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2012
1

:
.......................................................................................................... 4
...........................................6
1.0 .......................................................................................... 9
2.0 . , ..................10
2.1 ( ) .......................................................................10
2.2 :............................................................................................15
2.3 .................................................................................26
2.4 ...................................................27
2.5 ........................................................................................................28
3.0 .................................................................................................30
3.1 ..............................................................32
3.2 ........................................................................................34
3.3 ...........................................................................................40
3.4 () C6H(NO2)3(OH)2 ....41
3.5 ....................................................................................43
3.6 ....................................................................................46
3.7 , (NH2)C(=NH)NHNO..................................................................50
3.8 ................................................................................................50
3.9 ...................................................................................... 52
3.10 ( )..........................................................................56
3.11 ...............................................................57
4.0 ............................................................................59
4.1 .........................................................................60
4.2 .........................................................................................................92
4.3 .................................................................................................... 126
4.4 .......................................................................138
4.5 :................................................................148
4.6 ....................................................................151
4.7 , .................................................. 155
4.8 ......................................................................................158
4.9 ...............................................................161
4.10 .........................................................................................162
4.11 ..................................................................164
4.12 .................................................................168
4.13 .....................170
5.0 .........................................................172
5.1 .............................................172
5.2 .....................................................................179
5.3 ............................................................................................ 189
5.4 (Sheet explosives)...................................................................... 190
5.5 ()................................................................................191
5.6 (Paste Extrudable Explosives, PEX)...........................................195
5.7 ()............................................................................................. 196
5.8 .....................................................................................197
5.9 .......................................................................... 199
5.10 ().....................................................................201
5.11 ...................................................................................216
5.12 ...................................................................................................... 219
5.13 ...........................................................................................220
5.14 ......................................................................................................221
6.0 . ................................................................................... 222
6.1 ( ) . . . .227
6.2 ..............................................................................................238
6.3 ...................................................................................250
7.0 ................................................................................... 251
7.1 , ...................................252
7.2 .............................................................................257
2

7.3 (Delay)....................................................................... 262


7.4 .....................................................................................266
7.5 ........................................................................ 268
7.6 ............................................................................273
7.7 .....................................................................................276
7.8 ..........................................................................................280
7.9 -.....................................................................285
7.10 ...................................................................................286
7.11 ..................................................................288
8.0 ...............................289
8.1 ...................................................................................................... 289
8.2 .............................291
8.3 ...........................................................................................................292
8.4 ...............................................................................295
8.5 ..................................................................................296
8.6 ...............................................................................................300


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:
http://book.by.ru/cgi-bin/book.cgi?book=PYROMANIYA

2000-2003

http://www.members.lycos.co.uk/pyroforum/index.php

2003-2005

http://www.exploders.info

2005-2010

https://piroman.org

2011-2012

- piroman.org
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https://exploders.us

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imploders.info,
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. /3
1.56
1.56
1.70
1.61
1.60
1.63
1.74
1.69

D
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1.5
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, 2(max) .. n1... .
. 3 .

3
1.33
1.46
2.46
2.12
1.40
1.40
1.34

(kpsi)
5
10
12
15
20
1.41 1.47 1.49 1.61 1.64
1.52 1.60 1.63 1.65 1.68
1.39 1.46 1.51 1.55
2.69 2.98 3.05 3.16 3.28
2.23 2.43 2.47 2.57 2.63
1.48 1.61 1.50 1.57 1.59 1.61 1.64
1.47 1.57 1.60 1.63 1.67
1.40 1.47 1.49 1.52 1.55

/3
1.72
1.82
1.71
4.68
3.10
1.77
1.76
1.73
1.65


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(.. ), (max) (
(TMD)), 2-3%
:
(max) = 1-1, 1 1 , ,
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1:
(. 1,3- 2,2-) : (max) = 1.780 0.096.

15

2:
(. 1,1-) : (max) = 1.584 0.067.
3: - /
: (max) = 2.114 0.169.
4:
: (max) = 2.114 0.151.
5: ,
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6:
: (max) = 2.118 0.103.
7: - / : (max) = 2.085 0.143.
8: ( , ..) :
(max) = 2.086 0.093.
9: : (max) = 2.114 0.114.
10: ,
( ): (max) = 1.948 0.141.
11: , ,
10, (
): (max) = 1.954 0.130.
12: ,
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13: , , -
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Rothstein-
(2.4% 95% ),
:
D(max) = (F-0.26)/0.55,
F = 100 ((+)/M)-G,
= n(O) + n(N) + n(F) ((n(H)-n(HF))/2n(O)),
= A/3 n(B/F)/1.75 n(C)/2.5 n(D)/4 n(E)/5.
= 1 , = 0,
G = 0.4 , G = 0 .
n(O), n(N), n(F), n(H) , , , ,
.
n(HF) ,
.
n(B/F) , >1
(.. CO2 H2O) / .
n(C) (
).
n(D) - (
C-O-R, R H, NH4 ..).
n(E) ,
, .
M .
n(O) = 0 n(HF) > n(H), = 0.
(, C3H5N3O9) :
=0, G=0.4, n(O)=9, n(N)=3, n(H)=5, n(F)=0, n(HF) =0, n(B/F)=0.5 ( 0.5
), n(C)=0, n(D)=0, n(E)=3, M = 227.1 /.
F= 4.372, D = 7.48/. 7.60/, ..
-1.6%.
16

,
:
D= a+b, a b , , .
, 85-100%
: D = D(max) 3((max) - ), (max)
. .. - = 1.67/3 D = 8.29 3 (1.77-1.67)=7.99/.
(8.29 / 1.77 /3
).

. .
, .
D() = DiVi , Di i-
, Vi .
. 4 .

( )

Estane 5740-X2
Kel-F 800

Sylgard 182
-4
Viton-A

BNDPA/F

/3
0.92
1.2
2.02
1.58
0.93
1.05
1.05
2.15
1.82
2.70
3.24
1.74
1.95
2.52
0.92
1.39
2.21

D() /
1.50
6.50
5.52
5.50
6.70
5.55
5.28
5.10
5.33
5.39
6.85
3.80
7.20
6.25
5.47
6.02
6.31
4.00

- 1.67 / 3
:
D (1.67) = D(max) ( /(m)) + D(. ) (1-/(max))
D (1.67) = 8.26 (1.67/1.77) + 1.5 (1-1.67/1.77)

, .
P () = (D2)/(+1), . = 1 1.8 /3 ~3,
P () = (D2)/4.


- ( )
( ).
298 1 .
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1
.

17


- ,
,
.
,
.
H0 = H0f ( ) - H0f ( )
:
H0f (CO2) = -94.0518/
H0f (CO) = -26.4157/
H0f (H2O-) = -57.7979/
H0f (Al2O3) = -399.09/
H0f 0.
H0f = +14.7/. (1 = 4.1868)
:
C3H6N6O6 => 3CO + 3H2O + 3N2
H0() = 3*(-26.4157) + 3*(-57.7979) + 3*(0) (+14.7) = -298.9/.
-335.4/.
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18

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20-30.
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-
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(Plate dent test . 5).
20
. 5 .
. .
. 5 .

.
Plate dent test
.

/3

/c
*
/1 65:35
1.81
8.11
8611
5.0
/ 50:50
2.915
8.09
6501
1.0-1.5

1.81
7.82
8773
4.0

1.73
7.71
8489
5.5 ()

1.72
7.56
8142
3.5
/N2H5NO3 70:30
1.74
7.51
9000
5.0
/ 80:20
1.75
7.39
8160
4.5
/ 70:30
1.81
7.35
8319
202
/ 60:40
1.735
7.04
7965
10
/. 80:20
1.80
7.03
8114
4.0 ()
N2H5NO3/ 65:35
1.71
6.58
9023
4.5

1.69
6.48
7573
10.75 ()
/ 60:40
1.71
6.30
7303
25-30

1.82
5.87
7539 (1.86)
25-30

1.775
5.72
7959 (1.81)
25
/ 85:15
1.57
5.72
7897
6.5
DINGU/ 60:40
1.79
5.67
7488
17.5

1.61
5.59
8522
4.5

1.60
5.51
6913
15
TAGN3/ 50:50
2.48
5.30
5086
1.0-1.5
DADPyOx4
1.66
5.24
7328 (1.80)
25-30
TAGN
1.44
5.04
8048 (1.47)
5.5
DADPy5
1.53
3.21
6800 (1.69)
25-30

1.62
7713
7.5
DNNC
1.76
8368
7.5

0.98
2.62
5516
3.5
1. - CH2ONO2(CHONO2)2CH2ONO2 t . 61, . ,
. 5.87 /.
1.79/3. 871/ . .
. .
2. - , .. 2 .
3. - . (NH2NH) 2C=NHNH2HNO3
4. - 2,6--3,5--N-
5. - 2,6--3,5-
19

Plate dent test


35100 . .
16145 (25250
)
6
.
.
, : B = V2p, V-
, p . : B = VpQ
Q . ,
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( )
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30). 200200 25
115. (
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W /
3
/
/
V/V0 = 2
V/V0 = 7
V/V0 = 11

1.894
9110
1.70
1.90
1.95
PBX-94041
1.845
8782
1.61
1.83
1.90
C-42
1.601
8193
1.39
1.59
1.64
36/64
1.717
7990
1.44
1.63
1.68

1.630
6950
1.23
1.40
1.46

1.854
7675
1.32
1.47
1.51
AFX-9023
1.742
8344
1.30
1.42
1.47
X-04204
1.874
7760
1.30
1.46
1.50

1.852
8101
1.33
1.47
1.52

1.765
8277
1.58
1.78
1.84

1.136
6285
1.05
1.24
1.27
EDDN5
1.550
7550
1.29
1.44
1.47
75/25
1.804
8480
1.56
1.75
1.80

1.965
9335
1.71
1.92
2.04
6
1.421
8645
1.36
1.54
1.60

1.852
8485
1.59
1.80
1.88
1 - 94%, 3%, -() 3%.
2 91%, 2.1%, 5.3%, . 1.6%.
3 95%, Viton A 5%.
4 94%, Exon 5%, 1%.
5 .
6 79% , 21% .


1 , .
.
, CO + H2 => C + H2O 2CO =>
C + CO2, , ,
. , 1
( ).

,
- . :
1.
( 1 = 4.2/).
2.
.
. 7 9 ..
. (1 9 0.85 )

9
6
7
8
-3

NH4NO3

1.0
0.85
0.9
1.0
0.9
0.85
1.45
1.0
21

3. ,
, 1 .
,
.
.
. 8.1 ,
20 (
).

20

4308
4437
5385
4753
5270

(psi(psi)
)
10

(psi(psi)
)
20

2695
19.6
13.5
4.4

2975
23.0
15.1
5.6
PBXN-3
2821
28.7
22.0
7.8
PBXN-1
2968
28.9
21.8
6.8
/
2670
30.9
18.0
6.4
(86/14)
-3
2750
5358
31.0
22.9
7.9
PBX Type B
2778
5359
31.9
19.8
7.9
B-3
2892
5432
32.6
21.8
8.0
PBX 9010
2992
5678
32.6
19.6
8.2
Cyclotol 75/25
2923
5704
32.7
19.0
7.1
PBX Type A
2807
5430
33.2
19.6
6.3
-4
2729
5479
33.4
21.5
7.1

2862
5353
34.1
18.3
6.8
LX-04-1
3133
5696
34.2
20.5
6.7
HBX-3
3098
4496
34.4
20.4
7.3
H-6
2939
5116
37.0
24.1
7.2
Octol 75/25
3022
5790
37.4
18.1
7.1
Octol 70/30
3023
5772
37.9
21.2
6.7
PBX 9404
3102
6031
39.1
19.1
7.1
HTA-4
3311
4988
39.2
21.3
7.6
HTA-3
3211
5548
39.2
20.5
7.9
/Kel-F- 3130
6083
39.5
19.2
7.2
800 95/5
PBX Type A: -90%, 8.5%, 1.5%.
PBX Type B: -89.9%, + 5.7%, 4.4%.
PBXN-1: - 92.5%, Viton A - 7.5%.
PBXN-3: - 86%, (nylon) 14%.
. 5.0.

6.0
6.9
8.6
8.2
7.5
9.1
9.5
10.4
10.3
9.6
9.5
7.9
8.6
7.6
10.9
9.1
9.1
11.2
8.9
9.9
9.8
9.1

. 8.2 .

1.55

HBX-3

MVD*

50/50
1.66

50/50
1.55

Torpex

36/64

1.811.1-1.3
1.81
1.72
1.68
/3
1.84

6.85
6.926.6-7.2 7.465
6.50
7.6
6.472-6.7
7.9

7.01

0.85
1.16
1.05
1.05
0.97
1.23
1.07
1.10

* - Medium Velocity Dynamite ,



60% .
22

4.
.
, .. .
: (,
, ), ()
25%, (, ) 25%.
,
, .
(, ,
. .)
-
.
,
50% (H50).
( 10 25), (%)
.
, 50
, .. 50
, , 10% .

. ,
100% .
100% .
,
,
, .

5-10%. ,
, .
50%.
, ,
( 15%) .
, - .
. 9 , .


2
III
1

.
.
.


2 (3)
110
I
II
17.9-23.4

3 (4)
110
13.8-15

4-5
590
22 (1.6)
25 (25)3
51.5 ( -43)

20
620
22 (1.5)
55.5( -43)

20
375
45 ( -48)

25 (10-17)
500
16 (25)
62.9 (-48)

35
480
24 (1.7)
18 (25)
59 (-48)

40
340
21 (1.6)
19 (50)
54.2 (-48)

80 (100)
285
20 (1.6)
16 (50)
43-48
6
80
400
13 (1.0)
15 (50)
8
90
240
11 (1.0)

90-110

60-90
1 - , 2 . c 50%
. .
2 - I - , 20 . / 3 II
1.0 / 3. III . 0.4
3000-3400 /. .
3 1.6 /3, 1.0 /3,
.
23

. 10 (H50), .
Picatinny
Bureau of mines LLNL Type 12, LLNL Type 12B*,
machine,
(BAM), .
2,5, .
2,5, .

31
100
136
320

11
35
68-140
98-180
Composition B-3
14
95
40-80
69-120
Composition C-4
19
100
42
36

9
32
32
30

37
32

54
66

3
10

8
17

7
15
20

26
47
320
320
PBX-9404
33-48
35-57
PBX-9407
46
46
50/50
12
34

6
17
13-16
14-20

8
32
28
32

320
320

8
26
37
41

14
95
148
100
* - Type 12 (12 tool) , Type 12B
.

. 11 10 25
4545-88 -44-3
50835-95.

, %
, /%

4-8
600/0
700/4

24-32
450/0
.
28-32

44-52
350/0
400/8
500/36

72-80
250/0
300/8
400/40

72-80

100
150/0
200/4
300/28

100

80
, ,
.
0.30
30 . ( 5) ,
, , , (. 12).
. 12 .
%
% %


0
0
0
Composition B-3
0
0
0
Composition C-4
0
0
20

100
0
0

0
0
0
50/50
72
20
0

100
0
0

100
0
0

13
54
10

40
0
0

24

100
100
80
0
100
8
0
0
23
60


,
.
5 (10) .
-.
. , 5 (10)
, .
. ,
0.1.
,
()
.
-.
(1 5 ) , .
( 120) 22, 40 48 .
.
- (DTA),
,
. ,
.
DTA .
t . t .
.
.
. 13 - .

,

100
120
120
120
0.1
5
10
5/40 5/40
1/48 0.25/22

0.37
0.45
0.07
<0.01
380
327
306

1.0
0.07
<0.4
396
340
335

0.4
0.3
<0.4
282
276
* (12.0%N)
1.0
11+ (16)
5.0
1.0-1.2

0.37
0.44
0.02-0.05
275

0.5
11+ (16)
0.10-0.14
272
225
211

0.7
0.9
0.12
0.02-0.025
405
260
240

0.3
1.0
0.036
340
257
238

0.1
0.23
0.005
0-0.012
570
475
465

263
210
199

510
427
356
50:50
290
220
204

265
189
178

310
290
*-
,
. -
, . (. )
- .
.

, ,
.
. 1
17
, 475 . , -
2 .

25

.. ,
, , :
1. , .
.
2. - .
.
3. .
. . ,
: , ()
.
4. ,
.
5.
, ,
.

:

( . . )
.
,
, .
. 14 ( )

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+


(8) /3
15
0.3
0.5
1.5
0.1
0.1
1.5
1.5
4
1.5
50/3 ()
50/3 ()
-

(15)
/3
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.1 ()

2.3 .
.
4
:
1.
.
2. .
3. .
4.
.
,
,
.
, ,
,
.
26

. - ,
, 100 .
-
,
- ,
- .
: HNIW, TEX, ANTA, TNAZ, K-55 DADNE, ()
-
.
,
, , .
,
.
.
. ,

.
, ,
, .

.
,
.
.
, .
,
11/. 1215/ , .
, ,
.
(HNIW CL-20).
CL-20 (, ..),
- .

- .
c 40-50 20 ,
, ..
. 80-
(DINGU TENGU), ..

. . CL (China Lake), SR (Sandia Lab.), LLM (Livermore Lawrence National Lab.), FOX (Swedish
Defence Research Agency FOI).
, .
2.4
,
:
1.
2.
3. -
4.
5.
,
.
.
.

.

27

,
.
- ,
.
, .

.

.
.
.
.
,
.
.
, ..
,
,
. ,
.

( ) , ,
..
.
, , ..
,
. 222 223 ,
. , ,
.

.
2.5

,
.
.

.
, ,
: HNO3 = H(+) + NO3(-) NO3() -,
.
.
90-93% : 2HNO 3 = H2 + NO3(-) + NO2 (+).
NO2 (+) ,
.
, .

. ,
, .
,
.
.
. ,
, ,
. .

28

,
:
1. .

,
,
. .

C-N, .
.


( ). ,
: HNO 3 + 2H2SO4 =
NO2 (+) + 2HSO4(-) + H3O (+). ,

.
, ..
, .. .

. , ,
.
-
.
, .


N 2O5.
.
,
.

( SO3).

.
, .. ,
.

.
,

N 2O5, .
,
.

, NO 2BF4
, , ,
.
, .
.

, ().
-
, - , .
2. .

,

. RX + M(+)NO2(-) =>RNO2 + MX.
29


. .
3. .
( )

. : RH + NO 2* => R* + HNO2,
R* + NO2* => RNO2, HNO2 + HNO3 => 2NO2* + H2O.
, .

:
1. / . .. . . 3- . 2 . . .
2002.
2. LASL EXPLOSIVE PROPERTY DATA. Editors Terry R. Gibbs, Alphonce Popolato University of
California Press, Ltd. London, England 1980.
3. / ., .. , .. .
. . . .. . . 1961.
4. .. ., ,
1975.
5. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol4
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1969.
6. - 5- / . . .. -
. 1998.
7. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967
8. Paul W. Cooper. Explosives Engineering. Wiley-VCH. 1997.
9. Irving B. Akst. Heat of detonation, the cylinder test, and performance munitions. Proc. of 9th
symposium on detonation. LLNL 1989.
10. Paul W. Cooper. Comments on TNT equivalence. Proc. of 20 th International pyrotechnics seminar.
1994.
11. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH: THE SOLDIER AND THE INDUSTRIAL BASE Chief Ed. Brigadier General
Russ Zajtchuk, Chapter 9 MILITARY ENERGETIC MATERIALS: EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS.
1993.
12. Hans-Heinrich Licht. Performance and Sensitivity of Explosives. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics
25, 126-132 (2000)
13. Paul W. Cooper, Stanley R. Kurowski. Introduction to the technology of explosives. Wiley-VCH. 1996.
14. . / .
... 2- . . 2000.
15. . . . .
, 2010, 29, 12, . 817.

3.0
, (,
, , ..).
(. , , ),
.
-
. .
-
, -
. - ,
. .. .
. ,
..
(
: - 0.29 0.36 , 0.025 0.09 .
0.5 . )
. .
( ).
30

, .
, , .. .
,
, ,
. . ,
.
-,
,
.
..
().
. ,
.
.
- .. ,
,

. .
.

, .. .
- ,
.
, .
.

. , 8 ,
0.5 1.0
, 15-20, 5-10.

, ..
. 15 -
0.4 . .
. . /2
0
2000
2000
2000
2000
. . /2
0
0
500
1000
2000

. - .
(. )
0.04
0.17
0.05
0.05
0.04
()
0.015
0.1
0.01
0.01
0.01

0.005
0.11
0.005
0.005
0.005

0.3
0.33

-

0.16
0.25


0.55
1.0
. 16



II

.
600
600
600
600
600
600
975
914
1215
1215

31


80
85
70
125
65
210
235
245
>250
>250


50
55
10
70
45
140
70
150
140
>250

3.1
- HCNO.
. . .

. ,
- .
, . Hg(CNO)2
- :
( ) ,
, , , . . .
H2SO4, . .. HNO3. : 0.07
100 12, 0.77 100 ( 0.01% 15.5)
(- - HgO).
. , KCN NH3 ( ).
; . .
. .
.
15.5/ ( 4, , . 3.8/ 3).
, ,
, .
, , .
.
. - 4.42 / 3 ( 1.22-1.6 /3).
:
. . 16. ,
, 10% . 30%
. .. 50,
, 90-95 .
; 10% 80.
. 180. 700750/2. , - 20%
, -
.
.. - . -
.
:
.
( ). .
- , - 0.29,
0.36, 0.4. .
0.25, 0.20, 0.19, 0.17.
, .
:
.. 2300 / . 1.25 /3, 4480 / . 3.3 /3, 5400 /
. 4.17 /3, 315/. 1.79 /.
+96.2 /. +225/. 110 .
( , 0.4) 17.9-23.4 ( 43-48).
:
- 250-300/ 2, .
3-3.5/3.
- (Kunkel)
17 , , 1716
. 1800,
. 1807
.
- 1824,
(Joyce) . 1836
32

.
1861.
1843. 1867
-, .
,
20 (I . ).
-
, - - . (.
).
- .
8 -, :
20 , -
20% (.. ),
.
6, 7, 8. 8
0.5 1.0 .
. 17 -.
-
()
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


20% KClO3, .
0.3
0.4
0.54
0.65
0.8
1.0
1.5
2.0


/ .
5.5/16
5.5/22
5.5/26
6/28
6/30-32
6/35
6/40-45
6-7/50-55

- 2-

. . -,
,
,
. , ()
.
:
1 9-12. 1.36-1.4/ 3
8-12 85-96% .
, ,
. . ,
.
:
1) 300 . 3000 54% (1.34 /3)
, 1900 90% ;
. . 200 . ,
. 83-90%. .. 360 .
.
- . -.
2) 500 4500 HNO3 (62% -1.383 /3), 50-56, 5000
. 95% , 40, 5 ,
5 . . HCl. , ,
.
3) : 2 10
1.42/3, 20 90% .
, - . 20
250 .
33

, .
, . 3.4
.
0.15 .
. - -
.
4) .
.
, ( HgCl,
HgCl2, HgNH2Cl),
. , .
, , AgCNO
- :
, .
, .
:
. 200. .
(Rotter test) 22 ( 30, -80).
, .
:

0.14 (.. 0.35).
:
AgCNO
.
:
.
, .. .
.
:
.
.
:
1 6 66-70% 90-95,
1 . ,
( 1 - 1,5 95% ) 70. ,
, , .
.. , .
:
1. .. ., ,
1975. c. 11.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 6
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1974. F217-F223, F226-F230.
3. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 135.
4. .. 2 1962 20.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 192.
6. .. . . . 1945.
7. Tenney L. Davis. Chemistry of powders and explosives. NY. 1943 p.417.
3.2 .
- HN3 (. ,
, .. . t . 36,
. . ).
. 6 ,
. ,
.

34

, ,
, :
1. 200: 2NaNH2 + N2O = NaN3 + NaOH
+ NH3 ( )
3NaNH2 + NaNO3 = NaN3 + 3NaOH + NH3
2. , () .
( H2O2 , .)
: 130
- -
. ( 500)
- , 500 .
30.
- .
.
(
).
3. (
- ), .
. .
-: N2H4H2O + C2H5ONO + NaOH = NaN3
+ C2H5OH + 3H2O. (t . 17)
.
1) :
65-70 500. .
60 85% -. 15
.
110 , .
1 . 15
. . ,
50 . ,
125 100 . 55-60 .
78-84%.
,
. .

10% - . -
- (. 50-80%). (0.6-0.75
. 1 ).
:
60 87 . . 0
. 222
.
(0) - 228
900 .
.
. 60 . , 45
5 180 . . 87-93%.
N-,
:
-
.
- . - .

.
.
:
- , 0.
:
35

CO(NH2) 2 + 2NaOH + NaClO => N2H4H2O + NaCl + Na2CO3


-
, , ,
70%.
100,
. -
. N2H4H2SO4
( 2.86 100 20)
4.
-.
- .
, , LA, Pb(N3)2
- :
4- : - .
, ,
( ) . ,
, .
. (. ) -
- , .
.
, , .
(0.023 100 18, 0.09 100
70), , ,
(146 100 ).
-. CO2,
.
( ),
. .
, ..
. . 4.71 / 3 ( . 1.2 /3), .
- 4.93 /3.
:
; 245-250, a.. - . 330 ( .. 275).
; 30%
. (3
2, 2), . . 16.
( ).
.
( 2): 4-6 , 2 , 2-3 ,
4-5. -
, .
.
- ( ..
, ), .
. 0.5
.
, .
. , ,
.
:

- .
- 0.025,
0.02 , - 0.09.
. : - 0.09,
-0.025, - 0.03. .
36

:
1.54 /. 112 /., 4630 /
3.0 /3, 5300 / 4.1 /3.
308 /. 110 .
13.8-15 ( 43-48).
15.8 3.7 /3.
:
- 600-700/ 2.
(Curtius) 1891
. 1907 1908 .
-. 1920
.
20 - 30 20 ,
,
, .
1931. 2
-, 20
.
, -,
, ,
.
, - . ,
,
2.5 ..
.
..
. . 98% Pb(N3)2
. . .
:

( ) ,
.
0.1, , .
..
. ,
-
0.25%.
, ()
10% .
.
, - - ,
, ,
- a- .
70--80- , -
.

.
0.4-0.5% -
- ( GAM)
, 0.1%
(), - .
.
,
.
Na-
( RD1333 RD1343) ( PVA,
0.3% ).
- (. 96% 98% -)
( 92%)
.
37

- .. ,
,
,
.
1) - :
7.5-9% - -
pH = 7 (- ), , ,
0.2%. 60,
1 3% - .
(10%) . .
.
2) :
2.33 0.058 70
1. 6.9 0.35 90 2
1-2 10% - pH 5. 2
60-65 .
10 1. 2
(
). ,
. 5.
3) ( ):
14-15 100 . , 0.4-0.5
. ,
5 50 .
,
.
4) - - (
RD1333):
1.2 Na- (10 Na- ) 145 Empilan AQ (100
) 15
. 25, 60-70
(108 ) (315
(CH3COO)2Pb3H2O ) 14 .
, . 3.3 . 96.3%.
. AgN3
- :
. , .
. . .
-.
, .
:
250, 300, 270300. 77.7 0.5,
12.7. .
:
0.07, 0.02.
:
4400 /. . 4.81 / 3, . 5.1 /3.
244 /. 115 . ( ) 44.1 (
37.2).
:
,
.
:
- - .
- .
:
150 - (340/) , .
150 /. 80 20% - 150 38

(130/). 800 /
75. 20 .
5 15% - 5 . 10
95 45 .
18 8 , 50,
5 15% - 2-3 .
300 .
.
,


- :
. , ( ).
3.24 /3.
:
t . 291 . 360.
.
:
0.04, 0.01.
:
2.5 /. 4200 / 3.2 / 3.
:
.
II Cu(N3)2
- - , .
. . Cu(N3)2
Cu(OH)N3.
0.001, - 0.0004. 203,
174. 5000-5500 /c. . 16.
, , .

Cu(N3)2

.
- HCS2N3
( 4-1,2,3,4--5--).
-. -
. - Na- - (
) .
.
:
1. .. ., ,
1975. c. 164-234.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960. 545-587, 597-601.
3. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford . 1967- P.
169-191.
4. .. 2 1962 806, 795.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 10-14.
6. Margaret-Jane Crawford, Thomas M. Klapotke, Peter Mayer and Martin Vogt. CS2N3 -Containing
Pseudohalide Species: An Experimental and Theoretical Study. Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 1370-1378.
7. : US3943235, GB128014, US5208002, US2421778, SU492070.

39

3.3 .
, 2,4,6--1,3,5-,
- :
. . , .
N3
, , , , , ,
. .
. , -
N
N
30, .
, .
. 1.73 / 3. 1.5 N3
N
N3
/3.
:
t . 94. . 100, 205,
150. , , ,

. .. :
, . ,
.
.
:
; . 200/ 2.
0.07 , 0.02 ( 0.1 0.03
).
:
4.78 /. 5545 / . 1.15 / 3. 7300 /
. ( ) 32.2 ( 12.2, 48) 415.
145% . 600/.
:
1847 (Cahors), 1907 (Finger), 1919
,
, ,
. .
:
(t . 146,
) - .
.
.
1) :
4 40 ,
0 6 40 .
.
(13 100 ), 250
. . -
, . ,
.
2) :
5.7 20 10 .
. - 8 .
. . 84% 80%
.
,
.

, N3OCNHNHCON3
-
20%. .
, , , , - .
. . . t . 151

40

. .
( 0.25 ).
: 120 104 2
, .
. 70%.
9 , 60 14 ,
- , 100
(t . 98). 14
- (1.185/).
. .
.
,
(..
).

, .
-.
: - 15%, 30%, 25%, 18%,
- 6%, 6%.
,

,
.
1,1--3,3,5,5, (DATA)
1,1--3,3,5,5,7,7- (DAHA)
,
NH2
H2N

P N
.
N3
N
. , . ,
N
3
P
. t . 73, t 230.
P
N3
(
N
)
N3
N P
1,1-
.
DAHA N3 N3
:
1. .. ., ,
1975. c. 285.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 3
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1966. 590.
3. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 191.
4. .. 2 1962 154.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 546.
6. : GB170359, US6232479.
3.4 () C6H(NO2)3(OH)2
- . -
(0.69 100 25), . . . . .
. . t . 175.5, t . 223,
1.83 /3. 4,6-, H2SO4,
60, .
. 7450/. 284. 43
( 87, 160). ,
. ,
.
1) 4,6-:
44 ** 15 , ,
320 98% , 30-45 40-50,
70. 20-30.
120 93% 2.5 .
45-50.
1 50. , ,

41

, .
173-175.
2) (
):
2.2 2.26 95% 80 , 40
. -2
30 3 16 .
+5, . 15
. .
, 70% 15 40%
30 .
- . 5 , ,
95,
. 25. ,
2% , . 90-95% . t . 172-174.
** - C6H4(OH)2 . t . 110.8 , t .
280.8. , , . . ,
. .
, , , ,
- :
-

-
.
O
(0.09 100
Pb H2O
NO2
20) . . . O2N
, . .
. ,
. . 25
O
30 /. 3.09 /3. 2.9/3,
3
1.0-1.6 / .
NO2

:
100 (
, ), 200
, 240 . 275. ,
, , . ,
. . 16.
.
:
.
(1.5 ), -
.
:
1.55 /, -417.6/,
-421.1/, 5200 / . 2.9 / 3. 130.
( , 0.4) 24 - 11
( 48). 270 /, 368 /.
:
(Herz) 1914. 1918
, 1919 -
, 1925 .
1927 .
-. -
-, -, ,
; (
).
:

( )
() (.
) 70.
42

20 1 1.7 ,
1 28.5 .
1) :
30
. 0.5-5% .
60 225 ,
.

. , . 90%
.
2) :
80 1.73
, 14.4 320
1 .
70-75 3 ,
5 . 1/3
, ,
.
4,6- . ( 3.2 / 3), 2
.

C6H2(NO2)3O2PbPb(OH)2,
100-130. - (. 3.878 / 3)
(. 4.059 / 3) ,
.
,
.
:
1. .. ., ,
1975. c. 297-352.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972. D1276-D1288.
3. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford . 1967- P.
213-221.
4. .. 2 1962 369,379.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 519.
6. : GB162578, US2301912, US1999728.
3.5
, 5-(4--1-).
- :

.
NH
N
N
0.45 / 3.
N
NNHNH
C
(0.02 100 22)
N

.
N
NH2 H2O
- 0.77% 90%
H
30.
. . 0.78 /.
,
. .
. 1.635 / 3.
:
140. 60 ,
.
43

75 .
, , , , .
, . . . 16.
:
200/2.
:
+270.2 /, +240.2/.
2.3 /. 400 - 450 /. 155 . (
0.4) 28, 48. 5300 /.
:
(Hoffman) 1910, 1931,
1955.
1940,
2 . . ( -
15%, 5%) - (
2-3% , ). ,
. ( ).
:
- NH2NHC(=NH)NH2
NaNO2 :
1) :
50 - 4 , 50,
1-2 40 - 5 .
- -
. 30 , , ,
. 2.6-2.7 .
2) :
34 2.5 15.7
. - 30. 27.6
. 3-4
. 20. .
.
3) :
5 30 , 0,
2.5 15 . 10, 0.5
. ,
.
:
[N4CN2CN4]PbPbO5H2O
. - . . t . . 194-196.
. . .
.
.

( )
- :
N N
. -. .
Hg
20% - . .
N
NO2
:
N
2
t . 268, 215.
, . .
.
:
4 :
0.006 ( 0.02).
:
2.59 /.
44

:
.
:
5- .
.
5- :
340 35 - 1.4/ 3 3 ,
70 ( 30-60)
418 2 .
. - ( ),
.
5- :
1) 55 () 87 500
5. 1.5 51.5 5 , 2 (
) 53 70% , 1000 .
, -
13-15. -.
15, 16 70% 100
. 15 , 69
70% 30 30 .
, .
Cu(N4CNO2)2HN4CNO24H2O 74%.
- . ,
.
2) (
):
30.8 ( 25 0.36) 160 60-70
10.3 (0.1) 5- 160 1.5%
, 50. 5-7 0.6 .
80 2 .
( 200). ,
, 600 .
80%.
5- :
84 130 1 50.
-
1.19/3. 4-5 ,
. 97%. ( ).
-
- .
65
, :
, 10
, 7.75 , 11.0 100 . ,
, . .
, 24 . , ,
15 . . ,
50 .
. 14.5.

.
,
( 2 ).
- , .
.
5- :
34 (0.25 ) 217 15%- (0.561
, 36 70% + 185 ).
, 17.2 35 (0.25 ),
45


. , ,
, 2025.
. ,
.
10-15 .
20 , 29 .

, 4 .
. 5- 30%
pH=4,
. 5 -
.
, 5- 5- (
), .
10.
(
), . 70%.

2--5-.
(10:3) . t . 86.
. . 1.64 / 3.
4.6 ( 2.33/ 3 - 0.65. 1.88
/3 11.2 ).
2--5-:
18 5- , 400 , 160 20
3.5. 2
6 . 400 .
100 2% . 2- 25
, , .
200 60 .
0. . 4.8.
:
1. .. ., ,
1975. c. 377-405.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 6,9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1974, 1980. G169-G172, T133-T139.
3. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 206.
4. .. 2 1962 134, 21.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 535.
6. M.B. Talawar, J.S. Chhabra, A.P. Agrawal, S.N. Asthana, K.U.B. Rao, Haridwar Singh. Synthesis,
characterization, thermolysis and performance evaluation of mercuric-5-nitrotetrazole (MNT) Journal
of Hazardous Materials A113 (2004) 2733.
7. US5424449, US5594146, WO9518796, US4093623, US2066954.
3.6 .

- .

. 5- (III)
70 20,
(DDT).

46

--(5--2--N2) III , BNCP


- :
-

,
N N
.
Co(NH3)4 N
ClO4
. 2.05 / 3.
3
NO2
0.3-0.6 / .
N
2

: 269, ~200.
1 70 ( ). .
. ,
. . .
2.5 H50 = 17 ( 9 ) ,
12, 24 4 . 0.54 (BAM),
5.86.
:
, BNCP
.. .
,
.
- 0.05. 10-11.
, CP (. ).
:
3.32 /. 7117 /
. 1.79 /3. 8100 / . 1.97 / 3.
:
, 1986.
, ,
(
), .
.
.
:
80-90
III 5- 2-4 .

.
BNCP:
1 III ( 20 13.3/)
10 10% - . -
34 4.4% - (
, BNCP
). 4
15. 2 .
1% . 0.92.
III II:
65 100-150
100 500 250 . . 2-3 (
). -
300 ,
- .
. - ,
.

-(5--N2)
III , CP
- :
- .
1.96 /3. .
47

N
Co(NH3)5

N
N

CN

(ClO4)2

:
t . 288, 320.
171 100. 2.5 H50 = 20.9 (
24) 19 ( -12).
:
~7.5.
2.08 1.4 /3 4.5.
:
6371 1.72/3, 7180 / . 1.75 /3.
3.5/.
:
-
1979, -
() ,
BNCP.
-(5--N2) III , NCP
- :
N N
. 2.03 /3.

Co(NH3)5 N
(ClO4)2
:
NO2
N
6 200. T
. (5) 257.
:
6.25 1.60 -1.63 / 3 4.5.
- 0.15.
:
6650 / . 1.61 /3.
:
- .
:
BNCP, III
Co[(NH3)5H2O](ClO4)2
5- II.
N N
- :
,
HgN
NHNH2 (ClO4)2
. , .
3
N
3.45 / .
H

:
T . (5) 186.
-
.
:
- 0.015.
:
6 / . 3.4 /3.
:
.
:
5 ( 5,5- )
5-70% .
(GTG) [Cd(NH2NHCONHNH2)3](ClO4)2
- :
.
:
t . 350. -44-1 - 25 ( 35).
48

:
4 1.6 /3 2.7.
:
4400 / 1.95 / 3. 3.9/.
730/.
:
.
.
(NH4)2[Fe(NT)4(H2O)2] (NT - )
- :
. 2.18 /3.
:
2.8 (-5.8, 0.01, -0.04) 25
( - 14, 9.6, - 14).
12 type 12 2.5.
:
7140 / 1.71 /3.
:
.
:
2 .
, NHN, Ni(N2H4)3(NO3)2.
- :
. .
. . , , .
2.129 /3.
:
t . 167. , .
. 18 :

.
, .

Ni(N2H4)3(NO3)2

0.003-0.007
0.0009
0.006
0.012
0.02

, %. 25
-, 588 ,
80.
100
70
70
25
12

, ., 400
,
100%
.
24
36
6.0
40
26

, ., 400
,
100%
.
10.5
11.5
3.5
17.5
21

:
25-60..
150 (
30, 15).
:
7000 / 1.7 / 3. 1014/.
529/.
:
.
:
50 8% - 50 . 65.
30. 50 8% - 7
-. 10 65, ,
. 11-11.5.
:
1. M.B. Talawar, A.P. Agrawal, S.N. Asthana. Energetic co-ordination compounds: synthesis,
characterization and thermolysis studies on bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N2)tetraammine cobalt(III)
49

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

perchlorate (BNCP) and its new transition metal (Ni/Cu/Zn) perchlorate analogues. Journal of
hazardous materials. A120 (2005) 2535.
. . , . . . .
. XLV (2001). 1. 72.
.., .. . .
. . XLI (1997). 4. 3.
.., .. , .. .
. .
XLI (1997). 4. 81.
M.B. Talawar, A.P. Agrawal, J.S. Chhabra, S.N. Asthana. Studies on lead-free initiators: synthesis,
characterization and performance evaluation of transition metal complexes of carbohydrazide.
Journal of Hazardous Materials A113 (2004) 5765.
Z. Shunguan, W. Youchen, Z. Wenyl, M. Jingyan. Evaluation of a new primary explosive: Nickel
hydrazine nitrate (NHN) complex. Propelants Explosives Pyrotechnics 22 317-320 (1997).
.., . . , . . . --(5-N5)(III) . . ,
2002. 21, 8, . 54-57.
T.J. Hafenrichter, W.W. Tarbell . Exploding Bridgewire Initiation Characteristics of Several High
Explosives . Proceedings of the Thirty-First International Pyrotechnics Seminar. July 11-16, 2004.
: RU2261851, RU2104466, RU2225840, US2006/0030715
3.7 , (NH2)C(=NH)NHNO

- :
- .
, - . (0.154/100
20, 1.31/100 73). (0.14% 100,
). , . .
H2SO4. 1.51 /3. , .
:
t . 161 . t . 170. ( .
), , , .
:
6000 /. 99/. 60% .
:
1934
50 20.
:

- 50%. -
. .
:
21 , 11 , 18 250 .
2 20-25. 0
. 250
65. - 0 .
40. 8.0-9.2 (45-52% )
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 6
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1974. G164-165.
2. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 210
3. .. 2 1962. 46.
4. US2146188
3.8 .
, .
,
, 2,4.

50

, 4,6--2--1-, , , DINOL, DDNP,


4,6--2.
- :
- ( -
O
N
-). (6.0 100 25),
. 0.08% 25, O N
N
2
0.84 100 25, 2.43 100 50.
.
-, .
. . ,
.
.
NO2
, .
2.15/ ( , 4 , . 1.45 / 3).
. 1.71 / 3. 0.3-0.9 /3.
. .
( ) .
:
t . 157 t . 177. , - .
- .
-. 0.5 (5 ) 22.5,
15, 17.5, 20. . . 18. .
:
0.163 0.075 (
0.21 0.165, 0.16 0.03 ).
.
9136/ 3.
:
+236.4 /. +220.8/.
3.44 /, 4400 / 0.9 /3, 6600 / 1.5 /3, 6900 / 1.6 /3.
876 /, 326 . 95-97% (
).
:
. (Griess) 1858 ,
1933
. , ,
, (
), .
:
2--4,6-*.
:
30 . 7.5 , 7.5 .
. . . -
(90 + 1.5 9
-) ( Na).
: 180
, . -
. -. 7.5
. - - (5.4
240 ). 10 . -
.
-:
9 150 150 35%
. 45-50 600 1.5
.
1910 3 6 .
65.
10% - .
1 8 , 320 , 2
, 2 6 5.5%
51

, 20.
. 84%.
- ,
.
, 35-40.
* - . . , t . 169 - 171, t . 205 - 210,
- ( ,
NaOH c ) . H2SO4.
.
2,4-
- :
, . 1.65 /3.
:
230, .
N N ClO4
. .
. 1 (50%
NO2
) 18.
:
. , , (
) 0.03, 0.014, 0.007 0.006.
:
NO2
-
.
:
2,4- - -.
:
1. .. ., ,
1975. c. 363
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 2,5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1962, 1972. B59, D1160-D1163.
3. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 201
4. .. 2 1962 318.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 212
6. RU2080320
3.9
, , , TATP,
3,3,6,6,9,9--1,2,4,5,7,8-.
- :
( )
H3C
CH3
( ), .

C
,
O
O
. ,
O
O

. 96% 94
H3C C
C CH3
. 20 2.0.
O O
25 7.85 ( 17.9). .
H3C
CH3
H2SO4 , .
. , , . ,
, . ,
. . (
) . .
(9.15% 17), (18% 17), (5.5% 17), (42.47%
17), - HNO3, ( ).
,
. , 40
52

. 1.272 / 3. 1.22
/3 ( 2000 /2) 0.95 /.
:
t . 97 ( t . 132-133); . 2-3 . t .
90 ,
. 150. t .
200,
. .
( 0.5 ): 35 ( 40 , 10.5 ,
10). BAM 0.3-0.75 ( 0.1-0.2).
. (50%): 15
( 51, 12). .
15%
, .
:
, .
. . (
) 0.18 0.09 .
:
(34.1 30.1
. 0.4 , 48).
: ( . 0.8 200/ 2) 50.5%, 46.2%. : 29%,
33%, 42.5%. 0,98 / 3 - 3750 /
15, 5290/ 1,2 / 3 6.3. 250.
2.803 /. 21% , 53% 26%
4800/ 1.19 /3.
:
. (K Wolfenstein) 1895 () (A.
Baeyer) . 1899 ().
(Milas N.A.) . 1959.
- (.. ).
-,
. - ,
.
:

(.. ) - . H2SO4
. 10-50% H2O2 ,
, .
.
,
, .
- : 1.5. ,
,
.
. .
:
50 . 10 .
25 . . . .

. 100 21 , 33 75
.
:
25 30% , 20 96%
50 , 20 20
, 15. .
. 10.
: 1 1.2 10-50%
, . .
53

. .
( 30-50%

).
,
. .
.


(-C(CH3)2-O-O-)4 t . 93-94. (20) 30%
(20 ) -
(2 ) 24 . 41.2%.
, .
.
,
.
.
:
1. .. ., ,
1975. c. 411
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960. A41-A45.
3. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 225
4. .. 2 1962
467,468,632.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 350
6. Robert
Matyas

Chemical
decomposition
of
triacetone
triperoxide
and
hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine Proc. of 6 th seminar New trends in research of energetic
materials Pardubice. 2003.
7. Robert Matyas INFLUENCE OF OIL ON SENSITIVITY AND THERMAL STABILITY OF TRIACETONE
TRIPEROXIDE AND HEXAMETHYLENETRIPEROXIDE DIAMINE Proc. of 8th seminar New trends in
research of energetic materials Pardubice. 2005.
8. Heng Jiang, Gang Chu, Hong Gong and Qingdong Qiao. Tin Chloride Catalysed Oxidation of Acetone
with Hydrogen Peroxide to Tetrameric Acetone Peroxide. J. Chem. Research (S), 1999, 288-289
9. Robert Matyas, Jiri Pachman, How-Ghee Ang. Study of TATP: Spontaneous transformation of TATP
to DADP. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 33, No. 2. p. 89-91 (2008)
10. Robert Matyas etc. Detonation Performance of TATP/AN-Based Explosives. Propellants, Explosives,
Pyrotechnics 33, No. 4. p. 296 (2008).
11. Robert Matyas, Jiri Pachman. Study of TATP: Influence of Reaction Conditions on Product
Composition. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 35, No. 1. p. 31-37 (2010).
,
,
3,4,8,9,12,13--1,6[4,4,4].
- :
CH2 O
O CH2
. 20
- 0.01% ( 75 48 2.25%), - 0.33%,
- 0.01%, 0.64%. (0.5% 24 60), N CH2 O
O CH2 N
.
H2C
O
O CH2
. H2SO4.
.
. . 4
.
. 60
. 100 24. ,
, . . 1.57 / 3.
0.66 /3.
:
t . 149 ( 3 .) 3-4
2 ( ), .
54

BAM 0.6-1.5 ( 0.1-0.2).


. (50%): 12 (
51). . 15%
,
. . . 16.
.
.
:
. . ,
, - 0.1 , 0.05 (..
0.26 - 0.21 ).
:
-384.3/, -413.7/. 3.29
/, 340 . ( , 0.5) 42.5, 16.5,
44.2. 1097 /. 5.5 0,88
/3 - 4510 /, 1,1 /3 5100/.
:
(Baeyer and Villiger) 1900
, .
(1912,1917) -
, -
.
.
:
20 - 50%
, 20 (
). ( 100%) 30%
.
, . -
. ,
, .
1) :
56 () 160 30%
84 .
, 30.
.
(
).
17 , , . 66-71%.
2) :
24 30% ( 14 50%) 10
. 14 50% .
4 , 10 5 10
5 .
.
12-24 . ,
.
(CH2)6N4 + 3H2O2 + 2HNO3 => N(CH2OOCH2) 3N + 2NH4NO3
3) - ,
.
50 500 3% .
55, 5.3 37% - . 24
, .
, ,
() OC(NHCH2OOCH2NH)2CO.
,
, . ,
. .
55

, , , 50-70%
.
:
1. .. ., ,
1975. c. 406.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5,7
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972, 1975. D1375, H83-H84.
3. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 225.
4. .. 2 1962 470.
5. Robert
Matyas

Chemical
decomposition
of
triacetone
triperoxide
and
th
hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine Proc. of 6 seminar New trends in research of energetic
materials Pardubice. 2003.
6. GB339024.
3.10 ( ).
, Ag2C2AgNO3
- :
, . .
:
t . 210. Ag2C2 .
:
.
0.02 , Ag2C2 .
0.05.
:
1.89 /. C 2710 / 2.92 /3, 4450 / 5.36
3
/ . 136 .
:
- .
:
Ag2C2AgNO3: - 50 200 30
(. 1.4 /3) 80-90 .
30% .

Ag2C2.
. , . . t . 120140. 1.23 /. -
.
: 5 80
20 20% , .
I, CuC=-CCu CuC=-CH ( )
, .
. CuC=-CCuH2O. .
.
, , , . .
. . 120. ..
(. ). .
. .
I .
: 1) (
20 .) II .
, .
( ). - ,
. , ( )
.
(Cu(NH3)2OH + C2H2 = CuC=-CCu + 2H2O). .
2) CuC=-CCu
I*.
56

*- I II
(, ..). II
150-200. I
, .. II.
:
1. .. ., ,
1975. c. 422.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960. A74-A76, A79-A82.
3. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P.
227-229.
4. .. 2 1962 74, 76.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 38.
3.11
4,6--7--7-, KDNBF C6H3N4O7K
- :
- - ,
NO2
(0.245 100 30). 30
90% 0.27%. . 2.21 K
N
/3.
:
O
t 207-210. 190.
N
100: 1 6 O N
2
O
20 ( - 20, - 12).
H
OH
.
:
KDNBF
, 0.1
0.3 .
:
44.8 (93% )
27.3-59%, 40%, 94-105%.
604 /. 3.04 /.
:
1898 (Drost). 2 .
. (KNO3)
(. . )
, .
:
1) *:
25 7
300-400 . 1 80-90
. 90-100
3 . ,
- - .
- - ( ). KDNBF ,
.
2) -:
1 - 3.5 - (15
100 ),
. .
95%,
97% (1 6 ).
1.2 90% 2.8 97% .
0-5, 40.
.

.
57

7--4,6--4,7-. C6H4N5O7K
- :
- . . . . . 1.92
/3. .
:
t . 165 . ( ). t 152. (11 .
2.5 . 50%), , . . . ..
:
.
:
.
:
2 . 4,6- - 0.614 100
50. 20 , -
40. 59 0.3M
. 30, ,
20 . 96%.
*- - 2,4,6-,
- :
. ., .
Cl
(0.018 100 15, 0.346 100 100),
(212 100 17, 546.4 O N
NO2
2
100 50). .
1.76 /3. . -
.
:
t . 85.
:
NO2
7200/ 1.74 /3. 300.
:
1 . (
).
.
:
1) :
1600 30% ,
.
710 , 60, 30
160 50.

125 4 . ,
1 . 1
20. 500 .
, . :
- 200 , 600 .
.
2) :
1. , 10 2,4 60 20% ,
80 40 20% 30 .
. 150, 12
. , 60%
. 60.
2. 100 750 100%
125 93% . 130
12 . 85%.
3. (
) .
58

2,4- (t . 53.4):
1. 45% , 50%
5% (40-50).

30% . 50
(1.5 . 1 ).
100-110 .

, .
.
2. 1. . (. 1.52) 100% -
(1:1) 5. 5-10 , 50
, 2.5 . . 115
.
..

- :
NH2
-
, . , ,
NO2
(212 100 17), , , O2N
- . .
:
t . 188-189 . t . 350.
:
4.14 /. 1.762 /3.
NO2
7300 / . 1.72 / 3. 296 .
724 /.
:
, - .
:
,
( . KNO3
H2SO4).
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 2
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1962. B68.
2. .. . .
. 1969 . 96-97.
3. R.J. Spear and W.P. Norris. Structure and Properties of the potassium hydroxide-dinitrobenzofuroxan
adduct (KDNBF) and related explosive salts. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 19, 232-239
(1994).
4. : US4529801, GB16692, GB190844

4.0
, . .
. -
.
() , -,
.
(, ,
), (, ),
.

. , -
( ), ..

