConf, , XML-,
~/.gconf ~/.gconfd, - /etc/
gconf.

$ gconftool-2 --type bool --set /apps/panel/global/enable_animations false


, ,
:

$ gconftool-2 --type string --set /apps/panel/global/panel_animation_speed panel-speed-fast


GNOME,
,
. , 100 :
$ gconftool-2 --type integer --set /apps/metacity/general/auto_
raise_delay 100
, ,
. ,
GConf .
Linux Mint GConf-editor
(. 3.29). , :
$ gconf-editor

. 3.29. GNOME GConf-editor

3. Linux Mint

,
- regedit Windows.
,
. . , , ,
. , , .,
Desktop Settings,
Apps Nautilus Desktop. -

Desktop.


gTweakUI
(http://gtweakui.sourceforge.net),
. gTweakUI
,

$ sudo apt-get install gtweakui

. 3.30.
gTweakUI

: gtweakui-galeon, gtweakui-menus, gtweakuisession (. 3.30) gtweakui-nautilus,


.

Linux Mint




4. Linux Mint

, ,
Linux, , .


Unix- , ,
, . ,
, . ,
/home/grinder/temp , , .
, /home/grinder/temp/.
.
, , , .
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!
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admin. .

, , , , (. 4.1),
.
,
file.
$ file /

/: directory
$ file /bin/bash
/bin/bash: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1
(SYSV), for GNU/Linux 2.2.0, dynamically linked (uses shared
libs), for GNU/Linux 2.2.0, stripped
file ls -l
stat (. 4.2). ls .
$ ls -l /dev/
crw-rw

1 root audio 14, 4 2008-05-01 10:55 audio

drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 60 2008-05-01 13:54 bus

118

4. Linux Mint

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 3 2008-05-01 13:55 cdrom -> hdc


brw-rw---- 1 root disk 3, 0 2008-05-01 13:54 had

. 4.1. Nautilus

. 4.2. stat

. :

- () (, , , .),
;
d (. directory);

l (. link);

b (. block);

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s (. socket).

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. .

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ls -l l. ,
, (.
).
, . . ln s. ,
symlinks file:
$ ln -s file /home/grinder/symlink
:
$ ls -l /home/grinder/symlink
lrwxrwxrwx 1 grinder grinder 7 2010-05-01 20:58 /home/grinder/
symlink -> file

4. Linux Mint

, , , 7 .
( ),
rwxrwxrwx. ,
, .
.

du
. , b, .

, , ,
.
.
. ,
. .
ln, :
$ ln file /home/grinder/hardlink

ls:
$ ls -l /home/grinder/hardlink
-rw-r--r-- 2 grinder grinder 52219904 2010-05-22 14:33 /home/
grinder/hardlink
2. , , , , ,
. .
Linux .
, ,
. - ,
inode i ls. ,
g z i p ZIP,
(LZ77). Linux
, inode:
$ ls -i /bin/gunzip /bin/gzip
25256 /bin/gunzip

25256 /bin/gzip.

, inode ,
. ls -l
/bin/gzip. ,
g r e p inode.
$ ls -i /bin/* | grep 25256
25256 /bin/gunzip
25256 /bin/gzip
25256 /bin/uncompress
25256 /bin/zcat
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, . .
, . ,
. ,
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. . ,
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.

,
.
( ) : .
, . ,
. , :
$ ls -l / d e v / s d a
brw-rw

1 r o o t d i s k 8,

0 2010-05-22 16:20 / d e v / s d a

b ls .
, , .
. . (. 4.3).

4. Linux Mint

. 4.3. Linux

.
FIFO (. First Input First Output , ),
, f,
. FIFO ,
.
FIFO , . , ,
FIFO. :
( . socket ). ,
, . , clamd
ClamAV MySQL , .
, , . - FIFO, .
$ ls -al /dev/* | grep ^s
srw-rw-rw-

1 root

root

0 2008-06-25 13:21 /dev/log

ls -al grep,
.
grep , s ( ^
).
.
, . major () minor (),

. major ,
a minor . ,
$

ls

-l

/dev/sda

brw-rw---- 1 r o o t d i s k 8,

0 2010-06-25 16:20 / d e v / s d a

8 major, a 0 minor. /dev/


sda1, , ,
major , minor 1.
, , , . mknod ( . make node ) MAKEDEV.

, man mknod.

mknod, major minor .


:
mknod

/dev/_

{ | b } MAJOR MINOR

b , :
. major ,
lsdev. major minor devices.txt, Documentation .


,
Linux. . Linux,
, , , , : (user owner) - (group owner). (other), ,
. ,
(primary),
(supplementary).
. , Linux Mint,
cdrom.
:
, .

4. Linux Mint

, , - , .

Unix - - , .

ls -l, :
$ ls -l sound.m
-rw-r--r-- 1 grinder grinder 6706501 2010-05-11 00:29 sound.m
;
-rw-r--r--, . ( grinder grinder)
- .
, chown,
.
:
$ sudo chown new_owner file1 file2 ...
,
, , -R. , , :
$ sudo chown -R user *
user. chown -.

:
$ sudo chown R sergej:video *
:
$ sudochown R :video *.
chown
c h g r p , :
$ chgrp audio /home/user/*

,
.
. ( ). , ,
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. :
Read ;
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, ,
ls -l .
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chmod.
: , , , (
). . , , . 4.1.
4.1. chmod


0001
0002
0004
0010
0020
0040
0100
0200

125

4. Linux Mint
4.1 ()


0400
1000
2000
4000




, , SGID
, , SUID

,
$ chmod 755 f i l e
: ,
( ,
), .

( , g , , ), (r , w , ) , (+ , , = )
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$ s u d o chmod u+w,

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, . , -
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: , , - .
, , ,
, , ,
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, . , , ,
.
, , , /
etc/group.
cdrom::24:grinder

cdrom, grinder.
user,
:
cdrom::24:grinder,user

24 GID (group id) .

4. Linux Mint

addgroup, adduser.

Linux Mint ,
(. 4.5).

. 4.5.


.
/etc/passwd. :
username::uid:gid:uid

:shell

:
grinder::1000:1000:grinder,,,:/home/grinder:/bin/bash

UID 1000.

, . , , :
$ ls -l /dev/dsp
crw-rw----+ 1 root audio 14, 3 2010-06-10 11:59 /dev/dsp
root ,
audio. , ,
, .
, ,
, . , , , , s h e l l , RID RGID
. ,
(), ,
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bit), SUID SGID. stisky bit ,

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SUID , a SGID -.
s ls -l , SUID, root, , ,
,
. ,
( ) . , ,
, .
SUID/SGID s,
sticky bit - t , l

4. Linux Mint

, .

sticky bit /tmp. ,


, . SGID , , .


. 2, , .
.
, Windows Linux
Mint . , .
. ,
Nautilus,
, . , , Windows- ( SMB, Server Message Block), Windows (. 4.6),
, , .

. 4.6.

.
Nautilus (. . 4.6). , , ,
. ,

.
, .
.

mount
mount , . ,
( root ):
$ mount
/dev/sdal on / type ext4 (rw,errors=remount-ro)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
none on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
none on /sys/fs/fuse/connections type fusectl (rw)
none on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw)
none on /sys/kernel/security type securityfs (rw)
none on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,mode=0755)
none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,noexec,nosuid,gid=5,mode=0620)
none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
none on /var/run type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,mode=0755)
none on /var/lock type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
none on /lib/init/rw type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,mode=0755)
binfmt_misc on /r/sys/fs/binfmt_misc
(rw,noexec, nosuid,nodev)

type binfmt_misc

gvfs-fuse-daemon on /home/grinder/.gvfs type fuse.gvfs-fusedaemon (rw,nosuid,nodev,user=grinder)

4. Linux Mint

,
, none ( ) , ,
gvfs-fuse-daemon. , .

, /etc/mtab.

mount,
. , /dev/sdb2
/home/grinder/audio:
$ sudo mount /dev/sdb2 /home/grinder/audio
, /home/grinder/audio, .
, ,
.

,
d f - h .

, , - t :
$ sudo mount -t ext3 /dev/sdb2 /home/grinder/audio
ext3. :

-t ext2, -t ext3, -t ext4, -t reiser, -t xfs


;

-t ntfs-3g NTFS;

-t vfat FAT32;

-t iso9660 - ISO-;

-t smbfs -t cifs Windows.

,
dmesg mount.*. : mount.
.

-t man mount.

-o. / - rw,
- r. :
$ sudo mount -t ext3 - rw /dev/sdb2 /home/grinder/audio


mount.

, ,
. :
$ sudo mount -t ext3 - rw,iocharset=utf8,codepage=866 /dev/sdb2
/home/grinder/audio
- iocharset=utf 8 , Linux
Mint ut f 8, a codepage=8 66 .
- force
, mount .
-, , .
:
$ sudo mount -t iso9660 - ro /dev/cdrom /mnt
Ho mount , ISO- .
- loop.
$ sudo mount -t iso9660 - loop ~/file.iso /home/iso
, ,
:

$ sudo umount /dev/sdb2

$ sudo umount /home/grinder/audio



. .
, ,
, . smbfs:
$ sudo aptitude install smbfs

133

134

4. Linux Mint


$ sudo mount -t smbfs - =,password=apo //server/Video /home/grinder/video

IP- .

/etc/fstab
, ,
. . , /etc/fstab. ,
, # ,
.
mount. :
$ cat /etc/fstab
# <file system> <mount point> <type> <options> <dump> <pass>
# /dev/sda1 no UUID, ext4
UUID=5bc61bd9-38b5-43a4-b3e8-11f9fd8ab389 /ext4
ro 0

errors=remount-

# /dev/sda2 ReiserFS
/dev/sda2 / reiserfs notail,relatime 0 1
# swap a /dev/sda5
UUID=34ef4987-4f77-42f5-9794-fc57d822b05d none swap

sw

, ,
, - :
/dev/cdrom /media/cdrom iso9660,udf r,noauto,user,exec 0 0
, noauto.
, /etc/fstab ,
,
. NTFS NTFS-3g:
/dev/sda6 /mnt/windows ntfs-3g defaults 0 0

/home
,
() .
, . ,

, .
,
.

, X Window,
FIFO ( ).
, .

, . /home.
. -R
, - , . , , .
/home /dev/sda5. mount
, .
, /dev/sda5:
$ sudo mkdir /mnt/home
/dev/sda5 /mnt/home:
$ sudo mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/home
/home /mnt/home.
, .
$ sudo -a /home /mnt/home
- (--archive)
. , , , .
, , /.

4. Linux Mint

, - - - o n e - f i l e - s y s t e m , ,
. , . , . , - , GNU (http://www.gnu.org/).

, GNU
GNU's Not Unix (GNU Unix),
UNIX- .
, GNU/Hurd (
1990 . ). GNU GNU/Linux,
GNU Linux.

Linux ,
UNIX- . , - dpR.
$ sudo -dpR /home /mnt/home
tar,
,
.
:
$ sudo (cd /home && tar cf .) | (cd /mnt/home && tar xpvf -)
, tar /home ( , . create ). , ,
tar, ,
( ( . eXtract ).
- ,
.
gunzip ( bzip2). :
$ cd /home; sudo tar czf home.tar.bz .
:
$ cd /mnt/home; sudo tar xzf home.tar.bz
, , /home:
$ sudo mount /dev/sda5 /home

. ,
/etc/fstab,
( mount fstab ).
,
. , , ,
:
$ sudo umount /dev/sda5
:
$ sudo rm -Rf /home/*
, /dev/sda5 .
.
,

.

.


, . ,
.
.
, .
ps (process status).
, , . , - a u x
(. 4.7).
:
USER , ;
PID (Process Identifier) , 1 65 535;
%CPU % ;
STAT ;
COMMAND , , ,
, , w.

4. Linux Mint

. 4.7.

,
(man ps). : S /
(sleeping), R (run), D
(, /), , Z -, < N
n i c e .
, Z.
, , .
, , ,
. , .
,
? kill,
PID .
, 1234:
$ sudo k i l l 1234

, ,
, k i l l a l l ,
.
$ sudo k i l l a l l mpg123

top (. 4.8).

. 4.8. top

n i c e ,
. root.
- 2 0 ( )
19 ( ) , :
$ sudo n i c e -5 rhythmbox
Linux Mint ,
, (, , )

4. Linux Mint

.
(. 4.9).

. 4.9.

procfs
,
. procfs, /r, ,
.

procfs http://
procps.sf.net/.

procfs
, . ,
. . . ,

, /r,
. top,
, ps, . /r
,
, .
: ,
, ,
, , .

: c a t , ,
echo . , , procfs
:

, - ;
root , , ;
root ,
.
.
. CFS.
. , /r.
/r,
. procfs
, ,
.
, :
$ sudo c a t / p r o c / a c p i / f a n / F A N / s t a t e
status:

on


echo 0 > / p r o c / a c p i / f a n / F A N / s t a t e
. ,
:
$ sudo c a t / p r o c / a c p i / t h e r m a l _ z o n e / T H R M / t e m p e r a t u r e
t e m p e r a t u r e : 23

4. Linux Mint

Linux ,
FreeBSD . trip_points :
$ sudo cat /proc/acpi/thermal_zone/THRM/trip_points
critical (S5): 65
passive:

63 : tcl=4 tc2=3 tsp=60 devices=0xdf852338

active[0]: 63 C: devices=0xdf85ff90
: critical ( ,
), passive ( ) active ( ).
0 9, , ,
. :
echo -n
points

"critical:hot:passive:active0:...:activeX"

> trip_

:
$ echo "105:100:100:78:70:60:50" > /proc/acpi/thermal_zone/TZ0/
trip_points

$ sudo cat /proc/acpi/thermal_zone/THRM/cooling_mode
cooling mode: active
,
.
, , /proc/sys. , /proc/sys/fs/filemax, ,
. .
:
$ sudo echo "4096" /r/sys/fs/file-max
/proc/sys/kernel/ctrl-alt-del , ,
Ctrl + Alt + Delete. :

0 ;
1 ,
.
0. /proc/sys/kernel/domainname /r/sys/
kernel/hostname .
/r/sys/net ,
. , /proc/sys/net/core/netdev_max_backlog . , . 300, 1000.
/r/sys/vm . , /proc/sys/vm/swappiness , , . , . Ubuntu
:
$ cat /proc/sys/vm/swappiness

, , ,
100. OpenOffice.org GIMP
,
. .