59

4.1 .
, -NO2,
. , ,
.
()
() ,
.
4.1.1 1,3-, m-, .
- :
(0.052
NO2
100 20, 0.317 100 100),
96% (2.37 100 15, 11.49 100 50),
, , , .
,
. .
, ,
NO2

. .
20 -, .. .
, . 1.567 / 3. 1.48-1.5 /3.
, . 82% , 7% , 9% - t .
80.5 47.5% , 52.5% - t . 65.5.
:
(), : t . 91, t .
302. . 1.5 , 1.44 / 3 3.
:
13% . -21.1/.
-38.7/. 3.43 /, 6100 / ().
670 /. 10 ( 12-13),
3.4 ( 4.2) . 2.1 ( 3.6). 32 ( 43).
260 . 90%
:
1834 1841 (Deville).
1 . , .
2 . . .
( -1 ~30%)
. ,
- .
.
, ,
( ).
:
- .
0-5 3-5%, ~125 14%.
.
1) :
15
20 . (
). , 10
. C6H6 . 5 .
( 70%). ()
(10 . 35 ).
15 . 4-
. , . ( 70%).
1,3- .
, , -.

60

2) - : 20 .
60% , 32% 8%
5-7% .
40-50 20-30
. 60
. ,
. (. 1.2 /3) 98%
(1:1) 40 28%
, 68% , 4% .
, - 10-20% .
, 80.
95, .
1.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P.
233-248
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 2
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1962. B47.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p212
4. .. 2 1962 404.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 218
6. .. . .
. 1969 . 86
4.1.2 1,3,5-,
- :

O2N
NO2
(0.03% 15, 0.5% 100), (59.1 100
17. 160.7 100 50), , ,
, (6.18 100 17, 25.7 100
50), . , . . Na2SO3
- ,
. -
NO2
t
. . . 1.688 / 3.
1.65 /3. .
:
t . . 122, t . 315, : 2% 6. 280 (
). t . 550 (5 ). . 71 2 ( = 98,
-64). h=25 10 24% ( 4-8%,
25%, -80%) 100 2.5 50% ( 160,
87). 1.65 / 3 2,
3.
:
4.45 / ( . 4.62 /, 850/ 0.74/ 3, 1100/
1.66/3), 9 /, . -32.1/.
-48.8/. 7350 / . 1.66 / 3 ( 20
).
711 /. 330 .
105-117% . 111% , 4.1
( 3.6). 110% . 79.4%
( ).
:
(Hepp) 1882 .
1 . . 2 . -
. (. . ),
( ). ,
.

61

:
- ( +
) 40 .
.
*
(, , , ..) .
: C6H2(NO2)3Cl + Cu + H2O C6H3(NO2)3 + CuCl + CuO.
( ) .
, .
: 1.
C6H2(NO2)3C2H4OH . 2.
220-240 90-100 ( ).
2 .
() ,
95%, .
75%.
1) :
3600 . 360 .
(540). 40 ,
. ,
45-55. 1 2 .
2 45-55. ,
4 .
. 320-340.
2 35.
- 15% - ,
- . .
5 , .
. 70 .
.
, ,
.
. .
.
145-155 (43-46%).
2) - :
100 100 95% , 32
2 .
68%.
3) :
3 30
1 . - . .
4) :
100% 60% (3:5)
110-120 6 . 65-70%.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P.
248-256.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 2,9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1962,1980. B48-B50, T375-T379.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p351.
4. .. 2 1962 351.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 548. .. .
6. . . 1969 . 87.
4.1.3 .
- :
- ( )
, , , .
62

. , , .
.
- C6(OH)3(NO2)3 ().
(). ,
. 2.01 / 3.
:
NO2
t . 246 - 265 ( ), 200
. . 11 2 O2N
NO2
( = 98, -64, 26).
12 ( 12, -24, 160).
:
. 6.99 O2N
NO2
/. 9450 / . 1.9 / 3.
. 40.6 .
NO2
105.5% ( ).
:
.
-.
, . , CL-20
, ,
.
:
, 2- ;
(. ) NHOH,
. HNO3 C6(NHOH)3(NO2)3 HNO3 CrO3
. .
. .
1) 3,5- ( 3,5-):
106.1 3,5- 400 23-24% .
480 . 37 .
25.
4 , . 9
. 3,5- ,
. 80.5 (87.9%). (3,5-

)
18.3 3,5- 550 99.5% ,
35. 50 90% 100 100%
30. 70 2.5
, * 6.5. 25,
1 .
, .
400 .
-15. 5
. 13.46 (42.3%) .
1 50 20% ( 100%
). 5, 5 98% ,
30. 24 25-30 (
5-6). , 100%
,
. 10
25, 0 . . -
- 0.63 (58%) . 240-265.
0.14 . 195-245
2) 2,4,6 4--2,6-
HNO3/H2SO4. , .
25 50 p-, 1 .
- . 25-30
63

40. 30 200 .
4--2,6- 60-70%.
4--2,6-
3 - - .
4--2,6- - 20.7 (96%).
1 4--2,6- 40 96%
3 90% . 40.
70 1 , .
,
.
62.4% .
* - , ..
, .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964.P. 259.
2. .. 2 1962 313.
3. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 126.
4. : US4248798, US4262148.
4.1.4 2,4,6- , , , .
- :
, .
CH3
1.2. - -
76-77.5, O N
NO2
2
. ,

80.2.
(0.015 100 25, 0.15 100
100). ( 20 109 /100
, 50 346 /100 ), , , ,
, HNO3, - 95% (1.23 100 20, 19.5
NO2
100 75), . H2SO4. ,
. 1.5/ 3, 0.5/3.
. 1.663 / 3, 1.467 /3
82 ( 1.54 1.6 / 3).
, .
t . 50 - 60,
.
, . .
:
50 . t . 80.9. t . 160, t
. 250. t . 290, 215. , ,
, . .
. .
.
: 0.36 0.09 .
, 8,
.
. 19 .

. /3
1.62
1.0

. .
16
9
3


0.3
0.05
0.1

h=25 10 4 - 8% (
() -24-32%, - 50-60%, - 70-80%, - 80%, - 100%). 12 tool
2.5 (50%) 148 29.5 ( - 4.5, 11.5,
10).
64

:
-17.8 /, -70.6/. 4.19
/ (860/ 1.0/3, 1030/ 1.6/3 ). 6950-7000 /
1.64 /3. ( 1.60 /3 19,
6800 /. 3000). 16 50 1.0/ 3
( -18, 25), 3.6 ( -4.8, 4.6,
-4.2, 4.1, 2.1, -3.0, 50/50
-2.5, 62% -3.9), 48 ( 59,
23). 730 /. 76% (.
1.569 /3, ). 285 ( 490). 5-10%
. , t .
:
1863 (Wilbrand), 1891
. 1902
, 1 ,
,
,
. 1918.
1909 ,
1936. 1 .

,
.
, , , .
(. ), ,
, , , .., ,
, .

, .
, ,
( . ). 2
.. ,
94% , 4% 2% . - (
. ) , .
, - .
, ,
10% . 90-
.
. ,
,
, .

.
:
C6H5CH3
, - - . ,
,
Na2SO3 (1:3) .
( ).
.
-
- 70 45% - 800
1000 .
(.. ), ,
.
, .

,
, ,
. 60
65

. ,
.

(, ) . ,
- , .
1) 3 :
20 . 65% ,
10% , 25% 57% ( ).
.
40-45, 30.
30 50,
. .
95-97%.
, 75%
, 10% , 15% .
15-20% .
, 30
, 75. 45. ..
,
.
95, 30, 5-
. , .
93-95% .
, 83%
, 17% .
100% . 80
, .
110 . ,
80 100
. .
. -
90-92 10 . .
87-90% .
,
, .. , ,
. ,
.
: - 5%
( , , .),
. :
:
3-5 95% 5% .
. ( . )
.
, - .
63% : 1 3 63%
, 65-70
. 23-30.
, 2 63%
.
Na2SO3:
( ) 1:2 , 78-79 10% -
(0.1 ) 5-7.
15 78-79. ,
3- 79-80, 80-85 85-90.
. 85% .
2) 70% : 3820
70% 2 8404 98% .
1910
66

. 10-15, 920 4
.
2 . 70
2 . 80 2
, 5 .
, 2 . 1.6 70%
. 2
, , 2 .
3) : 920 ,
2700 99% 3000 ,
, ,
. 80 ( 85).
3
. 3000 2 .
,
20% . , ,
, 2 . .
2). .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P.
265-393.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1980. T235-T298.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p339.
4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985).
5. Jared B. Ledgard. The Preparatory manual of explosives. Washington. Second Edition p180-185.
6. .. 2 1962 506.
7. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 552.
8. .. . .
. 1969 . 75.
9. , , .
. , -, 2001.
4.1.5 2,4,6- , , , TNX
- :

CH3
, , , , (0.5 100
, 20.5 100 O N
NO2
2
), , HNO3 .. , -
,
.
CH3
. 1.604 /3.
:
( ).
NO2
, . ,
.
0.62, 0.38.
100 150-170 . t . . 182, t .
330.
:
-82.1/, -101.7/. 4.06
/, . 3.66 /., 6600 / . 1.51 / 3,
10-12 ( 12.5) 40.3 ( - 48,
59). 270 . 700/.
:
1860 (Bussenlus, Eisenstuck), 1867.
1 2 . , /,
, .
67

,
. 5%
, 1.54-1.56 /3 74,
2 . .
, .
:
- C6H4(CH3)2 (
). 1 . .
1 .
..
, .
. - .
1) :
79% , 18% 3% . 45% ( ).
35 -. 1
105. - .
t . 163-165
2 . 75%.
2) 2 :
20 . - 65% , 20%
15% 10-15%.
25 1.5
, 40.
95 1 . 50
, (T . . 32). 85%.
, ,
60 1 (85% , 15%
. 80-90% ).
, 70.
110, , 120
1.5 .
. , , 10, , ,
2-3 (85) .
: 1 , 1 3 .
. 20-30 .
. . ,
. 80%.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P.
404-413
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972. D1324-D1325.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p359
4. .. 2 1962 567.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 550
4.1.6 2,4,6-, , ,
- :

( 15 0.02 /100 , 50 0.137 /100 ),
96% (2.31 100 15, 17.8 100
50), (5.24 100 15, 27.65 100 50),
, , , ..
.
. .
(
).

.,
68

OCH3
O2N

NO2

NO2

. . ,
. 1.708 /3. 1.4 /3.
:
t . . 68, . t . .
165 . t . . 285. - 192, ( 160,
87).
:
-131/, -150.6 /,
3.66/. 7640 / 1.6 / 3, 740, .
675 /. 295-315 . 106-108%
. ( ). 3.6, - 3.6,
4.1, -4.2. 43 ( -43).
:
1849 (Cahours) .
1 2
, , , .., ( )
, , , . . 50% , 35% NH4NO3, 15%
,
. 2 . .
.
:
30% - NaOH
60 2- 4 ,
.
1-2.
, . .
37% HNO3
1.52 /3 63% H2SO4 1.84 /3 -5-0,
65-70 20.
, .
, -p-
.
1) 2,4- 2 : 800
. 196 600
. ,
40-45. 7 .
50 ""
30 . 35 ( 3 ).
.
. .
550 95% .
: - ,
. 3200
: HNO3 - 17%, H2SO4 - 77%, H2O - 6%.
.
550 . 5055, . 60-68,
30 . 35,
4 . ,
. "" ( 1,50 /3)
. . 615620 , .. 93% .
:
. .
,
.
, .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P.
545-547
69

2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960. A450-A453.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p349
4. .. 2 1962 509.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 537
4.1.7 2,4,6-, , , , ,
- :
- ,
OH
( 20 1.1 /100 , 100 6.75 /
100 ), ( 25 43 /100 , O2N
NO2
20% 87.8 /100 ), , . - (
97.4% 7.53 /100 18, 24.02 /100 80), 80% (
25 13.8 /100), . ..
.
,
.
NO2

. . . .
, . .
, -
, .. .
- 1.813 /3, 1.61-1.67 /3. 124 - 1.58 / 3.
,
. ,
- . . ,
.., . ,
, ,
100.
. 1.7 2.8 / 3, . (
- . 2.4) . .
, .
.
:
. t . 122.5. 160. t . .
300. . 0.24. 80 ,
100 ( 2 .) h=25 10 25%
( 4-8%). 12tool 2.5(50%) 73.
:
4.40 / (830/ 0.9/ 3, 1010/ 1.7/3).
-51.7 /, -259.3/. 7350 /
7480 / . 1.6 /3 1.77 /3 . 730 /.
16-17 ( ), 4.1 ( 3.6, 4.2,
4.6) 103-110% . 315 .
106-112% .
:
1771 (Woulff) . 1847
.
. 1873 -. 1886
1888
( 1874).
1894,

- -
.
.
, ,
(). , , -
70

, ,
.
1 . .
( ..
). 2 . (. .
) - *
, , .
10-12% ()
.
2- .
,
. ,
.
:

20% , . .
1. : 10 *
20 . .
95, 50,
12 . 98% . ,
, 8 . 95.
, , 0,

.
2. . (1916-1918)
:
1 80 5 98% .
80-100 4 . ( 125130 2 ). ,
.
141 44% (. 1.28/ 3) 91
. 85-90 172 ,
. 7
: 1- 26-30, 2- 62-70, 3-
88-89, 4- 96-97, 5- 106-107, 6- 111-113, 7- 113115. 15-10 115.
.
3. 20% :
94 . 40 400 20% .
, 100
. 50, 200. 95%
. 50 80 80%
(. 1.46/3) 60,
60-80 80 100
80-100. 80% .
1 100,
.
,
( ). 4 100.
, ,
.
. .
4. (
-)
, ,
90 7% - . 70
30 15 2,4-.
95-100. 40-50,
15 30% .
, 3-4 20 .
71

20 2,4- 60 80% 50
30 68% , 30%
2% . , 75%
. 100
1 .
, . .
80%.
5. 2,4-
.
, , ,
13 , 0.1 180 50-55%
. 45-50 30
10 . 2.5 50, .
, 2
20 50-55% 2 20 . . 40-50%.
2,4- , 4).
6. : 1 **
10 . , 20 .
5- -, 10 .
. 10 .,
. 4- . 1).
7. : 100
. . 1,4 30
20 .
. .
. 95% (
). , ,
, .
* - C6H5(OH) . ,
, , . t . 41, t . 181. .
.
** - ( -
.. , ).
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P.
472-522
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. P285-P295.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p256
4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
5. .. 2 1962 360,363.
6. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 554
7. .. . .
. 1969 . 100-111.
8. . . . IV, 1, 1, 1949, . 284
4.1.8 (explosive D, Dunnite)
- :
. 2 ( ) . , ,
,
. 150
. ( 20 1.1 /100 , 100
74.8 /100 ), , . .
5% ,

ONH4
O2N

NO2

NO2
72

,
. 1.717 / 3.
:
220 .
. t . 265 - 270, t . 320. (12tool
2.5) 50= 136, 148. . .
0.4 0.85 ( 0.26).
. 20

t
* .

290
>100

360
80

310
7

300
7

260
5

330
4
* - , 2 . c 50% .

:
3.36 /, -94 /.
-375.4/. - 7150 / 1.63 / 3. 680 /.
330 ( 280 ). 9899% . : 37.5-39.5 ( 48, 59),
.
:
1841. (Marchand).
. . . ( )
19 20. ()
(. . , ),
. 1- 2- . . .
.
.
:
.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P.
472-522
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. P285-P295.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p256
4. .. 2 1962 360,363.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 554.
4.1.9 1,3--2,4,6-, , DATB, .
- :
,
NH2
, , . ,
(2.2% 25, 8.8% 60, 19% 98), (2.5% 25, O N
NO2
2
5.2% 60, 14% 98)
. ,
. 1.837
/3.
NH2
:
t . 289 t . 286-301
NO2
. 216
(1.815 /3), .
t . . 340. 0.03 . 48 120 1.
73

( ).
243 ( 25, - 160). 6
1.78-1.8 /3.
:
7520 / . 1.79 /3. 25.9.
(, - ) 3.81 / (680/ 0.57/ 3, 930/
1.5/3). -23.4 /. 16-17 , Plate Dent Test 120%
.
:
1884 (Noelting & Collin),
2 . . ,
, (
) - Sparrow, -
. ,
. ,
.
:
, , 1,3-
,
.
1. ( ):
, ,
12.8 81.5 .
20 4
( ).
95 1 .
400 ( 2- ).
, .
,
5).
2. 1,3-:
4200 95% 735 1,3. 90-100
30. .
5-10 2.5
2800 70% ,
, 30.
, -
. 1400
15. - . .
1,3--2,4,6- 87%.
25 7 .
10 1,3--2,4,6- 50 ,

10 ( 13).
10,
. 96% .
:
5 1,3--2,4,6- 50 30
10 50 10 .
15 , 50, ,
. 86% .
3. () :
10 0.477 , 0.709 (! )
(1.27). - 2
, 200 0.12 . ,
. 89%.
74

4. -m- m- :
10 -m- m- 80
. - 24 .
. t . 285,
.
5. m-
300
. 95%
10 -, , 50 .

23-25 96-99% ,
50-55.
1.5 55, ,
. 150-200

, , 25.
.
*
. 75%.
, 100
10 .
(20-30), 15
( 75%).
, 40-50
,
50. . ,
. 70%.
*-:
- :
, ,
. (7.5 100 25, 15 56)
, , , .
. 1.867 /3.
:
t . 217. t . 232. .
:
( - ) 827/. 430.
: 1056 ( 951, 719).
:
, -
.
2.
:
- .
(1:3:36) 70. 100.
20 . 70%.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972. D1130-D1131.
2. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
3. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 213
4. .. . .
.
1969 . 120
5. : US5569783, US5633406, US3394183.

75

4.1.10 1,3,5--2,4,6-, , TATB


- :
,
, . , , , .
. . . .

. 1.93 /3.
:
NH2
260 - 290.
320 ( O2N
NO2
350 t . . 370).
.
,
- . . H2N
NH2
0.3 . . 300
2.5 ( DATB 250 , 25). .
NO2
6.35 1.7 /3 ( . 1.3).
:
.
3.47
/, -36.85 /, . -108.7/,
-129.4/. 8000 / (7650 / . 1.8 / 3)
. 27.7 1.87 / 3. 1.90 /3 31.5,
7860 /. 175 ( . . -
. ). 42.9 ( 48).
82.5% (. 1.85 / 3).
:
1888 (Jackson & Wing).
50- 20.
.
, . . ,
. PBX-9502, 95% 5% Kel-F
7700 / 29 . 1.89 / 3. .
10. PBX-X-0219, 90% 10% Kel-F 800 (
) 7530 / . 1.92 / 3.
. 0.7.
(
- 47%, - 41%, - 10%, - 2%).
,
, . ,
, .
. .
:
2,4,6- ( )

,
. -
: C6H2(NH2)Cl3 ( ) =>
C6H2(NO)Cl3 => C6(NO2) 3Cl3 =>
;
1,1,1 4--1,2,4-
95%. 1,1,1-
. .
.

.
1. :
, 126 30%
17 ,
60-70.
76

2.

3.

4.

5.

100. 5.5 , 145-155


4 . 40
250 , .
40.
pH 6-7
60 16.
6 60 ,
1.5 .
- 2.3 3, 145-150 .
.
60. ,
.
. 100
16. 89%.
0.2%.
3,5-:
35.4 2 50 90%
115 94% , .
3 35 100 8.
15 100, .
, . 61.5 (98.6%).
3.12 40 . 5.5
30.
30. , ,
. 96%.
1,1,1- ( 1,1,1
5.1 1,1- 60 ,
. 4 .
2.
. 11.6 (86%) 1,1,1
1 3.54 1,1,1- 34 (
). 1.89
16 . 4
. , . 95%.
4--1,2,4- ()
1.19 0.228 0.841 15 .
- 3
. , . 91%.
(1,3,5-)
1 19.8 98% 1.5 71%
2.5 98% , 5-8.
9, 65
. , 20 3
. 72% 1,3,5- (1.6).
1,3,5- :
8 27.6 75 16.2
. 108 21
, 5.
. 20 15,
50 65% 50.
45 -.
, , 30 3
. 19.53 (70%).
100 , 12.5 5
125 4. 100 ,
30% .
, . 1,3,5-
77

150 . 2 34%.
99%.
2 1,3,5- 50 ( )
-10 1.5 .
1.5 . 98% .
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1980. T34-T55.
2. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p344
3. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 546
5. Anthony J. Bellamy, Simon J. Ward, Peter Golding. A new synthetic route to 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6trinitrobenzene. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 27, 49-58 (2002)
6. : US4032377, US4997987, US5569783, US5633406, RU2315749
4.1.11 , , DNN
- :
NO2
2- : - (1,5- t
. 217.5) - (1,8- t . 173.5),
.
. , , . . 1,8-
1,5- (/100 16, 50
0.465, 1.556 7.008 19.163. 16, 50
a b 0.781, 2.802 5.727 23.63),
NO2 1,5-DNN
. ,
3
. . .1.5 / .
:
NO2
NO2
t . 150 - 169 . , t . 300 310.
.
.
:
1150 / . 1.0 / 3.
3-4 ( 0.9 /3). 3.05 / (-).
. 100 . 488/.
1,8-DNN
:
- .
60 19 . 87.5% 78%
() 1 . .
2 . / . 80: 80%, 20% . -50 -42
.
,
, .
: , 48.5%
51.5% , , 20% 80%
.
2 . 88%
( ).
- 0.5% ,
. 88-90% (, t .
90, 7020/ 1.6 / 3) 2 .
.
, ,
2-. .
- (t . 340 - 345), ,
, -
.
78

:
.
1. 1 :
20 . 20 .
, 10 . *.
(t 80);
(), .
, .
(90%).
2. 2 :
45% , 40% 15% 40
19 , 20 50.
10-15%
(t . 51).
60 .
, ,
.
65% , 15% 20%
.
30% .
60, 70 30.

, . (
).
* - - . t . 80.3, . 1.52 /3
15 , , , ,
.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P.
422-443
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. N7-N16.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p104
4. .. 2 1962 649.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 219
6. .. . .
. 1969 . 129-132
4.1.12 ,
- :
- . O2N
.
NO2
, .. 1.61 /3.
.
NO2
, .
:
. t . 238-240. 280
O2N
( ). t . 320.
H50 - 70 ( 98, -64).
O2 N
85 ( 160 , -87).
NO2
:
16.3/.
7100 / . 1.6 /3. 344-360 .
:
1901 (F. Ullmann)
.
.
:
.
79

:
10 200 , 70-75
4.4 . 84
2. .
50 , .
,

. 6 (70%).
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P. 416
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 2
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1962. B123
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p171
4. .. 2 1962 674.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 128
6. US3402202
4.1.13 , , , .
- :
-

,
O2N
, ,
93% -, - .
.

NO2

O2N
(), .
O2N
.
HN
. 1.78
/3. .
NO2
. , .

O2N
:
2% 6 206. t . 245 . t .
250. , 25%
. 50 48 ( -160,
26).
:
+38.7/, +22.5/. 4.51
/ ( 4.22 /). 7150 / . 1.6 / 3. 7400 /
. 1.64 /3. 675 / ( . 791/). 325.
111-115% . 4.0
( 3.5). 117-120% .
:
1874. 1910. .
1 . (30-60%) ,
, 2 . ,
: , ..
, 60:24:16 (Hexamit) 5.86 /.
6840 /. 1.73 / 3. 610 /. 408 (
116% ). 4.2 (116% ).
130% .
, .
:

( ),
* . 2,6- 2,4,6

57%

.
2,4 .
80


( ) .
- .
-, . . (
, ..

).
1. m-:
40 , 5.8 , 10
60, 20 ,
90 , 50,
, 10% ,
100.
70 4-
: 40% , 45% 15% . ,
90
~1.5. 2,2,4,4-
.
70 4-
: 60% 40% . ,
90, ,
. 2 ,
. 100.

1.33/ 3 (52.3%). 50
420
. 50-60.
80-90 2.
. ,
.
2. :
, ,
150 12.4 ,
60 7 . ,
80, 900 5% .
(2,4,6-),
.
, , , 100
57% 95 25-30 10 .
. 10-15
105 . ,
, .
.
3. :
50 0.5 (. 1.84).
, ,
500 ( 1.5), 5 .
30-40. ,
. ,
,
.
.
, 4-6
. , ,
. 88 t . 238.
1.36-1.4 /3 t . 249.
10 - ,
,
, - ,
.
81

*- - , . , ,
, . t . 54, t . 302. . .
.
.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P.
562-566.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972. D1434-D1438.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p172
4. .. 2 1962 689.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 128
6. .. . .
. 1969 . 124-126
7. US3899536.
4.1.14 , , ,
- :
-
O2N
,
. /100
20 -0.3, -5.0, -17.8,
-0.8. 2000 / 2
NO2
1.7 /3.
O2N

:
O2N
t . 231-234, t . 302-320 .
S

220. ( 2 6 ):
NO2
36-39 ( 49-51).
.
O2N
:
4.0 - 4.41 /. 40
50 - 16.3 ( 14.8). 320-350 . 7000 / .
1.61 /3.
:
1912. (50:50)
I . (. , .).
II . . ,
.
:

.

.
:
, 10
, 4.4 50 .
5 .
, , 5%
. 100.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P. 553
2. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p174
3. .. 2 1962 676.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 129
5. .. . .
. 1969 . 127
82

4.1.15 , -(2,4,6-)-, HNAB,


- :

O 2N
NO2
, ,
NO2
,
. 2
.
N
, , .
N
. .
. ,
NO2
. 1.79 1.75 /3 O2N
NO2
. .
:
t . 215-216.
. 12tool 2.5 50% 37 ( 28).
:
. +284.1/. 350 .
7311 / . 1.60 / 3, 7650 / . 1.77 /3.
:
1906 (Grandmougin & Lehmann).
2 . .
:
: 1)
, .
.
1.3/ 3. 2)
,
- .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P. 574
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960. A646-A650.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p171
4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
4.1.16 , HNS, .
- :

O 2N
NO2
,
NO2
,

H
C
, (1.5% 25, 2.5%
C
60, 9.1% 98) . 1.74
H
/3, 1.77 /3.
NO2

O2N
NO2
:
t . 318 , t . . 325.
. 0.5 3 1 .
260. 6 200.
(. - 45,
32 ) 12 tool 2.5 50 = 54. . - 0.5 (
3.8), .
:
4.12 /. +18.7 /,
+41.5/ 700 /. 300 . 7000 /
. 1.7 /3. (plate dent test) 120% .
76% (. 1.641 / 3).
:
1912. 1964
.
. , . .
83

, (
).

. LX-15: 95% HNS, 5% Kel-F 800 (-3). ( 2%),


.
:
:
1.
15. . 4050%.
2. ( 55%).
3.
Co[NH3]6Cl3 . 65%.
.
4. 2,4,6-
.
1. :
500 6.38 (2:1
). 1.5 4.5
, 4.5% .
10-16. 10.
90 . ,
, , . 48% .
2. : 0.5
30 , ,
10 . 0.75
25 90 , .
- 100 1 .
. ,
, . 62%.
3. : 1
0.9 II 30 25.
2.1 .
- . 10 ,
, . 0.8 (80%)
. 308-316. 0.68 20
30 70%.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P. 415
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5,9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972, 1980. D1454-1457, S215-S216.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p177
4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
5. .. 2 1962 727.
6. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 130.
7. Andrzej Orzechowski, Dorota Powaa , Andrzej Maranda, and Wojciech Pawowski CRYSTALLIZATION
OF HEXANITROSTILBENE Proc. of 8th seminar New trends in research of energetic materials
Pardubice. 2005.
8. : US5023386, US4238420, US4085152, GB1570569.
4.1.17 3,3--2,2,4,4,6,6-, , DIPAM
- :
- . . .
. 1.79 /3.
:
( 32).
t . 340. t . 316. (12 tool 2.5) 50 = 85 (
50 = 132, -160).
84

:
NH2
7400 / . 1.76 / 3.
O 2N
-28.5/.
:
NO2

NO2
.
.

.
NH2
.
O2N
.
O2N
:
1. 3-:
NO2
270 90% 500 30%
. 192 , ,
. 200 . 47.6 3- 100
20,
30. 100 , 50-60
1. .
600 5% .

. 3- 88.2%.
434 .
70-75 33.2 .
2.5.
5 . , 5
.
.
100 .
, 50 .
, . 38.6 (77.3% ).
.
2. -
800 124 . .
160 -.
15. 140 . 810. 92
200 10.
5-10 20, .

50% - .
.
, .
- 400 .
. 2 100.
200 .
80, 400 .
200 ,
. 200 .
. 111 (79%) ( . 41-42)
- .
375 90% 1200 30%
64.2 120 30-45.
12 .
.
(30-60).
82-84 .
.
6 , 10
. 500 50% , 4-6 .
120. 126.2 (86.9).
85

120 1400 ,
300.
1400 , , ,
120. 96 (80%
).
96 300 600 .
, . 10,
. 110. 91%.
. 305. 775 ,
, , 600 .
, .
, 110.
- - 48%.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972. D1133.
2. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
3. : US3320320, US3402202.
4.1.18 2,2'',4,4',4'',6,6',6''---, , ,
ONT

- :
NO2
- .
. O2N
NO2
. . .
3
. - 1.82 / .

:
. t . 362 . t . 414.
NO2
225 6.
NO2
7 10.
63 ,
O2N
NO2
32 160 .
3.
:
4.15 /.
6700 / 1.67 /3, 7200 / 1.72 /3.
:
NO2
1963 (Dacons).
290.
.
(NONA), (Dodeca).
.
:
1,5--2,4-
.
2,2'',4,4',6,6'-- ( 30%).
- :
, 200 .
200 90% 200 -.
, 50.
, 35 .
2 , ,
, .
275 . 1 ,
. , 200 65%
. , , 950,
, 50 65% ,
. , ,
800, .
86

200 . 206.1 (74.4%


). 425 ,
. 194 1,5--2,4-.
44 150 165 . 25
65 32.6 1,5--2,4- 150
. 5 ,
175. 170
10 ( 165170). 10, 120,
300 , ,
. ,
. 600 20%
10. ,
, 400 , 20
. 600
. , . 45 (76%).
:
1. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 333
2. : US3592860, RU2281931, RU2263654
4.1.19 2,2,2,4,4,4,6,6,6-, .
- :
. . .
NO2
, . HNO3

:

.
t
.
.
346.
20. 289.
O2N
NO2
1.5-2. (
NO2
NO2
8-10)
:
N
7200 / 1.62 /3.
:

.
O2N
NO2
:
NO
O2N
2
.
-
2,4,6,2,4,2,4- ()
- :
. . . , . HNO3.
- 1.77 /3.
:
t . 343-345. 2% 6. 260-270. t . 400-420.
(10, 25) 60%. 1.5-2.
:
4.23 /. 7200 / 1.62 /3 (1.64 /3).
-201 /, -48 /.
:

.
:

. .
:
. / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 134.

87

4.1.20 2,6-()-3,5-, PYX, .


- :
. . . .
, . . . .
. - 1.77 / 3.
:
350. t . . 360. 300 1% 24 .
290. . .
60%. . 63 2.5 (. .), 26 ,
160 (50% ).
:
4.44 /.
7450 / 1.65 /3 24.2 .
:
NO2


,
NO2
O2N
NH
.
:
: 11 . 2,6 54 20
NO2 N
200 . .
5 115.
NO2
2 . ,
O2N
2 ,
NH
. 2,6()- 90% (46-48).
50 . -, ,
500 90% HNO3, -20.
NO2
25, . 1
O2N
,
. 5 . , 1 70% . 0
, . . 70% (39-41).
PYX, .
:
1. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
2. : US4948897, US4564405, US3678061
4.1.21
2,4,6-()-1,3,5-, N2,N4,N6-, TPM,
.
- :
O2N
NO2
.

.
.
.
. - 1.75
HN
/3.
O N
NO2
NO2
2
:
N
N

300. t . 304-316. t
. 325.
N
N
NH
. . .
H
320 2.5 .
NO2
O2N
NO2
:


7420 / 24.0 .
.

NO2
88

:
1966 (Coburn).
.
:
N2,N4,N6- 100.
N2,N4,N6-
50 2,4,6-()-1,3,5- (t . 100
. 1.75 /3)
N2,N4,N6- :
15 70% 15 .
2 ( 5 15
1 ). 70.
100 3 . 25 .
, , 1 ,
135.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1980. T358.
2. US3414570
4.1.22 2,4,6--1,3,5-, ,
- :
- ,
O2N
NO2
NO2 O2N
-, . . .
1.724 /3( -). .
N
1.87 /3.

:
N
N
NO2
O2N
t
.
352-353.

3
0.4 // 2 300 (

O 2N
NO2
280) 93
(,
63, 32 160 ).
28%.
:
4.18 /.
NO2
7000 / 1.6 /3.
:
1968 (Dacons).
.
:
:
18.5 100 89 .
140. 20
, 118 150 .
, 146, .

40, 140-145. 20
140, 700 ,
5. ,
1 20% , 20
. , ,
, .
3 25 , .
400.
, 62.
5, ,
. 60.7 . . 350-351 140 (
89

, .. ).
. . 352-353.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1980. T357.
2. US3755321
4.1.23 -1,3-4,4-, -1,2,5,6,
-[d]-6--[2,1-a]-11-,
TACOT, .
- :
-
O2N
N
.
NO2
N

N
-. , .
.
N
NO2
(59% 95% ),

NO2
- 1.85 /3.
:
t . 378. t . 494 .
350 -10, 305 10.
300 150 ( 95).
. ( ).
. 50% 2.5 ( 12) 102.
320 2.5 , ,
0.02-0.03 . 3 .
:
+128/. 6450 / 1.59 /3, 7250 /
1.64 /3. . 88% .
85% . 4.103 / ( ).
:
1961 . DuPont 70
. ,
. , , .
.
.
( 5-10% ).
:
-1,2,5,6-
60. -1,2,5,6-, ,
1,2-.
,-:
4.3 ,- 40 . 40
5 4 20 .
. 5
. .
3.8 20 ( 5).
,-. 30
5, 2 . ,- 79%.
,- 2 170.
- -.
-1,3-4,4-.
-1,3-4,4- : 5 , 200 .
13
. -1,3-4,4-
.
90

1 -1,3-4,4-
30 . 15 ,
60 15.
5 - . ,
.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5,9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972, 1980. D1184-1185, T1-T2.
2. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p307
3. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985).
4. A preliminary evaluation of TACOT, a new heat resistant explosive. United states naval ordinance
laboratory, White oak, Maryland. AD329452. 1962.
5. : US2904544, US3140212
4.1.24 1,3,5--2,4,6-, TNTPB.
- :
NO2
. ,
.

:
t . . 400. t . . 370.
.
O2N
NO2


O2N
NO2

NO
NO2
.
2
:

,
NO2
.
O
N
NO
NO2
2
2 O2 N
:
. -
.
:
100 : 500
35% 50. ,
, 3 300 , 300 300
, . 66 200
1 . 400 , 31.6 1,3,5--2,4,6-
74.24 .
160 20 .
5-10 ( ).
10 .
160 10 .
, , .
,
600 65
15. , .
, 30 , 20
50 15.
.
100 : 1:2. 19.7 (23.2%)
:
US4861924

91

4.1.25 3--1,2,4-, PAT, PATO.


NO2
- :
H
2- . -.
H
N
N
. , .
3
. 1.936 / .
N

N
:
O2N
NO2
. t . . 310 .
320 2.5 ( -160).
:
. 7850/c
30.7 .
:
.
:
3--1,2,4-.
- 3--1,2,4- 65.
- . 2.5 .
. 81.4%. 50%
.
C6H2(NO2)3N(NO2)C2H2N3 C6H2(NO2)3N(NO2)C2HN3NO2 ( , ).
:
Jiarong Li, Boren Chen, and Yuxiang Ou. Modifed Preparation and Purifcation of 3-(2,4,6Trinitrobenzenyl)-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 24, 95 (1999)
4.1.26 .
- :
( - ) - ( - )
N3
,
. - O2N
NO2
- ,
- .
:
(119-121 .) O2N
NO2
.
: 43 17 .
NO2
2.5 50% ( 54 ).
:
8670 / . 1.76 / 3 9210 / . 1.88 /3 (1.88 /3
). . 32.9 40.4 (
). .
.
:
.
- , , - .
:

(. ). 97%.
:
US4600536
4.2
, N-NO2. ,
, (,
). (, RDX)
(
) (, HMX)
, .
, ,
92


.
R-6, K-55 -56,
.
, ,
.
.
2.0 /.
,
14%.
4.2.1 2,4,6--N-, , .
- :
.
NO2
NO2
1. - .
20 50 /100: (0.008 0.019),
N
(36.7 88.6), (10.2 20.3),
CH3
, . .
( ) . H2SO4 (
). , O N
NO2
2
2,4,6-. ,
. .
. . -
.
t . 68. (1.71
/3 2000 /2). - 1.73 /3.
:
t . 129.5 ( 128.8). 100.
t . . 190. .
2.5 (12tool 50%) 37 ( -28, -148). : 0.29
0.03 .
:
4.6 / (960/ 0.98/3, 1160/ 1.69/3),
+7.6 /. +16.7/. 7500 /
. 1.63 /3. 1.70 /3 25,
7620 /. 2950. 765 /.
340-390 . 126-132% .
113-123% ( ).
:
1877 (Mertens).
- 1906 . 1910.
2 .
, .
(.. ,
.
50/50).
(. ),
.
:
(. t . 193.5.
). .
.
92-96% ( 1 8-14 96% )
. .
.
,
. 2
,
.
.
93


1.4 (65%). 1. 40
7. 60,
90.
78% .

. 50-60%
, .
1. ( ):
10 92-95% 38-40 ,
, 1 ,
50.
. :
. . 10- - .
, 20-30.
.
90% (5.5 100%
), 48
( 1-1.5 )
, , 57 .
1-1.5, ,
40,
.
57 10.
- .
. 2-3
- 10 .
5, 40, 70 100.
. ,
, (. 1
1 ). , ,
, 60. 60-90%.
2- - 55-60,
, , , , 45. . .
2. (
):
, 300 , 1140 35% -
1225 25% .
12 2000
1350 , 95-100.
, .
- . ,
, ,
- (. 16%).
78% , 6% 16% (-
20% ). 1,
30. 50-55
40. - .

, 1% HNO3, 0.5% NO2, 82.5% H2SO4, 16% H2O,
95% 20% .
, , 50, 10-12
, ,
70. . 128.4 95.3% .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 40
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1980. T148-T164.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p314
94

4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
5. .. 2 1962 522.
6. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 540
7. .. . .
. 1969 . 136
4.2.2
,
,
1,3,5--1,3,5, cyclonite, Hexonite, RDX, Hx, C6, T4
- :

NO2
( 0 0.01 /100 , 20 0.07 , 100 0.15 ),
(6.81 /100 , 12.8 50),
N
(25.5 /100 20), .
(93% - 12.5 /100 , 50% ), (12 /
100 30, 33 80) .
N
N
2.5. . H2SO4
O2N
NO2
. (
), H2SO4 .. .
. .
, , . 50 60-100 /.
( )
, .
.
. 1.816 / 3. .
:
160, 100 , t . 214. t
. 204.5-205 . t . . 230. .
. h=25 10 72-80%, 4-8%.
2.5 22-24 (50%), 28 (12tool. - 148, -13-16).
11.5 (- 4.5, 29.5, 10)
:
5.45 / (1190/ 1.1/ 3, 1290/ 1.7/3),
14.7 /,, 5900/ . 0.9 / 3, 8360/, .
1.7 /3, 8640/ . 1.77 / 3. 908 /. 140%
( ), 135% (PDT). 450-520.
150% . 4.8 ( 5.4,
2.8). . 33.8 1.767 / 3. ( 1.80 /3
34.7, 3700).
97% (1.76 /3).
:
1899 (Henning)
. 1920 (Herz) . 30
20 , 2 .
. 1932-1933 1939
150-200 .
1933. 1940,
1942, 1941 -
. - 2 .
, , , , .
. ,
21
,
. Holston 90-95% ,
. 1995 8-12USD/.

- ( ), ,
, , , ,
95

..
.. (IRDX).
,
-
.
:
1) * .
( ).

, .
8-15 99-92% , 1
. 20.
(
),
. .
, 50%,
. ,

,
.
, -
( )
- ,
.
50-60% .
1%
.

, .
,
. - , ..
,
.
, 60-65 , ,
.
(. 12.7 /100 25, 27 /100 97).
0.7-0.75 (1.1-1.2
. 1 ), CO2,
H2O, N2 .. ( ).
** (1.
6-7. . ). 15
30 .
.

N2O5 .
, - (1
3-4 ) .
2) - . HNO3 ( )
. -
. 2 :
15 .
70-80, 3NH4NO3+ 3CH2O = (CH2NNO2)3
+ 6H2O.

. . ,
, -
.
3) 2 .
( )
BF3 ( ).
96

,
.
80%.
.
93.4% , 6% 0.6% 1--3,5,7. 2 . -
.
4) 1 3 .. -
,
. -
.
- - ( -).
: (CH2)6N43CH3COOH + 4HNO3 + 2NH4NO3 +6(CH3CO)2O =
(CH2NNO2)3 + 15CH3COOH.
. - NH4NO3 -13.6%, HNO3
(98%)17.2%, (CH2)6N4 9.2%, 15%, - 45%.
- NH4NO3 HNO3
40, ,
68, ,
. - , 79%
, 6% 15% .
80-85% . 10% . -
.
, 1), -
.
5)

3,7-
1,3,5,7[3,3,1] (. *** ) ,
,
, .
4. -
( 98%)
. 3,7-
1,3,5,7-[3,3,1] , ,
, .
6) - :
- (CH2NR)3 R- (, ), -
.. ,
,
, . ,
2 . (W )
( ).
( (CH2NSO3K)3),

pH=5 30. SO3 30
30. . 80-90%
, .
, ,
. W
. , SO3
P2O5.
- - .
,
.
()
. ( . HNO3 H2O2) (-40)
.
. 2
. .
205. .
97

.
98%.
,
, .

,
( ).
.
1. .
100-120 (.>96%) , 5-10
10 .
.
20 15-20.
50-70 50-55% , 0.1-0.2
70-75.
,
50-55%.
. , .
. ,
, .
, 100.
2. .
175 450
(. 1.51) .
,
10. 1 ,
, 2. .
88 . 200-201.
3.
( ) 2 . .
99% ,
15 1)
80 30, 20.
( 90% )
, 5% - .
-12,
NH4NO32HNO3 - , .
,
10% .
. 1 0.48-0.5 , 4.8
8.6 99% .
- , , , , .
4.
(E ).
, 60-65 0.4%
( , ), 6
(
), 20 -.
140.
160 . 1 0.63-0.635 ,
1.8 , 5-5.1 , 0.019 . ..
63-65%, 80%.
, 60
, .
5. - (
):
60 1.7
40 0.48
98

1.11 98% 0.24 160


. 65,
20 .
640 2.
4 , , .
50-70% 5-10. ,
, . . .
200.
6. .
11.3 6.8 ,
10.5 13.1 30
. 1,
. . -
. 68.
2.8 (
), . -
(
), 3 - 2.8
- 12.5 ( 35 ).
, . . 98%.
7. (2
).
34.4 100% 0 2
28.4 . 5
29.4, ,
25-30. 115 (
- ), ,
. . 60%
, 2 ,
11.8 . 204.3-204.7.
100 100% 5-10
50 .
30 . 75%. .
201.
*- , ,
( 20 81.3 /100
, ), (2.9 /100 )
230. ,
.
80% , . .
.
( ), , .
..
**- (CH2)6N42HNO3
. t . 165 .
.
. . t . . 190. 190-220 .
2434/. 1081/.
, -
. . 20%,
. 50-60% HNO3
15,
, .
20% HNO3, . 90-95%.
*** - ()
. .
65-100%: 980 . 980 .
, , 0, 490 , 30
560 . . .
99

.
. . -,
. 20-30 120-140, , ,
. , - - 20.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P.
77,121
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 3,9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1966,1980. C611-C624,C630-C632, R120-R146.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p69,71
4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
5. .. 2 1962 197,208.
6. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 131.
7. .. . .
. 1969 . 193
8. Duncan Watt, Frederic Peugeot, Ruth Doherty, Michael Sharp, Darko Topler, David Tucker. REDUCED
SENSITIVITY RDX, WHERE ARE WE? Proc. of 35th International Annual Conference of ICT, Karlsruhe,
Germany 2004.
9. C. SPYCKERELLE, A. FRECHE, G. ECK and C. BOUTRY. Ageing of I-RDX and of compositions based
on I-RDX Proc. of 35th International Annual Conference of ICT, Karlsruhe, Germany 2004.
10. W.P. Binnie. H.L.Cohen and George F. Wright. Tripotassium 1,3,5-Triazacyclohexane-1,3,5Trisulfonate. JACS Vol 72 1950 p 4457-4459.
11. , , .
. , -, 2001.
12. : RU2248958, US3937703, US5250687, H447, US2434879, US2395773, US2355770,
GB899695
4.2.3
,
1,3,5,7--1,3,5,7, , HMX, homocyclonite
- :
5 : , , , , .
O2N
-,
. (1.87 /3) (1.82 /3)
N
NO2
, - (1.76 /3)
N
. - (1.919/3)
.
O N N
2
(0.005 100 25, 0.02 100), , ,
N
(2.1 /100 22, 4.0 /100 50),
NO2
, (
30, 25.1 44.0
100 ). 2.3.
- .. ( . ).
. - .
1.905 /3 ( ).
:
. t . 279 - 280 . 0.07 48 120
( 1). 220. t . 265. t . . 330.
h=25 10 72-80%, ( 4-8%) 12tool 2.5 50=32 ( 148,
28). 10 (- 4.5, 29.5, 11.5)
122-155% ( ), 155% (PDT).
5.4 1.83 /3 ( 4.8 1.75 /3, 2.8 1.6/3).
450 . 150% . 1-5 (150
35 . - 40 . , . ).
:
(- ) .
5.73 / ( ) (1210/ 1.3/ 3, 1300/ 1.8/3).
100

17.9 /. +60.5/. 9110 /


. 1.89 /3. 1.90 /3
39.3, 9100 /. 782 / ( 755
/).
:
.
2 . (1942) .
-.
,
.
-
. - , , ,
10-15% ,
.
, 2 .
, , -
50- , - 1955 .
: 60-,
1972. 1972 1984, 1978
.
. ,
, , .., ,
.
( - 25%).
.
, .. - .
1981 5 ,
, 1995 2 .
:
3 :
1) ,
, ,
.
(CH3CO)2O ,
, . -
: NH4NO3 11%, HNO3 (98%) 11%,
(CH2)6N4 17%, .. 18%, - 54%.
45% ( 1.5 1 ).
,
*,
, ,
, ,
.
-
.
95% 90% .
- -.
,
. ,
. -.
. -.

, - .
- ,
.
2) .

75-80%
101

3)

1.

2.

3.

. 10% -
. 48% (
2 ). 10-12.
, , ..
, ..
. ,
,

-. ,
.
( ),
.
, 3,7-1,3,5,7-[3,3,1],
( . ) . H2SO4 (
) ,
. - P2O5
. ,
.
.
() .,
N- P2O5 .
().

.
:
, , ,
30 , 75
10 . 32.5 98-99%
13.5 . 40-45
20
28 . 50.
45-50 ,
. ,
. , 60 10%

. 20,
(50-55) .
40-45%. . 265.
- . .
:
10 6 , ,
785 , 13 17
. 441 15.

101 165 , 320


180 840 900 99-100%
. 15 .
320 271
. 160 .
60, 350 30.
20, ,
3- . 95% (200)
90%. . 278279.
,
:
47 98% 44 .
. ,
102

460 100 . 60,


10
60-65. 5
20-30, 5
40.
60-65 .
. 50
450 .
12 . 102
. 272-276. 80
. 278-280.
4. :
14 6.2 5-10 7 .
30.6 .
,
80 15-20 63 99% 221 96%
. 20
1 . 1.5 1,5-3,7--1,3,5,7- (DADN) . 265. 27.7 (95%)
100%**. ,

,

.
DADN 98% 88%
- 7.5 16.5 1 DADN . 60-70.
99% 100% . 25
97% 8.4 DADN, 50
50 99% 100%.
- 45%.
5. ()
AAHT:
.. , , . -
, -30 : 2
,
30, 40-50. ,
130-140 20-30 .
3
, 110-120, 2
,
( ),
1.5 , , 2 ,
130-150 20-45.
90-100%.
:
1482 1570
, ,
130. 120130 2. ( 3
) 126 5 () .
1.5 (1 ),
130-140 20-30 .
140-150 .
- .
100. .
:
562.5 1125
98%. 500 125 30.
30-45, 37.
5 , 12-24
103

. , ,
. 1--3,5,7- (SOLEX, SEX, QDX. t . 225,
, 2 , )
96%.
100 , 100 .
15. 80 ,
20.
100 SOLEX-,
, ,
, 24-48
. , ,
. - . ( -
, 37
5 ).
*- - .
N
. ,
. . . , O N N
N NO2
2
. t . . 215. -
85-90%
N
. 50 1,
3.5 . 60-65%,
70-75%,
. ,
, 31%.
(
), .
:
10.5 60 37% - , 45
, 25-30 5% -
pH 2-3.
, 65 ,
, 43%- pH = 6-7.
, ,
. 5.8 (52%).
:
5 5-0 10 .
(98%) 10 (20%). 30
0 30
20 9.7 . 50
25% - 20-25 pH = 6.
45 20 .
. 62.5% (11.3).
. , .
**- : 6.6 3.3
DADN 93 91% 100% 96% .
70%
DADN 92 88% 97% 93% .
DADN ( . .
). .
70% 96% (
). : 4.1 10 . 1.84 / 3.
25 12 2.12 .
250 . pH
= 8 DADN, , .
2.0 . 261.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 117
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 3,7,9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1966,1975,1980. C605-C610, H162, T83-T99.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p239
104

4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
5. .. 2 1962 268.
6. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 334
7. .. . .
. 1969 . 199
8. .. . . . . 1975.
9. V.I.Siele and others, Alternative procedures for preparing HMX. Propel. and Explos. 6, 67-73 (1981)
10. .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , ..
, .. .
. No 3 2007 .
11. . . . . . 1-2 2009 (21-22) . 90.
12. , , .
. , -, 2001.
13. : US4767854, US6194571, US4338442, US3978046, US3978046, US6201117, US6214988,
US4086228, US3979379, US3987034, US3297681, US3926953, US4785094, US4925936,
US2678927, RU2198886
4.2.4 , N,N-, , haleite.
- :

H2
H
(0.3 /100 25, 4.95 /100 75, 16.4 /
NO2
C
N
100 95), (1.25 /100 25, 10.1 /100
O 2N
C
N
75), , ,
H
H2
. .
, N2O (
H2SO4), . t
50, .
(
, ).
, . ,
.
:
t . 175 - 178 . 0.2% 100 48 . t .
185. 120. (h=25
10 ) 75-80% 34 2.5 (50%), 160 , 26. .
0.21 0.13 .
:
-137.7/. -165.3/. 5.36
/. 7750/ . 1.55 / 3. 1.75 /3. 420447 119% 52.3 ( ).
(plate cutting test) .
136-140% . 908 /.
:

,
.
.
1888 (Franchimont).
1935. 2 . ( , ..
- , - ), c
Ednatol (55:45 7300/ .
1.62 /3). ( - 70%).
.

.
, , ,
, .
105

:
1) - - * 98%
. **,
. 70%.
HNO3 H2SO4.
10 15.4% HNO3, 74.0% H2SO4, 10.6% .
10.
. ,
. , ,
50.
2) , ,
***, . (CH2NH2)2 + (CH3CO)2O = (CH2NHCOCH3)2,
(CH2NHCOCH3)2 + 2HNO3 = (CH2NNO2COCH3)2, NH3.
.
. -
, .
1. :
300 98% 10
60 . ,
-.
( 1% ) 600 1-3
. 853,
30-50
. ,
96 15-25 .
20 30-60. -,
. 86-88% t . 175177.
2. --
:
250 , ,
14 64% 40
, 40-50.