//sys
, .
. . , . Linux ,
.
Ubuntu /etc/init.d/rc.local.
, . ,
, ,
:

4. Linux Mint

e c h o "70" > / p r o c / s y s / v m / s w a p p i n e s s
e c h o "4096" / r / s y s / f s / f i l e - m a x
.
sysctl,
. /etc/sysctl.conf, .
. sysctl , .
. , sysctl, //sys. ,
sysctl //sys,
. , /proc/sys/fs/file-max f s / f i l e max. , /proc/sys/fs/file-max,
/etc/sysctl.nf :
f s / f i l e - m a x = 4096
, .
, , , . ,

echo "4096" > / p r o c / s y s / f s / f i l e - m a x
, sysctl :
$ sudo s y s c t r l -w f s . f i l e - m a x = " 4 0 9 6 "
f s . f i l e - m a x = 4096

/etc/sysctl.conf .

, ,
s y s c t l - (. 4.10).
. , , sysctl .
, , /etc/sysctl.conf.

. 4.10.



, . HardInfo ,
, , ,
(. 4.11). :
.
, HTML-.
, . ,
, PCI-, lspci
(. 4.12).
, Debian Ubuntu . lscpi: command not found, ,
. .
pciutils:
$ sudo apt-get install pciutils

4. Linux Mint

. 4.11. Hardlnfo

. 4.12. Ispci

. , ,
. (. 4.13):
$ cat /proc/cpuinfo
. , ,
lsmod.
, .
, modinf .

. 4.13.

$ modinfo reiserfs
modinfo reiserfs
filename :
/lib/modules/2.6.32-21-generic/kernel/fs/reiserfs/reiserfs.k
license:

GPL

author:

Hans Reiser <reiser@namesys.com>

description:

ReiserFS journaled filesystem

srcversion:

186997D0EA2E7DCB528AE4A

depends:
vermagic:

2.6.32-21-generic SMP mod_unload modversions

description, ,
, .


Linux Mint
Linux
, Linux Mint



ID3-
OpenShot

Linux

, ,
Linux Mint, . : , , . ,
. ? , ? ? .

Linux
Linux
- , Windows.
, .
,
. .
Unix- KISS ( Keep It Simple Stupid
). - , , , , , ,
. . , Windows
.
, ,
. , ;
, ,
. , ,
, ,
. ,

. Linux -.
, .
GNU GPL, :
, GNU GPL.
, . , , .
. , Linux
,
, , . Linux? ,
, ,

5. Linux Mint

. -.
, Player
Kplayer, KMplayer, smplayer, Freevo .
, ,
, .
. ,
Brasero (. 5.1).

. 5.1. Brasero

, , , ,
,
. ,
:

(hard) , , ,
;

(soft) , , ,
, (, ).

Linux

, soft- .
, (
Linux ), ,
.
, . Windows, , Linux
, . ,
Linux , ,
- . , . ,
,
, , .


,
20 .
, , .
, , Linux, . , , , ,
, Linux Debian,
Ubuntu, RedHat/Fedora, Slackware . ,
.
:
, ;
,
, , .
.
Linux :
deb , Debian ,
Ubuntu, Linux
Mint ;

5. Linux Mint

rpm (Red Hat Packages Manager) ,


RedHat,
(Fedora, Mandriva, ALTLinux .);

tar.gz , Slackware.

. ,
. tar.gz ( , )
, Slackware . ,
.
, : , ,
, .

. , , , , .
,
, ,
, .
.


, Linux Mint deb,
dpkg,
. , , ( ), ,
dpkg.
, ,
(, ,
. .).
:
gnome-mplayer-0.9.4-l_amd64.deb,

gnome-mplayer ; 0.9.4-1 ; amd64 , , 64 , 32- i386, i586 i686 .

Linux

, , src. ,
, , noarch.
, deb- ,
, .
ubuntu, debian . .

, , maintainer,
. ,
. , .
, , .

, , , , rpm.
deb-, - i :
$ sudo dpkg - i p a c k a g e _ n a m e . d e b
CD-
DVD-, - . ,
-R (--recursive), ,
:
$ sudo dpkg -R /usr/local/src
:
$ sudo dpkg -i *.deb
deb-, .


Linux, --help.

, . ,
, mplayer, :
$ sudo dpkg -i *mplayer*.deb

5. Linux Mint

dpkg - r ( --remove),
(. 5.2), .

. 5.2.

Debian Policy Manual ( , , , )


,
, .
, apt-get --no-install-recommends;
, APT::
Install-Recommends "false"; /etc/apt/apt.conf. , .

, ,
, , . !

, , -:
$ sudo dpkg - xchat
--force --ignore-depends
, , ,
- . .
, -l (--list)
(. 5.3).
, . installed, ,

Linux

. config-files,
. man-, ,
man dpkg.
, :
$ sudo dpkg -l > i n s t a l l . t x t
. , less:
$ sudo dpkg

-l

| less

.
, - .
,
grep. , , video:
$ sudo dpkg

-l

g r e p -i v i d e o

. 5.3.

5. Linux Mint

, , . d p k g - - c o n f i g u r e _ d p k g reconfigure.

Midnight
Commander (. 5.4), sudo apt-get install mc.
, F3 (),
, , Enter INSTALL,
.

. 5.4. Midnight Commander

dpkg - GDebi, Linux


Mint. , GDebi.
(. 5.5). ,
, .
: , ,
. Linux Mint ,
, .

Linux

. 5.5. Linux Mint GDebi

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, dpkg , , dselect (. 5.6), , .
$ sudo apt-get install dselect
:
$ sudo dselect

5. Linux Mint

. 5.6. dpkg dselect

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,
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. dselect
, APT aptitude.



, ,
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APT (Advanced Packaging Tool).
Debian deb, ,
rpm ( ALTLinux Connectiva).
APT tgz- Slackware slapt-get.

apt-get Linux Mint



, APT, Ubuntu, Debian, MEPIS, Linspire/Freespire,
ALTLinux APT.

Linux

APT ,
apt-get apt-cache. APT .
,
$ sudo a p t - g e t u p d a t e
, ,
.

$ sudo a p t - g e t u p g r a d e

$ sudo a p t - g e t d i s t - u p g r a d e
,
$ sudo a p t - g e t i n s t a l l _
, i n s t a l l u p d a t e . . ,
, , , APT .
, , -, a p t - c a c h e , , :
$ sudo a p t - c a c h e s e a r c h mp3
.
, , , , ,
(. 5.7).

. 5.7. ,

5. Linux Mint

, , ,
$ sudo a p t - g e t b u i l d - d e p _
. (./configure;
make), make i n s t a l l
a p t - g e t i n s t a l l c h e c k i n s t a l l ,
( . ). , ,
, s o u r c e :
$ sudo a p t - g e t s o u r c e _
/var/cache/apt/archives,
.

$ sudo a p t - g e t a u t o c l e a n
clean . autoremove,
:
$ sudo a p t - g e t a u t o r e m o v e

apt-get , , apt-get moo (. 5.8), ,


APT .

. 5.8. APT

Linux

aptitude
Debian Ubuntu aptitude, Linux Mint.
aptitude dpkg
, . APT,
, libapt.
aptitude APT, ,

. aptitude , . , aptitude.
aptitude ,
:
$ sudo aptitude
(. 5.9), , ,
.
:
, , .
, , (. 5.10). , ,
+, -, ( ) =,
.