, 140-145.
50,
. --
100. 20-25. . 172-175.
60
--
60 98% , 5-10.
1 , 30
15-20 300 .
. 25-30. . 132-133.

17 50 . 50
. -.
. . ,
3 50 50 . 12-14 (8095%) . 179-180.
* - : t . 125 - 126, . , , .
(CH2NH)2CO0.5H2O t . 58. -
.
. .
.
** -
, .
, ( ) . t
106

. 212 . HNO3
H2SO4 ( 2O5) N2O5 (. ).
*** - . , . t . 10.9. t . 117.
, (81.9% , t . 119)
( ).
.
100. - (
).
, .
1.
:
,
.
388 100 , 140-150.
180 3-3.5. 3
180 240 240 .
. 185 .
, 120-125 250 (58-60)
2 .
50-55% (90-95).
260-270 , 40%.
2.
:
65-75% ( 85 )
71 , 110-120, 3
160-180, .
, 240-250 1
. 100 ( 99%).
, , ..

.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 18
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5,6
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972,1974. D1137-E1138, E238-E243.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p126
4. .. 2 1962 120.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 597
6. .. . .
. 1969 . 188
7. : US3950196, US2684384, US2400288.
4.2.5
, , NQ (NH2)C(=NH)NHNO2 ( - ),
(NH2)2C=NNO2 ( - )
- :
. (0,44 /100 20,
8,25 /100 100), , , , H2SO4 ,
. , , . HNO3.
. -
, . . . . -
- , . 25-100 -
.
. .
, (t . 182.
, 0 , 70, ,
- ).
107

(. (NH2)(NO2HN)C=NHHClO4
- t . 110-120. 1.932 /3).
.
. 1.775 /3.
:
185, t . 246.7 ( .)
( >177 2 . 80-120 ) ,
. .
8. .
:
3.01 / (730/ 1.08/3, 820/ 1.58/3 ).
92.5/. -184.9.0/. 290-300 .
104% . 16.5 .
36 (-48). 1077 /. 27/34 6775/ . 1.2 / 3, .
- 8160/ . 1.72 / 3.
:
1877 (Jousellin). 1 .
.
. 2 . . . ,
. ,
.
, -
,
- .
,
.
:
. - ( - )
* - ( - ) ,
- - .
.
(. - )
, ..
. .
.
- 1-2%
-
-.
.
-: 100 . 98% H2SO4 80
( .), ,
10, .
- . ,
, 0.6 ,
0 . .
0.8 . 90% (60-62).
-:
25 61% 20 .
. . ,
2 140. 0,
, 20 . 10 . .
, 1 ,
300 , , .
6 (. 25%).
*- 75%
(300
1148 225-245 ).
108

:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 22
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 6
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1974. G154-G158.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p230
4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
5. .. 2 1962 48.
6. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 303
7. .. . .
. 1969 . 186
4.2.6 1,2-, DNG.(NH2)C(=NNO2)NHNO2
- :
, (53/
25, 125/ 45) . : , (86/ 25,
166/ 45), .
. , - .
1.885 /3 ( 1.906/3 ). (3000/2)
1.86-1.88 / 3.
:
t . 169. 22 ( -32). 90 ( -195,
153). 2 .
:
0/. 9000/ . 1.81 / 3,
2.5% 9200/ . 1.82 /3.
:
.
.
:
1. 1,2-
: 5 -20
35 2% - ,
6. 200 .
5
20. 2- 10
. 4.2 (59%),
.
2. 1,2- 60%
:
20 98% 36 60% 0-10
14 20 98% . 15
60% , 2 98% , 1,
80-90 . (12)
, (5 20),
, , , .
. 16
(80%) . 169.
:
1. Vitaliy I. Pepekin, Larisa M. Kostikova, German T. Afanasev. EXPLOSIVE PROPERTIES of 1,2DINITROGUANIDINE Proc. of 35th International Annual Conference of ICT, Karlsruhe, Germany 2004.
2. .. , .. , .. . 1,2. . 2003. . 39. . 4 . 537.
3. M. Johansson, N. V. Latypov . 1,2-Dinitroguandidine (DNG) Synthesis and Optimization Proceedings
of the Thirty-First International Pyrotechnics Seminar . July 11-16, 2004

109

4.2.7 , , NH2CONHNO2
- :
. , . ,
. 60 N2O.
- NH2CONHNO2 = NH2NO2 +
HNCO. (, ,
.) . 1.68/ 3.
. ,
.
:
t . 158 - 159 ( .). .
.
:
. 310 .
55.9/. -642.5/. 3.86 /.
105% . 4700 /
. 1.0 /3. 853/.
:
1915 .
- . ,
. .
.
:
. - :
:
300 . . H2SO4, 0, ,
200 . . -
1 . , ,
. ,
. 146-153. ,
.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 33
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 10
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1983. U108.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p237
4. .. 2 1962 42.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 310
6. .. . .
. 1969 . 184
4.2.8 , MNO, DNDMO
- :
, , .
NO2
. . ,
N
O
. H C
3
40. 20 /100
: 31.0, 17.3, 10.6,
CH3
9.6, 0.74. 37% (
O
N
100.5 ) ( 78.6 ) 1.52
NO2
/3.
:
t . 122-124. 100 30 .
120 : 5 5 5 . 100
( -70). ,
.
:
7130/ 1.33/ 3. 370.
-74.5/. 116% .
110

:
1883 (Franchimont). -
, .

30%
70% - 8500/
.
:
.
- .
:
130 . , 167 15% 100 (. 1.42),
20. 60
, 30 . , ,
. 98%.
-
20% .
12.5% . 97%.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 34.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972. D1360.
4.2.9 1,4-, 1,4-, DINGU
- :

NO2
, , . , .
H
N
N
HNO3. , . HNO3
,
O
O
. 3 , 1,3 .
N
N
H
.
O2N
. DINGU .
.
1.94 / 3.
1.992 /3.
:
0.89/ 130 100.
, - . t . 225-250.
88-125 ( 148,
22, 2.5).
:
7580/ . 1.76 / 3, 4,
, 41.3
. ( . - 8790 /). -42.3
/. 42.1 ( 48).
:
1888 (Franchimont & Klobbie), , DINGU

. 1952 . 7080- 20 .
, 1,4-
. -
. .
.
, (
, ),
. /DINGU 60/40
7330 / 1.73 / 3. DINGU
- .
111

:
* . 1:5
( 1:3.5, )
. 5.
.
1. :
100
10 . 55
1, 200 .
0, , ,
.
2. 85% :
4 50. 85% . 65
. 50 90 .
30, , . 5.4-5.7
(90-95%). 1.4- 99% .
3. 3
170, 500 330, :
98% 1200/ 200/ .
10 30-40,
70 30,
25 20.
90%. , pH =5,
65 95.5%. 1.4
100 130. 4% .
*- OC(HN)2C2H2(NH)2CO . . .
. t . 218-226. 80-90 - 1
40% 2.5 pH~1.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1,6
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960, 1974. A65,G117-G118.
2. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p100
3. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 88.
4. M.M. Stinecipher and L.A. Stretz. Sensitivity and performance characterization of DINGU.
Proceedings of Eighth Symposium (International) on detonation. 1985.
5. : US4211874, US4148674
4.2.10 , , SORGUYL, TENGU, 2,4,6,8-2,4,6,8-(3,3,0)-.
- :
,
O2 N
NO2
4

N
N
. .
3
. 2.02 / ( O
O
), . 1.98 / 3. .
N
N
.
:
O2 N
NO2
t . . 100. t . . 200.
.
:
9150/ . 1.95 /3. 61.9
( 48, - 62.7). -33.5/.
1330/.
:
,
. -
. .
. 1952 (Minsky).
112

:
,
100% HNO3 N2O5 (5-50%)
, .
1.
:
9. (CH3CO)2O, , 3 98% HNO3, 15
20 ( N2O5), 0.6 ,
20, 2 30.
. 72%.
2.
:
100 - 14
10 , 50
1. 0 250 .
, . .
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 6
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1974. G117-G118.
2. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p100
3. .. , .. , .. . 1,5---1,5--3,7-[3.3.0]. 1991. 61, . 13
2778.
4. US4487938
4.2.11 2,4,6--2,4,6,8--[3.3.0]-3-, HK-55
- :
O N
NO2
. , 2
.
N
N
. . 1.905 / 3.
O
:
t . 196-197. 2.5 - 61,
N
N
80 ( 32).
H
:
O N
100% 2
. .
:
.
, .
:
-- ,
. .
.
,
.
:
--: 560 70
5 140. 0,
90 . . 162.
1,3--4,5-: 9.8 30% 7.7
-- 10 . PH 8, 4 ,
3-4 5, -12 .
. 55%.
2-[4,5-d] : 3.5
14 . , 10-15, 1,3-4,5- 8. 2 ,
. 4.0 (40%).
30 19.5
90% . 4 20
6 , .
113

7. .
4 200 .
300 . , 5.62 (72%) .
3.84 (49%) .
:
1. Gordon Boezer, L. Kirk Lewis, Raymond F. Walker. Handbook of energetic materials for weapons
systems including ballistic and cruise missiles. Institute for defense analyses. 1995.
2. P.F.Pagoria, A.R.Mitchell and others. Nitroureas II. Synthesis, of bicyclic Mono- and Dinitrourea.
Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 21, 14-18 (1996).
3. Vayalakkavoor T. Ramakrishnan, Murugappa Vedachalam, and Joseph H. Boyer . Dense Compounds
of C, H, N, and O Atoms: II [l]. Nitramine and Nitrosamine Derivatives of -2-oxo- and 2Iminooctahydroimidazo- [4,5-d]-imidazole . Heteroatom Chemistry . Volume 2, Number 6, 1991 .
4. C. W. Sauer, R. J. Bruni, J. Am. Chem. SOC.,77, 1955, 2559.
5. S. L. Vail, C. M. Moran, H. B. Moore, R. M. H Kullman, J. Org. Chem., 27, 1962, 2071.
4.2.12
,
-,
K-55,
2,4,6,8-2,4,6,8-(3,3,0)--3
- :
. , O N
NO2
2
.
. 1.954 / 3,
N
N

O
1.98-2.00 /3.
:
N
N
.
2.5 - 30-35, 40 ( 32).
O2N
NO2
:
9200/ . 1.96 /3. 5.6 (
5.4). 500. +23/.
102-105% .
:
70- 80- . 80-
, 90-
Thiokol Ensign Bickford.
.
, .
:
-- ,
. .
.
HK-55 100%
0, 20. 86%.
:
1. Gordon Boezer, L. Kirk Lewis, Raymond F. Walker. Handbook of energetic materials for weapons
systems including ballistic and cruise missiles. Institute for defense analyses. 1995.
2. P.F.Pagoria, A.R.Mitchell and others. Nitroureas II. Synthesis, of bicyclic Mono- and Dinitrourea.
Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 21, 14-18 (1996)
3. Vayalakkavoor T. Ramakrishnan, Murugappa Vedachalam, and Joseph H. Boyer . Dense Compounds
of C, H, N, and O Atoms: II [l]. Nitramine and Nitrosamine Derivatives of -2-oxo- and 2Iminooctahydroimidazo- [4,5-d]-imidazole . Heteroatom Chemistry . Volume 2, Number 6, 1991.
4.2.13 , , 2,4,6,8-[3,3,0]-,
-1,3,4,6--[4,5-d]- O2N
, BCHMX.
N
- :
, .
,
N
.
: 25/100 (20), 28.9/100 (40),
94.6/100 (20), 102.5/100 (40), 133.3/100 (80), : O2N
114

NO2
N
N
NO2

10.5/100 (20), 13.7/100 (40), 22.7/100 (80), : 10.5/100 ( 2080). 1.87 /3. (1.92 /3 150).
:
t 227. t 239 . , 50 (2),
2500/3. ( 70 2000/ 3).
H50=2.98 ( 2.9, 5.58, 6.37),
88 ( 88, 152, 95).
:
8700/ . 1.77 /3. 5.76/ (
5.48/, 5.53/, 5.73/). 49.3/.
1%
.
:
70- 80- . 80-
, 1987
( US5569032 1997), ,
, . ,
,
. 21 ,
.

.
.
9% , 25% , 59%
16% HM46 8270/ 1.66/ 3. (
9% ,
: 8050 1.61/ 3,8320 1.67/ 3,8600
1.77/3).
:

pH 3.5-0.5 ,
. 2,4,6,8-[3,3,0]--2,4,6,8- 94%. -
-35--30, ,
. 60-70%.
0-5.
:
135 120 pH 5.5-6.0 55 1
47.5 40% 43.5 37% .
7-9 50, pH, 3. pH
3, .
-10, 100 200 . 123
2,4,6,8--[3,3,0]--2,4,6,8- ( 84%).
40 97.5% , -30, 20
10 0.1 .
. ,
. . 48%.
2,4,6,8--[3,3,0]-2,4,6,8- 68%.
:
70 99.5% 30 .
0, 100 ( ),
20 0.2 . 35
0, , .
, . 60%.
:
1. Dusan Klasovity etc. cis-1,3,4,6-Tetranitrooctahydroimidazo-[4,5-d]imidazole (BCHMX), its properties
and initiation reactivity . Journal of Hazardous Materials 164 (2009) 957-961.
2. Sysolyatin, S. V. Sakovich, G. V. Chernikova, Y. T. Surmachev, V. N. Lobanova, A. A. Synthesis of
Polycyclic Nitramines by Nitration of Condensation Products of Glyoxal and Formaldehyde with
115

Sulfamic Acid Salts. INTERNATIONAL ANNUAL CONFERENCE- FRAUNHOFER INSTITUT FUR


CHEMISCHE TECHNOLOGIE. 2006, CONF 37, pages P 141.
3. .. , .. . . . 2006.
4. Ahmed Elbeih, Jiri Pachman etc. Detonation Characteristics of Bicyclo-HMX and HNIW with Two
Different Binders Proc. of 13th seminar New trends in research of energetic materials Pardubice.
2010.
5. US5569032, CZ302068.
4.2.14 1,4-, .
- :
. , ,
O 2N N
N NO2
.
:
t . 215 .
:
114% . 13.3/.
107% .
:
,
, ,
.
:

.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972. D1231.
2. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 220
4.2.15
,
-(2-)-,
,, , O2NN(CH2CH2ONO2)2
- :
, . ,
, -. . H2SO4 ,
. . . 1.67 / 3.
1.658 /3.
:
t . 52.5. t . 165. 44%
10 25. 80%.
, .
:
5.23 / (1070/ 0.8/3, 1200/ 1.55/3).
-78.1 /. -274.4/. 7350
1.47 /3 7730/ . 1.6 / 3. -55.3 ( 48,
54.7). 480. 142% .
924/.
:
1942 (Wright), 1944 .
(
).
. . - .
1,5--3-.
:
. HNO3 (CH3CO)2O
( ) 5 - 40 10.
. 90%. 1 3.4 (CH3CO)2O 3.2 HNO3.
, , - .
, .
116

1. :
, , ,
, 204 . 0.5

. 30-35
10 105 95-98%
. ,
- . 20.
60
, -,
- 30% . ,
0.5% . ,
15. ,
( -).
2 , 0.5%
. .
2. - :
, , ,
, 3.4 0.05
. 2 1
3.2 98% 45 5-15,
, .
40 40.
.
. 90%. t . 49.5-51.5.
-(2-)-
.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 36
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972. D1240-D1242.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p109
4. .. 2 1962 265.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 216
6. .. . .
. 1969 . 190
7. .. . . . . .
1956 . 326.
4.2.16 -1,4,5,8--1,4,5,8-,TNAD
- :
. . , .
NO2
NO2
. 1.80 /3.
:
N
N
t . . 233 . t . . 200.
40 2.5 , ,
.
:
N
N
7775/c 1.64 /3.
+17.5/. 1200/.
NO2
NO2
:
.
.
:
: . -
, . . .
1,4,5,8- HCl,
HNO3, . 10 - 0
117

1,4,5,8- HNO3 N2O5 P2O5 85%.


.

- .
:
1. .. , .. . . . 2006.
2. R.L.Willer. Synthesis and characterization of high energy compounds. I. Trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 8, 65-69 (1983)
3. : US4443602, DE19501377, RU2144532
4.2.17 2--5---1,3,5-, NNHT
- :
. , . . . . . 1.75 /3.
:
t . 207 . (. 120 40. 5)
3.8 ( 0.1 , 0.2-0.6). 80-95
2 ( 32). -.
.
:
NO2
16.3 /. 3.38/.
. 8220/c
N
29.9 .
:
.
HN
NH
:
.
c
2-N
-1,3,5- .
NO2
. , NNHT
,
.
:
1 , 750 37%
. 41.25 . 100
12. .
, 100 .
51.62 (71.7%).
500 320 90% -11
/ . 320 97%
-15. 95.5 2---1,3,5-
12 -15 .
, 0-5 .
-3.6 3 2 . ,
. 94.5 (94.5%)
:
1. Alexander M. Astachov and others 2-NITRIMINO-5-NITROHEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE:
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES Proc. of 8th seminar New trends in research of energetic
materials Pardubice. 2005.
2. US4937340
4.2.18 2,4,6--2,4,6-, KETORDX, -6, TNTC
- :
. , , .
-, , . .
,

.
25 1% , 100 30.
1.932 /3. 1.97 /3.
118

NO2
N

O 2N

N
O

NO2

:
t . . 195 . 9 2 . H50 = 15
2.5 ( -32).
:
14.8/.
. 9270/c 40.2 . . 6.0 /.
8814 /c 1.85 /3. 4 % .
:
, ,

,
90.
:
:
1) -, . 4-1,3,5-- . HNO3 N2O5
40%.
, .
2) HCl .
2---1,3,5-

. HNO3. ( NNHT)
3) *
() - .
4) (18%) ,
.
:
N,N-.
21 (1.5/3) 21 (20%) -5-0
6 (0.1) . 30
, 54 (14 0.1).
20. , , .
19.8 (56%). t . 98.
14.12 -5-0 24
. 30 20,
40 . , ,
. 8.4 (89%) . 170-180. (200-201
).
*- OC(NHNO2)2
, ,
. : OC(NHNO2)2 + H2O =>2NH2NO2 +CO2 .
. . (50%) 5, 76 ( . 7
120).
. t . 92,
-. 1.98 / 3.
.
: 13.2 100% HNO3, 10.9 95% H2SO4.
0, 3 30 ,
5. 5 5 .
-. 5 .
:
1. .. .
. . -. 1994. 8 1129-1132.
2. N. Sikder, N.R. Bulakh, A.K. Sikder, D.B. Sarwade. Synthesis, characterization and thermal studies of
2-oxo-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (Keto-RDX or K-6) Journal of Hazardous Materials A96
(2003) 109119.
3. .., .., .., ... .
N,N- . . 2002. .
38. . 12. 1793
119

4. .., .., .., ... .


N,N- . . 2002.
. 38. . 12. 1800
5. Patrick Goede, Niklas Wingborg, Helena Bergman and Nikolaj V. Latypov. Syntheses and analyses of
N,N-dinitrourea. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 26, 17-20 (2001)
6. A.R.Mitchell, P.F.Pagoria and others. Nitroureas 1. Synthesis, scale-up and characterization of K-6.
Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 19, 232-239 (1994)
7. Henryca Boniuk, Witold Pilecki, Tomasz Stawinski, Michal Syczewski. New metod of synthesizing KRDX using dinitrourea (DNU). Proc. of 31th International Annual Conference of ICT, Karlsruhe,
Germany 2000.
8. : US5391736
4.2.19 2,4,6,8,10,12--2,4,6,8,10,12[5.5.0.05,9.03,11], , HNIW, CL-20
- :
5 HNIW
NO2
(,,,,), ( O2N
N
N
3
3
3
3
1.97/ , 1.99/ , 1.92/ , 2.044/ ).
O2N
NO2
N
N
,
.
N
N
. (
NO2
). - HNIW - O2N
.
. , . . , . (94.6/100 25),
, (45.0/100 25), -, .
, ,
1%.
-, .. ,
(). , . ,
.
.
. - 2.038 / 3.
- (9:91 )
- (9:91
)
- 130-140.
-
.
70% HNO3 - (t . 260).
- , HNIW
.
:
t . 228-232 . 0.4 3/ 193 100.
- 3-5 21 2.5 ( 32). . 24.2
2 ( 26 , -12). - -14 ( -26)
. 21 HNIW

% . . .

10 H50,

h=25.

H50,

50
100
150
2.90
44
0.22
70
72
270
5.58
120
0.48

50-70
80
250-270
6.37
95
0.55
HNIW*
<50
80
100
1.81
64
0.20

50
250
2.98
88
* - HNIW,
H50 10.8 , 69.

120

:
. C 9440 /c
1.96/3. . - HNIW 9650/.
6.09/. +240.3/. +220.0/.
98% HNIW 2% 9230 /c 1.964/3
( 8760 /c 1.822/3). 106-113%
.
:
1986 (Nielsen). , , ,
- .
2002 , 2007 -
. ( ),
, . .
Cl-20 14%
, .. Cl-20
25%. ,
JAVELIN
LOSAT, .
2005. 2007 . 100
./ ( 90- . 400./).
HNIW ,
.
, ,
.
, .

. , ,
.
:

-,
,
( ). -
-CHO .
. HNO3 - . 110 . . , 80,
( ).
HNO3/H2SO4.
.
:
HBIW: 72.5 40%
20 118 , 100 , 5.76 88%
1100 . 17 25
. 81.3%.
TAIW: HBIW (150), (500), 37.5
(20%) 4.2 2.5
50psi 18 . TAIW
2- 2 .
69 TAIW ( 63.2%)
TAIW(NO)2:
5 TAIW 25 , 1 (
). 25 3 ,
5.
60. . 2.96 (77.5%).
HNIW:
1 20 99% 25,
4 . 40. 80
2 . . 1.02 HNIW (89.7%).
3 5% .

121

:
1. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p176
2. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 127
3. Energetic Materials. Particle Processing and Characterization. Edited by U.Teipel. Wiley-VCH 2005
.12.
4. Arnold T. Nielsen,* Robin A. Nissan, and David J. Vanderah Polyazapolycyclics by Condensation of
Aldehydes with Amines. 2. Formation of 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexabenzyl-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo
[5.5.0.05,9.03,11]dodecanes from Glyoxal and Benzylamines. J. Org. Chem. 1990, 55, 1459-1466
5. Grigoire Herve, Guy Jacob, and Roger Gallo. Preparation and Structure of Novel
Hexaazaisowurtzitane Cages. Chem. Eur. J. 2006, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
6. .., .. , .. , .. .
. 74 (8) 2005 830.
7. Erica von Holtz and others. The solubility of -Cl-20 in selected materials. Propellants, Explosives,
Pyrotechnics 19, 206-212 (1994)
8. Si-Ping Pang, Yong-Zhong Yu, Xin-Qi Zhao. A novel synthetic route to
hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 30, No.6 (2005)
9. V.P. ILYIN, S.P. SMIRNOV, E.V. KOLGANOV, YU.G. PECHENEV. THERMOPLASTIC EXPLOSIVE
COMPOSITIONS ON THE BASE OF HEXANITROHEXAAZAISOWURTZITANE. VIII
2005.
10. .. , . , .. , . , .. , . . (Cl-20)
(). , 2005, . 41, 2.
11. . . . . . 1-2 2009 (21-22) . 93.
12. Svatopluk Zeman, Ahmed Elbeih, Zbynek Akstein. Study of Several Plastic Bonded Explosives Based
on Cyclic Nitramines. Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2010 (518-522).
13. : RU2252925, US5693794, US6160113, US6391130, US5874574, US5723604, US6297372,
FR2855174, US5723604, EP1327633, RU2199540, RU2266907, US7279572, US7875714.
4.2.20
4,10--2,6,8,12--4,10--,
, TEX, DTIW
- :
- . .
O
O
. . , , HNO3,
O
O
, . 1.99
/3.
:
N
N
t . 250 , O2N
NO2
. 350 (
100, 120). 177 ( 12,
-35, 80).
:
106.5 /.
. 8665/c 37 . 95% TEX 5%GAP
6840 /c 1.67 /3, 7303 /c 1.871 /3 ( 1 ).
4.46 / ( 3.987/, 3.98-4.23/, 5.41-5.54
/).
:
.
, .
.
.
:

1,4-
2,3,5,6-
(
, .) 90% HNO3, H2SO4
60 . 30%.
.
:
1. 300 20% NaOH 3 40%
. 10, 930
20-30, 37.
122

45, 1 ,
. . 1,4--2,3,5,6-
1.8 (83%). t . 205.
1 . 1 100% , 250 1,4-2,3,5,6-
. 48-50
.
15-25. , , 1 ,
. 76.3 (36.1% 1,4--2,3,5,6). 99%.
2. 250 . 250 90%
100 1,4--2,3,5,6-
, 60. 1.5 .
.
,
. 37.62. 1.
:
: US5498711, US6512113, US6107483, US5529649, US20050261494
4.2.21 5,7--5,7--1,3-[3.3.0]-2-, DDD
- :
. 1.952 /3.
O2N
:
t . . 210 . .
N
O
2,5 - 59 (
O
78, 4 44, 19).
:
N
O
32,3 .
:
O2N

.
:
* 4,5--1,3-
0.
:
(10.1) (25) 20
6.8 9.6 4,5--1,3--2- 150 ,
. 0 15 ,
2 . ,
. .
- 40 .
10% . .
. 830 (7.5%)
-.
*- (MEDINA) CH2(NHNO2)2
, . . t .
. 105 . t . . 300. . ,
. . 1.0<pH<10.0.
- 2% (. )
13 2.5 (50%) ( - 24). 127-31% (
). 188-210% . 154-158%
. 1.74 /3. 8500 /c 1.68 /3.
. .
.
.
:
: US5262544, US2786078

123

4.2.22
,
2,5,7,9--2,5,7,9[4.3.0]-8-, TNABN, K-56
- :
. -,
NO2
NO2
, .
, . 1.92 / 3.
N
N
1.969 /3.
:
O
t . 194-196. . T . 202,
N
115 2 . .
N
:
NO2
+70.3/.
NO2
. 9015/c 37
1.92 /3.
:
.
:
: 1) 16 30% 10.5 70% . 9.0
- . 40.
10, 6.2 . , . 50 .
. 2 ., . -
, 2.5 .
.
2) 30 . 45 99% - 4
, 45.
6, .
. - 2.8 (50.5%).
4,5--2--2-
. .
. 98%.
:
1. A. K. Sikder, G. M. Bhokare, D. B. Sarwade and J. P. Agrawal Synthesis, Characterization and
Thermal Behaviour of 2,4,6,8-Tetranitro-2,4,6,8-Tetraazabicyclo[3.3.1]Nonane-3,7-Dione (TNPDU)
and one of its Methylene Analogues. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 26, 63 - 68 (2001)
2. Gennady F.Rudakov, Victor F. Zhilin etc. A new method of preparation of nitro derivatives of
octahydro-2H-imidazo[4,5b]pyrazin-2-one. Proc. of 32th International Annual Conference of ICT,
Karlsruhe, Germany 2001.
4.2.23 1,3,5,5-, DNNC
- :
O2N
NO2
. . .
1.82 /3.
:
t . . 151-154. t . 188 25%
300* ( 50% 164 136*
N
N
).
O2N
NO2
:
12.7 /.
. 8733/c 34 .
:
, .
:

1,3--5,5-

, 2,2--1,3- 60%
. 90% HNO3.
:
5.9 8.3 2,2--1,3-
3.75 37% - 50 60% 23. 1,3-5,5- . =6.0.
45,
124

. , ,
( 61% 2,2--1,3-). 0.5
10 90% 23.
, 30 . ,
. 5% ,

. 15%.
:
US4346222
4.2.24 1,3,3-, TNAZ
- :
. , .
NO2
/100 :
N
43.6, 44.2, 5.5, 3.8. t . 96- O2N
101. , :
NO2
120 20% 30. .
. 1.84 /3. 1.55-1.59 /3.
:
t . 238. 48. 100 0.11/ ( 0.12-0.9/
120, - 0.07/ 120). . 29 2.5 (12 tool,
28 , - 32) 28-29 2 ( 26 , -12).
( 80 , TNAZ 110 Rotter Impact test
method). (5-10) .
160 ( 128), 324 ( 140, 353).
:
+66.8/, +45.3/.
6.14/. 8680/c 1.83 /3.
:
, , .
60% 40% TNAZ 8660/c 1.76 / 3.
. 1983 (Baum, Archibald)
5%. 70%. Aerojet () 90
- 57%.
TNAZ
. . -
(10-12%)
. , TNAZ 2-3%
. TNAZ
, . -p ( / 90:10 1.655 / 3, 38.6 (
21.2, - 83.6) 12tool 2.5 . 93) .
:
:
1) - .
2) 3--1,2-.
3) -().
4) ( ).
, 6-8
, , ,
.
-:
3---5--5--1,3-
12.12 40-50
5.38 . 60-80 10.66
-. 1 ,
16 . ,
t . 138.9-139.4.
125

2---2--1,3-
. 17.46 ,
, 40-50. -
40-60 , ,
16 . . ,
.
t. 177-178.
1----3-
12.14 ,
(16.68) 50-65
(19.66) . 5 .
, . t.
169.2-171. 78%.
1---3,3-
6.74 ,
3 .
33.46 (120) , 0.99 12.64 .
, 1 , . .
4.98 81.8% t
. 16.
61 14.8 1---3,3-.
8.8 75-80. 90 . 260
. 61%.
:
1. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p350
2. Shu Yuanjie, Li Hongzhen, Huang Yigang and Liu Shijun SYNTHESIS OF N-ACETYL-3,3DINITROAZETIDINE Proc. of 6th seminar New trends in research of energetic materials
Pardubice. 2003.
3. R.L.Simpson and others. Characterization of TNAZ LLNL, Livermore, CA UCRL-ID-119672 1994
4. Duncan S. Watt, Matthew D. Cliff. TNAZ based melt-cast explosives: Technology review and AMRL
research directions. Department of defense. DSTO-TR-0702. 1998.
5. : US5476951, US5997668, US5716557, US5336784, US5824806
4.3
, -ONO2.
,
,
,
(, )
().
4.3.1 , , , , PETN
C(CH2ONO2)4
- :
(0.01 /100 20), .
(24.8 /100 20 58.8 /100 50.
) (70 /100 100). 1.9.
,
. ,
, .
, - , .
1.77 /3. .
:
t . 141 . t . 192. t . . 200.
, . ,
, .
, 0.2.
2 17 . - 10. (100% 10,
126

25). 2.5 (12tool) 50% 13-16 ( -148, -28,


-32). 4.5 ( 29.5, 11.5,
10). 0.17 0.03 .
8 40% .
:
. 5.76 / (1300/ 0.9/ 3, 1350/ 1.7/3).
-125.0 /. -407.4/
6110/ . 1.17 /3, 7520/ . 1.51 /3, 8350/ . 1.72 /3, 8590/
. 1.77 /3. 4200. 500(), 560 ().
137-145% . 129-141%
( ), 130% (PDT). 768/, 790 /.
93.7% (. 1.738 / 3, ),
97% (1.76 /3).
:
1894. 1
. , 20- 30- . .
2 . ,
. .
1940. 2 .
.
- ( ),
, , ,
, (), .., .
,
( , , . .).
, .
:
93-99% ,
.
, . ,
, 20
,
. ,
, , , 1%

. 90-96%. , ,
.
,
.
. , ..

. - ,
, .. - ,
. ,

.
- .
2 . : 90-95%
- ( . ) .
. 60 .
.
c (
),
.
- 10.
1%
. .
1. :
100 97-99% ,
20 *.
127

,
20, 25
1.5 . 5
500 . ,
.
, (60-80)
2 .
, , 20
. ,
10 .
60, ( 90%) . .
2. :
130 96% 30 20
.
120 90% ,
60.
50-60 . .
1000 . ,
, 1000 1%
. ,
.
- ,
.
3. :
34 65% 24.8 96% ( 32.7 70%
18.9 96% 34.8 58% 36.3 96% ) 10
10 .
15.
5.
, 50
20,
. ,
.
.
*- - ( 15 5.6 /
100 , 100 76.6 /100 ), . . t . 141.

: 4CH2O + CH3CHO = C(CH2OH)4 + HCOOH. 50-90%.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 175.
2. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 4 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1984- P. 315.
3. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. P86-P121.
4. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p253
5. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
6. .. 2 1962 291.
7. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 536
8. .. . .
. 1969 . 216
9. , , .
. , -, 2001.
10. US1660651
4.3.2 , , CH2ONO2(CHONO2)4CH2ONO2
- :
, . ,
. .
, ,
128

. . -
. .
, . 1.80 / 3.
:
75. 75
48 0.4%. . t . 112
. t . . 165, . 205.
:
-336.2/. -357.2/. 6.09
/. 490 560 ( ). 136150% . 723/ ( . 694/). 137-143%
( ). 5600/ . 0.9 / 3, 8260/ .
1.73 /3.
:
. 1847. 1878 .
. -
, -
.
:
* . HNO3 . -
0 1:5:10. ,
-, , - , ,
().
:
110 99% 100 98% 0
22 D. 5.
1 0. ,
50, ,
, 0.5 12.
, , 5%
. .
*- . , ,
-, , .
, .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 168
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. M13-M15.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p209,328
4. .. 2 1962 450.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 260
6. .. . .
. 1969 . 75
4.3.3 , , , , NG.
- :

ONO2
. . ., .
(0.13% 20, 0.2% 50, 0.35% 80) . 1.8%
20 2.5% 50. 80
ONO2
. . , O2NO
2
, . 60 0.11/ /.
, . 1.595 / 3,
1.735 /3.
:
t . 13.5 (. , 2.8). 50
. t 200.
, , , ..
129

2 4 ( 2, 3).
, , ,
. .
. , ,
. .
,
- 8.
:
-368.0/. -390.2/. 6.3
/, . 6.16 /. 8000-8200/c
35 , 8. 1.60 / 3
25.3. 7650 /. 4100.
1100-2000 /. 713
/. ,
. 390 , 590
(. ). 120% ( ), 115%
. 140% .
:
. 1846.
. ,
,
15- . 1858
,
1862. , 1866 . ,
,
. 1869
, 1870

. 70- 19
, . 1903
.
20 . 1888
.
(
), .
, . . .
:
(. . t . 17.9,
t . 290. ) . (1 : 1 )
. .
.
.
, ..
. ,
, .
:
, ,
, 100 , 50% 50% .
20 20
. ,
25.
3 .
5- .
60-65 ,
, 3-5 .
50 , 50 3%
50 . .
.
( 90%).
130

:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 32
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5,6
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972,1974. D1593-D1594, G98.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p226
4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
5. .. 2 1962 175.
6. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 297.
7. .. . .
. 1969 . 214
4.3.4
,
, , ,
(CH2ONO2)2
- :
(2.2 / 2/ 20 ,
, 8 ). . , . .
1.489 /3.
:
t . 22.5. t . 197.5. (~20 2, 4
), , . . . .
. , . , , ,
.
:
-358.2/. -381.6/. 6.8
/, 7200 /. 8300 /c 35
. . 737 /.
129% ( ) 115% . . 620650. 127-137% .
:
1870. 1914
. 2 .
. -
, .
2 .
, . .
t .
:
(. t .
197.6. ) . (1 : 1 )
. 4.3.3.
:
, ,
, 100 , 50% 50% .
20 20
. ,
25.
3
. 5-
. 60-65 ,
, 3-5 .
50 3% 50
. .
.
( 90%).
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 142
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5,6
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1973,1974. D1594, G114-G115.
131

3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p229
4. .. 2 1962 105.
5. .. . .
. 1969 . 211.
4.3.5
, , , DEGDN,
(CH2CH2ONO2)2O
- :
, ( 2 ) .
60 193/ 2/. . , . (0.4
100 20). . 1.38 /3.
:
t . 3 (. ) 10.9 - . t . 244. t 215.
70 2 ( 170 ). .
:
6760/. -506.7/.
-532.3/. 4.18 /. 425 . 95%
( ). . 919
/.
:
1927. 30
,
2 . .
(
, ) .
:
(. t .
246) . (1 : 1 ) .
:
(4.3.4), 20
, 60 , 65% 33% 2%
. 10-15, 20.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 149
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972. D1232-D1233.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p96
4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
5. .. 2 1962 256.
6. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 226
7. .. . .
. 1969 . 215
4.3.6
,
,
TEGDN
O2NOCH2CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2ONO2
- :
. 60 40/ 2/.
. . ., . (0.55/100 25).
. 1.335 /3.
:
t . -19. t . 195. , , . 13
( 15).
:
-598.9/, -626/. 3.14
/. 320 . 851/. 31%
( ).

132

:
2 , ,

, ).
:
.
(7 : 3 , 500 1250 . )
. 30 . 4.3.3
:
750 65% , 30% 5% 40
300 , 0-5 ,
, 1% -
. 84%.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 154
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1980. T56-T59.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p346
4.3.7 1,2,4-, , BTTN
O2NOCH2CH2CH(ONO2)CH2ONO2
- :
. . ., .
(0.08/100 20). , . 60 46/ 2/.
. : . 1.52/ 3.
.
:
t . -27. t . 230. 1 ( 0.2),
.
:
-402.5/. -379.2/. 6.15
/ ( . 5551/). ( ) 101% .
140% . 836/.
:
1894 (Wagner & Ginsberg).
2 . (1948). ,
. , .
:
1,2,4- . .
4.3.3. .
.
:
73.8 100% , 46.2 106.2% 60 96.1%
30 1,2,4-
30. 0-5.
1,2,4- . ,
100 . ,
, 5% - .
, .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 166
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 2
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1962. B371.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p48
4. Engineering design handbook: Explosives series. Properties of explosives of military interest. AMCP
706-177. 1971. p.40

133

4.3.8 , , , , NC.
[C6H7O2(OH)3-x(ONO2)x] n , = 0 - 3; n = 150 - 3500
- :
-. ,
, - (), ( ),
, . -, . ..
,
.
(10.7 - 12.2% N), 2 (12.2 - 12.5% N), 1 (13.0
13.5% N). 1.58 1.65 /3.
:
t 141 190 . (
), , , .
:
. 3.2 4.0 /
. 13.1% N 6500/ . 1.3 / 3.
375 . 118% . 765
. 16% 6800 /, 280 . 720 .
:
1833.
, 1837
.
.
1862 ( 1865 1869)

.
.
,
.
1868 ,
-,
.
1879 (
, , ). 1885
-
, 1889
.
, 18% 1880,
, .
, ,
( ) 2 . .
, , , .
.
:

, .
4-6 (105-140) 13% , , , ..
-.
. : 1)
( , ,
80-100 ,
6%). 2) ( /
2.5-3:1 + 7-20%.
). 3) 1:25-1:40, 4) 5)
6) 7) 20% .
- , ..
. -
,
.
134

13.5% , ,
. -
.
.
- -,
. H3PO4 .
. .
- . , ,
,
. :
80-100 0.5%
55:1 : 12.6% N
H2SO4/HNO3/H2O 63.5/21/15.5%, 13.4% N
H2SO4/HNO3/H2O 68/22/10%, 34,
24. .
, 50 .

24 12.6% N 60
13.4%N. ,
( ). , 2
, 1 1 .
(50 20 -):
32 1500
30. ,
. 34. 4
, ( ) 20.
.
12.6% 59.2% ,
21.5% , 3.5% 15.8% ( )
57% , 23.5% , 4.4% 15.1% (
). 13.4%
60.3% , 24.5% , 4% 11% (
) 59.5% , 28.5% , 3%
9% ( ). 12.6%
40, . 13.4% 5,
60.

[C6H7O2(OH)3-x(ONO2)x]
- :
.
, .
- , . 1011.5% - .
6.4% . , .
. . -, .
:
13.4% : 6200 / 1.2 / 3.
430 ( 12.2% - 356 ) 120%
.
:
. 1833. I II .
. , ..
:
- (1:1).
. 20% 80%
13.1-14.03%
. .
76%. , .. .
- .
135

.
. .
,,, -
(-)
, 7 D- - C42H52N18O71)
, , .
, .
. - 1 - 2
.
-
( 5114506).
.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P.
213,418
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 2,8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1962,1978. C100, N157-N162.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p328
4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
5. .. 2 1962 770,773.
6. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 288.
7. US5114506
4.3.9 , , , TMETN,
MTN CH3C(CH2ONO2)3
- :
. . ., .
(0.5/). (24/ 2 ),
. 1.4685/ 3.
:
t . -3, -60. t .
182 t . 235. (4 2).
: .
:
-373.8/, -398.2/.
1270/ ( - ). 966/. 140% .
136% . 7100/
0.16. ( ) 43.7 ( 48, -52).
:
20- 20
. (1927)
. 2 . .
,
.

.
:
. .
4.3.3 .
:
1 3.5 65/35
20. 30 5 .
, 3 .
. 88%.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 6, 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1974,1978. E152-E154, M120-M121.
2. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p216
136

4.3.10
, , NIBTN
O2NC(CH2ONO2)3
- :
. . ., .
. , , . .
. 1.64/3.
:
. : . t . -39,
-50. t . 185.
:
-169.1/,
-190.8/.
7.23/. 705/. 540. 7860/.
( ) 56 ( 48, -52).
:
1912 (Hofwimmer).
, .
.
:
-
. .
4.3.3
:
150 2 200 37%
, 30. 80
475 . 90 2.
.
.
50
304 HNO3/H2SO4/H2O 38/60/2.
15.
5.
. 95%.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. N112-N113.
2. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p232
3. .. 2 1962 238.
4. RU2316538
4.3.11 , (O2NOCH2)2C(NO2)C(NO2)(CH2ONO2)2.
- :
, , .
1.917 /3 ( ).
:
t . 85-86. t . 141. . -2.7,
74.5 ( - - 2.9, 56.8).
:
9100 /c, 40 .
-317/.
:
2008. ,
.
:
. .
:
David E. Chavez, Michael F. Hiskey etc. Synthesis of an energetic nitrate ester. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008.
47. 1-4.

137

4.4
, -NO2 .
,
(
).
.
, ,
.
50--60- 20 ,
.
* . .
, . .
() -
. .
.
.
(
N--N-) . . 22.
*- C(NO2)3CH2OH .
t . 72. 120.
( ). ,
70. , . .
, HC(NO2)3 . . . t . 22
( ). t . 115 . t .
. 1.429 / 3(). , . (45%)
. , , . . ,
. .
.
.
. - .
(. Rockwell). -
.
. 22 (%) .
,
.
60% .

1
2
3
4
12.6% C6H7N2.5O10
70
55
60
75
13.45% C6H7N2.77O10.5
75
70
65
75
C5H7N3O6
65
55
60
70
C6H8N2O6
75
70
70
70
1-(), 2-, 3- (),
4- .
4.4.1 , NM CH3NO2
- :
. -
. . , ,
(9.5 100 , . 2.2 100 )
(76.4% . t . 83.6).
, . . , , ..
. 1.137 / 3.
:
t . -28.55. t . 100.8. t 440.
. .
138

t . . (0-8% 10
25 .) , . - 8.
:
6370-6600 /, 14.1.
3380. -27/.
-442.8/. 4.76 /. 470 , 138-143%
. 133-134% .
1059/. 25 5-8 .
:
.
1874 (Meyer). ACBB, ..
(
, ),
. - ,
.
3-10% . ,
., ,
( ). . PLX, 95%
5% . ,
~6000 / 1945 .
25% 1,3- 1,1, .
LX-01 51.7%, 33.2%, 1-
15.1%. 6840 / 1.24/ 3.
, . , , ..
.
:

400-700. ,
,
. ,
60%.
1. :
250 76 100 ,

34.5 40 .
250, .
50 ,
.
,
. 50 ,
( ).
1/3 . - .
, ,
100. 10-12 (33-39%).
2. ( ):
500, , ,
, 69 , 3,5 ,
60 60.
15 46 ,
59-60. 1-2
, ,
( 750,
40) . 8386 ( -). ,
100-100.5. .
10 (50% ).
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P.
579-587
139

2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. M69.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p233
4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
5. .. 2 1962 27.
6. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 308
7. .. . .
. 1969 . 75.
8. US6007648
4.4.2 , C(NO2)4
- :
. . .,
. , .
( ). :
C(NO2)4 + KOH + C2H5OH = KC(NO2)3 + C2H5ONO2
. 1.64 /3.
:
t . 14.2. t . 125.7 . , .
. . .
(
).
:
+65 /. +46.9/. 1.915
/, 6400/ ( . 21 ). 670
/.
:
1861 .
.
:
.
.
85%.
.
. HNO3: 4HNO3 + 4CH2CO = C(NO2)4 +
3CH3COOH + CO2 90%. .
3-7 : 4HNO3 +
4(CH3CO)2O = C(NO2)4 + 7CH3COOH + CO2. 70 75 %.
.
: 31.5 250
, . 10
51 ,
10. .
300 . ,
. (
) 57-65%.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P.
588-594
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. M83-M85.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p311
4. .. 2 1962 9.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 538.
6. .. . .
. 1969 . 75.
140

7. . , .. . . . XLV . 11, 2050


1978.
8. US3067261
4.4.3 () , , , BTNEU,
[C(NO2)3CH2NH]2CO
- :
. . ,
. (0,08 /100 25), , ,
, ,
( 17,5/100 25). . 1,792 / 3.
:
t . 191 , 171. : 80 1%
700 , 100 53 ( 340 109). : 50%
2 30 ( ) 17 2.5 ( -26,
160).
:
-322 /. -199.2/.
5.86/ ( . 6131/). 26 /35 . 7400
/ 1,45 /3 8000 / 1,62 /3. 528 ( 460).
144% . 687 /.
:
(Wetterholm) 1951.
, .. , ,
, .. 50-60 20
, .
.
: 40:60 : 7200 / 1,58 / 3.
33 /35 . 306 . 2
100.
:

80-85 2 . . . . 80-85%. - ()
, . 80%,
.
60.
1. : (40) 1 (151) 1000
5 0.5 (60) * 1000
.
5 . , ,
. 77%.
1 2
. 22
88%.
2. :
15% 60-70
.

15 . , ,
.
*-. , . t . 126.
.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972. D1254-D1255.
2. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p35
3. .. 2 1962 286.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 62
141

5. .. . . 1973 495
6. : GB729469, US3097239, GB813477, GB763438
4.4.4 (), , BTNEN, HOX,
[C(NO2)3CH2]2NNO2
- :
, :
(1.92 /3) (1,96 / 3). .
(. 0,01% 25) . , ,
, . -.
:
t . 95 . 80 1% 1300 . t . 190.
: 50% 2 10 () 10 2.5
(). 10 25 88-98%. H50 = 5
( 24 , - 160) .
:
+12 /. -17/.
5.74/ (1240/ 1.0/ 3, 1250/ 1.60/ 3). 1.51 / 3 ()
7950 / 8520/ 1.9 / 3. 23 /35 . 496 .
693/. RPS ( ) = 139%TNT ( 150%), 70/30 148%.
:
1946 (Romer).
(-
) .
. 95.4% (1.92 / 3),
100%, / 52/48 103.8%.
.
81% 19% - 7600 /.
42 /35 . : 50% 2
40. 400 .
:
: 2 2
(40%), 1 1 , 1.1-1.2
- . 3 30. (
, -)
80-85% -() [C(NO2)3CH2]2NH (
0.43% 25. , ,
. t . 107. 1,02 /3
5220 /. 25.5 /35 . : 50% 2
24. 370 ) -() 13%
HNO3, 76% H2SO4 11% . , ,
5-10. ,
.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5,9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972,1980. D1254-D1255, T382.
2. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p34
3. .. 2 1962 229.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 62.
5. .. . .
. 1969 . 201
6. GB763438

142

4.4.5
[N-()],
-,
ZOX,
BTNEEDNA,
N,N-(),

C(NO2)3CH2N(NO2)CH2CH2N(NO2)CH2C(NO2)3
- :
, . .
, , . .
,
. 1.87 /3.
:
t . 172-180 c . : 9 2.5 50%.
(30 2).
:
6.99/. 9100/ 1.85 / 3. 500.
712/.
:
1952 . .
, ,
.
. .
:
- ,
. -()- ( t .
97) . - -.
.
:
3 () 30 4 30% .
.
15 , . ,
, , .
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1980. T382.
2. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 64.
3. Gordon Boezer, L. Kirk Lewis, Raymond F. Walker. Handbook of energetic materials for weapon s
systems including ballistic and cruise missiles. Institute for defense analyses. 1995.
4. US3932241.
4.4.6 N--N-, , CH3N(NO2)CH2C(NO2)3
- :
. , , CCl4, . .
,
. 1.8 /3.
:
t . 85.5. (25, 10) 56-68%,
9 2.5 ( 24, 160 ).
:

6.78/. 33/.
8620/ 1.67 /3 8900/ 1.78 /3. 560 . 800 /.
:
.
:
- ,
. -
. .
:
. / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 262

143

4.4.7 N--N-, C2H5N(NO2)CH2C(NO2)3


- :
. . ,
, . . ,
. 1.71 /3.
:
t . 64. t . 220. (25, 10) 5060%.
:
5.3/. 8120/ 1.64 / 3. 480 .
39.5 /.
:
.
:
- ,
. -
.
:
. / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 592
4.4.8 2,2,2--4,4,4-, TNETNB,
, , C(NO2)3CH2CH2(CO)OCH2C(NO2)3
- :
, 2- .
.. . , . H2SO4. , ,
, , . HNO3.
, - . ,
. 1.839 / 3.
:
t . 92-92.3, . t . 170. t . 220.
65 ( 0.1-0.3% ). 0.6
48 100 . 30 2 (50%) 18 2.5
(50%) ( -24).
:
6.27/. +450/.
8700/ 1.76 /3. 830/.
:
1950.
. . % 9,10-,
( 70- 20).
:
, . H2SO4.
,
3 .
.
1. : 4.46 20 30% .
, , 80%
20% . 20 27,
. . 94%.
2. : 4.46 20 96%
. , 3.96
. 3 100, .
. 74%.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 6,9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1974,1980. E217,T383.
2. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 556.
144

3. .. . .
. 1969 . 178
4. : US2996537, US3223725, US3160654
4.4.9 (), TEFO, (C(NO2)3CH2O)2CH2
- :
, . .
. - , , , CCl4. .
, - .
. 1.73 /3.
:
t . 66-66.5. t . 220. : 8 2.5 ( 789
2 ). .
:
+387 /. 286/.
6.2/. 8100/. 530 .
:
50 20.
, ,
(. 5256220 ).
:
.
( ) - .
, TEFO .
3% - .
: 3.9 110.4 96.5%
-, 44.9
20-25 ( - ).
. . . .
66.5 . ,
, 3% .
TEFO 78%.
- : 51.5 37.5% 35
135.7 33.3% , 63.4 , 53.4
10.4 . 1 2 .
4 (40.1 ), .
50. 90%.
() Na- 2,2,

(2--2,2) (FEFO),
:
(C(NO2)3CH2O)3CH
t . 128. 1.83 /3.
. 7 ( - 24)
(C(NO2)3CH2O)4C
t . 169. 1.84 / 3.
24 .
(). 7 ( - 24)
-() (C(NO2)3CH2O)2CO
t . 117. 1.88 /3 ,
, ,
. 16 (
24, -160)
, - .
.
2,2,2--2- (TNEN) C(NO2)3CH2OCH2CH2ONO2
(
) , ..
(1.5/ 48 . 100).
, .
145

t . 10-11. 1.55 /3.


-.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1980. T56, T381.
2. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 63
3. : US 4745208, US 5256220, H644, US4122124, US3375266, US3491160, US3306939,
US3389026
4.4.10 1,1--2,2-, DADNE, , FOX-7.
- :
- . -, , NH2N
NO2
-2- (21, 32, 45 /100 20 ),
, -, ,
( 0.5%). . . ,
NO2
. . H2N
3 : - 113-116
( 1.9%), - 173. . ,
. ,
. .
. . .
. DADNE 1.885 /3.
:
200, 225 .
48. 100 0.1/ (.. ).
.
80 ( 12, -24, 160). . :
126-159 2 . 35 ( 35-38 12 .), ,
.
:
53 - -130 /.
. 9040/c 36 . 4.86/
( + 6% 5.26/).
, . .
- DADNE, 1.5% 8335 /c 1.756
/3.
:

.
1,1--2,2- FOI 1998.
. ,
1990.
.
:
2- H2SO4 HNO3
. 20.

.
2--4,6-,
CH3OH (
) CH3OH.
H2SO4 HNO3 .
. 2--4,6-
15-20 2 65% .
1,1--2,2- 80%
2--4,6- .
2--1,3,4-
.
146

:
27.0 28.4 48.1
. 3,
. 2--4,6- 91%.
12.6 2--4,6- 38 98% ,
15 30 63.8 . . 2
. 3, 13.3 . ( 90%).

2--4,6- 95-97% 1 12-14.
, .
2--2--4,5-:
7.7 300 , 15.1 .
15 , 3 15.1
100 .
= 5. ,
30-35 70-80.
40. , , 2--4,5 2--2--4,5-.
9.6 2--2--4,5- (64%).
(2--4,5- 2--2-4,5-).
1.4 15-20 9 . , 5
1.5 . . ,
30. 10 2-()-4,5. , (35)
. 1.48 (63%).
25% - .
:
1. Anthony J. Bellamy. FOX-7 (1,1-Diamino-2,2-dinitroethene). High energy density materials
Structure and bonding. Vol 125. Editor T.M. Klapotke. Springer. 2007. P 1-33.
2. H. Ostmark, A. Langlet, H. Bergman, N. Wingborg, U. Wellmar and U. Bemm FOX-7A NEW
EXPLOSIVE WITH LOW SENSITIVITY AND HIGH PERFORMANCE, in Proc. 11th Symp. (Int.) on
Detonation, 1998.
3. Helen Dorsett. Computational Studies of FOX-7, A New Insensitive Explosive. DSTO-TR-1054
4. Ian J. Lochert. FOX-7 - A New Insensitive Explosive. DSTO-TR-1238
5. Kyoo-Hyun Chung, Eun Mee Goh, Jin Rai Cho. SYNTHETIC MODIFICATION AND SCALE-UP PROCESS
FOR 1,1-DIAMINO-2,2-DINITROETHENE (FOX-7) Proc. of 36th International Annual Conference of
ICT, Karlsruhe, Germany 2005
6. Roland Wild, Ulrich Teipel. CHARACTERISATION AND EXPLOSIVE PROPERTIES OF FOX 7. Proc. of
35th International Annual Conference of ICT, Karlsruhe, Germany 2004.
7. Martin Johansson, Nikolaj V. Latypov etc. ON THE SYNTHESIS OF 1,1-DIAMINO-2,2DINITROETHENE (FOX-7) BY NITRATION OF 4,6-DIHYDROXY-2-METHYLPYRIMIDINE. Proc. of 10th
seminar New trends in research of energetic materials Pardubice. 2007.
8. : US6312538
4.4.11 , ONC.
- :
. .
O 2N
NO2
, . 2.154 / 3.
3
O2 N
(1.979 / ),

NO2
. . .
O2 N
:
NO2
200 .
O 2N
.
NO2
:
. 9895/c
48.9 . +339/.

147

:
,
.
( ). 2000 (Eaton).
. - - .
2000 .
:
1,3,5,7-
t . 202. 1.814 /3.
1,3,5,7-.
.

1,3,5,7-
t . 361.
.
:
1. Philip E. Eaton and others. Octanitrocubane: A new nitrocarbon. Propellants Explosives Pyrotechnics
27 1-6 (2002).
2. Philip E. Eaton and others. Systematic substitution on the cubane nucleus. Synthesis and properties
of 1,3,5-trinitrocubane and 1,3,5,7-tetranitrocubane. JACS 1993, 115, 10195-10202.
4.4.12
-(2--2,2-),

,
[N2FC(NO2)2CH2]2NNO2.
- :
, .
-(). 2.044 /3.
:
t . 102. . .
:
9100 /c 2.033 /3. -24.2/.
1534 /. 107.2% .
/ 60/40 110.8% . 15% 109.0% .
:
1969. .
- .
:
-()
-()
NF2SO3F.
:
1. Vitaly Pepekin. Development of high efficiency energetic explosives. Proc. of 27th International
Annual Conference of ICT, Karlsruhe, Germany 1996 V19.
2. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 39.
4.5 :
, .

,
. , ..
, ,
. . - -,
,
.
.

148

4.5.1
, , --(1,2,5--2), , BTF.
- :
,
O N

-.
O
. . ,
N
, , , , .. O
N

O
, . .
. 1.901 / 3.
N
N
:
t . 197-200. :
O N
190. 22 120 - 0.05
, ( 0.25).
O
t .
(76-84% 10 25 .
5 ) 2.5 (12 tool) 50= 21. 1.55 0.7
/3.
:
. +580-606/. 5.86/
(1160/ 0.95/3, 1290/ 1.76/3). . 1.859 /3
8490 /, 36
0.1. : 4700.
655/. 1 : 2.93 N2, 1.56 CO2, 2.87 CO 1.57
. : 178% ,
156% ( 450). 99.7% (. 1.875 / 3).
147% ( 150%).
:
1931 (Turek). ,
( TATB) , .
:
* ,
. . 135
30 c 86% -
10 45 ,
. . -
.
.
* - - , . . , . .
(23.11% 17), (5.69% 17).
, ,
. (. 0.02).
, 50. t
. . 131 . ( 100
14 ). 500. 7500 / . 1.54 / 3, 1.805
/3.
70% (
- )
.
, .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 1 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1964- P. 603
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 2
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1962. B45.
3. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
4. .. 2 1962 306.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 61
6. US4788913
149

7. W.T. Quinlin and D.V.Hayes. Synthesis of benzotrifuroxane (BTF) LLNL, Livermore, CA MHSNIP-71886 1971
4.5.2 7--4,6-, ADNBF
NO2
- :
- . .
N
CH3CN, -. 1.902 /3.
:
O
t . . 270 . . 160 2.5
N
(50%), 160 . 28-41 2 O2N
( 32 ).
O
:
NH2
7910 /, 8220 /.
. 28.2 . ( . ).
+36.8/.
:
90- .
.
:
3--2,4,6- (
) 75% 7--4,-
.
4.5.3 5,7--4,- (CL-14)
NO2
- :
. . , -
H2N
N
. . 1.942 /3.
:
O
t . . 294-289 . . 50 = 120 (
-98), 79 2 ( 80-120).
N
O2N
:
8220 / 97%
O
NH2
.

+20.63
/.

8% . . 29.5 . (
).
:
.
:
5,7--4,-
- K,
7--4,- KOH.
HCl.
: 7.2 100 , 14.4
8.3 . 3.5 25.
0 100 4 - KO.
3.5.
( 5,7--4,-) 1 -
.
O
4.5.4 (CL-18)
O N
- :
. . , N
. 1.93 /3.
N
:
O
t . . 205. . . .
56 2.5 (50%) 54.
N
O2N
:
8370 / 33.1 .
O
NH2
( . ).
:
.
150

:
1--3,5-
( 24%).
CL-18 80 . -
- . ( 75%)
4.5.5 7--4,5,6- (CL-17)
- :
NO2
1.87 /3.
:
N
t . . 175. . 56 2.5 (50%). O2N
54.
O
:
8570 / ( .
N
O2N
).
:
O
NH2
.
:
. -
- .
:
1. Gordon Boezer, L. Kirk Lewis, Raymond F. Walker. Handbook of energetic materials for weapons
systems including ballistic and cruise missiles. Institute for defense analyses. 1995.
2. H476, US5039812, H1078, US5149818
4.6


. , ,
. .
. ,
.
4.6.1 3--4-.
- :
NO2
. . . .
N
. 1.93 / 3.
:
O
t . . 60 t . . 101.
N
NHNO2
:
+60 /.
:

( C2H4N6O6 t . 132, t . . 163. +18
/. 1.875 /3. ).
:
3,4-
3--4- N2O5 15 - -20.
:
3 100 10% - .
CO2 -20. 9.75
8 -17.
, 3.5
+10. .

( 95-100%). 16.2 1
41. -20 16 .
. 84%.
(ANF):

151

100 . 55.9 50%


8.44 96%
5. 4.7
, 1.1
5.
18 .
=7 . 3 ,
.
. ,
. t . 120 (. 122-125).

().
1. :
100 5 17.6 .
27.8 .
. 6 90.
. 10-15 .
14.0 (60%).
23.6 80 2
() . ,
170-180 2. .
220 . 14.1 (70%).
2.
( ):
100 7.5 17.6 , ,
27.8 .
300 2-3.
30.
. 30 30 ,
800. , . 14
(70%).
4.6.2 3,3--4,4-, DAAF, 1.
- :
O
- . .
1.747 /3.
N N
H 2N
NH2
:
= 220.
( 320 2.5 )
. 3.
N
N
N
N
.
O
O
:
. 7930/c 1.685 /3
30.6 . +106 /.
:
.
.
:
3,4- .
88%.
250 36.8 30% , 3.678
. 20
20.23 96% , 25.
18 .
, .
DAAF (
) 84%.
.

152

4.6.3 3,3--4,4- DAAzF H2N(C2N2O)-N=N-(C2N2O)NH2


- :
- . . 1.72 /3.
:
( 320 2.5 )
. .
:
. 7600/c 1.65 /3
26.2 .
:
,
.
:
3,3--4,4- 3,3--4,4 . 3,3--4,4 DAAzF. DAAF . 92%.
: 250 67 , 52.03
. 50 . 4.17 .
70 2. ,
, DAAF . DAAzF
/ (3:1) .
4.6.4 3,3- .
O2N
NO2
. t . 62. 1.907 /3.
O
+73 /. 9200 /c
1.9/3. 3,4-
N
N
.
N
N
4.6.5 3,3--4,4- (, DNAF)
O
O
- :
O
. 1.82 /3.

N N
O 2N
NO2
:
t . 112. t . 160. t
206.

0.1.

N
N
-.
N
N
:
O
O
+155 /.
1700/. 103.3%. 9020 /c 1.78/3.
:
1985 . .
:
3,4-.
DAAF:
125 15 30% , .
11.97 . 50
12.5 96% , 1.06 DAAF.
DAAF ,
20. . 100
. 50
10 , 10 .

.
- t . 108.
4.6.6 4,4--3,3-.
- :
NO2O2N
1.85/3.
:
N
t . 85. 250. N
(13 2.5 ).

153

:
+101 /. 8650 /c 1.8 /3.
:

:
4,4--3,3- .
-.
4.6.7 1,4--[3,4-b]
NO2
- :
. , . . 1.828 /3.
N
N
:
t . 122-123 . 163 2.5 (92 O
).
N
:
N
+69/.
. 8530/c 32,5 .
NO2
:
, .
:
1) - , 5.
2) 2,3- 150 -
. -3,4- -
.
3) 100% HNO3. - N2O5 100% HNO3
4.6.8 3,4-(4--3)-, BNFF, .
- :
. 1.94 /3.
O

O
:
N
N
t . 111. t . (5) 323.
0.14. 10 O2N
NO2
25 - 64% ( 100%, 80%),
100% ( ).
:
N
N
N
N
9300/c 1.93/3.
O
O
+540 /. 1629/.
99.7%.
:
1979. .

( ).
:
4 ().
1)
.
2) .
3) .
4) .
4.6.9 4,4--3,3-, DNAF
- :
- .
. . O
NO2
N
N
2.002 /3. .
:
N
127-128,
N
102 . O
N
O
, , . 10 (
O
N
12, -24, 160).
NO
2

154

:
. 9700/c 1.94 /3
46.7 . 7.48/. 110-111%.
:
80- 20. -
.
:
4,4--3,3
. . 4,4--3,3
3,3-()-4,4 .
.
:
1. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 320.
2. Ananthakrishnan Gunasekaran etc. A convenient synthesis of diaminoglyoxime and diaminofurazan:
Useful precursors for the synthesis of high density energetic materials. Technical report. 1995.
3. Aleksei B. Sheremetev, Valentina O. Kulagina, Natalya S. Aleksandrova, Dmitrii E. Dmitriev and Yurii
A. Strelenko. Dinitro Trifurazans with Oxy, Azo, and Azoxy Bridges. Propellants, Explosives,
Pyrotechnics 23, 142-149 (1998)
4. Radhika S Kusurkar, Shailesh K. Goswami, Mahadev B. Talawar, Girish M. Gore and Shri N. Asthana.
Microwave mediated fast synthesis of diaminoglyoxime and 3,4-diaminofurazan: key synthons for
the synthesis of high energy density materials. JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH 2005, APRIL,
245247
5. Royse Weldon Beal. Structures and chemistry of amino and nitro furazans. University of delaware
2000.
6. J. Wang, J. S. Li, Y. G. Huamg, H. S. Dong A NOVEL HIGH ENERGY DENSITY MATERIAL COMPOUND
3,4-BIS(NITROFURAZANO)FUROXAN: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES. Proc. of
11th seminar New trends in research of energetic materials Pardubice. 2008.
7. .. . .
. 1998, 359, 4, 499-502.
8. Elizabeth G. Francois, David E. Chavez*, Mary M. Sandstrom. The Development of a New Synthesis
Process for 3,3-Diamino-4,4-azoxyfurazan (DAAF). Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 35, issue 6,
527-539 (2010)
9. : US5460669, US4539405, US6552201
4.7 ,

(80- 20). ,
, , .
4.7.1 2,4-, DNI-24.
- :
. ,
H
N
.
:
O2 N
t . 264-267. .
(105 2.5 ,
N
NO2
160), .
:
10-15% . 8130 /c 1.76 /3. (
7951/).
:
70- .
90-
.
:
: 4-
70% . . 88 4- 240 .
-, 120 . 80 98% HNO3
155

. 1 , . 3 . . .
, ,
85 1,4- (t . 92, , . DNI-24).
95-98 . 25 , .
2,4- .
:
1. R.L.Simpson and others. A new insensitive explosive that has moderate performance and is low
cost: 2,4-dinitroimidazole LLNL, Livermore, CA UCRL-ID-119675 1995.
2. US5387297
4.7.2 2,4,5-.
- :
.
NH4
:
t . 248, t .
NO2
2,5 (12tool) - 50 ( -160). 1.835
N
3
/ .
O2 N
:
86.02 /.
N
. 8560/c
NO2
33 .
:
.
:
-
0 ( , ,
). 2,4-
.
4.7.3 1--2,4,5- MTNI
- :
, . 1.768 /3.
:
t . 82. 14.6 ( - 47, - 7.4,
19.8). 70 ( 65, -25).

:
. +40.7/.
:
,
.
:

.
:
1. Jin Rai Cho etc, A Candidate of New Insensitive High Explosive; MTNI. Proc. of Insensitive Munitions
& Energetic Materials Technology Symposium 2000. Texas.
2. : US7304164, US4028154.
4.7.4 2,5--3,6-, ANPZ-i
- :
O2N
- . -. . .
:
t . . 288 .
:
H2N

. 8630/c 34,9 . 1.88 /3.
:
.

156

NH2

NO2

:
-2,5-
, 2,5-,
2,5--3,6-
.
4.7.5 2,6--3,5-, ANPZ.
- :
. 1.84 /3.
:
t . 357.
:
8560/c.
:
.
:
2,6- ,
2,6--3,5- (DMDP),
DMDP . 80% 2,6-.
2- 6- 52-75%.
4.7.6 2,6--3,5--1-, LLM-105, PZO, -2, N-.
- :
O
, ,
3
. 1.913 / .
H2N
N
NH2
:
t . 347. 117 2.5
( 30-32)
:
N
NO2
4.92/. 8390/ 1.84 O2N
3
/ . 95% LLM-105 5%Viton A 7980 /c
LLM-105
1.77 /3.
:
1985 .

:
2,6--3,5-
-.
:
1. J. L Cutting and others, A SMALL-SCALE SCREENING TEST FOR HE PERFORMANCE: APPLICATION
TO THE NEW EXPLOSIVE LLM-105, in Proc. 11th Symp. (Int.) on Detonation, 1998.
2. R. K. Weese, A. K. Burnham, H. C. Turner, T. D.Tran Physical Characterization of RX-55-AE-5 a
Formulation of 97.5 % 2,6-Diamino-3,5-Dinitropyrazine-1-Oxide (LLM-105) and 2.5% Viton A in
Proc. North American Thermal Analysis Society 33 rd Annual conference. Universal City, CA, 2005.
3. Simon P. Philbin and Ross W. Millar Preparation of 2,5-Diamino-3,6-Dinitropyrazine (ANPZ-i): A Novel
Candidate High Energy Insensitive Explosive. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 25, 302-306
(2000)
4. Ross W. Millar*, Simon P. Philbin, Robert P. Claridge and Javid Hamid. Studies of Novel Heterocyclic
Insensitive High Explosive Compounds: Pyridines, Pyrimidines, Pyrazines and Their Bicyclic
Analogues. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 29 (2004), No. 2
5. SU1703645
4.7.7 2,4,6-, TNPy
- :
. 1.77 /3.
:
t . 162 .
4.5-6.5 ( 15), .
:
+437.9/, O N
2
+368.5/. 4.42/ ( - ).
818/. 7470/ . 1.66 / 3.
157

NO2

NO2

:
.. 1969. - ,
- .
:
-N- .
.
:
1. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p358
2. H.H.Licht and H.Ritter. 2,4,6-trinitropyridine and related compounds, synthesis and characterization.
Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 13, 25-29 (1988)
4.8
, 1,2,4-
(70--80- 20)
.
. ,
, 3--5--1,2,4 ,
.
4.8.1 5--3--1,2,4-, , , NTO, HTO.
- :
H
. 2- O2N
N
3
- . - ( 1.88 / )
3
(. 1.93 / ).
O
- . . -
N
N

H
/.
, (1,68 /100 19), , , .
. (1,28 /100 19, . 10 /100 100).
-. . . ,
. ( ).
. .
1.87/3 25.
:
( 48: 120 - 0.3 3/). .
. 224. 269 .
. 290 ( 22-41, 148) . ,
. . H50 = 92 2 (
80).
:
7770/ . 1.69 / 3 ( 4 )
8200/ 1.87 /3 ( 41). 3.49/.
. -14.3 /.
-185.1/.
:
1905 (Manchot),
80- 20 . 2000 - . .
.
, .
, , ,
TAT .
- - (

)
.

30%,
28%, 40% , 2% 2- ().
95% 5% 7638/
. 1.722 /3, 7972/ 1.847 /3. ( 1 ).
/ 50/50 7340/ 1.73
/3. . 16 .

158


, .
:
1. :
115 85% 500 ,
, . 70-75
115.5 .
85-90 6-8. ,
, 200 .
, 140 , 10.
80% t . 234.
250 70% HNO3 ( . 1:4-1:8).
.
55-60 ( 75)
5, .
.
. ( 83-90%, 65%).
2. : 34.5 88%
33.45 * .
65 .
, 100 . HNO3 20 H2SO4
65 1.5-2 . ,
. 77%.
,
. , .
,
. . .
* - (
)
, -,
( -
)
:
1. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p236
2. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 316.
3. Matthew W. Smith and Matthew D. Cliff. NTO-Based Explosive Formulations: A Technology Review.
DSTO-TR-0796. 1999.
4. ... 1,2,4- .
. XLI (1997). 2. 73.
5. : RU2287526, US4733610, US 5034072, H861, US4894462, H719, US4999434, US5112983,
H990, US5039816.
4.8.2 1,1--3,3--1,2,4-.
t . 130 . +94.4/. 1.77 / 3.
3--1,2,4 . , 3,3-1,2,4- . HNO3.
.
:
10.6 3--1,2,4- 2
. 60
.
. .
. .
3,3--1,2,4- 0.6 2.1 100%
4.7 0. 1. 6,
12 0.
. 40%.

159

4.8.3 3,5 -1,2,4 , ADNT


N N
- :
. , (28/100). , .
NO2
35% . . O2N
N
3
1.632 / .
NH4
:
t . 170 . . 59 2.5 .
:
. 26.2 .
:
.
..
(, ..). c . . 2:1 (AN:ADNT) 1.38:1 ( t
. 112) . 25.2 27.3 1.59/ 3 1.63 /3 . 65
2.5 .
:
3,5 -1,2,4-*.
:
30 (0.3 ) 3,5--1,2,4 1100 0.68 (1.5 H+)
0 (- ) 3 200
(2.9) 200 . 60
, . 0
6 (100, 1.2 H+) .
15 . , 3,5
-1,2,4 90%. 3,5 -1,2,4-
,
. 20%
, .
(90/10 ).
, - -.
4.8.4 3--5--1,2,4 . ANTA.
N N
- :
-. ., . 1.819
/3.
H2N
NO2
N
:
H
t . 238 . t .
0.3 1 48 120. ( TATB)
:
21 / . 61 /.
. ( . ) 8460/ 31.4 . 7%
TATB.
:
1979.
TATB.
:
ADNT -.
:
1.45 (0.0082) 3,5 -1,2,4 * 0.0385
- . 10,
78-80 1.5. , 4
~ 30 10% . . 0.99 (94%)
* - 3,5--1,2,4-.
. . . , ..
, , , . - .
. . t . . 255. 3,5
-1,2,4 ( . ) . H2SO4.
:
.
3,5--1,2,4- . : 150
900 . 40% - ,
160

90 30 , , .
-, , 300 ,
, .
3,5 -1,2,4- , , .
4.8.5 1--3,5--1,2,4-
N N
. . . . ,
, t . . 98.
, (155 2.5 O N
NO2
2
N
50%, 160). 1.68/ 3.
.
CH3
4.8.6 1-(2-)- 3,5 -1,2,4-
, t . 147. t . 274.
1.76/3.
.
:
1. .. . 5--3--1,2,4- . . 2002, .38. .9.
.1289
2. Mary M. Stinecipher. Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate LLNL, Livermore,
CA LA-UR-81-917
3. R.L.Simpson and others. Synthesis, properties and perfomance of the high explosive ANTA.
Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 19, 174-179 (1994)
4. : US5110380, US4236014, US4628103, US3111524, US3054800
4.9 .
, .
, . ,

, - (
). ,
.
4.9.1 3,3--(6--1,2,4,5-), DAAT.
- :
- .
N N
. . .
,
N
NH2
, . 1.84 / 3.
:
N
N N
3,3--(6--1,2,4,5-)- t . 252
N
. t .
288. , ,
N
. 70 2.5 ( N
-25).
N
:
5% 7400/
NH2
1.64/3. +862/ (
+1035/).
:
.
N-, 3.5
1 DAAT. 1.88 /3.
9.0/c . 20 2.5 ( 25).

4.9.2 3,6--1,2,4,5--1,4-, LAX-112, TZX.
- :
1.86 /3.
:
200 ( 12, -24, 160).
:
161

39 /. 8.85 / .
:

:
3,6--(3,5-)-1,2,4,5,

.
,
.
:
1. Jochen Kerth and Stefan Lobbecke. Synthesis and characterisation of 3,3-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5tetrazine) DAAT A new promising nitrogen-rich compound. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics
27, 111-118 (2002)
2. Darren L. Naud, Michael A. Hiskey . High-Nitrogen Explosives . Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth
International Pyrotechnics Seminar . July 14-19, 2002.
3. : US6342589, US5281706
4.10
2
() ( -2).

. .
, -2
.
, -2
.
4.10.1 , , TTT.
- :
-
NO
(0.2% 20), . (68.5 100
20, 180.8 50), . ;
N
(), ,
. ,
.
N
N
. ON
NO
. -20
. -, .
, . - 42 58%
t . 55, t . 85. 1.586 /3.
:
t . 107. 150. (12 tool )
138 ( 160, 41).
:
4.7 ( - 5.9, - 4.2). 102-118%
( ). PDT 58.9 ( 62.5, 49.0) 369
. 134% . 68.3
/. 3.78 / (980/ 0.72/3, 1200/ 1.51/3 ).
853 /. 7800 / . 1.53 / 3.
:
2-
1.5 /3 2.5% 1%
. , ,

.
:
- , (5:1 ) (, , ) 0
162

. ,
, pH
1-1.5, ().
, , ,
.
. 50%, , 85%
.
:
1. 7 200
15 50 6
=1. 30 0
. 4.4 (50%) . 104.5-106.
2. 7 50 , 26 .
400 .
10.4 50 . .
3.6 . 106-107.
,
20 ,
-
.
3. 0.2 0.55
, +6.
5 1 .
3- 800. 20
. 22.6.
20, .
.
- . 215 .
, .
(). .

.
5 pH>3.
1. :
7 50 13 . 400 ,
20.8 50 .
, . 7.1. . 207-209.
2. :
, ..
3. 0 7 450
20.8 50 . -
19.4
6 7. 6.6. . 215.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P.
77,121
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 3,9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1966,1980. C611-C624,C630-C632, R120-R146.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p69,71
4. .. 2 1962 197,208.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 131
6. Svatopluk Zeman, and Rbert Varga STUDY OF THERMAL AND DETONATION REACTIVITIES OF
THE MIXTURES CONTAINING 1,3,5-TRINITROSO-1,3,5-TRIAZINANE (TMTA) Proc. of 8th seminar
New trends in research of energetic materials Pardubice. 2005
7. W.E.Bachmann and N.C.Deno, The nitrosation of hexamethylenetetramine and related compounds,
JACS 73, 2777 (1951)
8. P.Aubertein, Sur la trimethylene trinitrosamine, Mem poudres 33, 227 (1951)
9. S. Iyer. Explosive desentisation studies via chemical group modification. Nitroso-derivatives of RDX
and 3-amino-TNT. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 7, 37-39 (1982).
163

4.11

.

.
. - ,
. ,
- ,
.
,
.
.
, ,
, .
4.11.1 , , , , AN, NH4NO3
- :
. 5 . . 16.9 (
-25 . 1.71 /3). 16.9 - +32.2 - ( 25 . 1.725 /3).
+32.2 - +84.2 - ( 40 . 1.661 /3), +84.2 - +125.2
- ( 93 . 1.666 /3), +125.2 t . ( 130 . 1.594 /3).
, . 0.5%. +32.2
3% ,
. .
,
, . 119 /100 0, 212
/100 25, 346 /100 50, (14% 18.5),
, . , , , .
. t . NH4NO3:
85:15 t . 75, .
:
t . 169.6. 200-260 ,
, , ,
. ,
- ,
NH4NO3. , , .
. . ,
.
: , . , . ,
, , .
:
1500/c 1.0 /3. 180-220 .
79% .
-87.27
/. -365/. 1441/.
980/.
:
1659. 19
, 19 .

(, .),
. ,
- .

.
(. 10% 3-5% ).
,
. , .
164

:
.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 450
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960. A311-A340.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p15
4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
5. .. 2 1962 797.
6. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 281
7. G. Santhosh,1 S. Venkatachalam,2 K. Krishnan, and K.N. Ninan. THE PHASE STABILIZATION OF
AMMONIUM NITRATE BY POTASSIUM DINITRAMIDE A DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRIC
STUDY Proc. of 8th seminar New trends in research of energetic materials Pardubice. 2005.
4.11.2 (NH2)2C=NHHNO3
- :
. 15 /100 20, 47 /100 55, 128 /
100 90, . : V2O5, Cu2Cl2 .
:
t . 215. t . 315. , .
:
-93/. -726.1/.
3760/c 1.0 /3. 1.436 /3. - 0.61-0.65 /3. 140 ( .
240). 1083/. 1.87/.
:
( ),
. ,
. - .
:
10% .
c 150-190, . NH3 c
() 150-160: NH4NO3 + 2(NH2)2CO = (NH2)2C=NHHNO3 + 2NH3 + CO2.
,
95. ( (NH2)2C=NH .
-. t . 50 ; .
. NH2CN)
1. :
, 160 1, 210
440 , 2
. - , ,
.
2. :
500 , 830 200 .
180-195. 2-3 90-94%.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 466
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 6
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1974. G150.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p156
4. .. 2 1962 69.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 282.
6. : US2464247, US4535185
4.11.3 CO(NH2)2HNO3
- :
. . .
. , .
165

HNO3. 1.65 /3 (
3000/2). 0.6 /3.
:
t . . 163 . ,
.
:
3400/c 0.85 /3 4700/c 1.2 /3 30
, 1.5 .
5080/c 1.2 /3. . 265 . 92%
. 896/. -96.3/.
-1093/. 2.46/.
:
50:50 ,
6, . .
.
:
- -,
, .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 469
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 10
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1983. U102.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p364
4. .. 2 1962 62.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 284
4.11.4 , , PH-salz, EDDN, DIAMIN
(CH2NH2) 22HNO3
- :
. . 1.577 / 3.
. 1.595/3.
:
t . 185-187. 270. t . 370-400.
(50% 10 2.5) .
:
-807.4/. -839.2/.
3.09/. 6915/c 1.50 /3 96% (
). : 50 . 1.23 / 3,
30, 2 . 345 .
945.5 /. 112-128% .
:

. EAK 46%,
46%, 8% 7500 / c,
40 . , , ,
( 8),
1-2% . .
39%, 46%,
8%, 7% 98, 81.
8020/c 1.64 /3(). 50:50
: 5990 /c 1.62 /3. T . 100.
50/50 .
:
.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 470
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 6
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1974. E236-E237.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p125
166

4. .. 2 1962 148.
4.11.5 CH3NH2HNO3
- :
. . (
). . . , . 67%
33% t . 55,5. 1.422 /3.
:
t .109-111. t 195. ,
. 1.3 /3 .
:
-862/. -896 /.
3280/c 1.1 /3 ( 30 ) 6100/c 1.2 /3. 325 .
3.61/, 2.698 /. 1027/.
:
.
:
-. 2CH2O + NH4NO3 =>
CH3NH2HNO3 + HCOOH t 95.
40%.
.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 465
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. M96.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p214
4. .. 2 1962 66,71.
5. : FR815880, GB1548827
4.11.6 , TAGN H2N-N=C(NHNH2)2HNO3
- :
. (1.47 100 0, 4.5
100 25, 22 100 65). 1.5 /3.
:
t . 216 . t . 260. .
:
5350/c 1.0 /3 7930/c 1.46 /3. 350 .
34.9 . +11.71 /.
3492/. 1206/.
:

, .
:
3- - 4
100.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1980. T28-T29.
2. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p343
4.11.7 N2H4HNO3
- :
2 . , . ( 20
76.6 /100 ). . 1.68 / 3. (, ..).
.
:
t . 70.7, 140. 300 ( ).
.

167

:
-586.4/. -620.7 /.
5640 / 1.25 / 3 30 . 8510 / 1.59 / 3 (
6.3). 408. 130% .
3.735 /. 1001/.
:
. 5-10%
,
.
:

.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 464,
483.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 7
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1975. H196-H200, H200-H201.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p181,182
4. .. 2 1962 800.
4.12

.
. - ,
, .
, -
,
.
.
, , .
4.12.1 , NH4ClO4
- :
. 10.9 /100 0, 24.9 /100 25, 48.5
/100 107 (t -), , , , .
1.952 /3. , .
: , . . , ,
, .
:
t . . 150. 240 1.76/ 3. t
. . 350-370 ( ). .
.
:
2500/c 1.17 /3 . 1.97/ (- ).
-295/. -576.5/. 195-220 .
100% . 810/.
:
1831 Serrulas .
,
.
:
-
- .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 477
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. P145.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p17

168

4. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 351
4.12.2 (NH2)2C=NHHClO4
- :
. . , . . 1.743 /3.
:
t . 248. 300 .
, . .
:
-440.1/. -466.1/.

6000/c 1.15 /3, 7150/c 1.67 /3. 400 .


124% .
:
, .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 485
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 6
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1974. G152.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p157
4. .. 2 1962 72.
4.12.3
- :
.
:
t . 210. .
:
. 7540/c 1.68 /3().
163% .
:
.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 465
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. M96.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p214
4. .. 2 1962 66,71.
5. : FR815880, GB1548827
4.12.4
- :
. . 1.939 /3. .
:
t . 142.4. 150-220. t . 272. .
t . 85.
:
-291/. -42.9 /. 362.
864/. 3.74 /, . 3.03/.
:

.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 2 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1965- P. 464,
483.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 7
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1975. H196-H200, H200-H201.
3. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p181,182
169

4. .. 2 1962 800.
4.13 .
, - ,
, 1971 .
, -

.
,
.
,
, ,
.
() ,
, .
,
.
4.13.1 , -, , ADN, SR-12
NH4N(NO2)2
- :
- . 50% .
: : 423.5% 32. : 30.0% 0, 33% 10, 47.6% 32.
: 90.3% 32. : 4.9% 0, 7.0% 10, 14.0% 32, :
10.8% 0, 14.6% 10, 26.5% 32, 2.0% 32.
. .
(t . 55 20% ). ,
. 1.84/3.
( 1.54 /3, - 1.67 /3).
:
t . 92, 130-135 . t
127. t . 160. 0.73 5 80 40.

. . 31 2 (. ), 59
2 50% . .
10-25. (10, 25 ) 80-90% ( 80%).
: 3000 /2, 4900 /2.
:
-148 / ( -260/).
-289/. 2668/. 5260/c 1.658 /3 (
40 ) 5013/c 1.568 /3 ( 25 ).
1084/.
:
1971, 1991.
- 1977 , -
1996 . ,
.
,
, , 2007
.
:
:
1)
, ,
, 2)
2) -30 (
)

170

3)
.
.
4) RN(NO2)2
5) .
2 .
. . ,
, . (
10-15 ). 3% .
:
5.7 18.9 98%
9.8 . , -45 - -35.
30 , 100 .
,
0. pH 7.5-8.0.
. 500
, . ,
. 200
. 70%.
,
,
.
, .
.
:
1. Rudolf Meyer Explosives, Fifth Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. (Electronic) 2002 p14.
2. . . .
... 2- . . 2000 . 9
3. Energetic Materials. Particle Processing and Characterization. Edited by U.Teipel. Wiley-VCH 2005
.17.
4. Svante Karlsson and Dr. Henric Ostmark SENSITIVITY AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF
AMMONIUM DINITRAMIDE (ADN), in Proc. 11th Symp. (Int.) on Detonation, 1998.
5. .., ... .
. XLI (1997). 2. 5.
6. Santosh G. Synthesis and evaluation of energetic materials. Vicram Sarabhai space centre
Thiruvananthapuram 695022, India. 2003.
7. . . . . . 1-2 2009 (21-22) . 90, 93.
8. : US5659080, US5254324, US5976483, US6787119
4.13.2 . GUDN, FOX-12
- :
NH
O
- . 5/
20. 1.755 /3.
C
C

H2N
N
NH2 HN(NO2)2
:
H
T
.
205.

.
:
-355/.
. 8210/c 1.75 /3 25.7 .
7870 /c 1.66 /3 ( 52.1).
:

.
.
:
:
16.8 9.8 . 50 .
3-4, .
171


. 88-90%.
30.2 50 .
. 24.8 ,
10 . ,
. 90-95%.
, .
:
1. Berndt Gustafsson, Bofors Defence Johan Dahlberg and Per Sjberg. New Insensitive Modular
Charge Based on GUDN. Proc. of 36th International Annual Conference of ICT, Karlsruhe, Germany
2005.
2. Henric stmark, Andreas Helte and Torgny Carlsson. N-GUANYLUREA-DINITRAMIDE (FOX-12): A
NEW EXTREMELY INSENSITIVE ENERGETIC MATERIAL FOR EXPLOSIVES APPLICATIONS, in Proc.
13th Symp. (Int.) on Detonation, 2006.
3. Jrgen Sandstrm. New Insensitive High Explosives Proc. of Insensitive Munitions & Energetic
Materials Technology Symposium 2000. Texas.
4. Santosh G. Synthesis and evaluation of energetic materials. Vicram Sarabhai space centre
Thiruvananthapuram 695022, India. 2003.
4.13.3 , HNF N2H4HC(NO2)3
- :
- . .
. 1.872 /3. LD50 = 124 /.
:
t . 124. t . 165. 14-36, 2-5 * ( 120
7.5* .)
:
5.04/. -72 /.
:
, ,
-. -.
:
.
:
Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 7
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. M80.

5.0

.
.
, ,
.
, .
, . .
.
5.1 .
. . ,
. ,
:



70-100 (
,
).
() ,
, 80-81, ,
172

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, (, ,
). ,
,

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.
.
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, ,
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,
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.
, ,
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.
:
1.
. .
2. .
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- .
, ..
.
3. ,
() .

- .
( ),
2 ( ).
( 20)
.

(), .

- - ,
. .
, .
1) C , , Hexolite, Hexotol, Cyclotol .. .
( .. ) .

2 . .
. -. 2 .

.
composition B : 57.5-61.5%, 37.241.8%, , 0.7-1.3%.
7920 /c, 1.72 /3. 112-121% . 131% .
134% . 0.051
0.25 22 120 0.05-0.16 1 48. (12 tool 2.5)
50=49-85. 5.02/.
:
1: -57%, 38%, 4.8%, -0.2%.
2: -55.2%, 40%, t . 102 3.6%,
-1.2%.
173

-3 -2 (-40), ,
. -4 60% , 39.5% ,
(
).
Cyclotol,
-
.
Cyclotol 75/25 8300 /c, 1.76 /3. 0.014-0.04
0.25 22 120 0.25-0.94 1 48.
31.6. (12 tool 2.5) 50=47.
137% . -24.
- . ; ,
, ..
40%
,
- , .
- . . -50, -45 -40 (40% ):
-50: 7650-7800 /c 1.64-1.68 / 3.
4.2-4.68/. 20 ( -13).
10 25 - 32% ( 4-8%). -50
, , ,
-40.
-40: 7660-7850 /c 1.65-1.68 / 3.
4.27-4.9/. 22.5 ( -13).
10 25 - 36% ( 4-8%).
. 23 /

%
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

. -*
/
6590
6710
6620
6460
6335
6260
6035
5770
5570
5260
5230

.
/2
0.22
0.16
0.21
0.42
0.95**
2.40
2.50***
2.60
2.80
3.35
4.10

.
480
465
445
410
390
365
345
315
310
300
290

*- 1.04 /3
** -
*** -
2) - -,
: , , (), Hexotonal (), torpex, HBX,
DBX ( ) ...
- .
Torpex-1 -45%, 37%, 18%. ,
2 . , , .
. Torpex
,
HBX -6 .
Torpex-2 -42%, 40%, 18%. 132-160%
( ). 7660 /c 1.8/3. 140-166%
. 134-164% .

174

2 . .
HBX -6.
HBX ( ) 2 . .
HBX-1: -40%, 38%, 17%, D-2 (84% , 14%
, 2% ) -5%. 7224 /c 1.69-1.70
/3.
.
HBX-3: -31%, 29%, 35%, D-2 -5%.
6930 /c 1.81-1.84 /3. 6.78/.
H-6 45%, 30%, 20%, D-2 -5%,
( 100%) 0.5%. 7191 /c 1.71 /3, 7365
/c 1.76 /3. 733/. 49.5
( 48). 135% .
-16 (CCC) -24%, 60%, 16%. 6700 /c
1.67 / 3. 5.7/. 18-20
( -13). 10 25 - 13% ( 48%). , .
-5 (): -59%, 19%, 17%, -5%.
7700 /c 1.75 /3. 6.28/.
1 200. 40-50 , .
. .
() -57%, 19%, 17%, -7%.
7600 /c 1.70 /3. 5.9/. 1822 ( -13). 10 25 - 20% (
4-8%). .
-2 (, ) () 21%, 27%, -5.2%,
. ( 7200 /c, 1.75 /3.
7.2/.
HTA-3 () 49%, 29%, -22%.
680/. 7866 /c, 1.90 / 3 (,
1 ). 61.3 ( 48).
1190/. . 1958.
HTA-4 () 38%, 30%, -32%.
680/. 7640 /c, 1.99 / 3 (,
1 ).
(): -60%, 18%, 17%, -5%
7860 /c 1.75 /3. 6.53/.
1 200. 60 , .
.
. 24 .

90/10
80/20
70/30
60/40
50/50
40/60
70/15/15
50/25/25
50/20/30
40/45/15*

-

82
82
82
82
85
85
85
90

.
/3
1.52
1.63
1.64
1.67
1.70
1.70
1.72
1.85
1.80
1.79

. .
/
7070
7210
7420
7510
7570
7670
6960
7680
7400
7500

*- TORPEX
** - 10 .

175

4.4
4.5
4.7
4.9
5.1
5.2
4.5
4.9
4.7
5.3

316
320
353
357
368
388
397
478

.
**
24
12
8
10
12
8
24
24
24
24

3) (Octol) ( 20-30%) .
-
. 60%
2 . , ,
1958
, .
75/25 ( I) 70/30 ( II, ,
66
M72 LAW).
. 77/23 8540/.
. 1.80 /3. 4.89/. ( 20%)
B .
-30 ( 70%, 30%)
8250/ . 1.77 /3.
15% . ERDCO-301
82% , 15% 3% 8510
/ . 1.80 /3.
5-20%
, c
. ,
,
.
4) () ( 50%) . t . 76.4.
10 (=25 ) - 44%. 50
- 7450 /. 1.63-1.67 /3. . 6.7 1.65 / 3.
35.5 /. 121% ( ).
122% . ,
, ..
, ,
. 30-
20 ,
2 . , -. . .
, ( .. ),
.. . .
.
. 25 /
% . -*
.-**
.
/
/
/2
0
6005
5200
0.20
10
5870
5000
0.15
20
5785
4790
0.22
30
5675
4600
0.42
40
5510
4550
0.80
50
5490
4850
0.99***
60
5385
4400
1.25
70
5345
4100
1.60
80
5260
3720
1.65
90
5050
3650
1.75
100
4865
----4.10

.
515
480
440
425
390
370
350
340
315
295
290

*- 1.04 /3 30 .
** - 1.0 /3 8 .
*** - .
, .
-,
. -
176

-
( RU2156232). -
7-14%

.
5) (. - ) ( 1520%). . 5.3-5.6 /,
4000/ . 1.0 /3. 6000/ . 1.35
/3. ..
,
. ,
. 8.
10:90 85. 6590/.
1.65/3. 4.4. 416. 111-114%
( ). 5.0 /. 12 10.
( 20/80): 1.71-1.78 / 3. 0.3.
124% . 100% .
. 6500 /. 1899.
1 . .
2 . .
6) -. : 75%, 12.5%,
-12.5%. 2 .
( 2
- ).
PTX-1, 50% , 30% 20% . 9095, t . 67. 7400-7655 / 1.68/ 3.
132% .
.
7) . 2 .
, .
100, t . 68. 80/20, 75/25, 70/30
65/35. 75/25 7380 / 1.59/ 3.
122% ,
50.
.
8) . Hexamite, NTD-2 (), Shiesswolle
8, TSMVI-101 (), OTSU B, ().
60%, 24%, 16%. 116%
. 6900 /c, 1.72 / 3.
130% . - 46
( 43) 2 . ,
. 97 (60% 40% )
. 30-40%
.
9) - (). 2
. . -2
(20% , -80), -1
(-) -3 (10% , -90).

,
, ,
, ,
.
. 30% .
177

-50 (50% ) 5750/ 1.54 / 3.


222.
10) Amatex 20.6%, 39.4%, ,
40%. 6728/ 1.636 / 3 ( 101.6)
. 17. 2 . .
11) - ( 10-20%,
73%). , , .
.
( ).
33/67 : 26.8 ( 48). 2.55/ 3.
35, ( 90-100) 2 . 11
14 . 1 .
. 2
.
12) , 50% , 35% , 15% .
2 .
39.8 ( 48). 5450/. 2.27-2.32/ 3.
30, ( 90-100) 2 . 12
14 .
13) (EDNATOLS) ,
60/40, 55/45 50/50. 55/45
PDT 112% . 0.22-0.23 . 119%
. 120% .
7340/ 1 (1.62 / 3).
105 .
. 2 . .
, , , ,
. 40%
, 20% 20% .
14) .
15) ,
4% ( . 82-84) 9,10-
, , .
: 70%, 29.1%, 9,10 0.9%. (
) 32, 87%,
-1.3%, 11.7% - 25.
16)
, (). . .
.
ARX-4024
.
65% 35% . 7810/ 1.80 /3.
25.9. 17.8-20.0.
5.24 ( 7890/ 1.71 /3.
28.7. 3-4.
2.69)
AFX-644 , 90 20. 40% , 30%
, 20% 10% D-2 ( Indramic-170C -84%, 14%,
2%). 6960/ 1.70 / 3. 41-43.
50>200.5, 60.8. 54.5
35.3.
178

AFX-645 -48%, 32%, 12%, +


8%. 6800/c.
AFX-644 HBX.
AFX-625 - 25%, 25%, 25%, 25%.
IMX-102 - 50%, 35%, 15%.
, IMX-101.

17) (DNAN).

, 2,4-,
.
, ,
( 87% ). 2,4
, .
Hogston 2004 .
(94.5.
1.336/3), N--4-.
PAX-21 : - 36%, 34%, - 30%, N--4- 1%
( 100%). 60 . 8120/
1.73 /3. 29.1.
ARX-4027: - 60%, 39.75%, N--4- 0.25%.
7360/, 22.
IMX-101: 43.5%, 36.8%, 19.7%.
795,
105, 120 155 . 6900/
1.64 /3. 20.6. 64-68.
IMX-104, OSX-7 (, , ). .
OSX-8 (, , ). 60 120
.
OSX-12 (, , , ).
.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 247
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 2,3,8,9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1962, 1966, 1978, 1980. 83-84, 477-484, O6-O17,
P133-P136, T396-T398.
3. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 65, 87.
5. A. Popolato and others. Some properties of Amatex/20K LLNL, Livermore, CA LA-6243-MS (1976).
6. SCOTT FALUOTICO, PAUL BETTS. DEVELOPMENT OF A PAX-21 LOADING PROCESS FOR THE 60MM
M720E1 HE MORTAR PROJECTILE. Proc. of Insensitive Munitions & Energetic Materials Technology
Symposium 2000. Texas.
7. Phil J. Davies and Arthur Provatas Characterisation of 2,4-Dinitroanisole: An Ingredient for use in
Low Sensitivity Melt Cast Formulations. DSTO-TR-1904. 2006.
8. Matthew D. Cliff, Matthew W. Smith. Insensitive munitions assessment of the 5/54 naval artillery
shell filled with ARX 4024. DSTO-TR-1514. 2003.
9. : RU2156232, RU2247699, US6562159, US7067024, US6562159, US4985093, US4376083,
RU2279418, RU2071957.
5.2 .
, , .
,
. C ,
.

-.
179

, -
(, ..).
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.
.
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.. . 2 . ,
, -
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, . . .
,
: . (Plastic
Bonded eXplosives - PBX) 1952,
. PBX-
, . .

.
2 . PVA-4
,
. 60- ,
.
,
- ,
( )
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.
,
. .
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-,
,

. .

180

()
. ,
, ,
,
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. , ,
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.
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:
1. -
90
. - .
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).

.
. ,
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)
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.
, .
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..
(paste-process).
. , , .
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. .
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PBXN-9, 92% ).

,
- .
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- (1-5%)
, , , .
. , , ..
, ~5%
177 2 . 100,
, - 145.
,
, .. ,
.
181

:
1) A
( ) :
: -91%, -9%
- . 8100 /c, 1.59
/3 ( 1 ). 1.65 / 3 12000
. . 107-115% . 144% .
132-135% . . 0.25
. (Type 12 2.5) 50 = 81.
2 . , ,
- 9%.
, .
-2,
-3.
-4: -97%, -3%. .
A-5 1: -98.5-99%, -1.5-1%. 2 -98%,
-1.6%, () 0.4%. 1.70 / 3.
.
: -4 64%, -35%, () 1%
( )
2) -IX-1 ( , ) () 93.5-95%,
6.5-5%. 45%,
15%, 38.8%, -1.2%.
,
. 8000/ 1.6 / 3, 8300-8450/ . 1.68 / 3.
4.8-5.22/. 23 ( -13). 420-450.
10 25 - 24% ( 4-8%).
-IX-3 () -90%, 6%, 4%. .
-IX-2 () -73%, 23%, 2.4%, 1.6%.
- . 8000/. . 1.76
/3. 6.48/. 22 ( -13). 530.
-IX-13 2 , ,
, . c 50-60.
, , -
.
: ,
( ),
..
.
3) PBX-9205 -92%, 6%, -2%.
8170/. . 1.67 /3. 0.025 0.25
120 22. (12tool) 2.5 50=44-60.
98. PBX- 50- .
4) PBXN-9404 -94%, -3%, --() -3%.
8800/c 1.844 /3. 37.5.
0.36-0.4 0.25 120 22.
(12tool) 2.5 50=33-48.
5) LX-14 95.5%, Estane 5702-F1 (
) 4.5% 8830/ . 1.82 / 3.
37. 0.02 0.25
120 22. (12tool) 2.5 50=53.
.
PAX-2A . .
6) X-0298 97.5%, Kraton G6500 (- ) 1.12%,
1.38% 8830/c 1.817 /3.
0.1- 0.3 / 1 120 48.
47 (12tool).
7) Octonyl (). 90%, 10%. 8850/c
1.77 /3.
182

8) 3.5 ( )
. 96.5%, ( ) +
- 3.5%. 8700 /c 1.76 /3.
5.23/. 1 200.
, .
60- , -IX-1 10-15%
.
( 8840 /c
1.84 /3) ( 9000 /c 1.86 / 3),
-
( ), .
9) ,
5.5 94-96% 6-4% -
, -IX-1. 8670 /c
1.777 /3.
10) -97.5%, 1.2%, 0.8%, 0.5%.
8850/c 1.84 /3.
3.5.
11) HNIW: HNIW 97%, 1.2%,
1.3%, 0.5%. 9270/ 1.95 / 3.
106-109%.
12) Rowanex-3000 () 95%, ( + ) 5%.
8860/c 1.83 /3. 90- 20.
13) Rowanex-3601 () -60%, -35%, 5%.
.
14) . 5% . 2
, ,
30- . 86% + 14% -
.
15) : 22%, -60%, -15%, 3%.
7910/ 1.93 /3.
16) PBXW-9 92%, DOA-6%, Hycar-2%, .
5/54 Mk 64 . PBXW-9 PBXN106 (. ).
17) PBXW-11 ( PBXN-10) 96%, DOA-3%, Hycar-1%.
PBXW-9. 1995. JSOW/BLU-108
XM-80.
18) PBXW-17 -94%, Hytemp4544 ( ) -1.5%,
-4.5%. 38-43 ( 17). 8500/c
1.72 /3. 5 PBXN-9 (. ),
.
19) PATHX-2 HNIW 95%, Estane 5%. 9120/c 1.923 /3.
35.5 (LX-14 - 31.5) 5.57 /.
LX-14 (95.5% 4.5% Estane) 108%.

.
20) LX-19 HNIW 95.2%, Estane 4.8%. 9440/c 1.959 /3.
21) DXD-53 ( ): 91%, 8.5% 15%
, 0.5% (DOA).
22) DXD-59 ( ): 92% ( :E 3:1), HyTemp-4404(
- )-2%, 6%.

183

. 26 .

DXD-53
DXD-57
DXD-59
LX-14

85/15
%
RDX 91
HMX 95
HMX 92
HMX 95
HMX 85
. *
4.0
1.1
2.7
1.18
1.14
. **
0.06
0.11
0.08
0.21
0.14

8.33
8.62
8.63
8.68
8.74
/c . /3
(1.64)
(1.80)
(1.76)
(1.80)
(1.86)
. . ,
29.5
31.4
33.4
33.4
31.5
* - ( 7.4 )
** - . 48 . 100.