. : + - ,
, g.
aptitude . , :
Security Updates ;
, ;

5. Linux Mint

. 5.9. aptitude

. 5.10. aptitude

Linux

New packages , Ubuntu, , f;


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ubuntu-desktop,
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,
, ,
. aptitude
APT. , apt-get:
$ sudo a p t i t u d e u p d a t e

5. Linux Mint

. 5.11.

, , s e a r c h :
$ sudo a p t i t u d e s e a r c h _
, (. 5.12):
$ aptitude search video
apt-cache a p t i t u d e ,
. , show:
$ a p t i t u d e show v i d e o t r a n s
, , , , , ,
,
. . (. 5.13).
, :
$ sudo a p t i t u d e i n s t a l l v i d e o t r a n s
, apt-get install,
aptitude . , aptitude
(recommends) . (suggest) .

Linux

. 5.12. aptitude

. 5.13.

5. Linux Mint

aptitude , -R. ,
~/.aptitude/config aptitude::Recommends-lmportant "false".

:
$ sudo a p t i t u d e r e i n s t a l l _
, remove:
$ sudo a p t i t u d e remove _
, , remove p u r g e .
aptitude APT, ( ), , , ,
. m a r k a u t o unmarkauto
a u t o , .

aptitude man aptitude.


Linux, , ,
.
, . Linux Mint
. (mintinstall) (synaptic),
.
mintinstall
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(. 5.15). ,
, .

Linux

, ,
.

. 5.14. mintinstall

. 5.15.

5. Linux Mint

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mintinstall ,
.
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Linux Mint, ( ) . , ,
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. 5.16. mintinstall

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(Synaptic Package Manager) , Debian, -

Linux

APT dpkg. Synaptic Gtk+


, GNOME. Synaptic , mintinstall,
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, ,
.
, ,
.
(. 5.17). , , , , ,
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. 5.17. Synaptic

5. Linux Mint

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(. . 5.17) , ,
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. (. 5.18). ,
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. 5.18. Synaptic

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(. . 5.18). , , (-

Linux

purge). ,
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. CD-ROM
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dpkg
.

Synaptic, mintinstall, .
,
(. 5.19).

. 5.19. Synaptic

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Linux Mint , . , ( ,
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5. Linux Mint

. mintUpdate, . , .
, .
15 , . .
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. (. 5.20).

. 5.20. mintUpdate

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Ubuntu Debian, Linux Mint.
, .

Linux Mint
,
.
/etc/pt/sources.list. .
$ cat /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://packages.linuxmint.com/ isadora main upstream import
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/
universe multiverse

lucid main

restricted

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-updates main restricted universe multiverse


deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu/ lucid partner
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ lucid free non-free
#deb http://archive.getdeb.net/ubuntu lucid-getdeb apps
#deb http://archive.getdeb.net/ubuntu lucid-getdeb games
, . , . ,
deb , . ,
deb-src,
. , deb- deb-src-, :
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/
universe multiverse

lucid main

restricted

5. Linux Mint

deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/
ed universe multiverse

l u c i d main r e s t r i c t -

, , /etc/pt/sources.list.

, . sudo apt-get update.


10 , , / , , d e b - s r c , .
, , , #.
.
, .
Linux Mint :
http://packages.linuxmint.com/.

, , . ,
( , -,
), /etc/apt/sources.list
.

,
Ubuntu. , Medibuntu (Multimedia, Entertainment & Distractions
In Ubuntu) , Ubuntu. , - , Adobe Acrobat, Google Earth . http://
medibuntu.org. GetDeb , Ubuntu, .
, Ubuntu, ,
,
. ,
http://ru.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/, http://ua.archive.ubuntu.com/

ubuntu/. . , ,
. , , http://gb.archive.ubuntu.

Linux

com/ubuntu/, , ,
.
Ubuntu https://wiki.ubuntu.
com/Mirrors?action=show&redirect=Archive.

.
isadora Linux Mint lucid Ubuntu.
, , .
Ubuntu :
backports , ;
proposed , ;
security ;
updates , proposed.
, main
backports.

http://
packages.linuxmint.com/.

, ,
:
main ,
Ubuntu;
universe ,
;
multiverse ,
;
restricted , ,
.
Linux Mint : main, upstream, import, backport romeo
(. 5.21). , , , , .
, , pool (Linux M i n t ) dists (Ubuntu).

5. Linux Mint

, ,
. , . : ,
i386, AMD64?
? .
/etc/apt/apt.conf.d/01ubuntu APT :
Architecture "amd64";
:
APT::Architecture "amd64";
,
. amd64, .
, /etc/apt/apt.conf ,
/etc/pt/apt.nf.d/, APT . , /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/01autoremove ,
.
, . , , ,
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/etc/apt/apt.conf.d/99proxy :

Linux

$ sudo g e d i t / e t c / a p t / a p t . c o n f . d / 9 9 p r o x y
Acquire::http::proxy
Proxy " t r u e " ;

"http://192.168.0.1:3128/"/Acquire::

- 3128
IP- 192.168.0.1. - ,
:
Acquire::http::proxy

"http://user:password@192.168.0.1:3128/";

/etc/profile :
export H T T P _ P R O X Y = " h t t p : / / 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 0 . 1 : 3 1 2 8 / " e x p o r t
"ftp://192.168.0.1:3128/"

FTP_PROXY=

, :
export H T T P _ P R O X Y = " h t t p : / / u s e r : p a s s w d @ l 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 0 . 1 : 3 1 2 8 / " e x p o r t
FTP_PROXY="ftp://user:passwd@192.168.0.1:3128/"
- Ubuntu
, (
, ).
$ sudo a p t - c d r o m add
, Enter.
/etc/apt/sources.list , d e b cdrom.


APT . ( ) /etc/apt/sources.list .
, ,
.
(Synaptic), -

.
, . GPG,

5. Linux Mint

. , , , ,
, .
apt-key. ,
gpg- wget APT:
$ wget http://seveas.imbrandon.com/1135D466.gpg -- | sudo aptkey add , .
$ sudo apt-get update
/var/lib/apt/lists
, .
$ ls /var/lib/apt/lists
archive.canonical.com_ubuntu_dists_lucid_partner_binary-amd64_
Packages

, . ,
. , sudo aptcache showpkg gcc gcc.


.
, , Linux Mint. , ,
, . debmirror (
debmirror):
$ /usr/bin/debmirror --nosource -m --passive --host=archive.
ubuntulinux.org --root=ubuntu --method=ftp --progress
dist=lucid,lucid-security,lucid-updates,lucid-backports --ignore-release-gpg --section=main,restricted,multiverse,univers
e --arch=amd64
.
1 . -

Linux

,
, apt-get. , dpkg-scanpackages, dpkg-dev. :
$ sudo apt-get install dpkg-dev
, :
$ mkdir archives
:
$ cd archives

$ dpkg-scanpackages . /dev/null | gzip -9 > Packages.gz
. sources.list,
, :
deb file:/home/grinder/archives ./
sudo a p t - g e t u p d a t e . /var/lib/apt/lists
, .
. ,
.
, CD/DVD, . Linux Mint
APTonCD (http://aptoncd.
sourceforge.net), - , APT (. 5.22) ,
APT .
.
. /var/cache/apt/archives, . . , (. 5.23).
, .deb, . ,
, CD DVD. , ISO-.
,

5. Linux Mint

. 5.22 APTonCD

. 5.23. APTonCD

Linux

. ,
.
, . ,
, , (. 5.24).