PBXW-9

PBXW-11

HMX 92
1.54
0.13
8.40
(1.73)
31.0

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1.14
0.12
8.82
(1.80)
35.4

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. 90-110.
, , ,
. .
,
: , , , -, - ..
85% 22 .
2.5 , 8030/ 1.70 / 3, 80%
. 30, 7720/ 1.65 / 3 ( -
30% 72 .)

. ,
, .

:
(, , ) 80-90%,
10-20%.
100%:
: () 1-2%,
( ) 0.1-0.2%,
( ) 0.01%,
(. ) 0.5%,
- () 0.2%.
:
1) PBXN-109 -64%, 20%, ( ,
) -16%. 7600/.
2) PBXC 109f - 82%, -18% (
-1.75%, -12.7%,
3.54%, 0.01%). 8075/
. 1.635 /3. 50 = 39 . 2.5 .

184

3) PBXN-110 -88%, -5.32%,


() -5.32%, (. )
-0.75%, ( IPDI) -0.51%,
(DBTDL ) -0.1 %.
8390/c 1.68 /3.
4) PBXN-111 ( PBXW-115) () -20%,
43%, 25%, -5.7%,
() -5.7%, 4,4--(2,6---)0.05%, 0.54%, 0.004,
0.004%. 5700/ . 1.79 / 3.
1.72-1.82 /3. . 38.
, 80 .
(ROWANEX-1301, KS-57, B2211B, B2211D)
5) PBXW-124 -20%, 20%, 26%, 22%,
- 4.44%,

() + - 6.65%, + 0.45%.
. 7021/
. 1.70 /3. . 76-89.
6) PBX-129 89%, 11%. 8390/c
1.72 /3. .
7) APET-257 -25%, 33%, 30%, ,
-12%.
8) RX-35-AQ 16%, 41%, 15%,
75/25 19%, 9% ( 4500, -()- + ).
( 4- 8 )
9) A-591 69%, 17%,
14%. 8050/ . 1.67 /3.
10) B-2142 () -77%, 23%. 7460/
. 1.50 /3.
11) B-2214 (). . 72%, 12%,
16%. 7500/. . 1.63
/3 80.
12) B-2238 (). . 85%,
15%. 8040/. . 1.572 / 3.
<2.
13) B-2248 (). . - 46%, 42%,
12%. 8130/. . 1.70
/3. . 11. .
14) Hexabu HBU-88 () 88%, 12%.
8100/ 1.66 /3.
15) ctorane ORA-86 () . 86%,
14%. 8330/ . 1.71 /3.
16) KS-32 (). 85%, 15%. 8280/.
17) KS-54 (). 28%, 40%, - 18%
14%. 5730/. .
18) KS-71 (). 50%, - 30% 20%.
6800/. .
19) HX-76 (). 30%, - 55% 15%.
7420/ 1.55 /3. .
20) -28%, -32%, , 25%,
15%. 6120/ 1.63 / 3. 1520/.
52.
.
21) -30%, 53%, 17% 5740-5900/.
945/. 270. 40-45.
, .
.
22) RU2031897 , -50: 85%, - 15% ( 185

). 7750/. . 1.61 / 3.
4.27/. . 1.3. 180
60-70.
,
,
()
. ( )
.
:
1) LX-17 (RX-03-BB) 92.5%, Kel F -7.5% (
), 7630/ 1.908 /3. .
30. 0.02 0.25 120 22.
(12tool) 2.5 50 177.
.
2) PBX-9503 80%, -15%, Kel F -5%, 7720/ 1.90 /3.
.
3) PBXN-5 -95%, Viton -5% ( ).
, .
4) PBX-9010 -90%, Kel-F-800 ( )
-10%. 8370/. . 1.78 / 3.
32.8. 0.02-0.04 0.25 120 22.
(12tool) 2.5 50=31-41.
5) LX-04-1 85%, Viton A -15% 8460/ 1.86 / 3.
. 35. 5.23/. 0.010.04 0.25 120 22.
6) LX-07-2 90%, Viton A -10% 8640/ 1.87 / 3.
0.01-0.04 0.25 120 22.
7) LX-10-1 95%, Viton A -5% 8820/ 1.86 / 3.
. 37.5. 0.04-0.05 0.25 120
22. (12tool) 2.5 50=40.
8) HAV-20 65.7%, 13.3%, Viton A -16.7% 8160/
1.97 /3.
9) X-0320 60%, -35%, Kel F 800 -5% (
). 8220/ 1.88 / 3.
.
10) PBX-P31 -96%, 4%.
8560/ 1.83 /3. TDW
ASRAAM.
PAX-2A (. ).
PBX-P11.
11) -95%, Kel-F-800 -5%. 8895/c 1.88 /3 (
0.5 ). .
12) 80%, Viton-F 15%, -5%. 8000/c
1.82 /3.
13) 92.5%, 7.5% 0.5 0.15%
( 100%). 8350/c 1.75 / 3.
0.31 / 1 130 100.
14) 95.5%, 4%, 0.5%
100%. 6800/c 1.65 /3.
3.5 / 1 250 10.
:
1) -150 () 85%, 15%
8150/ 1.66 /3. 1277/.
186

2) -20 () 65%, 18%, 17%


7640/ 1.70 /3. 1376/.

()
.
,
, ()
. , , ,
. ,
, ( ) ,
, .
,

.
,
, ,
.
, -, - . ,
: - ,
- (), ANMO .,
GAP, PolyGLYN, 2--5-- (),
..
, .
9% -(2--5-)
50 132 , 9% ( -3) 80, 148.
,
, -

50:50 -(2,2-) -(2,2-)
(BNDPA/F), -(2--2,2-) (FEFO, ) .,
. , - ..
:
1) Veltex 448 -70%, (13.15%N) -15%, -10.7%, 2 -1.3%, -3.0%. ,
1957 .
8500/ 1.72 /3. 1226/.
2) RX-08-BD 80%, -(2--2,2-) 16.84%, AFNOL (

2,2,8,8--4,6--1,9-
(DINOL)

-) 3.16%.
3) LX-09-1 93.3%, (DNPA) - 4.4%, -(2--2,2) (FEFO) - 2.3% 8810/ 1.84 / 3.
0.03-0.07 0.25 120 22.
4) PAX-2A 85%, - (CAB) 6%, BNDPA/F 9%.
8520/c 1.78 /3.
. 80 90 . LX-14,
.
Hellfire Hellfire-II (
).
5) PAX-3 64%, - 20% - (CAB) 6.5%, BNDPA/F
9.5%. 8060/c 1.859 /3. .
6) PAX-11 HNIW 94%, CAB 2.4%, BNDPA/F 3.6%. 9520/c
1.951 /3.
7) PAX-22 HNIW 92%, CAB 3.2%, BNDPA/F 4.8%. 9230/c
1.958 /3.
8) PAX-29 HNIW 77%, 15%, CAB 3.2%, BNDPA/F 4.8%.
8720/c 2.008 /3.
187

9) PAX-30 77%, 15%, CAB 3.2%, BNDPA/F 4.8%.


8160/c 1.902 /3.
10) PAX-42 77%, 15%, CAB 3.2%, BNDPA/F 4.8%.
7940/c 1.832 /3.
11) PBXN-105 -7%, 49.8%, 25.8%,
(BNDPA/F) - 12.9%, // - 4.3%,
(--) - 0.2%.
PBXN-103, .
, RAN Mk 48.
12) PBXN-106 () -75%, (BNDPA/F) - 18.5%,
// 6.5%.
13) RX-35-EK 39%, 30%, 25%,
-6%.
14) RX-35-DW 51%, 18%, 25%,
-6%.
15) CPX413 () - 35%, - 45%, polyNIMMO - 10%, K10
( 2,4- 2,4,6- 65/35) - 10 %.
(40/60), .
8150/ . 1.74 /3. . 10.
16) GD-9. - . 47.5%,
47.5%, BNDPA/F 2.5%, (Cariflex 1101) 2.5%. 8360/.
17)

80%,

8%,

8%,
- 2%, (,
) -2%. . 50 = 17-19 2.5. 8360/c
1.74 /3. 0.28 / 1 100 48.
.
18) US4988397 78% , 15.86% -(2--2,2) (FEFO), 5,29% 0.85%
8460/c 1.81 /3.
19) 90%, - 10%.
50 = 30 2.5.
20) HNIW 98%, ,
2%. 9350/c 1.999 /3.
40 6.0 /. LX-14 (95.5%
4.5% Estan) 115%. .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P.
257,271
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 3,8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1966. C474-C477, P60-P77.
3. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 99,102.
5. E. Hooton. EFFECT OF EXPLOSIVE FORMULATION COMPONENTS ON DETONATION PARAMETERS,
in Proc. 11th Symp. (Int.) on Detonation, 1998.
6. W.R. Blumenthal, D.G. Thompson, C.D. Cady, G.T. Gray III, and D.J. Idar. COMPRESSIVE
PROPERTIES OF PBXN-110 AND ITS HTPB -BASED BINDER AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND
STRAIN RATE, in Proc. 12th Symp. (Int.) on Detonation, 2002.
7. Cesar Pruneda and others. Low-Vulnerability Explosives (LOVEX) for mass-use Warheads. Part 1:
The processing and vulnerability testing of LOVEX formulations RX-35-AQ, RX-35-AS, and RX-35-AT.
LLNL, Livermore, CA UCRL ID-106441 (1991)
8. Hyoun-Soo Kim and Bang-Sam Park. Characteristics of the Insensitive Pressed Plastic Bonded
Explosive, DXD-59. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 24, 217-220 (1999)
9. V.P. ILYIN, S.P. SMIRNOV, E.V. KOLGANOV, YU.G. PECHENEV THERMOPLASTIC EXPLOSIVE
COMPOSITIONS ON THE BASE OF HEXANITROHEXAAZAISOWURTZITANE. VIII
2005
10. Dominik Clement, Ernst-Christian Koch, Karl Rudolf and Bernd Eigenmann. COMPARISON OF THE
SHOCK WAVE SENSITIVITY OF HMX-BASED EXPLOSIVES OBTAINED BY EITHER SLURRY - OR
188

PASTE PROCESS. Proc. of 10th seminar New trends in research of energetic materials Pardubice.
2007.
11. Donald A. Geiss Jr. Keith E. Van Biert etc. 105mm DPICM, M915 Insensitive Munitions Testing. Proc.
of Insensitive Munitions & Energetic Materials Technology Symposium 2000. Texas.
12. Dr. Kjell-Tore Smith. PRESSABLE THERMOBARIC EXPLOSIVES. ALUMINIUM CONTAINING
COMPOSITIONS BASED ON HMX AND RDX. Proc. of 36th International Annual Conference of ICT,
Karlsruhe, Germany 2005.
13. Jerry Hammonds, Michael J. Ervin and Charles L. Smith. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AND
PRODUCTION SCALE UP OF NEW EXPLOSIVE COMPOSITIONS AT HOLSTON ARMY AMMUNITION
PLANT. Proc. of Insensitive Munitions & Energetic Materials Technology Symposium 2000. Texas.
14. G. Bocksteiner and D.J. Whelan. The effect of aging on PBXW-115 (Aust.), PBXN-103 and PBXN-105.
DSTO-TR-0228. 1995.
15. Theodore S. Sumrall. Large-Scale Fragment Impact Sensitivity Test Results of a Melt Castable,
General Purpose, Insensitive High Explosive. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 24, 30-36 (1999)
16. T.T. Nguyen. Alternative option for high-performance, IM-compliant, metal accelerating warhead
fillings: pressed PBX technology. Proc. of 31 th International Annual Conference of ICT, Karlsruhe,
Germany 2000.
17. Matthew W. Smith and Matthew D. Cliff. NTO-Based Explosive Formulations: A Technology Review.
DSTO-TR-0796. 1999.
18. : US5009728, US5316600, US4988397, US4088518, US5587553, US4251301, US3985595,
US4699741, US5547526, US4168191, US4092187, US4251301, US4770728, US3173817,
US3296041, US3773572, US4699741, US4357185, US4097317, US3884735, US4425170,
US4430132, US4392410, US6206988, US6214137, US6217799, US6673174, US5547526,
US6884307, RU2255079, RU2252925, RU2315026, RU2248958, RU2031897, RU2417971.
5.3 .
,
50-60- 20, ,
: ,
, .
. ..
.
- ,
.
.
70- 20,

.
,
.
,
.
(80- 20 , , , )
(FEFO),
.
, , , (. .
-), -70
( 70% 30% )
( ), , (
), .
. , ,
, .
,
.
:
1) PBXN-103: 40%, 27%, 23%,
( ) -6%,
189

2.5%, -1.3%, -0.2%.


5900 /c 1.89 / 3. 8.3/.
, 70 ,
PBXN-111
PBXN-105.
2) 70%, ( )
9.83%, 19.67%, -p- 0.5%.
8770/c 1.73 /3. 41 ,
660 /. 8 (ABL).
3) -29: 53%, 29%, (-70:
1 : 0.3-0.4) 18%, 0.5%
100%. 7530/c 1.869 /3. 20.5.
4) -8 77%, 8%, (-70, ,
) 15%. 8430/c 1.84 / 3.
- .
5) -30 23%, 29%, -32%, (-70,
, ) 16%. 6450/c 1.90 /3.
-7.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 3,8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1966, 1978. C474-C477, P60-P77.
2. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 96.
3. http://rea2006.rus-catalog.ru/catalogue/5249011602_dwn.htm
4. : RU2315742, RU2235967, US5468313
5.4 (Sheet explosives)
. (, .),
( ) ,
. . : , , .
( 50-150%),
1-2 -60 150.
,
, , ,
( .. ),
. DuPont 1960.
,
.
1) LX-13 (EXTEX, XTX-8003) 80% 20%
Sylgard 182. 1.50-1.53 /3. 7300 /c.
. 17. . ,
. 1.05/.
0.36. 12tool 2.5 50% - 31.
2) XTX-8004 80% 20% Sylgard 182. 1.55
/3. 7220 /c ( 20).
. , .
1.6. 12tool 2.5 50% - 65-70.
3) Detasheet C 63% , 28.2% , 8.0%
0.8% . -5070.
4) Formex F4 (). 89%, 11%. 7500 /c
1.4/3. 7050 /c 1.49/ 3.
.
5) SX-2, DEMEX200 PRIMASHEET2000.
88.2%, 8.2%, -(2-) 2.2%,
() - 1.4%. 8000-8150 /c. 27.2
. 1.63 /3.

190

6) -11 80%, 8%, 8%,


0.5%, () - 3.5%, 0.1% (.
100%). 7400 /c. 1.42 /3. . 6.
7) -24 83.2%, 5.5%, .
4.5%, () - 1.9%, - 0.1%, - 0.1%,
- 2.7%, - 2.0%. 7500 /c. 1.57 /3. .
3.5-4.0.
8) -1 85%, 6.5%,
6.5%, () - 1.5%, -0.5%.
7500 /c. 1.57 /3. . 0.5-0.7. .
52% . 400. 16 (25).
-5580. 4.0.
9) -2 85%, 6.5%,
6.5%, () - 1.4%, -0.5%, 0.1%.
7600 /c. 1.59 /3. . 3.0-3.5.
. 48% . 380. 18 (25).
-55160. 3.0.
10) DXD-19 ( ) - 73%, HyTemp-4454 (
) 13%, BDNPA/F 6.2%,
6.3%, - 1.5%. 22.2 (-4.8),
28 (- 6.6). 7210/ 1.52 / 3.
11) 68% , 14% , 18% , 100 0.7%
70 . 8219 /c.
1.59 /3. .
12) 64%, 6%, 30%,
0.3% ( 100%). 7741 /c. 1.59 / 3.
128% . 8.
-40. .
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 3,6
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1966,1974. D99-D101, F107.
2. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
3. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 102
4. Hee-Duk Park, Young-Gu Cheun, Jin-Sung Lee and Jeong-Kook Kim. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH
ENERGY SHEET EXPLOSIVE WITH LOW SENSITIVITY. Proc. of 36th International Annual Conference
of ICT, Karlsruhe, Germany 2005.
5. ... . . XLI
(1997). 4. 89.
6. : US5467714, US4014720, RU2057744, RU2022952
5.5 ()
, .
(, , ) 70-90%,
, . : , , -
.
, ..
40-60, .
(. ),
, ,
.
1 .
, - .
. 2 . .. 60% , ( ) .
- . 50- 20
, -4,
.
191

.
.

.
,
, - .
.
, ()
. ..
,
, .
, ,
, , . ,
- , ..
( ) ,
, - (
).
, , ,
. ,
SEMTEX .

. SEMTEX- ,
, .
,
- ,
0.1-0.5% .
. (
).
1) 2 .
C-1. 88.3% , 11.3%
0.4% .
.
0-40 , 0
, 40 .
, ,
-2. 78.7% , 12% , 5%
, 2.7% , 0.3% 1% .
-30-50,
- . -2
-3, ,
-77%, -3%, -4%, -1%, -5%
-10%. 7625 /c, 1.60 /3.
112% . 126% .
117% . , 50-
, 4. -4 (Harrisite) -
: -91% (2 60% 31% ),
= 100000-140000 -2.1%, -5.3%, (SAE-10)
-1.6%, 7900 - 8050 /c.
25.7 , 1.59-1.64 /3. 0.026 22 120
0.25. 116% . 130% .
-5777 -2 -3
. 48 2 . -4
, . -
4 , . , HDX-106
: -89.9-92.0%, -2.1-2.5%,
-5.3-5.9%, -1.4-1.6%.
2) NM-91. , -4.
91%, 2.25, 5.31, SAE-20 -1.42,
() 0.02%.
3) PE-4 (Plasic Explosive 4, ). 881%, DG-29 (
80%, 20%) - 111%, -10.3%.
. 100 0.47/5/40.
192

4)

5)
6)

7)

8)

9)
10)
11)

12)

13)

5.0/. 8210/ 1.61/ 3


1. 872/. 130% .
3-4. -40 - +75.
.
PE-6 (). 72.31%, DG-29 ( 80%,
20%) 11.90.75%, 0.9% , 15.01%.
. 100
0.37/5/40. t . 203. 6.32/. 7870/
1.66/3 1. 823/.
12. .
EL-506L3 (LX-02-1) 73.5%, 17.6%, 6.9%,
() + - 2%. 7370/c. 1.44 /3.
0.3-0.6 22 120 0.25.
Semtex 10 ( 1987 PlNp10) 87-88%, ( / 25/75) 12-13%. 7500 -7700
/c ( 21 30 ), 1.45-1.5 /3.
125-128% . 130% . 1.52.0. .
Semtex 1A 76%, 4.6%, - 9.4%, -
9.0%, N--2- (), 4 ( )
1%. 328 . (50) 26.1 , 19.1 (25).
7280 -7487 /c, 1.45 /3. 4.98/.
950/. . 3 . -30 +50. Semtex 1A 85% -, 4.5% -
10.5% . 7580/c 1.5
/3. 2.0.
Semtex 38.9%, 40.1%, - 10.2%,
9.1%, N--2- () 1%, 4 (
) 0.7%. 355 . (50.) 23.5 ,
7280 -7490 /c, 1.48 /3. 4.98/.
950/.
Semtex 50% , 37% -, 2.6% 10.4% . 7600/c
1.5 /3. 2.0-3.0.
Semtex 40% , 40% -, 8% , 2.4%
- 9.6% . 7450/c
1.66 /3. 3.0.
Formex P1 Plastrite (). 87%, - 3.25%,
9.75%. 7700 /c.
.
-4 (-4, ) - 78-80%, - 22-20% ( 3.
1. ). 1.42 / 3, 7000 /c.
910/. . 210, 850/.
21 ( -13 1.0 /3). 280.
10 25 12-16% ( 4-8%). .
-4 , , -

.
-5 85%, -200 4.5%, 10.5%.
1.4 /3, 7400 /c. 4.6/. . 230,
850/. 20 ( -13). 330.
10 25 - 36% ( 4-8%).
, -50, -90 ..
-7 : 71.5 1,5%, -200 +
-54 11.5 1,5%, 17 1,5%.
1.52 /3, 6500 /c. 6.28/, . 230,
840/, 480. 20, . 6, .
44% ( 4-8%), 1 12,7 50, 20
, - 35...45.
.
193

14) -87. 82.5%, -10.4%, -2.6%,


1.5%, 3%, -0.1%. 7000/. 1.41.55 /3. 1200/. 320. 4.
26. .
15) Hardex-8011 80%, 12%, 6%,
2% 7000 /c 1.40 /3.
, ,
-4. .
16) Perforex -79P 79%, 13%, 8%
7850 /c 1.50 /3.
.
17) -4 (), : -83%, -9%,
-5.7%, -0.3%, -2%.
18) 1 (). 75%, ,
, 25%. . 225.
19) 2 (). 85%, 3-4%, 10-12%.
. 235.
20) (). 82%, 16%,
2%. .
21) (). 86%, -14%. .
22) . 75%, . .
9.9%, 5.4%, 9.7%. 1.39
/3, 7430 /c. . 4.5 (8).
23) (100-300)-51.95%, ( 50) 38.5%, -0.45%,
3.64%, 5.46%.
8130 /c 1.67 /3. .
8300 /c 1.72 /3.
24) 85%, -2--1,2,3-- 14.5%,
(12.3% ) 0.5% 0.5% ( ). 8020 /c (
3), 8250 /c ( 6), 1.69 /3.
25) 88%, (=12000) 0.9% (=1300) 10.44%,
- 0.6%, - 2,2---(4--6-) 0.06%.
1.61 /3. -20.
26) Medium Velocity Dynamite (MVD) 75%, 15%, 5%,
SAE-10 4%, Vistanex Oil Gel 1%.
, 60%
. 6000-6600 /c 38 1.1
/3. 122% . 935/,
945/.
27) Low Velocity Dynamite (LVD) 17.5%, 67.8%, 8.6%,
+ 4.1%, 2.0%.
,
. 4300-4400 /c 32
0.9 /3. 92% .
625/, 611/. 1961.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 281
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 3,9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1966,1980. C484-C486, T323.
3. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 95,96
5. ..
: . .: , 2004 82,
6. M.C. Chick, L.A. Learmonth. Determination of shock initiation and detonation characteristics of PE4
in proof test geometries. Departament of defense materials research laboratories. Report MRL-R979. 1985.
7. : GB2326408, PL180343
194

5.6 (Paste Extrudable Explosives, PEX)



. . ,
. , , ,
, , ,
.
,

, .

:
(2--2,2),, (EDNP),
-70 (70% , 30% ) .. ,
().
. -1 , -70
.

. Aerojet General : 72%,
23%, 1%, 0.8%, 2.85%, 0.35%.
:
1) -84%, -(2-) -6%, -1%, SAE-10 -9%.
, .
. 7423/.
2) 70%, 24%, 6%. 8.
3) 48% /, 30% , 20% , 2%
.
6380/ 1.45 /3. 7.03/.
4) 24% /, 75% , 1%
.
7630/ 1.56 /3. 5.29/.
5) RX-06-HD 73.95% , 19.33% , 5.04%
Tone 260 1.68% ( , ).
6) RX-08-EL: 73%- , 25%- (2--2,2-) (FEFO), 2% .
7) RX-08-FK: 72.8%- , FM-1* -14.8%, EDNP (-4,4-) -10.3%, Cab-OSil-2%, 0.1% 50 - 120 (Comp. B 59, LX-14
-53, -29), 8140/ 1.749 /3.
8) RX-08-FE: 74.5%- , FM-1* -13.5%, EDNP (-4,4-) -9.4%, Cab-OSil-2.5%, 0.1% 50 - 120 (Comp. B 59, LX-14
-53, -29)
FM-1 25% (2--2,2-) (FEFO), 50% (2--2,2-)2,2- (MF), 25% (2,2-) (BNDPF)
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 281
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 3,9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1966,1980. C484-C486, T323.
3. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 95,96.
4. Frank Roeske and Clark Souers. Corner turning of detonation waves in an HMX-based paste
explosive. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 25, 172-178 (2000).
5. M.C. Chick, L.A. Learmonth. Determination of shock initiation and detonation characteristics of PE4
in proof test geometries. Departament of defense materials research laboratories. Report MRL-R979. 1985.
6. Jacqueline Akhavan, Matthew R. Andrews . Review of Paste Explosives (PEX) . Propellants Explos.
Pyrotech. 2010, 35, 425 432

195

5.7 ()
, .
, ,
, ,
, ..
,
, . -
, .
:
.
.
.
.

.
.
1846 (.)
. 19
NO2
(, ..).
,
. - ,
. 2 .
,
60% 40% .
. 6180 /c. 1.4 /3.
1080/.
1945 PLX,
5%
(. ).
50- 20
NO2 .
.
,
( )
0.1.
.
,
.
1) LX-01, NTN. 51.7%, 33.2%, 2- 15.1%.
6840 /c. 1.24 /3. 15.6.
6.36/.
2) -70. 70%, 30%.
, ,
.
3) - Dragontooth,
: 75% 25% .
/.
40C.
6500/c.
4) : - 72%, 4%, 4,5--3. 113% PLX.
5) -6. -(2,2,2-) ( ) 9%, -(2--2,2-)
() 49%, () 21%,
() 21%, 2,5% 100%.
7150 /c. 1.53 /3. 5.0/. . 32-36% .
380. ,

196

.
.
:
1. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 86.
2. Dobratz B.M. LLNL Explosives Handbook Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants
LLNL University of California, Livermore, California (UCRL 52997, 1985)
3. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 7
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. L26.
4. http://www.army.lv/?s=1481&id=3980
5. US6007648
6. Shepherd Levmore, Robert T. Schimmel. An evaluation of liquid explosives for foxhole digging.
ARLCD-TR-78010. April 1978.
5.8

- (.. ). ,
- ,
() , ,
( ), .
(
), - ,
.
-,
, . ,
, , , ..
,
, ,
. 3
:
1. , . ( - )
2. ,
. ( .
)
3.
.
( .
)
-
, 20-30, -
.
. (
), -, ..
.
, .
,

.
() .
Enchanced Blast Explosives (EBW).
;
- ,
1984.

40-75% . 10-20%
.
:
(54%) 53% , 29% , 14.5%
3.5% .
197

:
1) C 5672-10 Talley, 32% , 40% , 26.75%
1.25% .
2) RU2209806
(

):
15%, 40%, - 38%,
( ) 7%. 2.3.
8%, 40%, -7% 18.5%,
19.5%, ( ) 7%.
2.3.
30%, 18%, 50%,
( ) 1%, 1%.
2.0.
32.5%, 32.5%, 3%, 30%,
( ) 2%,
2.1. .

,
.

, ,

. ,
, .
, SMAW -3 ( 91%, -9%) 30%
. ,
PBXIH-18, 64.4% , 30.0%
, 1.4% HyTemp 4.2% .
M72 LAW. RAX-16
, . RAX-16

.
:
5-10% (
),
, US6969434

.
20-40% , 15-35% , 10-15%
, 30-55% 4-6% + .
,
,
.
-
: () 2/3-1/2
, 1/3-1/4 ,
.
:
1. Chris Ludwig. Verifying performance of thermobaric materials for small to medium caliber rocket
warheads. Talley defense systems.
2. Arno Hahma, Karri Palovuori and Yair Solomon. TNT EQUIVALENCY OF THERMOBARIC EXPLOSIVES.
Proc. of 36th International Annual Conference of ICT, Karlsruhe, Germany 2005.
3. Dr. Kjell-Tore Smith. PRESSABLE THERMOBARIC EXPLOSIVES. ALUMINIUM CONTAINING
COMPOSITIONS BASED ON HMX AND RDX. Proc. of 36 th International Annual Conference of ICT,
Karlsruhe, Germany 2005.
198

4. Nancy Johnson etc. EVALUATION OF EXPLOSIVE CANDIDATES FOR A THERMOBARIC M72 LAW
SHOULDER LAUNCHED WEAPON. NDIA 39th Annual Gun & Ammunition/Missiles & Rockets
Conference.
5. Ruth A. Schaefer etc. Development and Evaluation of New High Blast Explosives. Proc. of 36th
International Annual Conference of ICT, Karlsruhe, Germany 2005.
6. Scott Hall and Gregory D. Knowlton . Development, Characterization and Testing of High Blast
Thermobaric Compositions . Proceedings of the Thirty-First International Pyrotechnics Seminar. July
11-16, 2004
7. B.E. Gelfand, S.P. Medvedev, S.V. Khomik, M.V. Silnikov. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRESSURETEMPERATURE EFFECTS FROM TNT AND RDX-IPN-AL EXPLOSIONS, MABS, 2008.
8. : US6969434, US6846372, RU2209806
5.9
, , ,

, ,
. ,
15% .
, ,
, .
2 . .

,
.
:


( ).

.
:

(60-100)
.
.

1) , 2 . : -55%,
-45%.
, 2 :
2) S-19 -73.3%, 17.4%, 9.3%
3) H-5 -50%, 5%, -15%,
10%, 20%.
4) -50%, -15%, 10%,
25%.
5) 43 -45%, -15%, 10%,
30%.
, 2 :
6) S-16 -32%, 6-8%, 0-2%,
-10%, -10%, -40%.
7) S-19 : -55%, 9%, 4.2%,
1.8%, -15%, -15%. S-26 .
8) S-22 -44%, 9%, 3%,
-14%, -15%, -15%.

199

9) Antisanzinate (ANS) -60%, -20%, -10%, -10%.


. 2 . . 104, .
10) ASN -70%, -20%, -10%. 5500/c 1.55/3.
6-8
- ,
. 115-118.
10%
11) Composition 1: -65.5%, -10%, 14.5%,
-10%.
12) Composition 2: -60%, -24%, 8%,
-8%
2 . :
13) -80.1%, -9.9%, 10%
14) - 60.5%, -18%, -11%, - 10.5%.

. 38 2 .
294. 103.
.
15) -

: 1.38 1
3,5--1,2,4- (ADNT) . 112, 12 tool 2.5
65. 1.63/3. . 27.3.
, , .. 1.38
, 1 3,5--1,2,4- 1.5
8520/ 1.718/3.
16) EAK: 46%, 46%, 8% C
7500 /c, 40 .
, , , ( 8),
1-2% .
.
17) NEAK 49.1%, 25%, -21.15%,
3.75, 0.9%. 7030/c
1.59/3 ( 1.2 ) 7420/c 1.59/3 ( 1.4 ).
. . 105 (12tool 2,5
)( -56)
18) NEAK 8%, 46%,
-39%, 7%. . 98. . 81. 8020/c
1.64/3. . 55, ( -36).
.
19) DEMN . . 151,
.
IMX-103, 50% , 45% DEMN 5%
155 ,

:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford . 1967- P.
253,271
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960. A341.
3. Mary M. Stinecipher. Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate LLNL, Livermore,
CA LA-UR-81-917
4. : US4300962, US4421578, US4110136, US4419155

200

5.10 ()
- , .

1,
, (
). , ,
, , .
.
.
, .
:
, .
, .
, ,
.
, ,

- ,
.
, ,
( ) .
- ,
( -) ( ,
). .
1658,
, 1867
.
1884. ( ). 1886 .
. 1887 , ,
1900.
,
. 1915

80/20 50/50. 60/40,
. . ( ,
), 50/50 ( ).
1934 .

2 . .
2 . , ,
. , ,
.
.
2 ,

,
(ANFO), 1956,
. - 1958. ANFO

.
1955-60 20 .
, .
1969. ,

, .

, ANFO . . 27.
201

. 27 .

ANFO



1978

%
11000
40.7
3000
11.1
10000
37.0
3000
11.1
27000
100

1998

%
13000
32.5
1000
02.05.11
11000
27.5
15000
37.5
40000
100

5.10.1
.
61-97% , 3-21% .
20% (NaCl).
, ..
. 15%
, , , .
, , , ,
. 1
. 1.3 5.5 /. . .
, , , . ,
. , -
,
1.0-1.3 / 3. ,
.
6 (. ).
,
3-7% . 1500-3800/. . 0.85-0.9
/3. 270-285 . 4-8% 10 25.
. 8.
10-20.
NH4NO3 88:12 80:20
(. ). ,
. 4.1 /. ..
, . ( ). 340.
3500-4600/.
(
).
.

. . 79/21.
, . .
, .
:
1) 1 NH4NO3 66%, -5%, 24%, -5%.
.
450-480. 830/. 1292/.
4800-5300/. 10 25
56-68% ( 4-8%). 5-6. 18.
2) 1 () NH4NO3 52%, 11.5%,
30%, 5%, -1.5%. 200-220.
2500-3000/. 11.
3) 2 NH4NO3 88%, -12%.
4) 3 () NH4NO3 52.5%, 7%,
30%, 9%, -1.5%. 220-240.
2800-3200/ 1.2 /3. 12.
202

5) - 4 (. 3) NH4NO3 68%, - 17%,


15%. 285-300. 3600-4200/.
13.
6) - 5 (. 3) NH4NO3 70%, - 18%,
12%. 320-330. 3600-4600/.
14.
7) 6 NH4NO3 79%, - 21%. 3600-4800/.
. 1.0-1.2 /3. 14-16 , 360-365 .
16-32% 10 25.
895/. 6 4.2 /.
( 8). 10-13.
8) 7 NH4NO3 81.5%, -14%, 4.5%
. 4070/ . 1.0-1.1 / 3. 14 ,
350 .
9) 8 () NH4NO3 68%, - 10%, 2%,
20% . . 1.0-1.1 / 3.
12 , 250 .
10) 9 NH4NO3 87%, - 5%, 8%.
. . 0.9 /3. 11 , 310 .
11) 10 NH4NO3 86%, - 8%, 6%.
. . 0.9 / 3. 12 , 320 .
3200-3600/ 15-20
12) -3
NH4NO3 82%, 16.5%, 1%, 0.5%.
. . 0.95-1.1 / 3. 15 ,
370 . 10 25 12-32% ( 4-8%).
13) -20 (. 4) NH4NO3 64%, - 16%,
20%. 265-280. 3500-4000/.
13.
14) -19 (. 4) NH4NO3 61%, - 19%,
20%. 270-280. 3600-4300/.
14.
15) NH4NO3 83%, -17%.

16) NH4NO3 82%, 18% -
1 2 . .
17) NH4NO3 88%, 12% - .
18) NH4NO3 88%, 5.5%, -4.4%, 2.1%.
. 3200/ . 1.0 / 3. 14 ,
350 .
19) NH4NO3 84.8%, 11.5%, 2%, -1.5%, .
0.2%. . 3500/ . 1.0 / 3.
360 .
20) NH4NO3 50%, 12.5%, 37.5% - 1 2
. .
21) NH4NO3 72%, - 28% , ,
1 . . - . (
) .
22) NH4NO3 72%, - 23%, - 5% ,
.
23) 70/30 NH4NO3 70%, -30%. 330-340.
40-60. .
24) 50/50 NH4NO3 50%, -50%. 340-350.
3600-4200/. 40-50.
.
25) -5 NH4NO3 90.5%, -3%, 1.5%,
5%. 360-370. 3.81/.
57. .
26) NH4NO3 83.3%, -15%, 1.7%.
3.94/. 854/. 2200-3500/
203

0.8-1.15/3. 19.
.
5.10.2
, 30 80% NH4NO3 70 20% .
.
,
, . 1 (1915)
. 2
. 80/20,
50/50, . 80/20

. 80/20 4.27 / ( - ).
4000/ . 1.0 / 3, 5080/c 1.46 /3. 126%
. 130% . (
) 74%. 50/50 5600/. . 1.59 / 3 116%
. 123% . (
) 90% . 60/40 5500/. . 1.61 / 3
125% . 128% .
( ) 90% . 80/20 , .
( ). ,
30% NH4NO3
, .
14% (
).
.
,
. . -
,
,
.
. ,
5-20% .
5.10.3 .
, .
,
(), .
- 3-5% .
50.
, ,
.
, -
. . , . .
. 3.43 5.68 /.
4000-5000 /. 320-470. 1.5-1.65 / 3.
1) -15 NH4NO3 67%, 15%, 13%, -4%, Na -1%. 3.43 /. 4500-4800
/ 1.5-1.55 /3. 320-350. 946/.
24-26. 120-150. 412%.
2) -10 NH4NO3 57%, 10%, 13%, -15%,
-4%, Na- -1%, 0.8% (.100%).
5.68 /. 4500-5000 / 1.5-1.60 / 3. 450-470.
844/. 28-30.
140-160. 12-24%.
40-50 .
3) NH4NO3 56.5%, 25%, 13%, - 4%, -1.5%.

204

5.10.4
, 66-80.5% NH4NO3, -
4.5-10%, . (
10%) NH4NO3 , .. -
.
(, , ..)
. . 4.94 5.66 /.
3800-6500 /. 16-22. 410-460. 1.4-1.58 / 3.
.

.
NH4NO3 ,
(. ); 40%
9.2 /.
, ..
-
. /.
, .
, NH4NO3
.
:
1) -4 () NH4NO3 80.5%, 4.5%, 15%.
410 - 430 . 4000-4500/. 1180/.
12-14. 17.5. ( 16).
16-32%.
2) 3 NH4NO3 72%, - 5%, 15%, - 8%.
. 450-470 . 40004500/ 8-10. 1350/.
3) -10 NH4NO3 76%, 10%, 14%. 425 .
3800-4800/. 1354/. 810. 791/. 4-16%.
4) Minol 2 NH4NO3 40%, 20%, 40%.
( ) 2 . .
5820 / 1.68 / 3. 95% ( ).
0.105 0.25 120 22. 163%
. 143% .
20% ,
.
5) -8 NH4NO3 80%, 8%, 12%. 420 - 440 .
3800-4000/. 30-40
6) -45 NH4NO3 40%, 45%, 15%. 440 - 460 .
5800-6300/. 60-80
7) NH4NO3 79%, 8.5%, 11.5%, 1.0. 5.38
/. 400. 4300/. . 1.15 / 3.
.
8) NH4NO3 82.4%, 6%, 10.6%, (. , ) 1%.
5.04 /. 440. 4400/. . 1.05
/3. . .
9) NH4NO3 67%, 10%, 19%, -4% .
- 2 . .
10) NH4NO3 65%, 15%, 20%. .
11) NH4NO3 25%, 25%, 50%.
7.21 /. .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1967- P. 266
2. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 4 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1984- P.
515-546
205

3. .. .., .. 3- .,
. . . , 1988.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 34
5. ..
: . .: , 2004
6. Andrzej Maranda, Barbara Golabek and Johann Kasperski. DETONATION AND APPLICATION
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LATEST GENERATION OF EMULSION EXPLOSIVES. Proc. of 5th seminar
New trends in research of energetic materials Pardubice. 2002.
7. http://www.army.lv/?s=1481&id=3980
8. RU2202525
5.10.5

NH4NO3

,
( ): , , , ,
, , ,
.
. ,
,
( ),
.
. .
(
) .
.
, .
3.0 4.2 /. 2500 - 4500/.
3800-4000 / ,
, 150.
1500-1700 /. .
. . ( )
. . (
50 ).
, ( ),
.

.
. ,

.
-
.
-
.
(, ..);
,
. ( + , 3%
. 30. ~6% ,
. . . 40.)
,
, 10%
,

25-40%.

206

.
ANFO, , -1, , -1.
.
; 5-6%
NH4NO3.
, - ().
-
. (
), -
.
.
. 0.19%
13.3% , 0.26%
1.5%.
1.5-2%, 2-3%
1,
. 3.76 /.
1.1 /3. 2200-2800/ . 1.0 / 3. 320-330.
120-150 25-30 .
20-30 . 3-4%
.

NH4NO3 ,
. 3.8 5.2 /.
. , , -6 .

.
:
1) 1 NH4NO3 88%, 12%.
2) NH4NO3 88%, 12%. 13-16. 29003500/ . 1.0-1.1 /3 ( 32
4 ) 320. 933/.
3) NH4NO3 85%, 15%. 16-17.
4200-4400/ . 1.0-1.1 / 3 (
32 4 ) 340. 939/.
4) NH4NO3 85%, 15%. 10-13.
2800/ . 1.0-1.1 / 3 ( 32
4 ) 320. 937/.
5) -4 NH4NO3 91.8%, 4.2%, 4%
1080 /. 910/. 390-410.
2600-3200/ . 1.0-1.3 / 3 ( 40,
10) 60-100
20-25 . 5-10
.
6) -2 NH4NO3 92.8%, 4.2%, 3%
915 /. 985/. 320-330.
2400-3200/ . 1.0-1.3 / 3 ( 40,
10). . 100-120. .
4-16%.
7) - NH4NO3 75.2%, 2.5%,
2.5%, 20.2% 740 /. 800/.
3200/ . 0.9-0.95 /3. . 3040, 120-150. . 0-8%.
8) - NH4NO3 84%, 3%, 3%,
10% 833 /. 860/.
207

9)

10)

11)

12)
13)

14)

15)

16)

17)

18)

19)

20)

21)

3600/ . 0.9-0.95 /3. . 3040, 120-140. . 0-16%.


18-20.
NH4NO3 92%, 3%, 5%
720 /. 980/. 3000-3200/
. 1.0-1.05 /3 ( 45). .
40. . 8-16%.
NH4NO3 88%, 5%,
7% 850 /. 907/. 31003400/ . 0.82-0.9 /3 ( 80). .
36. . 4-12%.
NH4NO3 94.5%, 5.5%, (. 100%) 1.5%
910 /. 960/. 3600/
. 0.9 /3. . 30-35, 120150. . 0%.
NH4NO3 90%, - 10% 900 /.
840/. 4500-4600/ . 0.85-1.0 /3. .
40, 160. . 0%.
: NH4NO3 93.4-79%, 4.61.0%, 2-20%. 654-886 /. 969-1021/.
3200-3600/ . 0.7-0.9 /3. . 60-180. .
0%.
-1 NH4NO3 93%, 3.5%, 3.5%.
3.5-3.71 /. 960-1000/. 36004200/ . 0.85-0.95 /3. . 200. . 012%. 18. -2 -
, .
-6 NH4NO3 90%, 4%, 6%
1100 /. 870/. 400-410.
4200-5000/ . 0.95/3 ( 150).
100-120 25-30 .
5-10 .
.
-7 NH4NO3 89%, 7.2% 3.8%.
1167 /. 873/.
3000-3500/ . 0.8-0.9/3. 150
80 .
-12 NH4NO3 85%, 11.5% 3.5%.
1370 /. 829/.
2900-3600/ . 0.8-0.9/3. 150
80 .
-10 NH4NO3 87.7%, 2.3%, 10%
1295 /. 800/. 425-460.
4100-4300/ . 1.0-1.3 / 3. ( 40,
10). 2-3
32, 5-8 40.
-10 -10,
, .
1000/. 40-60.
12-28%.
-8 8% 3% . 1240
/. 845/. 410-430. 30003600/ . 1.0-1.3 /3. ( 40,
10). -10 -8 60-120,
-8, .
-8 () ,
-8, ,
. 80-110
20-25 . 510 .
208

22) NH4NO3 72%, 25%, 3%. . (


,
. ).
23) NH4NO3 80%, 20%.
2 . 3800/c 110
~1.05 / 3. 530. 15.5 1.0 / 3
( 13, 6 15). 700/.
24) NH4NO3 90%, ( ) 10%.
4100-4210/ . 1.01 /3. .
25) NH4NO3 89%, 3%, 7%, . 1%. 4.2
/. 3600/. . 0.82 /3. .
26) NH4NO3 88-90%, 5-7%, . 23%, Na- - 1%. 3.79 /. 3600/ .
1.0 /3. .
27) NH4NO3 90%, 9%, 1%.
145 , . 5700/c
1.24 /3. 4090 1.44 /3 ( 1.5).

, .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 4 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1984- P.
515-546.
2. .. .., .. 3- .,
. . . , 1988.
3. ..
: . .: , 2004
4. .. . ., , 1943.
5. Lu Chunxu THE APPLICATION OF A SURFACE ACTIVE THEORY TO ENERGETIC MATERIALS RESEARCH ON EXPANSION AMMONIUM NITRATE EXPLOSIVES - Proc. of 8th seminar New trends
in research of energetic materials Pardubice. 2005.
6. Chunxu Lu. Research and Development of Powder Industrial Explosives in China. Propellants,
Explosives, Pyrotechnics 24, 27-29 (1999)
7. Jozef PASZULA, Waldemar A. Trzciski. DETONATION PERFORMANCE OF ALUMINIUM ENRICHED
AMMONIUM NITRATE EXPLOSIVES. Proc. of 10th seminar New trends in research of energetic
materials Pardubice. 2007.
8. : US4746380, GB1014071
5.10.6 (Slurry explosives)

() .
- -
, . .
,

. ,
. . , ,
, ,
- .
20-25%.
- (, ),
. ,

.
- .
(, Na- , ..).
() , .. .
.
, , ..
. . , . .
, ..
209

.
.
,
. 90-300.
, ,
- . . .
.

. .
. (. , ).
,
()
.
,
(), . ,
( . , ). ,

(. ).
. 5-20, 3000
5500/. 0.85-1.35 / 3.
:

( 20-25% )
NH4NO3 , .
(, , ..).
1-3% ( , , .),
. . 3 - 5 /. . 1.4 1.6 / 3.
. . . 5500/c.

. - NH4NO3 80-90%, 20%,


- ( ), 25%
( ) 15% . - .
, , ..,
, . . 1.75 / 3.
6.1 /.
. .
.

, , , NH4NO3, NaNO3.
- .
20, 20% 20% .
. 2-3 400 . . 1.4 1.5 / 3.
. . . 5000-5600/c.
100-120. 3.35-3.77/.

, , NH4NO3. ,
.

, , .
. 49.5-44.5%, 3-4%,
30-35%, (7-8%) 1-1.5%, 2-3%,
100%. 0.05-0.09% ( ).
800-935/. 935-971/. 4060-4090/. .
35-60.

210

:
1) 63/35 63%, 34%, Na- 3%, -15% (
100%). 350. 1.4-1.45 / 3. 5500/.
25-28 ( 10 ).
2) 51%, 28%, 2%, -14%,
-5%.
3) 26.5%, 20%, 75/25 40%,
1.5%, -12%. 520. 1.35-1.4 / 3. 5500/.
4) -10 : 76%, 9.6%,
2.4%. : 10%, -2%.
960/. 1.48 /3. 880/.
5100/ ( 203). .
160.
5) -10 : 74%, 9.5%,
2.5%. : 10%, 4%,
0.3% (. 100%). 960/. 1.48 /3.
860/. 4800-5100/ ( 300).
. 150.
6) -15 : 71%, 9.3%,
1.2%. : 15%, 3.5%,
0.3% (. 100%). 920/. 1.5 /3.
930/. 5100-5200/ ( 300).
. 100.
7) -15 58.5%, 25%, 15%, Na- 1.5%,
0.02-0.04%, -15%( 100%). 465-485. 1.35-1.4 / 3.
4800-5800/. 30-34 ( 10
).
8) 1 57%, -10%, 20%, 5%,
Na- 1%, 1.0%, -6%.
9) 2 44.2%, -7.4%, 5%, 35%,
Na- 1.1%, - 0.8%, -6.5%. 380. 20.
1.4 /3.
10) 3 25.5%, -32%, 30%, Na- 0.5%,
-12%. . 350. 20.
1.4 /3.
11) 16 53%, -10%, 29%, Na- 1%,
-6%. 360. 18. 1.3 / 3.
12) 2 () 28%, -25%, 23%,
7.5%, -15%, 1.5%.
5040/ . 1.5 /3. 4.9/.
, .
13) 25 () 62.6%, 25%, -12%,
() - 1.4%. 3.57 /.
5500/. . 1.4 /3. ,
.
14) () 57%, 10%, -16%, -8%,
3.5%, 4%, () - 1.5%, 0.05%. 4.3 /. 3800-4000/. . 1.1-1.2
/3. , . .
15) 40%, 15%, 10%,
10%, 25%. 1.8% 0.8%
(). 1.0 / 3 (
) 4850 /. 3.43/.
804/.
16) 30%, 16%, 20%,
8%, 26%. 1.2% 0.8%
. 1.1 / 3 ( )
4960 /. 3.58/. 821/.
12) 13) 3-4 - . 1.0/ 3.
211

1.2 / 3
1.35-1.4 /3 .
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 4 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1984- P.
546-554
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 9
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1980. S121-S147.
3. .. .., .. 3- .,
. . . , 1988.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 24,25,26
5. ..
: . .: , 2004
6. GB1548827
7. V. E. Annikov, B. N. Kondrikov RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW EXPLOSIVE SOURCES
OF SEISMIC WAVES FOR GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS, in Proc. 11th Symp. (Int.) on
Detonation, 1998.
5.10.7 ().
, , -
, - .
()
() . ( , ..).
, , , ..
.
. 10% .
5-20%.
0.9-1.35 /3. .
2 : .
( ) -
( ), ,
-.
.
.
( ),
() -
.
, ..
.
, -
( ).
1967, 1976 Atlas powder.

( - )
.
. . ,
..

( ), , ,
- () 3-6.

. ,
, ,
..
,
, ,
, . ,
,
.
.
212

, ,
( ), .
:
- ,
. ,
, 0.1-0.3%, 0.5% (
, ).
, .
0.2-0.8%, 1% .
. . 50%.

.
1:5. .
, ,
. . . .
12-20% , ..
.
.

, (
50-60 , ..),
( ),
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,
.
- 0.05% ,
.
, 8
. ,
. , ..
.
, -

.
3500-5500/c. 2.72-5.86/.
1, -
().
,
,
, 8 6,
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,
(30-50%)
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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- .
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.
, , ..
.
.
213


:
, 10-30
, .
3570-5880/ 3.
.
,
.
,
(25-40/).
.
:
1) 41.6%, 16.0%, 13.6%, 20.0%,
3.0%, 0.6%, 0.2%
0.02%, 5%. 4450/ . 1.26 / 3.
8.
2) 56.3%, 2.6%, -12.9, 7.2%,
11.2%, 3.6%, 3.6%,
0.7%, 1.1, 0.8% 3270/.
:
3) ( ) 74.4%, 16.1%,
0.1%, 0.15%,
. ().
1.1-1.3 /3.
4) , 70. , 10.
10 , 15 . ,
. . 0.14% .
. 10-15
. ,
. ,
. 8
4200/ . 1.1 /3 ( 6.4 ).
30.
5) 88:12 76.2%, 12.5%, 1.8%,
1%, . 0.7%, 6%, () - 1%, 0.7%, 0.1%,
( ) 100%.
25-32 . 1.15-1.2 /3
4700 /c.
- 6 .
6) 93.5% - (80% 20% ) 6.0% (15%
. , 10% , 37.5 % ,
37.5% . ). 0.5%.
75 1.24 / 3 - 5800 /. . 30.
, 2 .
7) Emsite 62.9%, -13%, - 12%, 2.5%,
2.8%, 2.8%, 4%
1.06 /3 - 4817 /.
, 80-90,
, .
.
.
8) -12-14%%, 9-13%, 4-8%,
4-7%, - 2.5-3.0%,
2-3%, , 0.05-0.15
214

9)
10)

11)

12)

13)

14)

15)

100%. . 805.
10 .
65.0%, -15.5%, - 10%, 3.9%,
0.6%, - 2.0%, 3.0%
1.1 /3 - 4186 /.
60.0%, -20.9%, 9.3%, 3.4%,
1.55%, - 1.94%,
2.9%. .
1.09 /3 - 4380 /.
-5. 51-54%, - 16-17%, 11%,
5%, 2.5%, 2.5%, 3%,
5-9%. 3500-4800/. . 50-70.
850-900/. 1.3/ 3. 3.9-4.3/.
-10. 43%, - 16-17%, 11%,
10%, 2.5%, 2.5%, 3%,
5%. 3500-4800/. . 50-70.
800-950/. 1.3/ 3. 4.8-5.0/.
A 74.8%, 18.9%, -10
0.6%, 0.47% 1.3%( ,
), 3.9% 4.5%,
: 0.38%, 0.1%,
-5 0.2%. 3200-4500/. .
/ 57/21, 32/80.
1020/. 0.9-1.25/3. 2.87-2.94/.

60.6%, 17.5% 15.6%,
-10 0.6%, 0.4% 1.7%(
, ),
5.1% 6.0%, :
0.38%, 0.1%, -5 0.2%.
3200-4500/. . /
57/21, 32/80. 893/. 0.91.25/3. 3.18-3.26/.

60.6%, 17.5% 15.6%,
-10 0.6%, 0.47% 1.63%(
, ),
4.9% 5.7%, :
0.38%, 0.1%, -5 0.2%.
3200-4500/. . /
57/21, 32/80. 945/. 0.91.25/3. 2.87-2.94/.
, ( ).
,
:

16) 67.8%, 17.1%, 4.2%, 4.2%,


. 2.2%, 1.5%, ( ,
) -3%. , -
.
.
.. ,
. - ,

. - 3-5%
. . -:
0.85-1.05 /3. 3400 /c. 320 .
13.

215

:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1972. E89.
2. .. .., .. 3- .,
. . . , 1988.
3. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 437
4. ..
: . .: , 2004
5. .. , .. .
. 2004.
6. Yoshikazu HIROSAKI and others, DETONATION CHARACTERISTICS OF EMULSION EXPLOSIVES AS
FUNCTIONS OF VOID SIZE AND VOLUME, in Proc. 12th Symp. (Int.) on Detonation, 2002.
7. .., .., .., ...
. XLI (1997). 4.
113.
8. Wang Xuguang. Emulsion explosives. Metallurgical industry press. Beijing. 1994.
9. : US4248644, US4980000, US4756776, US4722757, US4525225, US5920031, GB1335097,
RU2273627, RU2277523, RU2277965, RU2278100, RU2286326
5.11
, ()
. <15%, 15-60%
.
, - 2-8%
7-10% 2,2,5,5--3--4--1-.
5.11.1
. - 15%,
( , , ), ,
, ..
( ). , , .
15 40% , 40% .
, - ,
. ..
, .. ,
, 20% ( ).
, ,
. .
,
.
.
1846.
. ,
, 15-
.
1858 . 1863
.
, 1866 ,
25% - ,
. , , ,
, , .. . ,
.
C 1854 ,
.
.
,
1867 , ..

216

, ,
.
1869
,
. 1870
. 1875
, .
1903 ,

. 1903 - ,
. ,
.
1904 ()
.
1914 ,
- .
60- 20 , , -
, -. ,
-
.
,
. . ,
, ( ,
, ..).

.
..
, - ,
, ,
; . t 205. . 1.55-1.58
/3. 6.47 /. 600. 7800 /.
4.8 ( - 3.6). 60 - 70 ,
(7-8%), .
, .
:
1) 62%: - 62%, 3%, - 27%, - 8%. 5.3 /, t .
205. 380 . 6000 / 1.4 / 3.
10 25 - 100% ( 4-8%). 15-18
( 6 14-16)
2) - 15%, - 1%,
- 73.5%, - 9%, 0.5%, - 2%.
340 . 5100 / 1.32 /3
3) - 60%, - 3%,
- 31%, - 6%. 410 . 6400
/.
4) - 60%, - 4%,
- 28%, - 8%.
5) - 10%, - 1%,
- 58%, - 8%, - 5%, 18%.
6) 6 (): - 4%, - 81%, - 8%,
5%, - 2%. 420 . 3070 /.
7) 15GH (): + 5.75%, - 82%,
1.25%, 7%, - 4%. 388-419 .
2770-2950 /.
8) 5 G1 (): 11%, 11%, - 50%,
14.8%, 0.8%, 7%, 4%,
1%, - 0.3%, Fe2O3 0.1%. 312-343 .
2610-2720 /.
217

9) 8GH (): 22.5%, 22.5%,


47.4%, 2.0%, 2.0%, 3.0,
0.5%, 0.1%. 420. 2200/.
10) D4 ( ) 4%, - 75%,
5.5%, 1.5%, 3.5%, 10.5%.
270-289 . 2380-2720 /.
5.11.2
, 74-78%, () 5-10%, 5-11%
5-20% - (. . +
).
. ,
. : 78%, 10%,
10.7%, 1%, 0.3%,
100%. 5.79 /. 42005000/ 0.95-1.2 /3. 17-18. 832/. 450500.
1) 6 77%, 6%, 11%,
5.3%, 0.7%, 0.25% ( 100%).
4000/ 1.1 /3. 17.
2) 10 76%, 10%, 8%,
5.2%, 0.7%, 0.1%,
0.2% ( 100%). 4200/ 1.1 /3. 17.
3) 15-10 74%, 14.7%,
10.0%, 1.0%, 0.3%,
0.2% ( 100%). 4300/ 1.1 /3. 18.
4) 78%, 10%,
10.7%, 4.2%, 1.0%, (. 100%) 0.2%,
(. 100%) 0.2%. 980/.
2360-4400/. 7-24.

- , .
5.11.3 ,
5-15% 30% .
1) -4 ( 3). - 9%,
- 65.5%, 12% 1.5%, 12%.
320-340 . 3800-4600 /.
2) -6 ( 5). 14.2%,
- 46.3%, 2.5%, 7%,
29%, 1%, 0.2% (. 100%), . - 0.2%
(. 100%). 130-170 . 2100-2500 /.
1.15-1.3/3. 60-90%. 640/.
3) 10%, - 54%,
33.7%, Na- - 1%, 0.5%, 0.8%,
0.14% (. 100%), . - 0.2% (. 100%). 90 .
1600-1800 /. 24-32%. 1.1-1.3/ 3.
460/.
4) ( 5). 10%, - 66.5%, 8.5%, 15%.
220-240 . 1800-2000 /.
5) 5 ( 5). - 10%,
- 14%, 1%, - 75%.
0.14% (. 100%). 60-90 . 1750-1900 /.
311/.
6) 7 ( 6). - 10%,
2%, 57%, - 30%, 1%.
100-120 . 1600-1800 /.
218

7) Barbaryt A. 23%, 3%, 32%,


4%, 0.5%, 1%, 0.5%, 36%. 2330/ 1.55 /3. 195.
8) Barbaryt FGH2. 28%, 5%, 12.2%,
1%, 0.5% 0.3%,
10%, - 43%. 2010/. 164.
9) Metanit D2. 4%, 3.5%, 1%,
63%, 3.5%, - 25%. 1890/ 1.02
/3. 209.
10) - . / 60:40 - 9%,
58.6%, 31.0%, 1.0%, 0.4%.
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 3 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 19 67- P.
395-527
2. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 4 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1984- P.
515-546
3. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 5
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1980. D1584-D1748.
4. .. .., .. 3- .,
. . . , 1988.
5. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 91,92
6. ..
: . .: , 2004
5.12
Astrolite - , 1963 EXCOA.
, . .
. . , ,
.
. , ,
,
-. .
650-700.

, 30-40 ( ).
,
( Astro-Pak). ( MLU54E). 30% .
- .
:
1) -1-5. : 55.52% ,
0.03% , 31.81% , 1.93% , 0.76% 9.95%
. 7500/ 1.6/ 3. ,
H-6 (///D-2). 1968
.
2) G. 49%, 48%, 3%.
8000/.
3) LLTX G-2 ( -40). (15%
, 70% 15% ) (80% 20%
).
1:2. 7800/.
4) RX-23-AA (79% 21% ) 8580 /
1.421 /3. 20.9.
5) RX-23-AB (70% 5.9% , - ) 7480 / 1.384
/3. 18.6.

219

6) RX-23-A (30% 70% ) . 7870 / 1.135 / 3.


16.9.
7) ,
: : 91.5% (90% , 10%
). 8.5% ( 43.48%, 25.22%, 18.26%,
13.04%). ,
.

:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960. A497-A498.
2. .. .., .. 3- .,
. . . , 1988. 282
3. Shepherd Levmore, Robert T. Schimmel. An evaluation of liquid explosives for foxhole digging.
ARLCD-TR-78010. April 1978.
4. US3523047.
5.13
, ,
.
-, .
. . . -: , , , ,
..
. , ,
1-1.1 / 3
. ,
. ,
, , .
() 1897,
2 (
). -
.
1) I -82%, -13%, 5%
4020/ 1.04/ 3. 1.33 /3.
2) II -50%, 30% - 15%,
5% 3361/ 1.04/ 3.
1.38 /3.
3) 98 89%, - 11% ( 8% ,
27% , 65% ). . 2 .
. (16.3). 1.17 / 3.
:
4) - -90%, 10% 3400/,
470.
1 . .
5) -60%, 22% - 11%,
-7%. 1 .
6) -86%, 14% 3700/,
20.
1 . .
().
7) 5 Kuzo Carlite -73-75%, 6-11%,
-13-18%. 4000-4500/ 1.10-1.15/ 3. 440470.

220

8) Akatsuki Carlite -22-27%, 2-7%,


60-70%, 8-13%, -2-7%.
4000-4500/ 1.10-1.15/3. 390-440.
9) AO Carlite -17-22%, 2-7%,
60-70%, 8-13%, -2-7%. 3700-4200/
1.05-1.10/3. 380-440.
:
1. .. . 1941.
2. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 4 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1984- P. 544
5.14
,
. .
.
. 1.5%.
. . .
.
. .
3.43 5.68 /. 3500-5000 /.
6300/. 270-380. 0.8-0.95 / 3. 40-120.
.
.
.
.
.
, 10-30% 3.7-0.2% . 4800-5100
/. 4.03-4.34/.
4% -
. 5100-5500 /,
5800-6300/ 1.25-1.3/ 3. 3.3-3.7/.
90-120. 900-950/.

:
1. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 190
2. ..
: . .: , 2004

221

. 28 .
/3
1)

2)

3)

4)

5)


9
10




6 .
6 .
6 .
7
1
-3
6
7
1 .
1 .
1 .
1 .
2 .
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62%
14 .
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

0.8-0.9
0.85-0.95
0.8-1.0
1.45-1.55
1.45-1.55
1.52-1.59
1.0-1.1
1.0-1.15
1.25-1.35
1.0-1.1
1.0-1.1
0.95-1.1
1.0-1.2
0.95-1.1
0.95-1.1
1.45-1.5
0.95-1.1
1.45-1.5
1.5-1.6
1.0-1.1
1.4-1.45
0.75-0.8

.
300-330
300-330
270-300
270-300
270-300
270-300
360-380
360-380
360-380
350-370
320-360
360-370
360-380
350-370
450-480
450-480
450-480
450-480
420-440
400-430
380-420
320-350

/
3000-3500
3200-3600
4000-4500
5700-6000
5500-6800
6700-6800
3600-4200
3600-3800
4600-5500
3600-3900
3500-4500
3600-4000
3600-4200
3500-3900
4000-5000
6000-6500
4000-5000
6000-6500
6500-7000
4000-4500
6500-7000
1800-2500


/
3.58
3.78
4.19
4.19
4.19
4.19
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.0
4.1
5.02
4.28
4.1
5.3
5.3
5.4
5.4
4.88
4.83
5.1
3.76

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6.0 .
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222

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.
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1250
40
30
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67
22
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1560
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1670
71.5
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.
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.
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1937
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.
1940 Galcit.
,
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1944 ()
, 50- 20
.
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.
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.
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225

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.

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.
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, 32%
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2000-2500 (
3500).
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227

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30-50%
20-50%

0-10%

0-10%

1-5%

1-9%

0-3%

0-3%

0-3%
-

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0-5%
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55%

0-20%*
0-25%

,
,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,

-
, ,


, .
.
, ,

,
,

,
, ,

,
-

,
,
,
(
)


. :
1.

( ):

2.

( ) :

229

3.

:




.



1.
(12,2-13,5% ) 98%,
- ( ,
), - ( 2%) . .
(. ) . .
3-5% ( , ).
1.1% .
.. ,
.
, ..
.
. , ..
,
,
.
.

, 11,8-12,3%
.
.
. 2.5-5.0 /.

. . 30% .
-
( - -).
.
,
. 3.0-5.0 /.

. -
, .
2.
,
() . ,
.
,

(. . ), .
, .
,
,
(. . ) ,
- . ,
, . ,
.

230

3.

: 0-25%,
0.5-1.0%, 0.1-0.3%, 0.1-0.3%,
3-8%, 0.2-1.5% 1213.6%N. , , () .
,
.
.. ,
. . .
.
. . 3250-4000 /,
1000 /, 90000/, 2500-3100.

9-10% - 5-6% .
1-1.8% ,
,
.
5% ,
,
.
5.56 16 1.65
WC 844, : -8.0-11.0%,
0.75-1.50%, 3.0-6.0%, 0.4%,
-0.5%, 0.2%, 2%,
(13.05-13.20% ) .


.


( 20 ), .
,
.

. 31 .
M1

M6

M10

IMR

ECNACO
91.4
3.8
1.0
3.8

(13.15%N)
85
87
98
100

.
-

1
1
1

1
1
1
0.7

10
10
8*

5
3
.
/
3140 3182
3936
3601
2435 2580
3040
2835 /
911
956
1031
1007 * - .
1941

FNH
84

1
10
5
-

B19T
98
95

LB19T
82
85.3

B7T
98
95.5

A502
0
92.1
1.3

2.5
0.5
1

1.5
1.2
1
7.5
3.0
0.5
-

2.0
0.5
1

1.7

1.0
-

1
-

0.8
3.0
1.1
-

(1), 1972 (31).


.
40.9 62.0% , 25.0-35.0%
(, ), 0-15% . 3.2-5.0%
.
231

. 32 .

(13.15%N)

2-


MgO

/

/

M2
77.45
19.5

M5
81.95
15.0

M8
52.15
43.0

M9
57.8
40.0

M21
53.0
31.0

26
67.5
25.0

3.00

N5
50.0
34.9

JA2*
59.5
14.9
24.8

WM
65.0
29.5

.
60.0
38.0

0.7
0.05

2.0

0.5

10.5
11.0
2.00

0.6
0.3
2.15

0.6
0.3
2.15

0.6

0.7

1.25

1.5

2.00

6.0
1.5

1.5
0.05

0.1

3.0
0.03

2.40
0.15
0.20

4522
3370
1121

4354
3290
1091

5192
3760
1181

5422
3800
1142

4082
3130
1082

4700
3390
1140

3.5
4250
3220
-

5230
-

* - , 70-
20.
. 33 .

. . -

(-2)

/3
/
. /

-2
56

-3
56

25

26.5

9
6

-3
62

-4
62

33

34.5

-235
34.1
33.7

20.9
20.9
18
17

9
4.5
27.0

4
1.54
96100
2970
2474

4
1.53
97600
3200
2526

5
1.54
98700
3430
2500

3.2
1.55
102500
4580
2668

5.2
1.62
112200
3060

20
4.1
1.62
118700
4060
3400


, :
SGP-20: (12%N) 46%, 38.5%,
3.0%, 8.1%, 2.0%,
1.0%, 1.3%, 0.1%, 0.5% .
PRD22: 31.1%, 12.6%,
34.1%, 12.6%, 8.9%,
0.7%. 1250/, 4880/,
- 3550.
120 1
: - 66%, 16%, 16%, 2 - 1%, 1%.


, . ,
,

232

- .
, .
. 34 .

2-


/

/

M15
54.7
20.00
19.00
6.00

M16
55.50
27.50
4.00
1.50

0.30

3350
2555
980

10.50
0.50
0.50
-

M17
54.70
22.00
21.50
1.50

30
47.7
28.0
22.5
1.50

M31
54.70
20.00
19.00

0.30

0.3

0.30
4.50
1.50

4019
2975
1088

4082
3000
1065

3370
2600
1000

N
55
18.7
19.0
7.3

NF
55
16.5
21
7.5

NQ
55
20.8
20.6
3.6

NQF
55
21
21
3

3160
2425
-

3160
2425
-

3680
2795
-

3680
2795
-

.
,
60- :
1. JPN 51.5% (13.25%N), 43.0%,
1.0%, -3.0%, 1.25%, 0.2%, 0.05%.
2. H 57.0% (12.2%N), 28.0%, -11.0%,
3.5%, 0.4%, 0.1%.
3. BACA 59.9% (13.0%N), 26.9%,
2.9%, 6.1%, 2.0%, TiO2 0.9%.
4. R 61 61.5% (13.25%N), 35.0%,
2.1%, 1.4%.
5. SC 49.5% (12.2%N), 41.5%, 9.0%,
0.35%, 0.07%.
6. HES4016 54.0% (13.25%N), 43.0%,
-3.0%.
7. M-7 56.5% (13.25%N), 32.0%, -2.0%,
-8%, -1.4%, -0.1%.
:
1. -2 53.5% (12.2%N), 27.0%,
15.0%, MgO-2.0%, -2.0%, -0.5%.
2. -2 56.5% (12.2%N), 26.0%,
12.0%, - 2.0%, MgO-2.0%, -1.0%, -0.5%.
3. -12 55.5% (12.2%N), 27.0%,
11.0%, - 3.0%, PbO-1.0%, 1.0%, -1.0%,
-0.5%.
4. 56.2% (12.2%N), 40.0%, - 1.0%,
-0.3%, -0.5%.
5. () . (12.6%N) - 59%,
-24%, 9%, 3%, 2%,
3%. 210. - 2.93 /,
70 0.65/. 1925.
6. 54.6% (13.25%N), 35.4%, -0.9%,
-7.8%, -0.02%, -1 () -1.2%,
0.08%. -7
TOW. 0.6 / 70.

233

7. NK700: : 58.5%, 40.0%,


1%, 0.5%, 1.5%.
8. DBE-40: (12.6%N) 47.5%,
39.8%, 10.8%, 2- 1.9%.
3560/.
. 35 .

. /3

. /

JPN
HES4016
R 61
SC
H
M-7
-2
-2
-12

1.61
1.62
1.60
1.62
1.57
1.58
1.58
1.6

5150
5270
4000
3700
5200
-

.

3160
3220
2535
2310
3210
2320
2380
2280
2700

/
103400
90700
86900
104000
-

. . .
230
240
190
220
220,231 (100:1)
218(100:1)
220(100:1)
217(100:1)
231(100:1)


(1430-1800) , ,

.
.
43.0 57.0% , 17.3 - 33.0%
(, ), 2.1 - 20.7% ,
0 - 13.0% , 0 - 20% 5 11.2% .
.

. 36 .

,
,
,

*, **
,
.
/3
. /

.
* -

-
57.0
17.3

-6
57.0
18.3

20.7
3.0

17.0
2.7

-8
45.0
12.0
11.0
6.0
3.0
8.0

-4
38.3
18.6

-5
43.0
30.0

2.0
23.0

2.5
12.0

12.0
2.0
1.53
2556
1597
180.3
,

14.2
5.0
3.0
3.9
1.57
1.53
1.55
2599
2180
2929
1659
1430
1862
186.5
182.9
196.9
**- .

8.7
1.54
2577
1685
189.2

, ,

( )
. ,

.
, . , , , , ,
, ..
234

55.0 56.0% , 24.5 28.6% (, ), 6.5 - 10.3%


. ( ), 4.2 5.5% , 12-27%
, 1.9-3.0% 3.2 3.3% . .
. 37 .
--2
19
-8
56.6
55
56
53.5
52.2
,
28.6
25
24.5
26.7
26.0
,
6.5
10.3
8.3
6
8.5
,
3
1.9
2.5
2.3
2.5
2,4-

4.2
6.0

5.5

6.0

5.3
3.5
3.2
4.6
4.8
/3
1.6
1.61
1.62
1.61
1.62
. . .
196.5
202.7
204.7 196.8
. /
3100
3460
3520
3280
3530

1928
2155
2197
2007
* - .

53.6
25.0
10.3
1.9

53.8
21.0
16.3
2.5

56.25
18.0
7.2
2.0
10.0

4.5

3.2*

3.5*

4.7
1.64

3.2

3.05

3490

.
(
)
,
, , , ,
, , (, ..).
.
54.0 59.0% , 27.5 - 36.0%
(, ), 1.0 - 7.5% . (
), 1.0-3.0% , 1.7-3.6% 1.5 4.0% .
.

. 38 .

57.0*
47.75
54.0
50.0**
54.22***

16.5
40.7
28.0
33.1
36.0

15.5
/
2.5/0
8.0/0
0/12.4
2.0/0
/
0/2.5
0.3/1.2
0/3.3
2.5
0/1.0

1.2
1.5

2.0
3.5
2.0
.
3.5
6.55
4.7
0.15
1.78
/3
1.60
1.63
. /
3600
3565

2230
2620
2105
. Pk/P = 40:1
209
218
205
*- 0.5% .
**- 2.0% 2- 1.2% .
***- 1.5% 2% .

.
( . 250 )
( )
( ).
22.0 63.5% , 14.0 - 35.5%
(, ), 2.5% . (, ), 0.22.5% , 3.0% , 20.0% , 30%
0.5 3.2% . .
235

. 39
.

47.37
35.0*
36.2**
21.15***

32.7
33.1
29.1
44.74
/
3.0/0
0/6.09
/
0.3/1.0
1.0
0.4/0.7

3.4
5.5
2.3
2.5

10.0
17.0
10.0
19.6
.
2.23
5.4
2.2
1.72
. Pk/P = 40:1
221
* - 3.0%
** - 19.0% ( 4.9)
***- 0.3% 2- 0.68% p--N, . 3.21% ,
.
(
- 13) :
1. .
2. (
)
3. ( )
4. .
5. : , , ,
.
6. .
7. .
8. .
,
( ),
,
- ,
.
,
:
1. (
,
).
2. 60-70
.
3. 6-10%
4. 30-50 (8090) , (
1%)
5. ( 1)
6. ( , ..)
7. .
() ,
(
):
1. - ,
.
2.
.
3.
.
236

4. 2
.
5. ~50 15-16
.
6. (~5) .
7. .
8. .
.
, -, (

, ).
-,

-
(DANP),

(DADZP)

(DADNH).

TNAZ, Cl-20,
.

55-85% 45-15% . 70%
/ . 0.2-0.5% .
, (
, )
.
, ,
. :
1) (12.6%N) - 55%, - 9%, 25%,
- 10%, -1%. 24,
1619.
2) 829 APFSDS , :
57.2% (13.4%N), 31% , 11% - , 0.8% - II (N--N,N' ).
:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 4 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1984- P.
577-599
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. P402-P473.
3. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition Vol 10.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 398-437
5. .., .. . .,
, 1961.
6. .. . .. . 1995.
7. Michael Niehaus. Compounding of Glycidyl Azide Polymer with Nitrocellulose and its Influence on the
Properties of Propellants Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 25, 236-240 (2000)
8. Stephan Wilker and Gabriele Pantel STABILITY STUDIES OF MIXTURES OF STABILIZED WITH
UNSTABILIZED PROPELLANTS IS A HOT SPOT THEORY REALISTIC? Proc. of 10th seminar New
trends in research of energetic materials Pardubice. 2007.
9. Naminosuke Kubota. Propellants and Explosives. Thermochemical aspects of combustion. WileyVCH. GmbH, 2002.
10. George P. Sutton, Oscar Biblarz. Rocket propulsion elements. 7 th edition. Wiley 2001
11. .. , .. , .. . -
. . . 1999.
12. : US5652409, RU2121470, US4521261, US3951704, US6607617, US4416712, RU2090545,
US6241833, US3943209, US4002514, US5254186, US5385619, US6042663, RU2185356,
RU2169722, RU2203872, RU2191765, RU2167137, US3951706, RU2090544, US5520756,
RU2175957, RU2280634

237

6.2
6.2.1
( ) ,
: NH4ClO4 (), NH4NO3 .,
(, , . , .
) 10-25%.
25%
.
,
,
. ,
500 550

.
( ), ,
. (
) ,
.

,
, .
,
(
. ) ,

.

.

.
,
. ,
,

.

(. . 40), , ,
.
. 40
.

75
35
15
5

/
5.1
6.1
7.6
9.2


; .
.
.
, , , ..
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
,

238

, ,
.
:

NH4ClO4 (). -,
.
-
.
(NH4NO3)
, 10
,
. ,
, .. .

, ,
, , , (
, ).
, ,
.
, .

,
.

NH4N(NO2)2 . ,
, .
,
, . 288 .
,
.
( , ),
- ,
.
.
, .
. 10
.
.

25% . , , .
,
, ,
. . .
. . , .
, .
.
,
.
,
: , ,
.
, , .
, ,
. - ( 25-30%)
- .
. , 40%.
239

-

.
. . ,
(), .

( + ) 2.5-3.0.
3.5.
, ,
.
:
,
,
( ),
NH-(C=O)-O-.
,
.
- (
), .

,
. ( 30% )
, ,
,
. . (-50
+125) .
HTPE, HTPS, (. ).

:
,
,
-(=O)-OH, ,
. ,
.
(, ).
-
.

.

0.92/3.
:
PBAA () , PBAN ()
, HTPB ()
. ,
, CTPB () .
, ( - ).
( )
, .

:
,

CH-(-O-)-CH2.

, .
. .
, ..
.
,
( 20%).
240


. -5 ( C55.3H58.1O17.4)
(C49.2H47O22.6). .
.

,
.
: , ,
.

. .
70,
.
, ..
.

150.
.

:
- (
)
,
.
, - .
,
,
, ..

, ,
.
, ,
.
, Polaris 3-1,5--.


( . ).

-3,3--()
(,
),

-
(/) , (GAP),
(PGN, Poly-GLYN), 2--5- 2%
(C4N4H4, , 1255 /, 1.28 / 3),
-N- (C3H6N2O2, , -46/,
1.31 /3).

.

:
, -
, ..

.
, -.
, ,
,
, .
241


, ,
, .
(6H4CH3O)3PO, C6H4(COOC4H9)2,
-C6H4(COOC8H17)2, , (
), (, ).

, , 2,4--2,4, BNDPA/F .
()
-,
.
.
, 2,4, .
(
,

ERLA-0510,
EPON-X801,
DER-332).

:
-(1-(2)) MAPO, BITA, BISA, TEAT
.
(bonding agents)
, .

,
, ,

. ,

,
. ,
,
.
, ..
.

. ,
,
, .
(
, ),
, ,
, . ,
,
.
- 1-2%, ..
, .
- ,
- (, ) -
5% ,
.

.

, .
,
1%.

() ,
.
242


, .
. 41 :

0-80%

0-30%

5-18%

0-15%

,
,

0.2-3.5%

0.2-5%

0.2-3%

0-70%
0-7%

0-14%

0-15%

0.1-1%

0.5-1%
0.5-1%


, , ,
,
, (
), (. ),
(. ),

(HTPB,
CTPB),


(PBAN),
(PBAA)
(PEG), (PU)
- (PCP),
(PGA),
(PPG, HTPE),
(IPDI),
-2,4- (TDI),
(HMDI),
(DDI),
(TMP),
-(2-)- (BITA),
-(()) (MAPO)
, , , ,
()
,
,
, ,
(DOP), (DOA),
(DOS), (DMP),
(IDP)
(GAP),
(NG), (DEGDN),
(BTTN),
(TEGDN),
(TMETN)
(GAP),
(PGN),
BAMO/AMMO , BAMO/NIMMO .
MT-4 ( MAPO -
), HX-752 (---)
, ,
N--p-, .
,

60 :
1) NH4NO3 80%, . ( ) 10%, .
( (. ), , ) 10% (
)
2) KClO4 80%, 10%, . 8%, . - (
, 2% (
)
243

3) 45%, 45%, 10%.


4) NH4ClO4
74%,
.

) 10%, 15%, . : ( )
1%. ( )
5) NH4ClO4 64%, . (CTPB -
Butarez CTL) 8.28%, 21%,
() -5.41%, (-[1-(2-)]
- )-0.31%, ( )-1%
6) NH4ClO4 68%, . (HTPB -
) 7.82%, 18%, () -4.48%,
() - 0.46%, 0.38%, (----) - 0.2% ( )-1%
7) NH4ClO4 68%, . (PBAA- ) 14.30%,
12%, EPON-562 - 2.85%, 5,8,11,13,16,19
2.85%.
8) NH4ClO4 68.2%, . (PBAN-
) 10.886%, 15%, - 5.914%.
9) NH4ClO4 42%, 38%, + - 12%, 5%, -2%, 1%. RD-2427.
10)NH4ClO4 57%, 30%, + - 12%,
1%. RD-2425.
11)NH4ClO4 74%, + - 10%, 1%, 14%,
- 1%. RD-2428.
12)NH4ClO4 66%, 20%, + - 11%,
1%, 1%, - 1%. RD-2409.
13)NH4ClO4 69%, . (HTPB R45M -
) 9.03%, 19%, ()
-2.0%, (+ ) - 0.77%, 2,2--(4--6--)0.09%,

DER-332

0.06%,
-0.04%, 0.01%.
- Titan IV.
14)NH4ClO4 73%, . (CTPB -
) 8.56%, 15%, () -3.00%,
-0.44%. ANB-3066 -II
15)NH4ClO4 65.37%, -8.65%, TMG 4.36%, -(2-)-
0.21%,

-0.2%,
2,2---(4--6--)0.12%,
0.27%, 0.01%, -1.73%,
17%, 0.04%, 2.05%.
ANB-2464 HG Mod II
16)JPL X350. NH4ClO4 77.8%, -11.0%, -6.6%, 2,4 1.6%, 1.5%, - 1.1%, .
0.4%. 0.2-0.3 /. .
17)NH4NO3 76.0%, -7.8%, 7.8%, - 5.2%,
2%, 1%, . 0.2% 0.20.25 / 70.
.
18)-18 -53.5%, 18%, 15%, - 11.5%,
2%. 247 , 1.78/ 3.
19)-54 -36.2%, 17%, 35.5%, - 9.2%,
2.1%. 245 , 1.8/ 3.
. 42 .

1
2
3
4
5

/3
1.60
1.94
1.77
1.68
1.70


1500
2700
1750
3300
3800
244

. . . 70
200
210
200
255
265

:
1)
( -70): NH4ClO4 69.92%, :
5.03%, : -4.5%,
0.4%, 20%,
. ( ) 0.15%
2) NH4ClO4 58.9%, : 8.62%, :
-10.79%, 21.1%, . ( ) 0.59%.
70 1.02/. .
3) NH4ClO4 69.6%, : ,
(PBAN) + 14%, 16%, . (
Fe2O3) 0.4%. , .
70 1.09/, 262 . 1.744 / 3.
4) NH4NO3 59%, NH4ClO4 10%, :
+ 7.2%, : -4.8%,
15%, . ( ) 4.0%.
70 0.53/. 247 . 1.62 / 3.
5) NH4ClO4 53%, -12%, :
5.05%, : --(-) -6.5%, 22%, .
( , .) 1.45%. 263 .
1.855 /3. .
6) NH4ClO4 46%, -25%, : +
-1 8.5%, 20%, . ( ) 0.5%. .
7) NH4ClO4 49.75%, -20%, 15%,
10%, 2%, -1%,
0.2%, 0.05%. ,
2.
8) IH-AC3: NH4ClO4 84.0%, Hy Temp 4404 - 7.92%,
5.00%, , (HX-752) 0.32%,
-0.26%, 0.5%, 0.5%, 1.5%.
:
1) / -()-
-()- - 20%. NH4ClO4 63.37%, 14.63.
2.0%. . 260 . 1.84
/3.
.
2) NH4ClO4 60%, : HTPB + + +
- 5.67%, : 2- 5.66%, 2--1,3 5.66%, 23%. 70 1.05/,
265 . 1.807 /3.
3) NH4NO3 60%, : +
+ + - 5.34%,
: 2- 5.33%, 2--1,3- 5.33%
12%, 12%. 70 0.69/, 260 .
1.63 /3.
4) NH4ClO4 51%, -10%, :
8.8%, : n--2- (Bu-NENA) -8.0%,
19%, . (, ,
.) 1.45%. 266 . 1.78 / 3. .
5) NH4ClO4 9%, - 46%, : 6.25%,
0.06% : -19.02%, 18%, .
(, , .) 1.69%.
70 1.24/ 271 . 1.84 /3.
6) NH4NO3 41%, - 12%, : + +
+ - 25%, 22%,
264 . 1.76 /3.
245

7) -37%, -13%, (38% - (12.6%N), 39% (petrin), 20% - , 1% - , 2% ) - 50%. 70 0.15 .


8) NH4ClO4 55%, - 20%, : + +
12.5%, BNDPA/F 12.5% ,
Polaris.
9) 59%, - 24.4%, 13%,
+ 3.6%. 70. 293.5.
1.737 /3. 70 1.93/.
, ,
.
. ,

. .
, .

-NF2.
.
:
1) 19.21%, 48.56%, 1,2,3 -[1,2--()] (TVOPA) 25.68%, ( )- 4.63%, . 1.44%, 0.48%.
1.56 /3, . . 250 . 2910 .
2) 50%, 18.5%,
9.3%, 18.6%,
2.4%, - 0.2%, 1%.
3)

70%,
-()/
(BDNPF/A)

10%,
17%, 0.75%, 2.25%.
1.23 / 100.
4) 65.5%, 5.25%,
25.55%, 1.0%, .
1.0%, ( MnO2)- 1.7%. 40:1
242. 1.71 /3.
5) NM: - 51.0%, - 34.3%, 11.8%,
-2.9%, -0.015%.
6)
-62%, (PGA + N100) -7.48%,
( + ) -27%, 0.46%,
-0.50%, 1.50%, 1.00%, / -0.06%.
7) 49.7%, 24.0%, -19.9%,
- 4.7%, UNOX 221 1.0%, 0.49%,
0.21%. 0.7 / 70 .
.
:

N2H4HC(NO2)3

-(2,2--2-)-
[F2NC(NO2)2CH2]NNO2 ( ).
, .

.
- ( 10),
,

.
,
.
: .
246

6.2.2
(LOVA propellants).
70 20

, .
: (, , ,
..). , ,
.

,
. ,
,
.
. , ,
.
,

/ .

.
40% JAX,
, .
.

- .
( 25%) ,
.
70- . . ( M-39).
,
.
.
1400/ .

,
- - 5-30% (
, ).
(.
2-3:1).
.
: , , Cl20, TNAZ . , 2 LOVA
- M39 43,
- (CAB) ,
.
. 43 .

5020 (92%)
JA-2 (59.5%, 15%, 25%)
. (28%, 22.5%, 47.5%)
70% , 30%
70% HNIW, 30%
70% , 30%
JAX (30%, 30%, 40%)
JAX (30%, 30%, 40% HNIW)
70% , 30%
70% HNIW, 30%
70% , 30%

/
1011
1141
1073
874
930
915
1248
1224
1190
1280
1294

247

. /
3759
4622
3980
3702
4008
3329
5700
5972
4116
4409
5454

T ()
2916
3397
2996
2046
2286
1935
3921
4042
2838
3332
3604

U /
23.98
24.76
23.20
17.16
17.99
17.58
26.11
27.46
19.83
21.64
23.15

:
1) M46 76%, - 12%, - -(2,2)/ - 7.6%, (12.6%N) -4.0%, 0.4%,
0.5% 100%. 820/. 1070/.
3065. 80- .
2) M-39 , M46
.
3) : 76%, - - 9%,
4.0%, 3.6%, (12.6%N) -7.0%,
0.4%.
4) : - 77%,
ETPE-1000 ( ) - 9%, 7.6% , 4%
, 2% -, 0.4% .
5) 74%, -10%, Elwax-40w ( )- 6.0%,
(2,6- - 2%, 2,4- 64%, 2,4,6 34%) 5.0%, 4.5%, -0.5%.
-1184/.
6) -60%, -20%, R45M
11.31%, -0.34%, 0.94%, -7.10%,
(---) -0.12%, 0.19%. 970/.
7) -74%, BAMO/AMMO -26%. 1182/.
8) - 80.4%, -(3--3-) (PolyNIMMO) -14.16,
( desmodur N100) 0.54%, BNDPA/F 4.9%.
( )- 100%. 1200-1250/.
9) : 75%, 10%, 8.5%,
5.5%, 1%. 0.5-1% (. 100%), 0.3-0.5%
(. 100%). 1158/.
. 44 LOVA-.

KNO3

/
. /

KHP168

KHP264

KHP290

KHP300

KHP301

KHP305

KHP306

KHP307

42.5

76.8
8.0

79.2

79.0

61.0

79.0
8.0

61.0
26.0

43.0
43.0

10.0

8.0

26.0

13.0
1329
4570
3518

13.0
1247
4087
3213

13.0
1347
4642
3528

13.0
1306
4321
3260

14.0
1244
3946
2952

42.5
4.0
11.0

4.0
11.2

10.8

952
3371
2230

1172
4200
2808

1206
4195
2885

:
1. T. Urbanski Chemistry and Technology of Explosives Vol 4 Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1984- P.
602-620
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 8
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1978. P402-P473.
3. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition Vol 10.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 483
5. .., .. . .,
, 1961.
6. .. . .. . 1995.
7. Fred Volk and Helmut Bathelt. Performance parameters of explosives: equilibrium and nonequilibrium reactions. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 27, 136-141 (2002)
8. Aleksander Gromov THE MECHANISM OF ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLES BURNING IN OXIDIZING
MEDIA. Proc. of 10th seminar New trends in research of energetic materials Pardubice. 2007.

248

9. Brasseys world military technology. Explosives, Propellants and Pyrotechnics. Editor Colonel R. G.
Lee. London 1989.
10. Energetic Materials. Particle Processing and Characterization. Edited by U.Teipel. Wiley-VCH 2005
.10.
11. George P. Sutton, Oscar Biblarz. Rocket propulsion elements. 7 th edition. Wiley 2001
12. R. C. Hatcher, R. L. Stanley, and J. A. Allen Evaluation of SNPE I-RDX as a Solid Rocket Propellant
Ingredient. Proc. of Insensitive Munitions & Energetic Materials Technology Symposium 2000. Texas.
13. Beat Vogelsanger, Hanspeter Andres, Ulrich Schadeli, Alexander Huber, Alice Skriver and Kurt Ryf.
TOMORROW'S LOVA-PROPELLANTS POLYMER-BONDED OR NITROCELLULOSE-BASED?. Proc. of
35th International Annual Conference of ICT, Karlsruhe, Germany 2004.
14. Chris Leach and David Debenham. Advances in PolyNIMMO Composite Gun Propellants. Propellants,
Explosives, Pyrotechnics 23, 313-316 (1998)
15. Fred Volk and Helmut Bathelt. Influence of energetic materials on the energy-output of gun
propellants. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 22, 120-124 (1997)
16. .. , .. , .. .
, C, N O,
. . , 2004. 23, 5, . 75-81.
17. .. , .. , .. . -
. . . 1999.
18. V.I.Lang etc. Assessment of perchlorate releases in launch operations II. Aerospace report TR2003(1306)-1. 2002.
19. R.R. SANGHAVI . BALLISTIC EVALUATION OF ENHANCED ENERGY LOVA PROPELLANT IN HIGH
CALIBRE GUN. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2007 INTERNATIONAL AUTUMN SEMINAR on Propellants,
Explosives and Pyrotechnics. XIAN, SHAANXI, CHINA, OCTOBER 23-26, 2007
20. ALBERT W. HORST ETC. INSENSITIVE HIGH ENERGY PROPELLANTS FOR ADVANCED GUN
CONCEPTS. ARL-TR-2584, 2001.
21. : RU2183607, US3844856, RU2170722, US3779826, GB1279961, US3856590,
RU2183608, RU2170721, US5578789, H1.341, US6613168, US4158583, US5801325, US5798480,
US5554820, US6682615, US3957549, US4482411, US3953258, US3933543, US5498303,
US5741998, US6452049, US5596168, US5783769, US5348596, US4938813, US6066214,
US6238499, US6740180, US6805760, US5292387, US5043031, US3953258, US6171530,
RU2258057, GB2371297, US4726919, US5034072, FR2691963.
6.2.3 () .
, KNO3 70 - 80%, 10 - 20%,
8 - 20%, ( ). 2%
. KNO3 751%,
151%, 101%. KNO3 772%, 111.5% 121.5%.
1271 125 KNO3
67.2%, 14.5%, 9.4%, 9.2%.
1.82-1.89 /3.
. . , . t
270- 310. 2.9 /. 2 : 1: 2KNO3 +
S + 3C= K2SO4 + N2 + 2C + CO2,
: 2: K2SO4 + 2C = K2S + 2CO2. ..
. 70-100
2 . 280/.
1.5-1.85 / 3. 0.9-0.98 /3. 120-125
40. 1900-2100. . 1.75 / 3.
5000/ 3 - 1.88 /3. 40000/
- . 400/c (
40).
. 30. 19
..
(KNO3 75-80%, 20-25%).
. .
- 2 . ()
: ,
, , .
, , .
249

-,
. ..
, (. )
. 75% ( ).
- . -,
. , .
( , ),
. . ( . )
.. 8 -10 /.
,
. Pyrodex Triple Seven.
Pyrodex : 45% , 9% , 6% , 19% ,
11% , 6% 4% .
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 2
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1962. B165-B179.
2. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 415
6.3
(
), (),
. , -
.
,
.

() . 2 :
(CMCDB)
, (EMCDB). EMCDB
,
.
, .
- .
:
1) KClO4 55.4%, 9.0%, 21.0%, 13.0%,
-1%, 0.3%, 0.3%. 40- .
2) NH4ClO4 32%, 17%, 13.5%, 33.0%,
1.3%, 2- 0.2%, 1.0%, 2.0%.
3) NH4ClO4
26.78%,

23.22%,

21.5%,
:
3:1

25.02%,

2.48%,
2 1.0%.
4) : NH4ClO4 21 %, 29%, 12.5%,
20%, 17.5%. 273
. 7.43 /. .
5) (12.6%N) -20%, -30%, 6%, 11%,
2%, 20%, 11%. 270.
- 7.72 /, 70 1.4/.
3850.
6) (12.6%N) -22%, -30%, 5%, 2%.
21%, 20%. 265. 7.43/, 70 2.0/. 3900.
7) NH4ClO4 35%, - 15%, (petrin) -35%,
(12.6%N)-14.25%, 0.75%. H3515.
255 . 0.064 / .
8) 10.1%, 0.95%, 2- 0.2%,
-28.75%, 15.5%, 40%,
250

4%, 0.5%, 1%. 70


0.35 .
(EMCDB)
9) 15%, 30%, 43%,
5%, 2%, 5%.
(EMCDB)
: . 6.2.2

7.0
, , , ,
.
.
, ,
. .
. . (, ,
), (, , ), (, ).
, , ..
.
, ,
, .

. , ,
.

. 4-8%,
10% .
, ,
( ), ..
.
- , . . ,
. , -,
.
-
. , .
. ,
- ,
.
( )
.
( ,
, ,
..), , , , ..
().
,
. 7- ..
(.. ), .
17 ,
. 19
. . , , ,
, , ( )
.
1786 (.. ),
. 30- 19
.
19.
1865 , 1894 .
1865 . .
20 ,
1 . ,
-, , .
251

1 2 .
- .
,
,
.
2-
.
,
.
80- 20
, , ,
,
.


.

.
. ,
,
, .
.
7.1 ,
, .
-, ,
. .
:
, , ,
( ) .
, , .
( ),
, , , ,
.
- , .
- , -
, , .
, , , ,
.
(stab primers),
(percussion primers), .

, .
,
.
,
..
,
.

,
, . .

6 :
,
19, . , . .
,

252


.
, . .
- . ,
19 20
. .

19 .
.
( ).

.
1928 Sinoxyd.
,
.
:
(, ) .
, ..
. ..
. 70 20
.
(), (KDNBF),
, . .
, . ,
.
: ,
( ),
.
.

:
1) M27 -44.5%, -28.5%, (Sb2S3) -27%.
2) 28.3%, 33.4%, -33.3%, 5%. t 301, t
. 327. 1.3-2.0 /3.
3) NOL-60 -25%, -60%, -5%,
-10%. t 210, t . 227. 1.3-2.5 /3.
4) NOL-130 -20%, -20%, -40%, -5%,
-15%. . t 274, t . 280.
1.85 /3. 102 Mod 1
45, 47 M55.
5) PA-100 5%, 53%, 25%,
17%. t 288, t . 310. 1.3-2.0 /3.
26, 45, 41, 56.
6) 15-20%, 20-22%, 40-42%, Sb2S3 15-20%, 1-3%.
7) 10.8%, 13.2%, 18%,
58%. .
:

16 - 28%, 36 - 55%, (Sb2S3) 28 - 37%.(
. .
. ), : 28%,
14%, -21%, 35%, 2%.
- .

1) -67.8%, 29.6%, 2.6%. .
253

2) -40%, 25%, 25%, 6%,


4%. 1911.
3) Winchester staynless. -41.06%, 26.03%,
5.18%, 26.66%, 0.58%. . 0.49%.
30- 20.

1) M39A1 37.1%, 38.1%, 8.7%, 5.7%,
-10.4%.
. . t 216, t . 231.
1.3-2.2 /3.
.
2) FA-70 53%, 25%, 17%, 5%.
. FA-70
, , - -. t 201, t . 216.
1.3-2.4 /3.
( 29) ,
().
3) FA-90A 53%, 25%, 12, -10%.
4) M42 50%, 25%. -20%, 5%. t
188, t . 216. 1.56 /3.
42 .
5) OS 891 45%, 33%, 22%.
. t 340, t . 376. 1.3-2.0 /3.
6) 35%, 17%, -30%, 15%,
3%. t 204, t . 224. 1.4-2.4 /3.
7) -52%, -25%, -10%, -13%.
8) 16%, 40%, 4%, -40%.
, .

1) Sinoxyd 2-3%, 30-35%, 40-45%, 612%, 5-8%, 6-9%.
.
2) -39%, -38%, -2%, -5%,
11%, 5%.
Sinoxyd. .
3) -75 -40%, -42%, 11%
6%, -1%, .
4) PA-101 -22%, -53%, -5%,
-10%, 10%. t 196, t . 215. 1.3-2.0 / 3.
.
5) FA-956 4%, -37%, -32%, 15%,
7%, -5%, 0.2% ( 100%) 105 1% - 3.5 . t
184, t . 193. 1.3-2.4 /3.
-, 5.56 -16.
6) FA-959 -31%, -35%, -3.1%, -10.3%,
10.3%, -10.3%. t 199, t . 209.
1.3-2.3 /3. .
7) FA-982 -22%, -36%, -12%, -7%,
9%, -9%, 5%. t 240, t . 262.
1.4-2.4 /3.
.
8) -39%, -41%, -3%, -9%,
8%. .
9) -20.4%, -44.2%, -3.3%, -25%,
6.8%, 0.3%. .
10) -47%, -35%, -3%, 15%.
.
254

11) -25%, -46%, -4%, 20%,


5%. .
12) 5%, -45%, -30%, 20%.
- .
:
1) NOTOX. : 40-50%, 17-23%, 13-17%, KNO3 17-23%,
0.4-0.6%.
2) NONTOX. 25%, 25%, KNO3 33.5%, 6%, 0.5%,
10%. Bofors.
3) SINTOX. 30%, 15%, 10-70%, 010%. Dyno Nobel.
SINTOX : 3%, 15%, 50%,
5% (40 ), 27% .
: -20%, -5%, 50%,
-5%, -20%.
4) 25-35%, 2-5%, KNO3 5-14%, 49-60%,
0.75-2.0%, 0.1-0.2%.
5) -28%, -5%, (Sb2S3) 11%, -6%,
-50%, () -0.5% (100%).
.
6) KDNBF 45%, (KNO3) 15%, ()
35%, ( ) 5%.
7) ( ) -28%, -8%,
-7%, -40%, -16%, -1%.
8) 25%, 8%, - 35%,
15%, ( ) -1%, -16%.

1) FA-675 82%, -18%. 1949.
- .
2) FA-716 77%, -18%, 5% .
. .
3) G-11 ( 200)
53%, 25%, 12%, TACOT -10%.
4) G-16 ( ) 53%, 30%,
17%.
5) 85.5%, 9.5%, 5.0%. t 227, t . 235.
1.56 /3. -
42.
6) -50%, -50%. t 402, t . 411. 2.23.0 /3.
.
:
1) FA-874 . -40%, -44.2%, 13.0%,
0.8%, -1.0%, -1.0%. .
2) FA-878 20%, 20%, -32.5%,
7.5%, -20%. .
3) XS-1A -98%, -2%.
4) -55%, -45%. t 203, t . 240.
1.6-2.2 /3. 56.
5) XC-9 -25%, -75%.
2.4% . t 396, t . 451. 1.6-2.2
/3. -1 Mod 0.
6) -60%, -20%, -15%, -5%. t
396, t . 442. 1.6-2.4 / 3.
.
7) -40%, -37.2%, -10%, 11.2% 1%,
0.6%. .
255

8) 40%, 32%, -18%, 567


10%.
9) -50%, -5%, -33%, -8.9%,
-3.0%, -0.1%.
10) -47%, -45%, -7%, -1%.
11) -35%, -19.5%, PbO2 45.5%, 0.8% (
100%).
12) 8.5%, -76.5%, -15%. t
244, t . 296. 1.9-2.6 /3.
13) 66.7%, 33.3%. t 446, t . 465.
2.2-2.6 /3. 0.016/ 0.61 / 3.
EBW-.
14) -66.7%, 33.3%. t 475, t . 486. 2.162.36 /3. 0.0045/.
EBW-.
15) 50%, 2- 50%, 5% - .
. , .
.
.
, .
.. -60%,
30% -10%. -56%,
24%, - 20%
1) -53%, -22%, -9%, -1%, -10%,
-5%. t 137, t . 152. 0.85 - 1.3 / 3.
, , -56%, -24%,
-20%.
2) -56.2%, -24.6%, -9%, -10.2%, 5%
- . : -50%, -5%, -16%,
-4%, -25%.
3) 14. , 1.6 , 0.3
.
.
.
4) 1 -50%, -30%,
-20%. : -50%, -20%, -30%.
5) : - 40%, -3%,
-6%, -2%, 14%, 28%,
5%, 2% : 61%, 2.2%, -26%,
10.8%.
6) : - 32%,
-29%, 37%, 2%.
7) - 40%, 40%, 20%.
.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1-10
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
2. Herbert Ellern. Military and civilian pyrotechnics. New York. 1968.
3. John A. Conkling Chemistry of pyrotechnics. Basic principles and theory. Marcel Dekker 1985.
4. Petra Svachoukov. TOXICITY OF SMALL CARTRIDGES. Proc. of 11th seminar New trends in
research of energetic materials Pardubice. 2008.
5. Fred L. McIntyre. A compilation of hazard and test data for pyrotechnic compositions. Report
ARLCD-CR-80047. ARRADCOM. 1980.
6. James Smyth Wallace. Chemical analysis of firearms, ammunitions and gunshot residue. CRC Press.
2008. 291p.
7. : US5557061, US5993577, US4581082, RU2269503, RU2175652, RU2110505, RU2253647,
RU2309138, RU2269503
256

7.2
. .
,
. (KNO3, KClO3, KClO4, BaO2 .),
( Ti, Zr, Mg) (, , ,
.) .
. ..:
, ,
( ). .. , ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
200
.

.
,
() . ,
.
.
: Ignition
mixture, First fire mixtures Starter mixtures. Ignition mixture
( )
( -). First fire mixtures
,
.

.
,
. Starter mixtures
, , First fire,
.
.
:
1) FIC-2 KClO4 74%, -10.5%, Fe2O3 5%, (
) 10.5%.
.
2) (First Fire PY101LY),

(
):
1 ( ). Ba(NO3)2 -50%, -20%,
15%, 10%, -5%. t 476, t . 550.
0.96 /3. 3.94 / 0.96 /3.
2 ( ). Sr(NO3)2 -50%, -16%, 15%,
- 5%, 10%, -4%.
3 ( ). Ba(NO3)2 -50%, -13%, 20%,
- 3%, 10%, -4%.
90-
Starter mixture XXV . .
3) IM-6: KNO3 54%,
40%, (Viton)6%.
.
4) Starter mixture I KClO4 -30%, 35%, ( )
-35%, -5% ( 100% 8% ). t 446, t . 516.
2.28 /3. 1812/.
3636/. 5.12 / 2.28 / 3.
M7 M1.