. 5.24. APTonCD

. (. . 5.22).
, . ISO-, ,
. .


, ,
.

SLS Linux, 1990- . .


,
Linux , . ,
. , Slackware Debian SLS.

, , . ? .

5. Linux Mint

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.
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, . . , , , i386, Intel 80386,
1985 . i486, i586 (Pentium ) i686 (Pentium Pro). ,
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Linux.
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Linux. , , ,
. .
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, GCC,
GNU Make .
. Linux Mint, Ubuntu
, sudo apt-get install buildessential.

, . ,
, ,
. t a r . g z . t a r . b z 2 p r o g r a m - x . , program - , . .
. :
tar

xzvf

program-x..tar.gz

tar

xjvf

program-x.xx.tar.bz2

. ,
INSTALL README, ,
,
. . / c o n f i g u r e . -

Linux

. , , makefile,
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. , .
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.
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-
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- h e l p :
$ ./configure --help
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(root),
, sudo:
$ sudo make i n s t a l l
,
make u n i n s t a l l ,
.


,
. , ,
,
. , , , - ,
.
. ( ,

5. Linux Mint

, .) .
; Linux Mint alien (http://kitenet.
net/programs/alien/). :
$ sudo apt-get install alien
, rpm- deb,
$ alien --to-deb package.rpm
, deb rpm:
$ alien --to-rpm package.deb
alien .

,
Linux Mint
, Linux, . , Microsoft Office, Adobe
Photoshop, WinAmp, Qip , Windows. , Linux ,
Windows, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Mozilla
Thunderbird, FileZilla .
Linux ,
, , . .
. , , , , Linux Mint .

Linux-.
http://linuxprogs.org.ua/, http://rus-linux.net/, http://www.nixp.ru/ .


, Linux 10 , Microsoft Office. , , , ,
. , Linux ,
, ,

, Linux Mint

, . , Sun Microsystems
StarOffice LGPL.
OpenOffice.org,
, Linux. , , , .

OpenOffice.org
OpenOffice.org ,
Oracle Corporation ( Sun Microsystems. Inc),
OpenOffice.org.
StarOffice
Linux, OpenOffice.org , . , , Microsoft Office.
OpenOffice.org Linux Mint .
, OpenOffice.org
, , ,
Microsoft Office . .
, , ,
Microsoft Office, , , .

OpenOffice , OpenOffice.org.

OpenOffice.org , , .
OpenOffice.org :
OpenOffice.org (OpenOffice.org Writer) (. 5.25) , , Microsoft Word;
OpenOffice.org (OpenOffice.org Calc)
(. 5.26), Microsoft Excel;
OpenOffice.org (OpenOffice.org Draw) (. 5.27), PDF ;

5. Linux Mint

. 5.25. OpenOffice.org Writer

. 5.26. OpenOffice.org Calc

, Linux Mint

. 5.27. OpenOffice.org

OpenOffice.org (OpenOffice.org Impress)


, Microsoft
PowerPoint;
OpenOffice.org (OpenOffice.org Base)
, Microsoft Access,
11 . ,
Microsoft Access; ,
;
OpenOffice.org Math , Microsoft Equation,
, .
, Microsoft Office,
OpenOffice.org . , . , ,
, .
Microsoft Word:
, , ,
Calc Excel, . ,

5. Linux Mint

. , , OpenOffice.org , Word.
, (. 5.28).

. 5.28.

http://www.openoffice.org/, http://ru.openoffice.org/. , http://www.i-rs.ru/. ,


,
.

PDF. , , ,
OpenOffice.org -.
, Microsoft. , Writer.
,
, .
,
OpenOffice.org.

, Linux Mint

, OpenOffice.org, . , Writer
( , myspell-ru),
.
, ,
, , .
Calc
. ,
Word. , ,
. ,
. , , Microsoft
Word.
Calc Excel. , ,
. , ,
.

OpenOffice.org
, ,
. /
, ,
.

, , . (. 5.29), ,
OpenOffice.org, ,
.

OpenOffice.org
. , Writer StarWriterTeam F3, . Calc "=Game("StarWars")",
Enter , .
Cacl -,
1: "=Game(A1:C3;"TicTacToe")". .

OpenOffice.org , Firefox. .

5. Linux Mint

. 5.29. OpenOffice.org

, , ,
, 256 .
.

GNOME Office KOffice


OpenOffice.org , Linux Mint.
, ,
GNOME Office KOffice. Gtk+
GNOME, , Linux Mint.
Qt KDE,
, KDE Linux Mint.

.
, GNOME Office, . http://live.gnome.org/GnomeOffice. . .

, Linux Mint

AbiWord (http://live.gnome.org/AbiWord)
, .

Microsoft Word, , ,
.
Gnumeric (http://www.gnumeric.org/) , .
,
Microsoft Excel (. 5.30).

. 5.30. Gnumeric

Evince (http://live.gnome.org/evince)
PDF (. 5.31), PostScript, DjVu, TIFF DVI,
GNOME
. .
Evolution (http://live.gnome.org/Evolution) , .

5. Linux Mint

. 5.31. Evince

GNOME Office GnuCash (http://www.gnucash.org/), , gLabels (http://www.glabels.org/), Glom


(http://www.glom.org/) Tomboy (http://live.gnome.org/Tomboy).
KDE Office, KOffice, ,
GNU GPL. ,
,
. KWord, KSpread, KPresenter, Kexi, KPlato, Kivio, Krita rbn .
, , http://
www.koffice.org/.

Gedit
Linux Mint , -

, Linux Mint

. Linux Mint
Gedit, Gtk+, http://www.gnome.org/projects/gedit/.
(. 5.32).

. 5.32. Gedit

Gedit , , , ++, #, Java, Pascal, HTML, LaTeX, PHP, Perl, Python, Ruby
.
. ,
. , . ,
.
, , , ,
, .

5. Linux Mint

GIMP
1995 .
(Spenser Kimball) (Peter Mattis)
. ,
GNU.

GIMP General Image Manipulation Program,


GNU Image Manipulation Program.

GIMP ,
, GNU GPL.
.
http://www.gimp.org/, GIMP Linux. Linux Mint GIMP
. GIMP .
, , , , , , - , ,
,
. GIMP
( , , -, , , .). BMP, GIF, JPEG,
PNG, TIFF, MNG, PCX, PDF, PS, PSD, SVG, TGA, XPM, ABR .
,
(, , ).
, , ,
.
.
. . GIMP , , .
Adobe Photoshop: PSD, ,
8bf (actions). GIMP ,
, .

http://docs.gimp.
org/ru/. http://www.
gimp.ru/ , , .

, Linux Mint

, Adobe Photoshop,
.
(. 5.33).

. 5.33. GIMP

, GIMP , ,
.
. , GIMP : Mozilla Firefox,
OpenOffice.org KDE, GNOME .
, Linux .

F-Spot
.
F-Spot (http://f-spot.org/), Linux Mint .

5. Linux Mint

(. 5.34), . JPEG, GIF,


TIFF, RAW . , iPod.
.
- . F-Spot Mono,
Microsoft.NET.

. 5.34. F-Spot

F-Spot ,
GNU GPL. . , , . ,
.
, Photos,
.
, .

, Linux Mint

,
.
, F-Spot .
,
. , .
. , ,
(, ), . , , ,
.
F-Spot ,
.
.
, (. 5.35).