257

5) Starter mixture VI KClO3 -43.2%, 16.8%, -30%, 10% (


60. 40 4% ). t 216, t . 246.
1.06 /3. 9.84 / 1.06 / 3.
18, 177, 651.
6) Starter mixture III (XII ) KNO3 70.5%,
29.5% ( 50. 50 4% ). t
418, t . 466. 0.86 /3. 980/.
2100/. 3.84 / 0.86 /3. XII - 0.18 /
1.04 /3. 105 XM7, XM8, M2. XII 72, 73.
7) Starter mixture V KNO3 54%, 40%, 6% ( 70.
30 4% ). t 501, t . 541.
1.24 /3. 980/. 2116/.
0.59 / 1.24 / 3. C 2
. . 8.
8) Starter mixture XXV (II ) KNO3 35%,
26%, 4%, Fe3O4 22%, -13% ( 83.3.
16.7 6% ). t 421, t . 487.
1.22 /3. 1186/. 2690/.
1.97 / 1.22 / 3. ,
. 105 155 1 2
.
9) 666 33.3%, -33.3%, -33.3%. t 401, t
. 440. 1.17 /3. 344/.
,
.
10) Mk25Mod2 (Mod 0) starter composition. 30%, -20%,
-50%. t 476, t . 500. 1.18 /3.
380/. Mk25Mod2 (Mod 0).
11) Standart First Fire Mixture VII: Fe2O3 25%, Pb3O4 25%, 25%, -25%,
4.5% 37% ( 100%). t 762, t . 821.
1.33 /3. 360/.
810/. 1.18 / 1.33 / 3.
AN-M14, , M36
( ),
Starter mixture V .
12) First Fire Mixture FF-30 Pb3O4 70%, 30%. t 659, t . 710.
2.26 /3. 2.55 / 2.26 /3.
M1A2, M2A1.
13) Plastic bonded starter mixture KClO3 -39%, -9%, 3%,
-5%, XD-2679 22%, NG845 22%. t 150, t .
172. 1.25 /3. 2.76 / 1.25 / 3.
18 M7A3.
14) KClO4 68%, 25%, . 7%.
15) KNO3 48%, 52%.
16) KNO3 28%, 12%, 60%.
17) KNO3 75%, 15%, 10% .
18) KNO3 75%, 16%, 9%.
19) Ba(NO3)2 -75%, -25% 100%.
20) KNO3 52%, 46%, ()2%.
21) Ba(NO3)2 -59%, -35%, -3%, -3%, 0,5% ( 100%).
, .
22) KClO4 55.8%, -31.4%, 12.8% - SR-817
.
23) KClO4 - 49%, 31%, -6%, Fe2O3 7%, 7% ( 100.
37 25% ).
2 . .
24) 1 2
. .
25) -25%, 75% : -48.5%, 48.5%, 3%.
258

26) KNO3 75%, 25%, (VAAR 100%)1%. t 414, t


. 602. 0.87 /3. 1594/. 0.9
/ 0.87 /3. .
27) KClO4 15.3%, 23.0%, 53.8%, 7.6%, 0.15%,
0.15%.
.
28) CuO 35.2%, 35.2%, 17.6%, 12%.
.
29) KClO3 68%, 27%, 5%.
.
30) KClO3 76.5%, 20.4%, 2.0%, 1.1%.
.
31) PbO2 42.8%, 28.5%, 14.2%, 14.2%,
0.3%. .
32) KClO3 54.5%, -28.0%, Fe2O3 13.5%, 3%, - 1%.
.
33) KClO4 67%, 33%. .
34) -85%, - 5%, 10%.
.
35) 53.3%, 33.7%, 11.2%, 1.8%.
.
36) PbO 76.9%, 19.3%, 1.5%, 0.5%, 1.8%.
.
37) PbCrO4- 59%, 19.6%, 19.6%, 1.8%.
.
38) Ba(NO3)2 - 2, 2, . (43% , 47% 10% ) 4,
1. ,
.
39) Ba(NO3)2 20%, 20%, . (8% , 62% 30% )
46%, 10%, 4%.
, .
40) KClO4 26.7%, 68.6%, (nylon) 4.7%.
.

:

1) First fire mixture IV Pb3O4 55%, 33%, 12%, 8-10% 8%-


. t 777, t . 856. 2.36 /3.
290/. 825/. 1.57 /
2.36 /3. 220 AN-M7A1, AN-M7.
2) Igniter mixture III Fe2O3 50%, 32.5%, 17.5% - (
8% ). t
456, t . 492. 1.5-1.7 /3. 630/.
1176/. 0.79 / 1.30 / 3.
XM176,
BLU-16/B, AN-M8.
3) 1 Fe2O3 25%, superfloss ( ) 10%, 65%, VAAR -1% (
100%) t 427, t . 496. 1.48 /3.
550/. 0.016 /. 1
.
, .
4) F33B Fe2O3 49%, superfloss ( ) 10%, 41%
.
D-16.
5) Fe2O3 39%, superfloss ( ) 10%, 51%.
6) First Fire X -25%, 50%, -25%
0.6% 1.8% ( 100%) t 780, t . 896.
2.33 /3. 275/. 880/.
1.18 / 2.33 / 3.
259

7)
8)
9)
10)
11)

2011
. BLU-16/B, AN-M8,
XM74E1.
PbO2 30%, 40%, 30%.
.
BaCrO4 90%, -10%, ,
, .
PbO2 70%, 30% -
90% - 10% .
SI-143: MoO3 25%, Cr2O3- 16%, -58%, VAAR-1%
, .. .
PbO2 60-80%, 40-60% -
.

, .
. .
.
,
.
,
, . ,
:
:
1) Composition K: BaO2 -78%, -20%, -2%.
2) Composition 29 BaO2 -80.5-81%, -17-17.5%, -2%. t 375, t
. 445. 2.2-3.2 /3. 600 /.
2.85 / 1.09 /3. 40 M81
M81A1.
3) I-237 SrO2 -70%, BaO2 -4%, -25%, -1% (I-237 2%
I-531). .. .
4) I-276 BaO2-83%, 15% , 1% , 1% .
5) I-280 85% I-136, 15%. t 496, t . 539. 2.6-3.6 /3.
2.76 / 1.19 /3. 7.76 - .
6) I-508 BaO2 -79%, -14%, -0.9%, -0.5%,
( ) -5.6%.
7) I-559 79.5% I-136 20.5% 23.3% 77.7% . t 635, t
. 756. 2.54 / 1.99 /3.
- 5.56.
8) I-560 27.5% , 27.5% , 30% SrO2, 15% . t 856, t . 926.
2.2-3.6 /3. 3376 /.
2.55 / 1.29 /3. R284
5.56 - .
9) R20C SrO2 -65.6%, -21.6%, -3.4%, BaO2 -3.4%,
6%. t 404, t . 477. 2.2-2.8 /3. 0.6 /
0.96 /3. -
7.62.
10) 32.7%, - 36.7%, -11.9%, - 18.7%.
11) Ba(NO3)2 -48%, BaO2 -30%, -13%, -9%.
12) Ba(NO3)2 -22%, BaO2 -55%, (-4) -17%, -6%.
13) Mg -25%, SrO2 -70%, Sr(NO3)2 -5%.
14) BaO2 -66.6%, -22.3%, 11.1%, 100%.

, (Dim),
.

260

1) I-136: -90%, 10%. t 600, t . 656.


2.6-3.4 /3. 1.21 / 1.21 / 3.
7.76 - .
2) I-194 I-136 -94%, 6%.
3) -88%, -12%.
4) 34, 28, ( ) 38;
5) -30%, -50%, 15%, -5%.
6) 63%, 35%, 2%, 100%.
7) BaO2 -78.4%, -18.4%, 2.2%, 1.0%.
.
8) SrO2 -74.85%, -10.15%, -3.78%, BaO2 -3.78%,
7.4%.
:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

-40%, -29%, -31%.


BaO2 91%, 9%.
KNO3 66.69%, -14.96%, 7.78%, -8.67%, -1.99%.
KNO3 66%, -11%, 6%, -8%, -2%, -5%,
-2%.
XM-89. 888 /.
CuO - 57%, 40%, 3%. .
SiO2 55%, Mg 45%.
SiO2 28%, Mg 60%, 12%.
.
SiO2 50%, Mg 40%, 10%.
CuO 21.7%, - 65.2% 13%, 0.1%.

,
,
:
1) Fe2O3 69%, Mg 31%.
2) Fe2O3 75%, Mg 15%, 10%.
3) 70%, 30%.
:
1) Alclo. KClO4 64%, 35%, 1%.
,
, .
2) Tichloral. KClO4 63%, -20%, -13%, -4%.
3) Benite. KNO3 44%,
9.5%, -6.5%, (13.15%N) -40%,
0.5% ( 100%).
4) KNO3 70.7%, 23.7%, . ()5.6%
, .
5) KNO3 51.34%, 18.3%, (12.2%N) -29.86%,
0.5%. 8.78 /
6) KNO3 78%, 15%, ()7%.
7) 35-52%, () () 65-48%
(. ). . - 61%,
() - 34%, - 5%.
Polaris, Phoenix, Sidewinder ..
.
.
-.
8) 30%, () -45%, -10%, NaF
7.5%, -7.5% 7.73/.
9) Ba(NO3)2 -30.5%, PbO2 -7%, TiHx (x=0.2) 21% (13.1%N) 41%,
0.5%, 4.56 /
261

10) KClO4 26-50%, Ba(NO3)2 15-17%, Zr-Ni 50:50 32-54%, 3%.


KClO4 -26.5%, Ba(NO3)2 -16.5%, Zr-Ni 50:50 54.0%, 3%.
.
11) CuO -75-80%, 20-25%. ,
.
12) KClO4 - 42.5%, 51.5%, 3%, 3%.
13) 49.9%, 40%, 10.1%.
.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1-10
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
2. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition Vol 20.
3. Herbert Ellern. Military and civilian pyrotechnics. New York. 1968.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 119
5. .. ., , 1973.
6. Gene V. Tracy, Eugene Song. High energy, lead-free ignition formulation for thermate. Report from
chemical biological center. U.S. army soldier and biological chemical command. ECBC-TR-205. 2002.
7. Russel N. Broad. Replacement of first fire composition in M127A1 ground illumination signal.
Technical report ARWEC-TR-97002. Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. 1997.
8. Fred L. McIntyre. A compilation of hazard and test data for pyrotechnic compositions. Report
ARLCD-CR-80047. ARRADCOM. 1980.
9. : US3753811, US4402774, US6708621, US6036794, US6170399, DE3243425
7.3 (Delay)
, ,
.
,
,
.
.
:
, , , , , , , , .

, , .
. . , , .
.
.

( ), .
50/50 1.6
2.6 25%. ,
800,
100-200.
,
.
,
. 2.5,
20% , 30% PbCrO4 50% KClO4 - 5.
:
Pb3O4/
, 2 . .
.
/ ,
,
.
//
/, .

262

// ( D-16).
,
.
/ -
, .
. 45 .

PbO2/Zr
Mo/KClO4
BaCrO4/PbO2/B
BaO2/Se
Fe/KMnO4
Sb/KMnO4
B/BaCrO4
W/BaCrO4/KClO4/

1) (Pb3O4) 80+-2%, 20+-2%


3-7 100 . ,
.
2) (Pb3O4) 80%, 20%, (1.8% 10% -
100%). t 671, t . 764. 2.8-3.8 / 3.
335/. 660 /. 1.5-4.33 / 2.8-3.8
/3. M201A1 XM54, AN-M14,
M6A1, M7A3 b .
3) (Pb3O4) 85%, 15%, (1.8% 8% -
100%). t 721, t . 786. 2.8-3.8 / 3.
328/. 650 /.
42 (5).
4) (Pb3O4) 87.5%, 12.5%, (1.8% 8% 100%). t 713, t . 749. 2.8-3.8 / 3.
321/. 649 /. 0.79 / 2.3
/3. M201A1 .
5) (Pb3O4) 90%, 10%, (1.8% 10% -
100%). t 765, t . 815. 2.8-3.8 / 3.
256/. 605 /. 0.59 / 2.49 / 3.
BE 7501b, E153R1,
220, AN-M7A1, AN-M7.
6) T-10 BaCrO490%, -10%. t 615, t . 700. 2.73 / 3.
1073 /. 0.35 / 2.73 / 3.
112 491.
7) BaCrO495%, -5%. t 553, t . 630. 2.89 /3.
265 /. 420 /. 0.98 /
2.89 /3. 112.
8) BaCrO490%, -10%, VAAR 1% 100%. t 560, t . 575.
1.95 /3. 463 /. 590 /.
0.59 / 1.12 /3. 491.
9) BaCrO485%, -15%. t 706, t . 736. 2.69 /3.
502 /. 846 /. 0.59 /
1.92 /3.
10) BaCrO4 81%, -19%. t 656, t . 702. 2.95 /3.
276 /. 763 /. 0.79 /
1.9 /3.
11) BaCrO410%, 15%, KClO4- 10%, 64%, VAAR 1%. t 385, t .
436. 256 /. 765 /.
12) M-10 BaCrO4 51.8%, KClO4 - 4.8%, 40% (2.3 ), 3.4%
0.24 /.
13) ND 3499 BaCrO452%, KClO4 - 4.8%, 38% (4.9), 5.2%
0.046 /.
263

14) E107-70 BaCrO455%, KClO4- 10%, 30%, 5%. t 388, t .


433. 4.88 /3. 1080 /.
7.33 / 4.88 /3. 0.1%/.
15) E108-70 BaCrO440%, KClO4- 10%, 45%, 5%. 9.04
/.
16) E109-70 BaCrO425%, KClO4- 10%, 60%, 5%. 4.5
/.
17) WS12607 BaCrO455%, KClO4- 10%, 30%(5-10), 4%
-1%. t 391, t . 414. 1187 /.
Mk279Mod2.
18) BaCrO458%, KClO4 -10%, 27%, 5% 0.63/.
.
19) BaCrO456%, KClO4- 9%, (5-10) 30%, 5%.
0.79/.
20) BaCrO452%, KClO4- 9%, (5-20) 34%, 5%.
1.41/.
21) BaCrO432%, KClO4- 5%, (5-10) 58%, 5%.
25/.
22) BaCrO4455%, KClO4- 12.50.25%, 42.55%, VAAR 10.1% ( 100%).
548 913.
23) BaCrO424%, KClO4- 10%, 65%, VAAR 1%. t 370, t . 421.
491.
24) BaCrO410%, KClO4- 10%, 75%, 5%. t 445, t . 516.
4.88 /3. 265 /. 840
/. 7.326 / 4.88 / 3.
25) BaCrO462%, KClO4- 10%, -20%, -4%,
-2%, -2% 1.8/.
26) D-16 BaCrO445%, PbCrO4- 26%, 29% t 452, t . 496.
258 /. 790 /. 0.85.4/. Mk4 Mod 0.
27) D-5 BaCrO4 3%, PbCrO4- 53%, 44% 6.9/.
28) E1-71 BaCrO43.5%, PbCrO4- 52.9%, 43.6% 2.68 /.
29) PbCrO4- 55%, 45% t 336, t . 382. 260 /.
745 /. 0.83/.
30) BaCrO430%, PbCrO4- 37%, 33% t 460, t . 522. 256
/. 851 /. 3.31/.
31) BaCrO431%, PbCrO4- 36%, 33% 1.9/.
32) BaCrO4 60%, KClO4 -14%, (30:70) 26%. t 325, t . 370.
521 /. 571 /. 0.78
/.
33) BaCrO4 31%, KClO4 -15%, 54% (
70% 10/, 50% 5/, 30%
3/. ). 70%
: t 335, t . 407. 327 /. 407
/. 112.
34) BaCrO456.2%, KClO4 -16.8%, -5%, 22% 2.5/.
35) BaCrO4 80%, (50:50) 20%. t 351, t . 396.
190 /.
36) PA-DP162 BaCrO479%, 21%. t 418, t . 476. 396
/. 426 /. 0.4 /.
37) Z-3 BaCrO450-75%, 50-25%.
38) BaCrO4 44%, Cr2O3 41%, 15%. 4.5 /.
39) BaCrO4 43%, Cr2O3 44%, 13%. 8.5 /.
40) BaCrO4 68%, KClO4 -10%, -8%, -13%, -1%,
0.69/. .
41) KClO4 -4%, -80%, -16% 11/.
42) BaCrO4 25%, KClO4- 13%, 62%. 6.7/.
43) BaCrO4 50-85%, -15-50%.
44) BaCrO439.5%, KClO4- 15%, -44.5%, 1%.
45) BaCrO440%, KClO4- 5%, 55% 12.7/.
264

46) BaCrO465%, KClO4- 5%, 30% 1.4/.


47) KClO4- 20-11%, 80-89% 2.54-0.635 /.
.
48) BaSO4 58%, Si 42% 4.3/.
49) BaO2 -40%, -20%, -40% 2.8/
.
50) BaO2 -80-84%, -20-16%. 7.1-6.4/. BaO2 -84%,
-16%, 0.5% 100% 2.3 /.
51) PbCrO4 - 75%, 25%, 1%
52) 121 PbCrO4- 50%, 25%, 25%.
2 .
53) KMnO4 54-30%, Sb 46-70% 2
. .
.
54) KMnO4 60%, 40% - , Hydrox.
- .
55) BaCrO462.1%, -37.9%. 4.57 /.
56) PbCrO4 - 88%, 5.5%, 5.5%, -1%.
57) BaCrO4 - 78%, KClO4 - 10%, 11%, -1%.
58) PbCrO4 - 78%, KClO4 - 10%, 5.5%, 5.5%,
-1%. 5 /.
59) PbCrO4 - 80%, 20%. 1 /. ,
PbCrO4 40% 0-50%
0.06-0.45 /.
60) Pb3O4 70%, 30%. 0.1 /.
61) ,
.
.
1-3% .
62) PbO2 60%, Zr 40%, 2% ( 100%). 0.025 /.
63) KClO3 - 5%, Se 47%, Bi- 48%. , .
64) 20%, 80%.
65) 12%, 63%, 25%.
66) 55%, -20%, 10%, 10%,
-5%. 7/.
67) 31%, - 50%, 10%, 4%, -5%.
2/.
68)
( ):88% , 7%
, 5% . 3.1 0.87/ -32
0.94 / 20.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1-10
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
2. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition Vol 20.
3. Herbert Ellern. Military and civilian pyrotechnics. New York. 1968.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 231
5. .. ., , 1973.
6. Brasseys world military technology. Explosives, Propellants and Pyrotechnics. Editor Colonel R. G.
Lee. London 1989.
7. John A. Conkling Chemistry of pyrotechnics. Basic principles and theory. Marcel Dekker 1985.
8. Fred L. McIntyre. A compilation of hazard and test data for pyrotechnic compositions. Report
ARLCD-CR-80047. ARRADCOM. 1980.
9. Specialni technika. . Urban Ladislav. 1. . 1976.
10. : US6723191, RU2185355, US4419154, US4239004, FR0267058, US5147976, US4963204,
US3981222,US6298784

265

7.4
,
. . . 2 : , , ,
.
1: (KNO3, Ba(NO3)2, KClO4) , .
. 50:50. . .. 3 / 3. 6 8 /.
3000. .
(,
, . ). 2000 - 2800.
. 800
( Fe2O3+Al 1300).
. .. . .
. .
,
- - ,
. .. , ,
, .
.. . ..
, .
- :
1) SR-365 Ba(NO3)2 50%, 50%. , .
2) SR-379 Ba(NO3)2 50%, 47%, -3%. ,
.
3) Ba(NO3)2 - 48%, Ca 3%, 1%, 50:50 48%.
4) Ba(NO3)2 - 40%, Fe2O3 10%, 50:50 50%.
5) Ba(NO3)2 - 18%, Al 50%, 32%.
6) Ba(NO3)2 48.5%, 23%, Al 23%, -3%, -2.5%.
7) Ba(NO3)2 38%, NaNO3 20%, 36%, 6% (
).
8) Ba(NO3)2 35%, 20%, Fe2O3 40%, 5%. .
9) Ba(NO3)2 32%, 9.8%, 53.3%, -
4.9%. , .
10) Sr(NO3)2 75%, 13%, Al 3%, 6%, 3% (
1 2 - )
11) Fe2O3 50%, Al 24%, Ba(NO3)2 - 26%.
12) Fe2O3 21%, Al 13%, Mg 12%, Ba(NO3)2 - 44%, KNO3 6%, 4%.
13) Fe2O3 44%, Al 25% , Ba(NO3)2 - 29%, 2%, 0.3% ( 100%).
14) Fe2O3 51%, Al 22%, Ba(NO3)2 - 22%, -5%.
15) Fe2O3 50%, Al 25%, -15%, 10%.
16) Fe2O3 26%, 28%, 36%, 10%.
17) KClO4- 48%, Ca 2%, 50:50 50%.
18) NH4ClO4 49%, Ca 2%, 50:50 49%.
19) NH4ClO4 35%, Al 52%, Ca 2%, -5 ( ) - 6%,
4%, 1%. ( )
20) CuO -79.5%, 17.5%, 3%.
21) CuO -55%, 20%, 20%, 4.6%,
0.4%. , ,
..
22) . Ba(NO3)2 40%, 45% (15% 30% ), - 12%,
- 3% ( 30% ).
.
23) F. Ba(NO3)2 50%, 50%, -12% ( 100%).
.

266

24) 60.4%, () 20.1%, 14.3%, 5.2%.


.
1 /.
25) 69%, () 9%, 16.1%, 5.9%.
. 1.6
/.
26) TH-3. Fe2O3 51.5%, Al 17.1% , Ba(NO3)2 - 29%, 2%,
0.4%. , .
.
27) Fe2O3 68.5%, Al 29.2%, 2.3%.
, , ..
.
28) 44.5%, 33%, 22.5%.
.
,
. .
2: :
, , . .. 800 1500. .
0.8 2.0 /3. , ,
, (, , ) . - 7 11%
, , ( 1
, ,
1:1:2).
, .
. .
. .
, .. . 900
1200 ( 25% , 25% 50% -1600,
-). ,
.
(. CaO).
-
. ,
.
- ,
, , , , - (
) ( , ).
, 1700.
.
,
2 . :
1) IM-1: -88.75%, 5.0%, 3.0%,
2.0%, 1.25%.
2) : 86.5%, 13.5%.
3) PT-2: 19.25%, GOOP 60/40 (
, , , ) -45%,
() -10%, 15% GR-S -20%, 4.75%,
1%, S2Cl2 -0.25% ( 100%).
4) N-1: 24% GR-S ( ) -60%, () 20%,
() 12%, 8%, S2Cl2 -0.25% ( 100%).
5) N-2: 24% GR-S -52%, () 20%, ()-16%,
12%, S2Cl2 -0.25% ( 100%).
6) N-5: 24% GR-S -50%, () 5%, ()-20%,
20%, -5%, S2Cl2 -0.25% ( 100%).
7) N-8: 24% GR-S -49%, () 25%, ()-6%, 13%,
-4%, S2Cl2 -1%, SAE-10 -2%.
267

8) N-9: 24% GR-S -59%, () 20%, () -8%,


12%, S2Cl2 -1%.
9) PTV: 60%, 28%, -6%, 5%, -
-1%.
10) SR-400 -95%, -5%.
11) SR-425 SR-400 50%, 10%, 10%, 27%,
-3%.

:
1) -24.5%, -35%, -20%, -17%,
-3%, -0.5%
2) -40%, -4.5%, -18%, -5%, -30%,
-0.5%, -2%
3) -38.4%, - 10%, 26%, - 15%, - 3.6%,
7.0%, 1,3% ( 100%).
-.
4) -25.6%, - 52%, - 8%, - 12%,
2.4%, -1.0% ( 100%). -.
:
1) -27.0%, 67.6%, 5.4%.
2) -19.0%, 40.8%, 21.7%, 13.6%,
4.9%.

:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1-10
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
2. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition Vol 20.
3. Herbert Ellern. Military and civilian pyrotechnics. New York. 1968.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 230
5. .. ., , 1973.
6. James Smyth Wallace. Chemical analysis of firearms, ammunitions and gunshot residue. CRC Press.
2008. 291p.
7. Services textbook of explosives. Ministry of Defence. For use in the royal NAVY, army service, royal
air force. 1972.
8. :RU2213720, US6627013, US5700974
7.5
, .
400 1000. 1.6 4.1 /.
- ,
( )
. ( KClO3), ( ,
.) ( , , )
, ( . 80.3) , ,
- 200,
.
, , , .

. 75% (, , .). -

, 20
.
(. ,
).
268

, ,
,
. ,
, .
, ,
.. ,
, .
.
, ,
.
. (, , , ..) -
10-15%. , .
.
- ( , , ,
..) .
. ,
.
, :
1) ( 1 . ): KClO3 20%, 10%,
50%, 20%. (

NH4ClO3
)
2) KClO3 40-43%, 43-45%, 14-16%.
, -2,
-13.
3) KClO3 40%, 45%, - 12%, 3%.
4) KNO3 30%, 10%, 60%.
5) KClO3 34.1, -10.3, 10.3, 43.4,
6.6.
6) : KClO3 44%,
36%, - 16%, 4%.
7) 62%, 20%, 18%.
28.
8 42 .
8) 50%, 15%, KClO3 30%, 5%
,
:
9) - 68%, KClO3 18%, - 14%,
10) - 50%, KClO3 13%, - 27%, - 10%
11) 83 8
: - 57%, KClO3
23%, - 14%, 3%, -3%,
1% ( 100%, 4% ).
12)
. M83-PE
: 36.3%, 17.9%, KClO3
22.4%, 13.6%, 7.5%, 1.2%
- 1%, 0.8%.
60-70%
.
.
20% , :
13) 1: -55%, - 35%, . 5%.
269

2: - 40%, -10%, - 10%, 35%, 5%.


:
14) , .. :
Mg 20%, KNO3 20%, KClO4 -8%, KHCO3 12%, KCl -15%, NaCl -15%,
10%.
15)
: 500 , 390 250 , 150
210 . 500 50,
, .
.. ,
( ) .
, ,
(. -, t . 309.4 , )
C10Cl12 (, ). (
1 2 . )
CCl4, ( ) -
,
().
(, , ),
( ). ,

.
, HC
1.9%
.
.
: 2Al + C2Cl6 + 3 ZnO = 3ZnCl2 + Al2O3 + 2C.
, . -
.
( ) -
, .
, , ..
, ,
- .
- .
, ,
, .. ,
. , ,
.
.
, (
).
(
):
1) , 2 .
: -45.9%, () 5.6%, -48.5%.
2) C6Cl6 34.4%, Zn 6.2%, ZnO 27.6%, -24%, () 7.8%.
3) : C2Cl6 44.3-48.1%, 4.4-7.7%, 4249%. C2Cl6 43.53+-0.5%,
9+-3%, 46.47+-0.5%.
1:1, (3-10%)
,
. t 167, t . 193. 1.6-1.9 /3.
940/. 9.8 / 1.6-1.9 / 3.

270

4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)
21)
22)

23)
24)

. XMN6, BLU 16B, 105 155 ,


AN-M8.
C10Cl12 30.7%, ZnO 34.6%, 3.6%, -27.6%,
(VAAR) 3.5%. t 314, t . 363. 1181/. 1.97
/.
C2Cl6 46%, 7-25%(14%), 29-47% (40%).
. SiCl4,
.
C2Cl6 48-56%, 40-48%, 3%, 1%.
.
C2Cl6 51%, 33%, 4%, 12%
C10Cl12 33.9%, ZnO 37.4%, -20.5%, () 8.2%.
C6Cl6 66.7-72.7%, 16.7-18.2%, 8.3-9.1%, . .
0-8.3%.
-45-65%, -3-7%, -30-50%
-35%, -20%, ZnO -45%
.
ZnO -43%, C2Cl6 -43%, -14%.
C2Cl6 -65%, -7%, -28% (
, ..
. , ).
C2Cl6 44%, ZnO 29%, -18%, () -9%
0.56/.
C2Cl6 34%, Zn 22%, ZnO 8%, 36%.
:
-15-40%, -3-29%, -10-25%, -5-40%, - 0-5%,
-5-25%.
-10-22%, -15-25%, -28-35%, -10-18%, -2-10%,
-15-20%, ( . ) -5-10%.
C2Cl6 31%, Zn 31%, ZnO 12%, 16%,
10%. 1.03 / 6 /c .
425.
-69%, -19%, 12%.
: -32%, ZnO -32%, (
-55%, 23.5%,
18.5%, -3%) -36% .
: -34%, -10.3%, 31.3%,
15%, 9.4%. 1/.
: 27% , 8% , 35% ,
15% 15% . 15 ,
150 2 .
,
. 4 .
: 20%, 20%, 30%,
25%, -5%.
- 145.
ZnO 31.2%, 30.0%, 14.2%, 9.3%,
15.3%. ,
. 0.7/.

, (
).
, ,
, (
) - :
1) C6Cl6 80, Mg 20, () 20.
0.57 / 1 /c .
2) Mg -18%, (-4 ) 24%, 48%,
( 70%) 10%.
271

3) , -: C2Cl6 60%, -15%,


-10%, 10%, 5%.
4) C6Cl6 71.4%, Mg 17.8%, () 8.9%, 1.9%.
-.
5) C6Cl6 66.6%, Mg 19%, ( ) 4.7%, 9.7%.
-.
6) C2Cl6 41%, Mg 12.4%, () 13.3%, 20%,
13.3%.
-.
7) C2Cl6 60%, 19%, -21% 4/.
8) KClO3 50%, . 50% ( .. 10%
75-84%, 3-7%, 6-10%,
6-18%, 0.5-10%
50%).
9) C2Cl6 55%, 19%, -26%.
10) 55, 29%, 16%.
11) (, ) 15-35%, (, 1:1)
30-60%, 10-40%.
.
5% . .

- , ,
, .
- .
, -
(3 3O4), , , .
, 75%-
(),
, .

.

.
1) -51%, () 35%, -8%, -3%,
3%. MnO2 ,
,
, .
.
2) -66%, -16%, -12%, -6%.
3) -50-70%, -15-25%, -5-25%, -0-10%,
(
) -0-10%
4) , : -50%, -42%, -5%,
(Viton A) -3%. 2.7/.
5) SR622, : + -46%,
-51.1%, ( ) -2.9%.
.
6) 87-91%, 8-10%, 1-3%. ,
.
7) -95%, - 5%. t 460, t . 530. 1.92.2 /3. 236 / 1.6 / 3. ,
LAV LAB-1.

272

. 46 : (2/):

4600
. .
3800
TiCl4 + NH3
3030
SO3
3000
HCl + NH3
2500
HC*
2100
SiCl4 + NH3
1960
TiCl4 (FM)
1900
SnCl4
1860

1500
HlSO3
1400
**
1400
S
460
.
200
*- , , . , .
**- , , , , .
: .
7.6
.. .
(. , , , .),
.
, . . (,
, .), ,
. . .
500
. ,
,
( , ). ,
, , .
,
. : 30+10%, 20+-5%, 50+-5%, 0-5%.

:
, .
, ,
-- ( - ),
, 2--- ( ), , .
- 1,4---
( 418, -
) ( 273, 240,
) 65/35.
:
Disperse Red 9: 1-.
Disperse Violet 1: 1,4-.
Disperse Red 11: 1,4--2-.
Solvent Yellow 33: 2-(2-)-1,3-.
Solvent Green 3: 1,4--p--9,10-.
Solvent Red 1: 1--2-.
Disperse Red 5: 2--2--4--4-N,N-(2-).
Disperse
Blue
79:
4-(2--4,6-)-5--2--N,N().

273

.
1) KClO3 -27%, 10.4%, 4%, benzenthrone -8%, Solvent Green 28%,
22.6%. t 192, t . 222. 1.3-1.63 /3.
21.8 /. 18,
177.
2) KClO3 -25.4%, 10%, Solvent Green 40%, 24.6%,
100% ( 15% ). t 163, t . 190.
1.3-1.6 /3. 9.05 / 0.72/ 3.
18.
3) KClO3 -28.85%, 11.3%, 5.63%, Solvent Green 39.45%,
14.75%. t 154, t . 178. 1.3-1.6 /3.
3.93 / 0.76/3. 40 .
4) KClO3 -31.5%, 18%, 4.7%, benzenthrone -9.4%, Solvent Green
32.9%, 3.5%. t 170, t . 196. 1.3-1.6 /3.
6.5 / 0.8/3. 155 .
5) KClO3 -28%, 16%, ( -) 5%,
benzenthrone -10%, Solvent Green 3 33%, 4%, (Sil-O-Cel)
4%. t 176, t . 185. 1.16-1.58 / 3. 6.5 /
0.75-0.85/3. 117.
6) KClO3 -31%, 18.5%, 15.5%, Solvent Green 33%,
(VAAR) 2%. t 130, t . 151. 1.3-1.6 /3.
426/. 0.4 / 0.76/ 3. 65
.
7) KClO3 -31%, 22%, 10 10.8%, Solvent Green 30.7%,
(VAAR) 2% ( 100%), 2.5%, 3%. t
147, t . 170. 1.3-1.6 / 3. 390/.
1.97 / 0.83/ 3. 167
1281.
8) KClO3 -35%, 23%, ( -) 12%,
Solvent Green 3 28%, 2%. t 136, t . 157.
1.3-1.6 /3. 2.36 / 0.86/ 3.
.
9) KClO3 -31.8%, 16.7%, Solvent Green 50%, 1.5% (8%
). t 175, t . 195. 1.3-1.6 / 3.
6.5 / 0.8/3. 64.
10) KClO3 -32%, 18%, Solvent Green 32.9%, 4.7%, benzenthrone
-9.4%, -3%. t 170, t . 195. 1.3-1.6 /3.
6.5 / 0.8/3. 105 .
.
1) KClO3 -26%, 9%, 40%, 25%. t 170, t
. 195. 1.46 / 3. 7.9 / 0.85 / 3, 22.4
/ 1.46 / 3. 18,
177.
2) KClO3 -29.5%, 18%, 47.5%, 5%. t
170, t . 197. 1.36-1.59 / 3. 3.2 / 0.86
/3. 155 3 4.
3) KClO3 -31.3%, 12.3%, 40.2%, 14.3%,
1.9%. t 130, t . 150. 1.26-1.59 /3.
5.43 / 0.56 /3. 40 .
4) KClO3 -31%, 20%, 47%, VAAR 2%. t 136, t . 157.
1.36-1.59 / 3. 62
.
5) KClO3 -35%, 26.5%, 36%, 1%,
1.5%. t 147, t . 170. 1.3-1.5 / 3.
0.98 /. 1291.
6) KClO3 -24%, 5%, ( MIL-D-3718) 40%, 17%,
- 14%. t 134, t . 155. 1.3-1.5 / 3.
274

7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)

5.51 / 0.85 / 3.
.
KClO3 -25.1%, 9.4%, 41.2%, 21.8%,
2.5% (8% - ). t 160, t . 186.
1.3-1.5 /3. 5.71 / 0.79 /3. 48.
KClO3 -32.1, 12.4, 37.9, 16.6,
2.5 (8% - ). t 151, t . 175.
1.3-1.5 /3. 6.5 / 0.82 /3. 40 E25YM675.
KClO3 -29%, 18%, 49%, 4%. t 161, t
. 190. 1.3-1.5 /3. 3.74 / 0.72 / 3. 105
2.
: KClO3 -28%, 23%,
46%, + -3%.
: KClO3 -17.3%, 25%, 31.8%,
17.2%, 6.8%, 1.9%.
-18: KClO3 -30.0%,
( + ) 40%, CX-2639 ( ) 12.9%,
LP-3 3.5%, - 3.5%,
() 10.1%.

.
1) KClO3 -20%, 8.5%, 14%, benzenthrone -24.5%,
33%. t 170, t . 196. 1.33 /3. 7/
0.85 /3 24.6 / 1.33 / 3. 18,
177.
2) KClO3 -25%, 16%, 18%, benzenthrone -32%,
9%. t 197, t . 227. 1.22-1.6 /3. 4.92/
0.61 /3. 155 3.
3) KClO3 -26%, 15%, ( -) 34%,
benzenthrone -18%, 3%, (Sil-O-cel)- 4%. t 170, t .
173. 1.3-1.6 /3. 118.
4) KClO3 -30%, 17%, (Vat Yellow 4) 51%, (VAAR)- 2%.
t 125, t . 144. 1.3-1.6 /3. 392/.
1.97/. 169 64.
5) KClO3 -31%, 10.5%, 46%, benzenthrone -12.5%. t 169, t
. 195. 5.9/ 0.77 /3. -65.
.
1) KClO3 -25%, 9%, 42%, 24%. t 208,
t . 240. 1.48 / 3. 5.98/ 1.16 / 3 18.95
/ 1.48 /3. 18,
177.
2) KClO3 -22%, 24%, 47%, 7%. t
182, t . 210. 1.46 / 3. 1.97/ 0.75 / 3.
155 3 4.
,
,
. :
1) 25%, -35%, 40%.
2) SrO2-33%, Ba(NO3)2 -5%, BaSO4 -7.5%, 4.5%, 50%.
.. :
1) - ( 2 .
): C2Cl6 48%, 16%, Fe2O3 36%
(68:32) , .
275

Fl3 250.
, Fl3620.
2) - 25%,
15%, 60% - .
3) 66%, 20%, 14%.
4) : -35%, -50%, 15%
5) : -35%, -50%, 15%.
6) : : 37%, -9%, -54%.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1-10
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
2. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition Vol 20.
3. Herbert Ellern. Military and civilian pyrotechnics. New York. 1968.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 227
5. .. ., , 1973.
6. James C. Eaton etc. Chemical and physical characterization of an experimental white smoke formed
from combustion of ammonium perchlorate, ammonium chloride, and carboxy-terminated
polybutadiene. US Army biomedical research & development laboratory. 1992. AD-A258751.
7. Arthur W. Garrison etc. Fate of colored smoke dyes. US Army medical research & development
command. 1992. AD-A249073
8. James C. Eaton etc. Health effects of hexachloroethane (HC) smoke. US Army biomedical research &
development laboratory. 1994. AD-A277838.
9. J. Steven Anthony etc. Characterization of pyrotechnically disseminated terephtalic acid as released
from the M8 smoke pot. ERDEC-TR-288. 1995.
10. J. Steven Anthony etc. Chemical characterization of the pyrotechnically disseminated M83-PE smoke
grenades. ECBC-TR-299. 2003.
11. George A. Lane and Erwin M. Jankowiak. Colored smoke signals: castable compositions. Proceedings
of first pyrotechnic seminar. 1968.
12. Fred L. McIntyre. A compilation of hazard and test data for pyrotechnic compositions. Report
ARLCD-CR-80047. ARRADCOM. 1980.
13. : GB1520601, US4447278, DE2250102, US6612242, BG64003, RU2102689, US4698108,
US6414040, US5389308, FR2249590, GB2056632, US4812180, US4697521, PL175269, US4621580,
US4238254, US5656794, US4724018, US4968365, US H231, US6558487, US4622899, US6436210,
US4129465, US4366010, US4376001, RU2262064, US3724382
7.7
.
NaNO3 Ba(NO3)2.
, ( 25-65% , ,
) . ,
(, , , .).
,
15-20%.
, ,
, , .
(. ,
-), ,
( -, ) .
. ,

, ,
.
,
.
-
10%, - . ,
. ,
- 5-6% . 6.3
276

8.4 /. 2500 - 3000.


, , ,
20 500 . .
, .. .

.
.. 0.5 2 / 10
/ .
. , , ,
..
NaNO3
Ba(NO3)2, NaNO3 .
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)

18)

19)
20)

Ba(NO3)2 61%, 22%, 13%, BaF2 4%.


Ba(NO3)2 57%, 28.5%, 6.5%, 8%.
Ba(NO3)2 76%, () 8%, () 10%, -4%, 2%.
Ba(NO3)2 66%, 30%, 4% .
Ba(NO3)2 38%, -7%. 52%, 3% (
, .
).
Ba(NO3)2 55%, 40%, + 5%.
Ba(NO3)2 38.3%, 25.2%. 26.9%,
2.9%, -6.7% .
Ba(NO3)2 35.6%, 10.4%. 38%, 13.9%, -0.8%, 1.3%. .
NaNO3 37%, 24%, (50:50) -29%, -5.0%
() 5%. . 64000 -/. 2.8/.
NaNO3 35%, 52%, ( - Thiokol) 13%.
NaNO3 42.7%, 50%, () 4.5%, -2.8%.
NaNO3 27%, 49%, 7.06%,
4.94%, 12%.
SR-563 NaNO3 46%, 50%, ( ) 4%.
12 /. 100000 / 2. . 35000-40000 -/.
.
SR-562 NaNO3 39%, 49%, 7%, ( )
5%. 18-20 /. 50000-70000 / 2. .
35000-40000 -/. .
SR-580 NaNO3 35.5%, 60%, ( ) 4.5%. 2
/. 350000-400000 / 2. . 28000 -/.
.
SR-343A Ba(NO3)2 40%, 50%, 5%, () 5%.
5 /. 46000 / 2. . 15000 /. .
NaNO3 37.5%, 58%, 4116 4.5%. t 460, t . 544.
1.74 /3. 2035/. 2825/.
0.4 / 0.96 / 3, 6.56 / 2.2 /3, 9.2 / 2.23 /3.
Mk24 Mk45.
NaNO3 50%, 44%, 4116 6%. t 414, t . 490.
1.7-2.2 /3. 1995/. 3090/.
0.4 / 0.91 / 3, 4.63 / 2.1 / 3.
M127A1.
NaNO3 45%, 46%, 4116 9%. t 431, t . 510.
2.34 /3. 1748/. 2835/.
2.56 / 0.78 /3.
NaNO3 42%, 48%, - 2%, 4116 8%. t 437, t . 517.
1.78 /3. 1643/. 2692/.
0.85 / 0.92 / 3, 1.18 / 1.78 /3.
.

277

21) NaNO3 44%, 44%, 4116 12%. t 425, t . 502.


2.34 /3. 1611/. 2595/.
0.59 / 0.91 /3. 155 .
22) NaNO3 40%, 48%, 4116 12%. t 441, t . 522.
1.7-2.2 /3. 1817/. 2925/.
0.98 / 0.9 /3. 105 .
23) NaNO3 47.2%, 48.4%, VAAR 4.4%. t 440, t . 519.
2.34 /3. 1813/. 2818/.
1.96 / 0.91 /3. M49A1.
24) NaNO3 54%, 36%, VAAR 10%. t 415, t . 490. 1.92
/3. 1524/. 2660/.
1.8 / 0.86 /3.
M49A1.
25) NaNO3 36%, 55%, 4116 9%. t 448, t . 530.
1.57 /3. 1918/. 2795/.
3.94 / 0.86 /3, 5.9 / 1.57 /3. 81 M301A2
105 3143 .
26) Ba(NO3)2 49%, -16.5%. 29.5%, 5%. t 425,
t . 500. 1.7-2.2 / 3. 1490/.
2456/. 1.94 / 0.89 / 3.
27) NaNO3 53%, ( 6 ) 35%, (7 ) 7%,
4116 VAAR 5%. t 564, t . 666.
1.7-2.2 /3. 0.8 / 0.85 / 3.
491. .
28) NaNO3 20% () 10.9% (), 61%, 8.1%. t 515, t .
586. 2.32 / 3. 1814/.
2942/. 2.75 / 0.94 / 3.
LUU-2B/B.
, .
:
1) . 50-60%, 13-15%, 20-28%,
4-8%.
.
2) NaNO3 28%, 50%, (27.1% , 18.9%
, 19.0% , 35.0% ) 22%.
44700 ./, 1.25/. .

. -
:
1) - 41%, -11%, -32%, 1%,
-15%.
2) 40%, 13%, -40%, 7%.
.
2 . , :
3) 16%, 12%, 32%, -40%.
8 1 100 .

,
-.
. . :
1) NaNO3 28-38%, 54-62%, () 3-15%, - 0.31.5%.
2) NaClO4 40-44%, 40-48%, ( + +
) 12-17%.
278

3) NaClO4 42%, 42%, - 7.75%, - 7.75% +


- 0.5%. 50500 ./
4) NaClO4 33%, 17%, (
, .. ) 28%,
( -) 17%, - 1%,
4%.
,
.
,
- :
1) 10%, 70%, 16%, 4%.
0.76.
2) 10%, 60.8%, 23.2%, +
6%. 0.79.
3) 16.3%, 78.7%, 5%.
0.8-0.9.

(), ( , )
. .
. .
,
. 0.15-0.4
. ,
- ,
.
1) 40%, Ba(NO3)2 30%, KClO4 30%. t 856, t . 912.
1.8 /3. 1790/. 2628/.
: 1121, 1123, 98, 120,
93, 94. -36%.
2) 40%, KClO4 60%. t 856, t . 912. 1.14-1.34 /3.

1802/.

2768/.


. -50%.
3) 40%, Ba(NO3)2 30%, KClO4 30%. t 762, t . 867.
1.7 /3. 1756/. 2761/.
104.
-30%.
4) 4, - 45.5, Ba(NO3)2 54.5. t 832, t .
867. 1.34 / 3. 1602/.
2610/.
5) NaNO3 30%, 70%. t 525, t . 620. 1.65 /3.
1945/. 3016/. 1.54
/ 1.65 /3.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1-10
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
2. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition Vol 20.
3. Herbert Ellern. Military and civilian pyrotechnics. New York. 1968.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 340
5. .. ., , 1973.
6. Bossie Jackson and Frank Taylor et. Substitution of aluminum for Magnesium as a Fuel in Flares.
Proc of 4th International Pyrotechnics Seminar 1974
7. George A. Lane and Keith Roberson. A comparison of ground and atomized magnesium in pour-cast
illuminants. Proceedings of 3-rd international pyrotechnics seminar. 1972.
279

8. Fred L. McIntyre. A compilation of hazard and test data for pyrotechnic compositions. Report
ARLCD-CR-80047. ARRADCOM. 1980.
9. Services textbook of explosives. Ministry of Defence. For use in the royal NAVY, army service, royal
air force. 1972.
10. : US3462325, US4642147
7.8 .
. , .
. (. ). ..
( . -), ( , , ,
, , .), (, , ,
, ) ( -, , ).
,
.
,
.
- ( ) ,
.
, ,
.
, .
- - ,
. . -, 50%
, , .
(), , .
, , , ,
,
, .

, ( ) ,
,
.
.
- (), (),
(), (). -
, .
,
.
. ,
, ,
.
. .
, ,
.
3-6/.
:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Mk-1 KlO3 -42%, 42%, -16% ( ).


Mk-2 KlO3 -64%, 18%, -18% ( ).
KlO3 -60%, 25%, -15%.
Mk-13 mod 1 Sr(NO3)2 -45%, KClO4 -15%, -20.4%, -12%,
() 7%, 0.3%, 0.3%.
5) Mk-13 mod 2 Sr(NO3)2 -45%, KClO4 -25%, -17.5%, -5%, 7.5%. t
416, t . 428. 1.7-2.4 /3. 1402/.
2416/. 1.18 / 0.8-0.95 / 3.
6) Mk-66 Sr(NO3)2 -37%, KClO4 -15%, -29%, -14%, 5%.
7) SR170A: KClO4 -38%, -48%, -10%, -4%.
280

8) SR91: Sr(NO3)2 -41%, -35%, () -20%,


-4%.
9) SR297B: KClO4 -30%, -50%, 10%, 8%,
-2%. 5 /. 68000 / 2. .
13800 -/.
10) SR307A: KClO4 -28.5%, 33%, 26.5%,
12%. 37 /. 380 / 2. .
280 -/.
11) Sr(NO3)2 -43%, KClO4 -9%, -29%, -12%, 7%. t 376, t . 444.
1.7-2.4 /3. 1437/.
2432/. 0.4 /. M158.
12) Sr(NO3)2 -48%, -33%, -15%, VAAR 4%. t 400, t . 510.
1.7-2.4 /3. 1487/. 2575/.
1.97 / 0.8-0.95 / 3.
13) 35-07: Sr(NO3)2 -66%, -14%, -14%, ( -0112) -6%.
1.4/c, . 450 /, 86%.
14) 35-02: Sr(NO3)2 - 59%, - 15%, - 20%, - 4.5%, 1.5%. 1.1/c, . 1800 /, 96%.
15) 35-01: Sr(NO3)2 -60%, -17%, -16%, -340 -7%.
1.9/c, . 4100 /, 90%.
16) Sr(NO3)2 -52%, -20%, -15%, . () -13% (
SnCl4). .
17) Sr(NO3)2 -56, -20, -3, -20, -2, .
( ) -1.
18) Sr(NO3)2 -47%, -47%, -4%, 2%.
19) Sr(NO3)2 -34.7%, KClO4 -20.5%, -24.4%, -11.4%, 9%.
20) Sr(NO3)2 -53.6%, -30.4%, -16%.
21) Sr(NO3)2 -30%, KClO4 -20%, -40%, -5%, 5%. t
510, t . 560. 1.7-2.4 /3. 1415/.
2511/. 1.77 / 0.8-0.95 / 3.
22) Sr(NO3)2 -34%, KClO4 -29%, -29%, -4%, 4%,
2% ( 100%). t 391, t . 411. 1.7-2.4 /3.
1406/. 2378/. 0.91
/ 0.8-0.95 /3.
23) Sr(NO3)2 -45%, KClO4 -15%, -21%, -12%, 7%. t
401, t . 426. 1.7-2.4 /3. 1437/.
2518/. 0.59 / 0.8-0.95 / 3.
Mk13 Mod 0.
24) Sr(NO3)2 -38, NH4ClO4 -15, -8, -17, 10,
2, 6. t 414, t . 439. 1.7-2.4 /3.
1383/. 2311/. 1.77
/ 0.8-0.95 /3.
Mk 43 Mod 0 Mk 44 Mod 0.
25) Sr(NO3)2 -41%, KClO4 -22%, -23%, -6%, 8%. t 399,
t . 418. 1.7-2.4 / 3. 1178/.
2216/. 2.76 / 0.8-0.95 / 3. .
26) Sr(NO3)2 -38.3%, KClO4 -9.9%, -29.4%, -14.7%, 6.6%,
- 1.1%. 1261.
27) : 15 . 10 , 10
, 36 , 25 . 1 170.
.
28) NH4ClO4 72.4%, Sr(NO3)2 10.8%, - 2.3%, 10.8%, 3.5%.
.
:
1) 34-01: Ba(NO3)2 -54%, -19%, -14%, -5% (0112) -8% 2.7/c, 3800 */, 80%.
2) 34-02: NaNO3 -52%, -3 -17%, -15%, -7%, -340 -9%,
100%. 2.2/c, 4500 */, 84%.
281

3) 34-03: Ba(NO3)2 -64%, -3 -11%, -10%, - -3%, -5%, 340-5%, 2%. 0.7/c, 880 */, 80%.
4) Mk-118 Ba(NO3)2 20%, KClO4 -21%, 30.3%, -19.8%,
3.9%, -5%.
5) Mk-115 Ba(NO3)2 32%, KClO4 -17%, 19%, -24%, 4%,
-4%.
6) Mk-99 Ba(NO3)2 53%, 12%, -15%, 10%,
-10%.
7) SR524: NaNO3 -38%, -58%, -4%.
8) SR581: NaNO3 -48%, -40%, -4%,
8%. 7 /. 91000 / 2. .
24600 -/.
9) NaNO3 -37%, -30%, -30%, -3%.
10) 50%, 19%, -15%, -7%,
9%
11) NaNO3 -50%, -40%, 10%
12) Ba(NO3)2 -34%, ( 6% ) -36%, 8%,
20%, -1%, 1%.
13) KClO4 50%, -17%, 9%, -9%, -3%,
-12%.
14) Ba(NO3)2 29%, 26%, KClO4 -23%, -13%, 5%,
-2%, 2%. t 496, t . 534. 1.6-2.3
/3. 1254/. 2176/.
1.18 / 0.8-0.95 /3.
15) 9%, KClO4 -50%, -17%, 9%, 3%,
12%. t 478, t . 510. 1.6-2.3 /3.
1296/. 2218/. 0.98 / 0.8-0.95
/3. .
16) Ba(NO3)2 17%, Sr(NO3)2 -16%, 18%, KClO4 -17%, -17%,
12%, 3%. t 532, t . 629.
1.6-2.2 /3. 1114/. 1680/.
8.46 / 0.85 / 3. .
AN M44A2.
17) 19%, KClO4 -50%, -15%, 7%, 9%. t
510, t . 546. 1.6-2.4 / 3. 1149/.
1946/. 4.13 / 0.8-0.95 / 3.
.
18) KClO4 64.7%, 12.8%, -7.8%, 14.7%.
19) NaNO3 50%, 30%, 10%, 10%.
:
1) Mk-2 Ba(NO3)2 40%, - 50%, -5%, 5% (
).
2) SR193: Ba(NO3)2 46%, 36%, (Alloprene) 18%.
4 /. 26000 / 2. . 4000 -/.
.
3) SR703: Ba(NO3)2 15%, -25%, 42%,
(Alloprene) 12%, -6%. .
4) SR477: BaCl2 10%, -34%, 40%, 10%, -6%.
15 /. 11500 / 2. . 6400 -/.
5) SR429: Ba(ClO3)2 12%, -30%, 48%, 6%, -4%.
6 /. 48000 / 2. . 10400 /.
6) SR475: -43%, Ba(NO3)2 44%, -13%.
30 /. 350 / 2. . 300 -/.
7) Mk-117 Ba(NO3)2 22.5%, KClO4 -32.5%, 21%, 12%, 7%,
( CX 7069.7 -80%, CX 3842.1 -20%) -5%. 1.79
/3.
8) Mk-116 Ba(NO3)2 46.55%, KClO4 -21.92%, 15.28%, 13%, -3.25%.
282

9) 33-01: Ba(NO3)2 66%, 14%, -14%, -0112 6%;


1.9/c, . 2300 /, 75%.
10) 33-02: Ba(NO3)2 65%, 12-13%, -16-17%, 4.5%,
-1.5% 0.9/c, . 860 /, 70%.
11) Ba(NO3)2 40.1%, KClO4 -9.5%, 33.6%, -12.6%, VAAR 4.2%. t 340,
t . 400. 1.6-1.9 / 3. 1520/.
2317/. 0.4 /.
.
12) Ba(NO3)2 22.5%, KClO4 -22.5%, 35%, -13%, 7%. t 491, t .
510. 1.7-2.4 /3. 1018/.
2441/. 0.55 / 0.85-0.95 / 3.
.
13) Ba(NO3)2 40%, 28%, -30%, 2%.
14) Ba(NO3)2 56%, KClO4 -6%, - 10%, -18%, 5%,
( ) 5%.
15) 59.4%, -16.5%, 13.2%, +
-10.9%.
16) Ba(NO3)2 -60%, -20%, -7%, KClO4 -5%, 3%,
-5% - .
17) Ba(NO3)2 56%, 16%, -21%, - 7%.
18) Ba(NO3)2 45%, KClO4 -16%, 26%, 7%, 2%,
-2%, 2%. t 456, t . 477. 1.6-1.9 /3.
1221/. 2317/. 0.59 /
0.8-0.95 /3. .
19) Ba(NO3)2 59%, 16%, 21%, 2%, -2%. t
516, t . 540. 1.6-1.9 / 3. 1163/.
2013/. 0.4 / 0.8-0.95 / 3.
.
20) Ba(NO3)2 66%, 15%, 15%, 2%, -2%. t 448, t
. 479. 1.6-2.2 /3. 1114/.
1946/. 2.17 / 0.8-0.95 / 3.
.
21) Ba(NO3)2 53%, 23%, 20%, 2%, -2%. t 456, t
. 469. 1.7-2.4 / 3. 1.18 / 0.7-0.9 / 3.
.
22) Ba(NO3)2 50%, - 30%, -15%, VAAR 5%.
M125A1.
23) Ba(NO3)2 46%, - 33%, - 16%, 4116 + 5%.
1.6-2.4 /3. 1333/. 2643/.
0.78 / 0.7-0.95 / 3.
M125A1.
24) Ba(NO3)2 50%, KClO4 -10%, 20%, -16%, 4%. t 497, t .
513. 1.7-2.4 /3. 1102/.
2091/. 1.38 / 0.85-0.95 / 3.
.
25) Ba(NO3)2 40%, -10%, 40%, -5%, (.
) -5%. . 5607 */,
-60%.
26) EDG Ba(NO3)2 50%, -6%, 39%, (.
) -5%.
:
1) Mk-1 KClO3 -56%, -13%, I 22%, - 7%, 2%.
2) Mk-1 KClO3 -53%, -14%, 19%,
-5%, - 9%. .
3) Mk-1 KClO4 -39.8%, Ba(NO3)2 19.5%, -32.6%, 8.1%.
.

283

4) SR405: -48%, 22%, 8%,


22%. 33 /. 200 / 2. . 171
-/. .
5) KClO3 -61%, -19%, -20% ( ).
6) KClO4 -61%, -17%, -10%, 6%, 3%,
3%. .
7) 74.2%, -11.1%, -3.6%,
-11.1%.
8) 30%, 40%, -15%,
-15%.
9) KClO4 -68.5%, -15%, - 9%, 7.5%,
100%. .

1) Mk-2 KNO3 54%, 18%, -13%, 13%, 2%.
( ).
2) Ba(NO3)2 42%, 11%, 25%, 14%, -5%,
-3%. ( ).
3) Ba(NO3)2 56%, 11%, 6%, 19%, -8%.
( ).
4) Ba(NO3)2 66%, 26%, -6%, 2% (
2 . ).
5) Ba(NO3)2 -65%, -20%, -5%, 3%,
-7%. - .
6) NaNO3 29%, 66%, 4116 5%.
127.
7) Ba(NO3)2 42%, -11%, 25%, 14%, 5%,
3%. t 525, t . 621. 1.7-1.9 / 3.
1407/. 2610/. 1.97 /
0.93 /3. M18A1.
.
. Ba(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2
, .
..
( ),
,
. .
, , .
,
, .
: 41-69%, 15-55%,
5-20%, - 6-12%. 70-95%, .
: + 5097%, . 0-16%, 2.5-22%, 0-14%.
86-97%.
:
1) : -29.59%, -9.6%, -9.6%,
-0.35%, 1.01%, 0.35%, -
-18%, -10%, -15%, -6%, -0.5%.
1450 , -69%.
2) : -33.8%, -27.7%, -2.0%,
-0.5%, - -8%, 8%,
10%, 10%. 2.4/c, 3800,
85%.
3) : -43.7%, -12.9%, -12.6%,
-2.7%, -1.4%, -0.7%, - -10%,
284

6%, 10%. 1.9/c,


3909, 98%.
4) : -35.16%, -11.4%, -11.4%,
-0.42%, -1.2%, -0.42%, -30%,
10%. 2.3/c, 5400, . 3386 /.
5) : -56.26%, -18.24%, -18.24%,
-0.67%, -1.92%, -0.67%, -3%,
1%.
( ):
55.5 (30% ), 18 , 18 , 8
, 5 20% .
. .
.
: ,
, , ,
,
.
: - 58 (30% ), 7.8 , 21.4
, 7.8 , 3.9 , 8 20%
.
- 28 (30% ), 38.6 , 21.1
, 7.7 , 3.9 , 8 20%
.

: . .
7.9 -.
,
, .
- , .
(MTV) ,
- ( ,
. ) . ,
MTV-
.
, .
1) - 54%, () - 30%, - 16%. . 2707.
2) - 55%, () - 40%, - 5%. . 2847.
3) - 4.125%, 9.9%, 10.15%, -8.25%,
42.075%, 6.6%, -4.9%, 14%.
, .
4) 57.75%, 18%, 11.25%,
-9%, -3%, 1%.
, .
5) 54%, 46%, 2.6% ( 100%). t
510, t . 602. 1.7-2.2 /3. 1115/.
2245/. 0.4 / 0.7 / 3.
-, .
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1-10
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
2. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition Vol 20.
3. Herbert Ellern. Military and civilian pyrotechnics. New York. 1968.

285

4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 508
5. .. ., , 1973.
6. Farid C. Christo. Thermochemistry and kinetics models for magnesium/teflon/viton pyrotechnic
compositions. DSTO-TR-0938
7. Military explosives TM 9-1300-214. HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY. SEPTEMBER
1984
8. John A. Conkling Chemistry of pyrotechnics. Basic principles and theory. Marcel Dekker 1985.
9. . Campbell. Twin Screw Extruder Production of MTTP Decoy Flares SERDP WP-1240. Thiokol
Propulsion final report 2005.
10. Shib C. Chattoraj, Theresa A. Drehobl, Clarence W. Gilliam. Disposal of colored flare compositions.
Proceedings of 7-th international pyrotechnics seminar. 1980.
11. Fred L. McIntyre. A compilation of hazard and test data for pyrotechnic compositions. Report
ARLCD-CR-80047. ARRADCOM. 1980.
12. Services textbook of explosives. Ministry of Defence. For use in the royal NAVY, army service, royal
air force. 1972.
13. : RU2046120, RU2046122, RU1777320, RU2046121, RU2046119, US5044281, US6599379,
US4768439, ES2067420, US5472533, FR2154213.
7.10
, ,
. ..
, , .., .
(), .
- ;
. ,
,
3-9 /2.
.. -
.
.. , . . , ,
, .
.
.

, . ,
, :

, , ;

;
.


,
.

(, ).
,
; ,
.
, 10%
.
.. ,
. (
)
. , , .
.

286

:
1) R-257 Mg -28%, Sr(NO3)2 -40%, -4%, -8%, KClO4 -20%.
.
2) R-284 Mg -28.2%, Sr(NO3)2 -53.7%, -18.1%. t 488, t . 577.
2.4-3.0 /3. 4.72 / 1.26 / 3.
5.56, 7.62, 0.30 0.50 .
3) R-256 Mg -27%, Sr(NO3)2 -33%, -9%, -5%,
-26%. t 510, t . 546. 2.4-3.0 /3.
3.54 / 1.18 /3. 0.50 (M1, M10, M17, M20),
0.45 (26).
4) - -37%, Sr(NO3)2 -56%, -7%. t 529, t . 625.
2.6-3.6 /3. 2964 /.
2.36 / 0.91 /3.
5) BT-L33 Mg -36.5%, Sr(NO3)2 -43.1%, -4.8%, 4.8%,
4.8%, Viton A -6.0%.
6) Mg -30%, Sr(NO3)2 -60%, ( )
-10% 3.1/. 4400 /.
7) Mg -25%, SrO2 -70%, -5%.
8) Mg -42.5%, Sr(NO3)2 -46.5%, MgCO3 -5%, 2%, Kynar 9301 (
, ) -4%. 6.2
/ ( 3.8/). 4570 /.
120.
9) Mg -45%, Sr(NO3)2 -20%, 12%, 20%, 3%.
,
25 90 .
10) Mg -45%, Sr(NO3)2 -17%, 15%, 23%.
,
25 75 .
11) Mg -40%, Sr(NO3)2 -20%, NaNO3 -5%, -5%, 5%, BaO2 -10%, KClO4 -15%.
. 25 M2
.
12) Mg -46%, Sr(NO3)2 -18%, -3%, KClO4 -29%, 4% (
). t 421, t . 476. 2.6-3.6 /3.
3316/. 2.16 / 0.95 / 3.
13) Mg -38%, Sr(NO3)2 -42.8%, -4.8%, 4.8%, 4.8%,
-4.8%.
14) Mg -33.3%, Sr(NO3)2 - 51.7, 5.4%, - + .
15) Mg -13%, 3%, Sr(NO3)2 -73, 6%, 5%. .
16) Mg -30% (20% -2 10% -3), Sr(NO3)2 -55.5%, -6%,
() -7%, 1.5%. .
17) Mg -33.2%, Sr(NO3)2 -33.2%, 23.9%, 4.3%,
4.3%, 0.8%. .
18) Sr(NO3)2 -40%, 25%, 33%, 2.0%.
:
1) Ba(NO3)2 -50.7%, Mg -23%, Na3AlF6 -25.4%, -0.9%
2) Ba(NO3)2 -41%, Mg -43%, -12%, -2%, -2%
3) Sr(NO3)2 -40%, Mg -33%, -10%, -17%.
:
1)
2)
3)
4)

BaO2 -31%, Ba(NO3)2 -29%, Mg -35%, SrO2 -3%, -2%.


-57%, KClO4 -38%, -5%.
Ba(NO3)2 -49%, Mg -36%, . -15%
KClO4 -29.3%, Zr 68.7%, 2%. (. )
287

5) Mg -54%, 16%, 30%.


120.
6) Ba(NO3)2 -60%, Mg -34%, -6%.
7) BaO2 -86%, Mg -12%, -2%. .
:
1) KClO4 -8.0%, Mg -12%, 16%, Ba(NO3)2 -39%,
15%, 10%. , .
2) KClO4 -65%, -25%, 10%.

1) Ba(NO3)2 -28%, 16%, 41%, 15%.
.
2) Ba(NO3)2 -41.2%, 29.4%, 27.4%, 2.0%.
.
, , .
:
1) SrO2 -34.5%, BaO2 -34.5%, MgCO3 -10%, 10%, 1%, Ba(NO3)2
-10%. 20 120 .
2) SrO2 -37.5%, BaO2 -37.5%, MgCO3 -15%, 10%.
20.
:
1. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. Vol 1-10
Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
2. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition Vol 20.
3. Herbert Ellern. Military and civilian pyrotechnics. New York. 1968.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 545
5. .. ., , 1973.
6. Paul Briere. The effect of high spin on the performance of tracer compositions. Propellants,
Explosives, Pyrotechnics 14, 250-254 (1989)
7. Fred L. McIntyre. A compilation of hazard and test data for pyrotechnic compositions. Report
ARLCD-CR-80047. ARRADCOM. 1980.
8. James Smyth Wallace. Chemical analysis of firearms, ammunitions and gunshot residue. CRC Press.
2008. 291p.
9. : US3951705, US3677842, RU2203259, US5639984, US5361701, US4528911, US4094711,
US4979999, US5472536, GB2004536
7.11
( ,
..)
,
. 70:30.

, .
.
:
40%, 20%, -20%, 20%.

.
: , , , .. ,
.
, , ,
, .

288

:
1) -73%, 24%, 3%. t 453, t .
496. 0.96 /3. 942/. 0.79
/ . - 119.
2) -50%, 50%.
3) -70%, 30%.
4) -30%, 70%.
5) -72.5%, 27.5%.
6) 76%, 20%, -3%, 1%.
7) -75.2%, 19.8%, 3%,
2%.
:
1) -50%, 17%, () 33%. t 562, t .
599. 1.16 /3. 1042/.
3364/. 0.19 /. - 119.
2) -35%, 45%, 15%, 3%,
1%, 1%. t 596, t . 637.
1.21 /3. 1040/. 3641/.
0.19 / . 110.
3) -40%, 34%, 26%. t 762, t . 810.
1.3 / 3. 0.19 / 1.3 / 3.
115.
4) -91%, 9%. t 300, t . 344.
1.09 / 3. 851/.
1828/. 0.9 / .
74 741.
5) -64%, 3.5%, 22.5%, -10%. t
360, t . 415. 1.16 /3. 790/.
2176/. 0.1 /. -
80. 70-
.
:
1. .. ., , 1973.
2. Selcuk Oztap. The pyrotechnic whistle and its applications. Pyrotechnica XI.
3. Fred L. McIntyre. A compilation of hazard and test data for pyrotechnic compositions. Report
ARLCD-CR-80047. ARRADCOM. 1980.
4. : US4438700

8.0 .
8.1 .
, ,
.
.
. ,
,
.
8.1.1 , . KClO3
1786. . 122.55. .
. 3.3, 7.3, 37.6, 56.3/100 0, 20,
80, 100. t . 356, . 368. 400
. . -95.1
/. 2.33/3. ,
. .
.
289

, 6. .
19 ,
. .
,
. ,
,
, . ,
, . , ..
,
( ) . .
:
1.
, .
2. .
, .
8.1.2 KClO4
. 138.55. . 1.01, 1.68, 13.4, 22.3/100
0, 20, 80, 100. . t . 610 .
-103.4 /. 2.524/3. .
,
. .
. . . ,
. , , ,
. . ,
.
8.1.3 , , KNO3
. 101.11. . 13.3, 31.6, 169, 246/100
0, 20, 80, 100. t . 334 . 560
, . 900
. -118.2 /.
2.109/3. .
.
, , . . .
. .
.
. , .
.
8.1.4 , , NaNO3
. 84.99. 73, 87.6, 148, 180/100 0,
20, 80, 100. t . 307 . 380.
-111.8 /. 2.257/ 3.
. .
8.1.5 Ba(NO3)2
. 261.35. . 5.0, 9.0, 27.2,
34.4/100 0, 20, 80, 100. t . 592 . -237.1
/. 3.24/3 . .
( ), -.
.
8.1.6 Sr(NO3)2
. 211.63. . ,
. 40.1, 70.9, 96.9,
104.9/100 0, 18, 80, 105. (
29) , .
100. t . 570 . -233.8 /.
2.986/3. ( ).
290

8.1.7 . SrO2
. ,
. t . 410 . 4.56/ 3. , .
.
8.1.8 . BaCrO4
. . . -345.6/.
4.498/3. 1000, .
, , .
8.1.9 . BaO2
. t . 450
-151.6/. 5.43/ 3. . .
. . .
. .
8.1.10 , PbO2
. t . 290 . -66.3/.
- . 9.38/ 3. .
. ,
.
8.1.11 Pb3O4
. . t . 500
. 9.07/3. -171.7/.
.
8.1.12 PbCrO4
. t . 844 -218/.
. 6.02/3. , .
. .

:
1. John A. Conkling. Chemistry of pyrotechnics. Basic principles and theory. Marcel Dekker 1985.
2. Takeo Shimizu. Fireworks. The Art Science And Technique. Austin USA 1981.
3. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. (PATR2700)
Vol 1-10 Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
4. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 230
5. : 5 .: 4. . . .. .
. 1995.
6. : US2375772
8.2

, .
, , .
8.2.1 Na3AlF6
. .
, , ,
.
8.2.2 Na2C2O4
. 134.00. . , . .
3.4/100 20, 6.3/100 100. 2.34/3.
, .
250
. .
291

8.2.3 SrCO3
. 147.63. . .
1497. 3.7/3. .
10-15%,
.
8.2.4 SrC2O4
. 193.66. . ,
5/100. . . 2.08/ 3.
, 150. 400
, . ,
, .. ,
.
10-15%, .
.
8.2.5 BaCO3
. 197.35. . , .
4.43/3. .
, .
.
8.2.6 BaC2O4
. 225.36. . , ,
. , . 346-400
. 2.568/ 3.
.
8.2.7 () CuCO3Cu(OH)2
. 221.11. - . .
4.0 /3. 200.
, .. .

.

:
1. Takeo Shimizu. Fireworks. The Art Science And Technique. Austin USA 1981.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. (PATR2700)
Vol 1-10 Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
3. . / .
... 2- . . 2000 . 230
8.3
,
.
, ,
.
8.3.1 (, ). (CH2)6N4
. 140.19. - .
. 47.3, 46.5, 45.0, 43.4/100
0, 25, 50, 70. 200
. 1.27 / 3. ,
, .
. ,
.
.

292

8.3.2 , Sb2S3, .
. 339.7. . t .
548. 4.64/3. , .
. .
8.3.3 .
- t . 113. t . 445 2.07/3.
, ,
,
. . .
.
8.3.4 .
.
. t . 660 . 2.699/3.
7820/. (),
(atomized) (flake).
, , : ,
, , .
.
. 47 .

-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

-1
-2
-4
-1
-2
-3
-4
()-3
()-4


60-65
50-55
30-31
20-22
30
15
5
8
6-7
5-6
4-5
3-4
0.8-0.9
0.7-0.8

%
91
99
96
99.2-99.5
99
98
90
90
90
90
-

(dark pyro).
- , .
.
.
.

. .

,
:
2KNO3 + 8Al + 12H2O -> 3KAlO2 + 5 Al (OH)3 + 3NH3.
- ,
. ,

. .
, .
.

293

8.3.5 .
. t . 649 . t .
1107 , ,
. 1.74/ 3. 6000/.
, .
, .
, , .
, ( ). ,
.
( ).
, .
, ().
, ,
. .
. . , ,
, .

-1 -4
311 56.
98-94%.
. . -2 -3.
: 50 300
. 100 1 .

.
8.3.6 - (, )
50/50
Al3Mg2 Al2Mg3 t . 490. . 2.0/3.
, , -
.
-48.7/ Al3Mg4.
. ,
,
. ,
, .
. 48 - .

-5
-10
-1
-6


135
15
120
5

%
98
98
96
94

8.3.7 .
,
, .
(C12H22O11) t . 188 . ,
.
(C6H12O6) t . 146 .
(C12H22O11)

. . 1000000. (C6H10O5)n.
, , .
.
8.3.8 .
, .
.
294

,
.
,
- , , . .
, 75%
.
, .
.
,
, ,
.

:
1. Takeo Shimizu. Fireworks. The Art Science And Technique. Austin USA 1981.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. (PATR2700)
Vol 1-10 Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
3. . / .
... 2- . . 2000
4. .. .., .. 3- .,
. . . , 1988. 261
5. ... . . XLI
(1997). 4. 89.
8.4
( )
. ,
. ,
.
8.4.1 , (C2H3Cl)n
. 80. 120-160
. . . 56% .
, , ..
, .
1.35-1.45 /3. (), .
. .
, .
8.4.2 , , .
. . (50-80)*10 3. 1.47-1.50/3.
62-64%. 100-120.
, .
, . .
8.4.3 . .
66% 140. , ,
. .
8.4.4 ( ) C10Cl12
t . . 160 . 78.3% . . ,
.
8.4.5 C2Cl6
t . . 185 ( ). 89.9% .
. 2.1 /3. ,
- .
. .

( ).
295

8.4.6 , , C6Cl6
75% .
. t . . 230 . 550.
. 2.044 /3.
. .

:
1. Takeo Shimizu. Fireworks. The Art Science And Technique. Austin USA 1981.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. (PATR2700)
Vol 1-10 Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
3. . / .
... 2- . . 2000
8.5
.
.
, ..
, .
.
. ,
.
, .

.
. ,
.
.
, .
.

. .
, , .
.
,
. , ,
, , .
(
)
,
.
,
, (,
) ,
. .
, .
,
, .
, ..
.
, , .

296

.
( )



HO

CH2CH=CHCH2

( )

OH

OCN-R-NCO +

CH3
HOH2C

CH2OH +

OCN-R-NCO

HO

CH2CH=CHCH2

OCN-R-NCO

HO

CH2CH=CHCH2

OH

CH2OH
+
OCN-R-NCO
+
CH3OH
HO

CH2CH=CHCH2

OH

OCN-R-NCO +

HOH2C

CH2OH +

CH3
CH3
CH2CH=CHCH2

O-C-NH-R-NH-C-O

H2
C

O-C-NH-R-NH-C-O
O

CH2

O-C-NH-R-NH-C-O

H2
C

CH2CH=CHCH2

CH2
CH2CH=CHCH2

O-C-NH-R-NH-C-O
O

H2
C

H2
C
CH3

O-C-NH-R-NH-C-O
O

CH2CH=CHCH2

8.5.1 (C6H10O5)n.
, .
.
. - .
200-270 ( - ) 100-120
0.15-0.3% , ( ). (rice starch)
.
8.5.2
50-90 . 180. ,
.
,

CH3(CH2)11(CHOH)3COOH. C16H26O4.
. (
).
- - , .
8.5.3 (Rosin, Colophony, tar)
, . .
. . . .
, .
. t . 70-80 . .
.. ,
. .
.
8.5.4 (Lime rosin) Ca(C19H29COO)2
. - .
, - . .
297

OH


. -
, . ,
. - .
8.5.5 Red Gum ( )
, .
, .
. .
. .
8.5.6 (Guar gum, )
- , .
, . 7-8
.
.
.
8.5.7 ( -112) C13H12O2
. .
. - .
. , . .
. 1.5-2
.
-340 ( 211) -342 ( 214)
8.5.8 , VAAR (Vinyl Alcohol Acetate resin).
82% 18% .
28% . ,
. ,
. Union Carbide.
8.5.9 , Laminac 4116.
, American Cyanamid Co.
- . 1-2%
(Lupersol DDM) .
.
8.5.10 , PIB, Vistanex. [-C(CH3)2CH2-]n
.
( -200)
, .
, . 70-22510 3.
0.92/3. T . -70.
,
. 8.7-2510 3. 0.88-0.91/3. T
. -68--80. .
8.5.11
.

, , .
HTPB HO-(CH2-CH=CH-CH2)n-OH.
(IPDI) C7.075H10.65O0.223N0.063.
-0.058/. .
8.5.12
,
( ):
1. HTPS - .
298

C4.763H7.505O2.131N0.088.
-0.550/.
2. HTPE
C5.194H9.84O1.608N0.194.
-0.302/.
3. HTPA
.
C4.953H8.184O1.843N0.205.
-0.139/.
8.5.13 , GAP.
(C3H5ON3)n: - .
1.98/. 1.29/3. -45.
0.957/,

1470.

.
HO-(CH2-CH(CH2N3)-O-)nH
(HMDI), (TMP).
C3.3H5.6O1.12N2.63. -55.
.
(M=400-500) .
1998 , .
1972 (Vandenburg) .
8.5.14 , Poly-GLYN, PGN (C3H5ONO3)n
1000-3000/ - . 1.421.46 /3. -68/. -35.
.
, GAP .
.
8.5.15 -3,3--(), , BAMO
(C5H8ON6)n: 300-5105/.
2.46/, 2020. ,
() - : HO-(C5H8N6O)n-(C4H8O)-H n=10.4,
m=6.9. 1270/3. 1.19/, 1520.
BAMO AMMO 3--(3-) -
.
(HMDI)
(TMP).
8.5.16 NIMMO 3--3-.
- . PolyNIMMO H-(-OC5H9O3N)n-OH 200015000/. 1.26/ 3. -25,
-30-35. 3--3-
. ,
.

.

:
1. Takeo Shimizu. Fireworks. The Art Science And Technique. Austin USA 1981.
2. Encyclopedia of explosives and related items./ Basil T. Fedoroff & Oliver E. Sheffield. (PATR2700)
Vol 1-10 Piccatiny Arsenal Dover, New Jersey, USA 1960-1983.
3. . / .
... 2- . . 2000
4. J.P. Agrawal. Recent trends in high-energy materials. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. Vol 24. pp 1-30.
Pergamon 1998
5. Naminosuke Kubota. Propellants and Explosives. Thermochemical aspects of combustion. WileyVCH. GmbH, 2002.
299

6. J.P. Agrawal. Recent trends in high-energy materials. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. Vol 24. pp 1-30.
Pergamon 1998
7. Arthur Provatas. Energetic Polymers and Plasticisers for Explosive Formulations. A Review of Recent
Advances. DSTO-TR-0966
8.6
, ,

, , .

.
8.6.1 , , DBP C6H4(COOC4H9)2
. , , , ..
0.1%. t . -40, t . 340, t . 175. 1.047/3.
-843/. , .
8.6.2 , , DBS C4H9OCOCH2(CH2)6CH2COOC4H9
. , , , ..
0.005%, 1.6%. t . -12, t . 345, t . 183.
0.936/3. , .
8.6.3 , , DOP, C6H4(COOC8H17)2
. , ..
. . t . -54, t . 385. 0.978/3.
-1122/. , .
8.6.4 , , DOS, (CH2)8(COOC8H17)2
. , ..
. . t . -55, t . 248 (9 . .).
0.913/3. t . 213. , .
8.6.5 BNDPA/F
-(2,2-) -(2,2-)
50:50, .
,
.
. 1.383-1.397/ 3. -827/.
8.6.6 1,5--3-, DIANP, DADZP, DANPE O2NN(CH2CH2N3)2
. -20.
, , , , , . .
. 1.33/ 3. +129/,
+554/. DTA 246.

, .
() .
8.6.7 -(2--2,2-)-, , FEFO [FC(NO2)2CH2O]2CH2
. t . 14.5, .
, , , , , , . .
1.607/3. 7500/. -177.5/.
5.06/. 60 2.5 (12 tool). .
,
. -(2,2-), ().
, .

300

8.6.8 N-(n-)-N-(2-), , BuNENA C4H9-N(NO2)-C2H4ONO2


. t . -9, 1.22/3. -140/.

. LOVA-

:
1. J.P. Agrawal. Recent trends in high-energy materials. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. Vol 24. pp 1-30.
Pergamon 1998
2. Arthur Provatas. Energetic Polymers and Plasticisers for Explosive Formulations. A Review of Recent
Advances. DSTO-TR-0966
3. Rinato Rindone etc. BDNPA/BDNPF SHOWS LONG-TERM AGING STABILITY Proc. of Insensitive
Munitions & Energetic Materials Technology Symposium 2000. Texas.
4. Naminosuke Kubota. Propellants and Explosives. Thermochemical aspects of combustion. WileyVCH. GmbH, 2002.
5. - 5- / . . .. -
. 1998.
6. EP0120668

301

-IX-1...................................................................182
-IX-2...................................................................182
-IX-3...................................................................182
....................................................................170
...........................................................35
..............................................................34
............................................................39
...............................................................39
............................................................36
...........................................................38
.........................................................34
............................................34
................................................40
3,3--(6--1,2,4,5-).................161
.............................................................299
....................44
..........................................164
.................................................298
..............................................................210
..............................................................210
..............................................................210
..........................138
- ..................294
...............................................293
..............................................................177
5-(4--1-) .....43
7--4,6-......................150
................................150
3--5--1,2,4 ..............................160
7--4,5,6-.................151
..............................................................178
......................................................201, 204
...............................................164
- ......................................14
......................................201
..............................................................203
.....................................................220
.....................................................201, 205
-1...........................................................207
3,5 -1,2,4 ........160
.....................................................201, 202
.........................................................202
........................................................184
............................................................293
...................................................................146
.............................60
...........230, 231
. .230, 232
.......230, 231
........................................................................164
.....................................................................201
.............................................................219
................................................56
. 56
...........................................................56
..................................................56
...............................................52
..................................54
...............................................52

. .236
.............................20
................................................................178
................................................................178
--(1,2,5--2-).................149
................................................149
................................................289
..................................230, 234
() .............................141
()..............................142
-(2--2,2-)....148
-(2--2,2-)-.................300
-(2,2-)...........................300
-(2,2-).........................300
3,4-(4--3)-................154
2,6-()-3,5-.............88
-(2,4,6-)-..........................83
-()..................................145
()..................................145
[N-()]..................143
N,N-()............143
.....................................................114
................................................................220
..........................................................18
............................18
.......19
.............................................18
.............................................19
.............................19
..........................................................9
......................................................................149
....................................................................141
1,2,4-....................................133
...................................301
N-(n-)-N-(2-)..............301
......................................................................114

-.............................................................25
......................................................23
........................................................142
........................................................143
.................................................48
1..........................................................152
.........................................................148
-2........................................................157
...........................................................145
...........................................................143
...........................................................144
.........................................................300
..............................................10
.........................................................212
- ..................................181
- ...................................181
................................201, 209
..................................257
.................261
-6...................................................................196
...................161

302

..........................262
.......................................................................40
3,3,6,6,9,9--1,2,4,5,7,8-.......52
.....................................99, 292
............................54
.........................................................99, 292
...............................................83
....................................................62
.................................................79
...........................120
2,4,6,8,10,12--2,4,6,8,10,12[5.5.0.05,9.03,11].......120
.........................................80
....................................82
..............................................149
................................................83
3,4,8,9,12,13--1,6[4,4,4]...............................54
...............................................................173
...................................................296
.................................295
.......................................................295
....................................................................82
....................................................................80
.....................................................................80
.................................................................95
-87................................................194
..................................................................182
2,4,6,2,4,2,4-....................87
............................................40
...........................................172
5- II ..................48
7--4,6--4,7 ............................58
.....................................................112
...............................................129
................................................................294
......................................................................54
.......................................................................83
......................................................................82
.........................................................................83
..............................................................9, 10
................................................................292
..........................................................205
..........................................................202
..........................................................221
...........................................................204
............................................................221
.............................................................202
...............................226
............................................................207
............................................................213
............................................................213
..................................................................295
........................................................32
....................................................34
...........................................32
..................................................217
..............................................................203
.................................................................298
...................................................298
.......................................................................296

.....................................................22
................................................17
....................................................................116
......................................................................51
......................................................................99
.......................................................................73
......................................................................300
......................................................................300
................................................................207
...............................................................297
...........................................................9, 10
..............................................................218
...................................................14, 206
..............................................................295
1,5--3-................................300
..............................................................41
................................................51
....................................................50
3,3--4,4-..........................152
3,3--4,4-...............................153
1,1--3,3,5,5,7,7..............................41
3,3--2,2,4,4,6,6-.........84
5,7--4,-...............150
2,5--3,6-..........................156
2,6--3,5-..........................157
2,6--3,5--1-.............157
1,1--2,2-............................146
1,1--3,3,5,5-. 41
3,6--1,2,4,5--1,4-............161
1,3--2,4,6-..........................73
..............................99
.................................................300
......................................................300
....................................................................116
.............................................................216
.....................................................201, 206
..........................................................202
- ....................170
............................................170
................................171
.......................................166
1,1--3,3--1,2,4-.......................159
..............................................41
3,3--4,4-...........................153
......................................................179
1,3-..................................................60
4,6--2--1-........................51
4,6--7--7-
.....................................................................57
1,4-..........................................111
1,4-...................................111
1,2-............................................109
5,7--5,7--1,3[3.3.0]-2-...........................123
.....................122
4,4--3,3-.......................154
........................................110
4,4--3,3-.................................153
3,3- ..........................153
.......................................132
...........................163

303

2,4-............................................155
-(2-)-..............................116
..................................................119
....................................................78
,-...........................116
..............................104
1,4-..........................................116
4,10--2,6,8,12--4,10-.....................................122
3,5--1,2,4-....................................160
3,5 -1,2,4 .......160
2,4- ....................52
1,4--[3,4-b]................154
4,6--2......................................51
..........................................131
N,N-....................................105
........................................106
c ....................................................291
.................................................300
......................................................300
............................................................84
.........................................................80
......................................141
......................................142
- ...................25
...................................116
.....................................132
........................................................................60
........................................................................78
....................................................................163
......................................................................178
....................................................................178
........................................86
....................................................................178
......................................................................300
......................................................................300
......................................................................104
1.............................................................194
2.............................................................194
........................................................................51
............................268
...............................273
.................................268
..................................................................132

............................................................196
........................................223

........................................266
..........................................173
..................................................173
...............................................173
.......................................262
.................................................288
....................................................202

..............................................................207
..................................................................298
..........................................288
...........................................13,59
....................................30
...............................................9, 30

...................................295
.................................................................218
.............................................................210

-6........................................................................118
..................................................290
..............................................................297
.............................................252
....................................................201, 204
....................................................292
.......................................292
...............................................292
-.............................................114
....................................................................211
.....................................10

................................230, 233
.........................................................134
(NH4)2[Fe(NT)4(H2O)2]................49
........................................46
................................................................294
.................................................................71
................................................................291
.........................................11, 13
....................................................................67
....................................................................67

.................................................................294
................................................................298
-70...................................................................195
....................................................................70
...............................................14, 172
...............................................181
-30.................................................................190

..............................................................294
...................................................294
................................................................292
.............259
...................262
............................................128
..................................................................203
.........................................................212
............................230, 234
..................................................................70
..................................31
.........................................20
1--3,5--1,2,4-.......................161
..............................................123
2--5-.........................................46
...........................................................68
1--2,4,5-...........................156
N--N-.........................143
..........................................................181
.................................................136
........................................................................174

...............................................252
...............................................................267
................................................290
......................................................................129
.......................................................23

304

........................230, 234
................................................................93
3--4-................................151
..............................................................92
c....................................................290
.....................................................164
........................................................290
..................................................167
..................................................165
........................................................290
................................................167
...................................................165
......................................................290
3--3-............................299
..............................................134
...........................................148
.............................................................28
........................................................131
......................................................129
..........................................216
......................................................107
.....................................................50
...............................................162
...............................137
.........................137
2--5---1,3,5-...118
......................................................110
.....................................................134
......................................................135
.................................................................68
.........................................................128
...........................................................138
......................................................110
.............................................136
............................................................221
............................................44
....................................................158
............................................................138
....................................................134
.............................................136
1-(2-)- 3,5 -1,2,4-.........161
..........................................................126
......................................26
................................................86
2,2,2,4,4,4,6,6,6-.........87
......................................................................87
.....................................29
......................................................................154
........................................................................134

ctorane................................................................185
.......................................19
................................................212
.........................................21
- .............................197
...........................................................289
.......................................................292
....................................................291
..................................................292
N-................................................................157
................................................................183
5--3--1,2,4-................................158
...................................................................86

-...........................................143
....................................................147
2,2'',4,4',4'',6,6',6''--- ..........86
.................................................................100
....................................................................176
......................................................................183
...................................................................183
-29...............................................................190
-8.................................................................190
......................................................................183
.........................................276

......................................................................294
.........................................................196
..................................................................295
.................................................195
-4...................................................................193
-5.................................................................193
-7...................................................................193
......................................................................295
-(5--N2) III
...............................................................48
-(5--N2) III
...............................................................47
.............................................92
........................................................128
......................................126
...............................................................176
.................................................................126
.............................................................176
.............................................................220
...........................................52
....................................................52
...................................................291
........................................................31
-1..............................................................207
c ...............................................291
....................................................291
...............................................168
.............................................169
............................................169
..................................................290
..........................................169
..................................................220
.......................................295
................................................................59
......................................................72
3--1,2,4-..................................92
.......................................................82
.........................................................58
................................................70
..................................................................107
.........................................................194
.....................................................................88
..............................................................267
...........................................................134

............................................................................236
..................................9, 251
........................................................14
.................................................189
-4..............................................................193
...............................................................191

305

...................................................300
......................................................191
...........................................................15
........................................15
................................................15
...............................................226
..............................................................218
-3,3--()........................299
.......................................................298
...................................298
..................................................295
.........................295
................................................299
.............................................299
....................................................298
.............................................................296
.........................................................298
...........................................................298
..............................................................9, 222
JAX............................................................247

...........................................................247
....................................229, 230
................................................223
....................................229, 230
........230, 231
.....................................................249
.......................................223, 227
.........................................229, 230
....................................223
....................................229, 230
................................229, 230
............................................223,238
...............................223, 250
......................................231, 236
....................................229, 230
......................................................249
.....................................223
...........236
..............................................................213
....................................11
...........................30
.....................................................15
...................................24
...................................................212
........................................31
......................................................................168
......................................................................295

.........20
.....................20
.........................................30
........................................................296
...................................................297
..................................................................211
.........................................................71
.....................................................203
.........................................................78

-150....................................................................186
-20.....................................................................187
........................................................295
..................................................................294

...............................................................294
.......................................................36
...............................................289
.....................................296
...............................................................218
.............................................................210
......................................................................293
..............................................280
..........................................................225
.................................................16
................................................................215
...................................................13, 172
...............246
....................................243
...............................................................270
...............................................................196
-112......................................................298
..............................................................207
..................260
-.........................285
......................273
.................................................................177
...................................................................68
..............................................................177
-........................................177
.......27
........................................................43
.......................................................42
.......................................43
................................................................41
..............................................41
....................................27
..................................................291

.....................................................................90
................................................................194
.......................................................................76
....................................................................153
.........................................................................173
.......................................................................174
.....................................................................174
-5...............................................................175
........................................................................177
.............................................25
.............................................226
........25
.............................25
...................................................................42
.......................................................18
...............................................17
..................................................226
- ..........................266
.........................................197
.........................................................296
.......................................................25
...............................................296
.................................................252
--(5--2--N2)
III ............................................47
.................................................................43
..........................................43
.......................55
.................137

306

1,3,5,7-................................148
2,4,6,8--[3,3,0]-..........114
...................................................75
1,3,5,5-...............124
...........................................112
....................................112
-[d]-6--[2,1-a]-11...............................................................90
-1,2,5,6-

..............................................................................90
-1,3-4,4-......90
1,3,5,7-.......................................148
...................................................140
...............................................78
........................................126
.............................114
2,5,7,9--2,5,7,9[4.3.0]-8-........................124
2,4,6,8--2,4,6,8-(3,3,0).............................................................112
2,4,6,8--2,4,6,8-(3,3,0)-3..............................................................114
1,3,5,7--1,3,5,7-.....100
....................................................................93
.............................................................177
......................................................................55
........................................................................61
.......................................................................42
.........................................................................64
........................................................................70
-30.................................................................176
..................................................................175
.......................................................25
.........................................................................64

.........................................230, 235

.....................................230, 235
.........................................20
...............................................15
....................................................................88
.........................................................................89
-1,4,5,8--1,4,5,8- 117
.........................................286
2,4,6--1,3,5-..................................40
.......................................149
.........................................158
......................................167
1,3,5--2,4,6-.....................76
......................................49
..............................................132
....................................................................89
......................................136
.................................................................71
.............................................................129
1,3,3-........................................125
2,4,6-..............................................68
......................................................59
1,3,5-..............................................61
..............................................133
2,4,5- ..........156
2,4,6-..............................................67
......................................................138
..................................................78

2,4,6-.........................................157
...................................................41
................42
2,4,6--2,4,6,8--[3.3.0]3-......................................................................113
1,3,5--1,3,5-.................95
2,4,6--2,4,6-............118
1,3,5--2,4,6-....................91

2,4,6-...........................................64
.........................................73
2,4,6--N-...................93
2,4,6-..............................................70
2,4,6-.......................................58
.....................................................138
2,2,2--2- .......145

............................................................................144
....................................145
.....................................145
2,2,2--4,4,4-..........144
....................................................................68
.......................................................87
N2,N4,N6-...................................88
2,4,6--1,3,5-................................89
2,4,6-()-1,3,5-...................88
2,4,6-()-1,3,5-............89
...............................................293
...............................................................177
........................................52
.................................................................42
....................................132
....................................................................64
...........................................21
......................................................................126

...............................................................218
.................................................................294
...................................................294
...................................................252
.......................................................226
...............................226
.......................................................99, 292
.............................................99

.....................................................................72
.................................................14
.................................................179
..............................182
................................183
.....................................183
..................................279
.................................................78
..............................................................20
.....................................................32
.................................................34
............................................................32

..................................................15
..................................17
.........................................................289
.........................295
.......................................................291
......................................................291

307


........................................................40
.........................100
.................................95
............................162
-..........................................................20
-1,3,4,6--[4,5-d]..............................................................114
........................................................................40
................................................................162

......23

.................................................................220
.................................................................297
...................................................................70
............................................................202

-24................................................................191
..............................199
....................................................................131
....................................................................105
..............................................................178
-1.................................................................191
-2.................................................................191
......................................................190
......................252
...................................29
...............................................................213
................................................................212
.......................................201,212
.............................................181
............................................9
...........................................17
.............................................19
.........................................131
..........................................166
................................................105
....................................................106
N--N-...........................144

A
A-591....................................................................185
ADN......................................................................170
ADNBF..................................................................150
ADNT....................................................................160
AFX-625................................................................179
AFX-644................................................................178
AFX-645................................................................179
Akatsuki Carlite......................................................221
amatex..................................................................178
AN........................................................................164
ANFO....................................................................207
ANPZ.....................................................................157
ANPZ-i...................................................................156
ANTA.....................................................................160
APET-257...............................................................185
ARX-4024..............................................................178
ARX-4027..............................................................179

B
B-2142..................................................................185
B-2214..................................................................185
B-2238..................................................................185

B-2248..................................................................185
BAMO....................................................................299
Barbaryt................................................................219
BCHMX..................................................................114
BNCP.......................................................................47
BNDPA/F................................................................300
BNFF.....................................................................154
BTF.......................................................................149
BTNEEDNA.............................................................143
BTNEN...................................................................142
BTNEU...................................................................141
BTTN.....................................................................133
Bu-NENA...............................................................301

C
C-3.......................................................................192
C-4.......................................................................192
C6...........................................................................95
CL-14....................................................................150
CL-17....................................................................151
CL-18....................................................................150
CL-20....................................................................120
CMCDB..................................................................250
colophony..............................................................297
composition A........................................................182
composition B........................................................173
composition -2.....................................................182
composition -2.....................................................174
composition -3.....................................................174
composition -4.....................................................174
composition ........................................................192
CP...........................................................................47
CPX413.................................................................188
cyclonite..................................................................95
cyclotol..................................................................173

D
DAAF.....................................................................152
DAAT.....................................................................161
DAAzF...................................................................153
DADNE..................................................................146
DADZP..................................................................300
DAHA......................................................................41
DANPE...................................................................300
DATA.......................................................................41
DATB.......................................................................73
DBP......................................................................300
DBS......................................................................300
DBX......................................................................174
DDD......................................................................123
DDNP......................................................................51
DEGDN..................................................................132
Delay....................................................................262
DEMEX200.............................................................190
DEMN....................................................................200
detasheet C...........................................................190
DIAMIN.................................................................166
DIANP...................................................................300
DINGU...................................................................111
DINOL.....................................................................51
DIPAM.....................................................................84
DNAF.............................................................153, 154
DNAN....................................................................179
DNDMO.................................................................110

308

DNG......................................................................109
DNI-24..................................................................155
DNN........................................................................78
DNNC....................................................................124
Dodeca....................................................................86
DOP......................................................................300
DOS......................................................................300
DTIW....................................................................122
DXD-19.................................................................191
DXD-53.................................................................183
DXD-59.................................................................183

E
EAK.......................................................................200
EBW......................................................................197
EDDN....................................................................166
EDNATOLS.............................................................178
EDNP....................................................................195
EL-506L3...............................................................193
EMCDB..................................................................250
Emsite...................................................................214
Enchanced Blast Explosives.....................................197
ERDCO-301...........................................................176
explosive D..............................................................72
EXTEX...................................................................190

HOX......................................................................142
HTA.......................................................................175
HTO......................................................................158
Hx...........................................................................95
HX-76...................................................................185

I
Ignition mixture.....................................................257
IMX-101................................................................179
IMX-102................................................................179
IMX-103................................................................200

K
K-55......................................................................114
K-56......................................................................124
KDNBF....................................................................57
KETO-RDX.............................................................118
KS-32....................................................................185
KS-54....................................................................185
KS-71....................................................................185
Kuzo Carlite...........................................................220

GAP......................................................................299
GD-9.....................................................................188
GTG........................................................................48
guar gum..............................................................298
GUDN....................................................................171
gudolpulver............................................................225

LA...........................................................................36
laminac 4116.........................................................298
LAX-112................................................................161
lime rosin..............................................................297
liquid propellants....................................................223
LLM-105................................................................157
LOVA propellants....................................................247
Low Velocity Dynamite............................................194
LVD.......................................................................194
LX-01............................................................139, 196
LX-02-1.................................................................193
LX-04-1.................................................................186
LX-07-2.................................................................186
LX-09-1.................................................................187
LX-10-1.................................................................186
LX-13....................................................................190
LX-14....................................................................182
LX-17....................................................................186
LX-19....................................................................183

H-6.......................................................................175
haleite...................................................................105
hardex-8011..........................................................194
harrisite.................................................................192
HAV-20..................................................................186
HBU-88.................................................................185
HBX......................................................................174
HDX-106...............................................................192
HEDM........................................................................9
hexabu..................................................................185
hexamite...............................................................177
hexolite.................................................................173
hexonite..................................................................95
hexotol..................................................................173
hexotonal..............................................................174
HK-55....................................................................113
HMX......................................................................100
HNAB......................................................................83
HNF......................................................................172
HNIW....................................................................120
HNS........................................................................83
homocyclonite........................................................100

MEDINA.................................................................123
Medium Velocity Dynamite......................................194
Metanit..................................................................219
Minol 2..................................................................205
MNO......................................................................110
MTNI.....................................................................156
MVD......................................................................194

F
FEFO.....................................................................300
First fire mixtures...................................................257
FM-1.....................................................................195
formex F4..............................................................190
formex P1..............................................................193
FOX-12..................................................................171
FOX-7....................................................................146

N
NC........................................................................134
NCP.........................................................................48
NEAK....................................................................200
NG........................................................................129
NHN........................................................................49
NIBTN...................................................................137
NIMMO..................................................................299
NM........................................................................138
NM-91...................................................................192
NNHT....................................................................118
NONA......................................................................86
NQ........................................................................107
NTD-2...................................................................177
NTN......................................................................196

309

NTO......................................................................158

O
octol.....................................................................176

octonyl.................................................................182
ONC......................................................................147
ONT........................................................................86
ORA-86.................................................................185
OTSU B...............................................................177

P
Paste Extrudable Explosives....................................195
paste-process........................................................181
PAT.........................................................................92
PATHX-2................................................................183
PATO.......................................................................92
PAX-21..................................................................179
PAX-2A..........................................................186, 187
PBX.......................................................................180
PBX-9010..............................................................186
PBX-9205..............................................................182
PBX-9503..............................................................186
PBX-P11................................................................186
PBX-P31................................................................186
PBXC 109f.............................................................184
PBXIH-18..............................................................198
PBXN-103..............................................................189
PBXN-105..............................................................188
PBXN-106..............................................................188
PBXN-109..............................................................184
PBXN-110..............................................................185
PBXN-111..............................................................185
PBXN-5.................................................................186
PBXN-9.................................................................183
PBXN-9404............................................................182
PBXW-11...............................................................183
PBXW-115.............................................................185
PBXW-124.............................................................185
PBXW-17...............................................................183
PBXW-9.................................................................183
PBX-129..............................................................185
PE-4......................................................................192
PE-6......................................................................193
percussion primers.................................................252
perforex -79P.........................................................194
PETN ...................................................................126
PEX.......................................................................195
PGN......................................................................299
PH-salz..................................................................166
PIB.......................................................................298
Plastrite.................................................................193
Plate Dent Test.........................................................19
PlNp10..................................................................193
PLX...............................................................139, 196
Poly-GLYN..............................................................299
PRIMASHEET2000..................................................190
Pulver "G"..............................................................225
PYX.........................................................................88
PZO......................................................................157

R
RAX-16..................................................................198
RDX........................................................................95
red gum................................................................298

rosin.....................................................................297
rowanex-3000........................................................183
rowanex-3601........................................................183
RX-03-BB..............................................................186
RX-06-HD..............................................................195
RX-08-BD..............................................................187
RX-08-EL...............................................................195
RX-08-FE...............................................................195
RX-08-FK...............................................................195
RX-35-AQ..............................................................185
RX-35-DW.............................................................188
RX-35-EK...............................................................188

S
semtex 10.............................................................193
semtex 1A.............................................................193
semtex ...............................................................193
sheet explosives.....................................................190
shiesswolle 8........................................................177
Slurry explosives....................................................209
SORGUYL...............................................................112
SR-12....................................................................170
stab primers..........................................................252
Starter mixtures.....................................................257
SX-2.....................................................................190

T
T4...........................................................................95
TACOT.....................................................................90
TAGN....................................................................167
TATB.......................................................................76
TATP.......................................................................52
TEFO.....................................................................145
TEGDN..................................................................132
TENGU...................................................................112
TEX.......................................................................122
TMETN..................................................................136
TNABN..................................................................124
TNAD.....................................................................117
TNAZ.....................................................................125
TNEN.....................................................................145
TNETNB.................................................................144
TNPy.....................................................................157
TNTC.....................................................................118
TNTPB.....................................................................91
TNX.........................................................................67
torpex...................................................................174
TPM........................................................................88
TSMVI-101............................................................177
TTT.......................................................................162
TZX.......................................................................161

V
VAAR.....................................................................298
Veltex 448.............................................................187
vistanex................................................................298

X
X-0298..................................................................182
X-0320..................................................................186
XTX-8003..............................................................190
XTX-8004..............................................................190

Z
ZOX......................................................................143

310