. 5.35. F-Spot

, 4 x 3 (), 4 x 6 (), 5 7 , 8 1 0
. .

5. Linux Mint


.
, . ,
F-Spot .
, . -,
,
.
,
. ,
. . , ,
,
. ,
, .
, ,
.
, F-Spot .
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, . . , , . , .
, ,

. , .


Linux Mint Ubuntu .
, VCD
DVD-. Totem
(http://www.gnome.org/projects/totem/, . 5.36),
GNOME ( , ,
KDE), GNOME 2.10, .
, Totem GNOME
Nautilus. GStreamer,
Xine.

. 5.36. Totem

, DVD-,
VCD- CD-, .
, - , , , , ,
LIRC, , . Mozilla. ( ).

( GNOME).
Totem , Linux Mint
. Menu
GNOME MPlayer, VLC.

MPlayer
GNOME MPlayer (. 5.37, http://code.google.com/p/gnomemplayer/)

5. Linux Mint

MPlayer. Gtk+,
GNOME, . , , CD, DVD VCD,
.

. 5.37. GNOME MPlayer

. , , .
Amazon.com.
- geckomediaplayer, Linux Mint .
MPlayer . 2000 .
(Arpad Gereffy), .
http://www.mplayerhq.hu/. MPlayer - ,
. CD, DVD, Video CD; AVI, ASF/WMV/WMA,
Q T / M O V / M P 4 , RealMedia, Ogg Vorbis, Matroska, ,

- DivX, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, WMV, RealVideo, 264


, Vorbis, RealAudio, /52 (Dolby Digital), AAC,
QuickTime, WM - . H T T P / F T P , R T P / R T S P , M M S /
MMST, MPST SDP.

MEncoder,
, . sudo aptitude install mencoder.

-
libavcodec, MPlayer.
FFmpeg,
DVD- . MPlayer
- DLL.
, dll /usr/lib/codecs .

w64codecs, . MPlayer http://


www.mplayerhq.hu/design7/projects-ru.html.

12 (MicroDVD, SubRip,
OGM, SubViewer, Sami, VPlayer, RT, SSA ( ASS), AQTitle, JACOsub, PJS
MPsub) DVD ( SPU, VOBsub Closed
Captions), , .
MPlayer
, X11, Quartz Compositor, DirectX, VESA, SDL, VIDIX, DGA,
Framebuffer, GGI, , ASCII-Art
Color ASCII-Art. ,
. , ,

( LIRC Linux Infrared Remote Control, http://www.lirc.org/).
.
, m p l a y e r
_.
(. 5.38)
, , .

5. Linux Mint

. 5.38. MPlayer

VLC
VLC (http://www.videolan.org/) ,
- . , ,
20 .
VLC , : ,
DVD-,
-.
.

(. 5.39).
(. 5.40).
, .
,
, ,
LIRC. -

- ,
.
, telnet, . ,
VLM .

. 5.39. VLC

. 5.40. VLC

5. Linux Mint

. ,
:
$

vlc

videofile.mpg

, . , , IP-, :
$

vlc

-vvv v i d e o f i l e . a v i --sout u d p : / / 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 2 - - t t l 1


Linux Mint Rhythmbox (http://projects.gnome.org/rhythmbox/, . 5.41), , (, - )
. GNOME,
Nautilus, Pidgin, XChat .
. . , ID-.
, . .
,
( ).
Rhythmbox , , ,
. , . ,
AudioCD,
Rhythmbox LIRC, . .
, Rhythmbox iPod.
. , Rhythmbox
Linux Mint Linux. Rhythmbox,
. Winamp XMMS (X Multimedia System),
. .

Audacious (. 5.42), , Media Player (BMP) XMMS2. ,
Audacious (http://audacious-media-player.org/Main_Page) -

XMMS GTK+ 2. .

. 5.41. Rhythmbox

. 5.42. Audacious

5. Linux Mint

, .
XMMS, ( ) Winamp 2.
( wsz) http://www.
winamp.com/skins ~/.audacious/Skins, . .
last.fm, LIRC,
. Alarm.
Linux Mint audacious .
$ sudo a p t i t u d e i n s t a l l a u d a c i o u s
, XMMS/Winamp, Audacious -
.
,
.
, Linux Mint .

sudo apt-cache search


sound.

, ( i486)
mpgl23 (http://www.mpgl23.org/)
mpg321 (http://mpg321.depooter.org/project/). , , mpg123 . / * . m p 3 , , .
, , . , , Winamp, mpg123
-. Ogg Vorbisogg123. , . , mp3blaster (http://mp3blaster.sourceforge.net/)
(. 5.43),
, Ogg Vorbis, WAV SID. ,
, . .
mp3blaster playmp31ist (http://rucus.ru.ac.
za/~urban/projects/playmp3list/) (Music On Console, http://moc.daper.net/),
- mpg123.
MythTV
Freevo, .

. 5.43. mp3blaster


CD DVD
. , .
sudo aptitude search burn . - mkisofs, cdrecord dvd+rw-tools.
, . Linux
. ISO-:
mkisofs -r - cd_image.iso __
- :
$ cdrecord -v dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -data cd_image
dev .
, cdrecord -scanbus. cdrecord
:
$ cdrecord -v speed=4 dev=0,0,0 -audio trackl.wav track2.wav
DVD :
$ growisofs -Z /dev/dvd=disk.iso
growisoft , :

5. Linux Mint

$ growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/dvd -dvd-video ./temp


, DVD CD. , DVD-RW,

$ dvd+rw-format -force=full /dev/dvd
f u l l . CD-RW:
$ cdrecord dev=0,0,0 balnk=fast
,
. , , Linux Mint Brasero (http://projects.gnome.org/brasero/).
, GNOME,
Brasero ,
. , (. 5.44).

. 5.44. Brasero

Audio CD, Video CD DVD, .


. , . Brasero
, . i s o
.cue, -. . Brasero .

ID3-

. -
. , , ,
, ID3-,
. , . Linux Mint
, ID3-, :
$ sudo a p t - c a c h e s e a r c h i d 3

, . Easy Tag
(http://easytag.sourceforge.net/) , 2, FLAC, MusePack, 4/, Monkey Audio
Ogg Vorbis , Gtk+ (. 5.45). , :
$ sudo a p t i t u d e i n s t a l l e a s y t a g
Easy Tag ,
.
Easy Tag , : ,
, , , , , , ,
, , (URL), .

, ,
, . , , ., .
(, ,
, .). CDDB,
CDDB.

. .

5. Linux Mint

. 5.45. EasyTAG


, ,
.
. ,
. , , .
( )
. M3U ,
.

.

OpenShot
XX Linux , .
. , ,

OpenShot

, , . Linux Mint
Avidemux, Kino, Cinelerra, Kdenlive, PiTiVi OpenShot (http://
www.openshotvideo.com/). . , 2008 .,
Ubuntu, , .
. ,
.

. 5.46. OpenShot

(. 5.46),
. , ,
(, , , ,
. .), . GNOME,
.
.

Linux Mint

Linux Mint



ICQ, IRC Jabber

Linux Mint
-,
, . . , , .


Ethernet WiFi,
Linux Mint .

DHCP ( ) Avahi. Avahi (http://avahi.org/)

, Mac OS X
.

DHCP (. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ) , IP- (IP- , DNS- .), TCP/IP.

, ,
. . 3, lshw,
(. 6.1):
$ sudo l s h w - n e t w o r k


l o g i c a l name: e t h 0

,
. , :
$ i f c o n f i g -
eth0

Link encap:Ethernet

HWaddr

00:0:29:4e:7f:7d

inet
addr:192.168.17.146
Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6

addr:

Beast:192.168.17.255

fe80::20c:29ff:fe4e:7f7d/64

UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST

MTU:1500

Scope:Link
Metric:1

6. Linux Mint

. 6.1.

RX packets:388210 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0


TX packets:105284 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:561037589 (561.0 MB)

TX bytes:8123560 (8.1 MB)

- (HWaddr,
), IP- ( i n e t ) ,
, .
, ,
:

GNOME NetworkManager,
Linux Mint.

NetworkManager , .
,
NetworkManager, .

,
(. 6.2), , VPN, DSL G-.

. 6.2. NetworkManager

.
. , VPN- . , . ,
- , ,
IPv4 IP-, , ( , . 6.3).
DHCP, ,
, . , . ( ) VPN.
, ,
. :

6. Linux Mint

. 6.3.

Gateway IP- VPN-, ;

User name Password .

Advanced, ,
, - (. 6.4).
. .
NetworkManager .
, .
, - .

Linux Mint
dip.

Ethernet-
/etc/
network/interfaces. ,
. , , eth0 IP-
DHCP:
iface eth0 inet dhcp

. 6.4. -

IP eth1 :
iface ethl inet static
address 192.168.0.25
network 192.168.0.0
gateway 192.168.0.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
mtu 1492
IP-, ,
IP- . . , /etc/resolv.conf
DNS- ( ), :
$ sudo g e d i t / e t c / r e s o l v . c o n f
nameserver

8.8.8.8

nameserver

8.8.4.4

Google Public DNS-, IP-


. ,

$ sudo / e t c / i n i t . d / n e t w o r k i n g f o r c e - r e l o a d

6. Linux Mint

:
$ sudo ifconfig ethO down
$ sudo ifconfig ethO up
IP-
i f c o n f i g :
$ sudo ifconfig ethO 192.168.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 up

ifconfig , .

-
(Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet)
Ethernet-, /,
xDSL ,
.
- pppd.
, DSL.

- : , pppoeconf. Linux Mint


.

, . , .
: /etc/ppp/pap-secrets ( /etc/ppp/chap-secrets,
-, ) /etc/
ppp/peers/dsl-provider. pon
.
Linux Mint pppoeconf. sudo pppoeconf, (. 6.5).
,
. Ethernet-, PADI ( Active Discovery

Initiation), .
pppoeconf dsl-provider.
, , ,
, .
/usr/bin/pon. n
:
pon [OPTIONS] [provider] [arguments]
p r o v i d e r /etc/ppp/peers,
:
$ n dsl-provider

. 6.5. pppoeconf


/etc/ppp/pap-secrets ( chap-secrets). ,
( pppoeconf)
:
user

password

6. Linux Mint


, pppoeconf . /etc/ppp/peers/dsl-provider.

/etc/ppp/pap-secrets /etc/ppp/peers/dsl-provider (, ,
)
, .

, .
$ sudo g e d i t / e t c / p p p / p e e r s / d s l - p r o v i d e r
# ,

p t " / u s r / s b i n / - I e t h o - 8 0 - m 1452"
noipdefault
#

defaultroute
replacedefaultroute
hide-password
# l c p - e c h o - i n t e r v a l 30
#lcp-echo-failure 4
noauth
#
persist
#
1492

mtu 1492
usepeerdns
/etc/
network/interfaces, :

auto dsl-provider
iface dsl-provider inet ppp
provider dsl-provider
auto ethO
iface ethO inet manual
pre-up /sbin/ifconfig ethO up
-
$ ifconfig 0
0 Link encap:Point-to-Point Protocol
inet addr:157.33.34.178 P-t-P:192.168.101.1
Mask:255.255.255.255
/var/log/messages.

$ tail -f /var/log/messages
, , , . , route -n, , . ,
default, 0. , route add
default 0 , .

-
, , , (, , VPN .).
, ,
. , . ,
pap-secrets .
. /etc/ppp/pap-secrets
* . :
user

serverl

passwordl

user

server2

password2

6. Linux Mint

, dsl-provider,
name remotename :
name u s e r
remotename

serverl

. , ,
.
Linux Mint
RP-PPPoE.
: pppoe-relay, pppoe-setup, pppoe-start, pppoe-stop, pppoe-connect, pppoeserver, pppoe-sniff, pppoe-status, pppoe-wrapper tkpppoe.
, pppoe-start, pppoestop, pppoe-status, pppoe-setup.


VPN- (Point-to-Point Tunneling
Protocol) .
Linux -
,
.

2.6.13, 2.6.14, 2.6.15


.

, ,
GUI. , , :
$ sudo a p t - c a c h e s e a r c h p p t p
Client (http://pptpclient.sourceforge.
net), , :
Windows VPN, Linux , Cisco PIX . Linux Mint.
:
$ sudo g e d i t / e t c / p p p / o p t i o n s . p p t p
l o c k n o a u t h nobsdcomp n o d e f l a t e
#

refuse-pap
refuse-eap
#refuse-chap
refuse-mschap
persist
#
maxfail 10
defaultroute
replacedefaultroute
/etc/ppp/chap-secrets :
user pptp password *
:
domainWuser pptp password *
, :
$ sudo gedit /etc/ppp/peers/pptp
#
pty "pptp 10.100.0.1 --nolaunchpppd"
connect /bin/true
name user
# chap-secrets
remotename pptp
#
file /etc/ppp/options.pptp
#require-mppe-128
require-mppe-40
ipparam pptp

6. Linux Mint

, , .
$ n pptp
i f c o n f i g . , , . :
$ n pptp debug dump logfd 2 nodetach
. , /etc/network/
interfaces:

$ sudo mcedit /etc/network/interfaces


auto tunnel
iface tunnel inet ppp
provider pptp

Linux Mint -, sudo aptitude search pptp.

Linux Mint
Linux Netfilter
(http://www.netfilter.org/),
Netfilter Core Team. iptables, .
,
, .
netfilter/iptables ,
, , .
(Firewall, Firewall
Builder, Firestarter .), .
Ubuntu, 8.04, netfilter
UFW (Uncomplicated firewall), , . UFW , Linux Mint. , UFW iptables,
. -

Linux Mint


. . ,
,
.
UFW /etc/ufw,
, iptables (. 6.6).

. 6.6. UFW

UFW ,
, /etc/ufw/ufw.conf

ENABLED=no

ENABLED=yes

$ sudo /etc/init.d/ufw start

6. Linux Mint


* S k i p p i n g f i r e w a l l : ufw

(not e n a b l e d ) . .


ufw. , uwf ,
:
$ sudo ufw e n a b l e
F i r e w a l l s t a r t e d and e n a b l e d o n s y s t e m s t a r t u p
:
$ sudo ufw d i s a b l e
F i r e w a l l s t o p p e d and d i s a b l e d o n s y s t e m s t a r t u p
: .

$ sudo ufw d e f a u l t a l l o w
i n c o m i n g ` a l l o w
( )
,
$ sudo ufw d e f a u l t deny
ufw
, /etc/services, /.
:
ufw a l l o w | d e n y

[service]

, -,
80- , :
$ sudo ufw a l l o w 8 0 / t c p
iptables , - - d r y - r u n . s t a t u s UFW
iptables:
$ sudo ufw s t a t u s

Linux Mint

:
$ sudo ufw delete allow 80/tcp
, allow
deny:
$ sudo ufw deny 53
53- . ,
, , ,
. ,
.
. ,
:
$ cat /etc/services | less
:
$ sudo ufw allow ssh
UFW IP- ( ). ,
192.168.1.0/24, :
$ sudo ufw allow 192.168.1.0/24
:
$ sudo ufw deny from 10.20.30.40
. SSH
IP-:
$ sudo ufw allow from 192.168.0.20 to any port 22
/ logging. :
$ sudo ufw logging on
/etc/ufw/sysctl.conf ( /etc/sysctl.conf). , ,

net/ipv4/ip_forward=1

6. Linux Mint

Linux Mint UFW GUFW (http://


gufw.tuxfamily.org/, . 6.7).

. 6.7. UFW GUFW

, .
, ,
.


Linux ,
,
, . , ,
, .

, Linux ,
, Windows,

. ,
,
, , . .
Windows Mozilla Mozilla Firefox
( ), Opera Google Chrome.
Windows,
.

Opera Linux http://www.opera.com/download/


index.dml?platform=linux.

s u d o a p t i t u d e s e a r c h b r o w s e r Linux Mint
, .


, , .
, HTML-,
. . GNU
. Lynx Links. ( links2),
, X Window.
Lynx, ,
. , , . , .
, ,
. ,
. , -dump
( ), , ,
,
. - s o u r c e
.
Links (. 6.8) ,
, . Lynx.

6. Linux Mint

. 6.8. http://tux.in.ua/ Links2


Linux Mint Firefox. GNOME Epiphany (
. ). Epiphany (http://www.gnome.org/projects/epiphany/)
2002 . Galeon ,
.
Galeon , , Epiphany, . Gecko, Firefox, SeaMonkey, K-Meleon .
Epiphany - Firefox,
Cookies, . ,
, , WebKit.

WebKit HTML, Apple


Safari, Mac OS X. KHTML KJS
KDE. KDE WebKit 4.1.

GNOME, Epiphany (. 6.9).


( , - .) .

. 6.9. Epiphany

, , Epiphany
, .
.
, .
Epiphany : ,
. , , . ,
.
Firefox, Epiphany .
. Linux Mint Epiphany
epiphany-extensions.

6. Linux Mint


. , -,
, . Linux Mint
.
, (Mozilla,
Opera) . GNOME KDE
,
. , Linux Mint
Mozilla Thunderbird.

Mozilla Thunderbird
-
, Mozilla Thunderbird (http://www.mozillamessaging.com/ru/thunderbird/)
Mozilla. : SMTP, , IMAP, NNTP RSS. Thunderbird, Mozilla Firefox, XUL, Mozilla Foundation.
,
,
(. 6.10).
( ), .
Outlook
Express, . https://addons.
mozilla.org/thunderbird/themes/ ,
Thunderbird . , . . ,
,
e n i g m a i l .
Thunderbird, .
.
.
, .

.
, HTML.

. .. Mozilla Thunderbird

Evolution
GNOME Evolution (http://www.gnome.
org/projects/evolution/). Novell,
2004 . GNOME. Evolution GNOME, . , -
Evolution (. 6.11) , .
Sylpheed (http://sylpheed.sraoss.jp/en/)
Linux , , GTK.
,
,

. GMailWatch (http://www.employees.org/~ashokn/gmailwatch/),
KCheckGMail (http://kcheckgmail.sourceforge.net/), GNOME CheckGmail (http://
checkgmail.sourceforge.net/), mailtc (http://mailtc.sourceforge.net/), GNUbiff ( h t t p : / /
gnubiff.sourceforge.net/) .

6. Linux Mint

. . . Evolution


, ,
, Opera Firefox, . Firefox FlashGot (http://www.flashgot.net/),
,
. Linux FlashGot , Aria, cURL, Gnome Gwget, KDE Kget
Downloader 4 X.



GNU wget, , ,
Linux. Wget

H T T P / H T T P S FTP, - HTTP. wget,


. ,
(, Ctrl + D , ).
wget,

$ wget http://linuxforge.ru/
.
, - . :
$ wget - http://linuxforge.ru/file.rar
-r , -l . , 10:
$ wget -r -110 http://linuxforge.ru/

.wgetrc, . . , 02:00 (, atd).
$ at 0200
at> wget - http://server.org/file.rar
at> Ctrl+D
cURL (http://curl.haxx.se/), : FTP, FTPS, HTTP, HTTPS, SCP, SFTP, TFTP,
TELNET, DICT, FILE LDAP. SSL, , Cookies, .


D4X (Downloader for X). D4X, , GTK+
(. 6.12), . ,
Download Master, D4X,
, .
. D4X FTP
HTTP, , ,
-.

6. Linux Mint

. 6.12. D4X


, HTTP, FTP- , .
, , .

ICQ, IRC Jabber


, .
Linux Mint - IRC- XChat (. 6.13)
Pidgin.
Pidgin (http://pidgin.im/) ,
, , AIM, MSN, Yahoo!,
XMPP (Jabber), ICQ, IRC, SILC, SIP/SIMPLE, Novell Group Wise, Lotus Sametime,
Bonjour, Zephyr, MySpaceIM, Gadu-Gadu QQ.
GTK+, ,
UNIX- . Windows.
GNOME KDE. Pidgin IM- Ubuntu.
ICQ,
.

ICQ, IRC Jabber

. 6.13. XChat

. 6.14. Pidgin

6. Linux Mint

, .
Pidgin GTK+ AOL
Instant Messenger. AOL , Gaim. AOL
AIM, .
. Gaim ,
Pidgin, libgaim libpurple, gaim-text Finch.
, , ,

( , .). . -, .
.
. ,
, , , . . , .
, ,
.

VoIP Ekiga
IP- GNOME
Ekiga (http://
www.ekiga.org/, . 6.15).

GnomeMeeting,
. Ekiga
GNOME, .

. 6.15. Ekiga

Ekiga SIP .323 (


n323)
SIP- ,
Microsoft NetMeeting. - .
Novell Evolution -

ICQ, IRC Jabber

. SIP.
, Ekiga, , Video4Linux, ,
FireWire. , , Ekiga SIP, , .

Gwibber
Twitter (http://twitter.com/)
Linux. . Gwibber (http://live.gnome.org/
Gwibber, . 6.16), Python GTK.
$ sudo aptitude install gwibber gwibber-themes

. 6.i6. Gwibber

Twitter Jaiku, flickr,


Digg Facebook, RSS- Atom- .
, , .
. . .

Linux Mint 100 %





.

.
.
JI.
. , .
. , .

14.09.10. 70x100/16. . . . 19,35. 1500. 23837.


, 194044, -, . ., 29.
005-93, 2; 95 3005 .
CtP . . . .
197110, -, ., 15.

100% Linux Mint


GNU/Linux. From freedom came elegance (
) , Ubuntu
,
, mintinstall, mintUpdate,
mintMenu . . , , ,
.

Linux. , ,
, Linux Mint, Linux Ubuntu, Debian GNU/Linux.
Linux Mint 100 %
, , !

:
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