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Part I. MODERN SOCIETY AND EDUCATION

316.422(571.14)




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630007, . , , 18.
E-mail: anmi@obladm.nso.ru
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630126, . , . , . 8, . 420.
E-mail: maierbo@gmail.com
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630007, . , , 18.
E-mail: felva@obladm.nso.ru


ON THE ONTOLOGY OF THE TECHNOPARK IDEOLOGY
IN THE SYSTEM OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE INNOVATIVE
ACTIVITY OF NOVOSIBIRSK REGION

M. I. Ananich, B. O. Mayer, G. A. Sapozhnikov (Novosibirsk)


The ontology of the technology park ideology is analyzed in the framework of
a synergetic conceptual skeleton with a reference to the development of innovative
activity. There is proposed a model of innovative activity in which the technology
park ideology can be realized. The analysis is conducted in the context of the
society-of-knowledge model and the knowledge-based economy. There is described
a realization of the suggested approach on the example of innovative activity in
Novosibirsk region.
Key words: ideology, information society, society of knowledge, technology
park, innovations, Novosibirsk region, knowledge-based economy.


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6. The Knowledge Society // http://www.vecam.org
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20

I.
321.7 + 37.01


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INTERACTION OF DEMOCRACY AND EDUCATION


(THE PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS)

N. V. Nalivaiko, V. I. Panarin (Novosibirsk)


The development of information society in the conditions of globalization is
connected with democratization of the society and its educational system.
Democratization of education is a wide concept, which implies involving all the
strata of population in the educational process, and also development of the
rights and freedoms of the participants of educational process. We are free in
that degree in which we are able to consciously participate in the life of society
and to think independently, instead of simply passively responding to the influence
of social factors. Democracy is understood by us as a mechanism, which ensures
development of the person and protection of the society from the authoritarian
power.
Key words: political formalization of the theory of education, globalization
conditions, freedom, democracy.

, ,
, -
,
, .
630126, . , . , . 28, . 204.
-mail: nnalivaiko@mail.ru
, - .
630007, . , , . 18, . 438.
-mail: Kav@obladm.nso.ru

21

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35.074.5

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MODERN MANAGEMENT:
PHILOSOPHICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS

V. S. Diev (Novosibirsk)
Philosophy forms a system of generalizing statements about the subject matter
and methods of management, the place of management among other sciences
and in the overall system of scientific knowledge, its cognitive and social role in
the modern world. Management theory today includes the systemic approach,
recognition of indeterminacy as an inherent attribute of managerial decisions,
orientation towards studying the processes of communication, self-organization,
and adaptation to external environment. Management systems always include
the person whose behavior is determined by values, needs, world outlook, will,
and other personal characteristics. Management as a social phenomenon should
be studied within the context of national culture, traditions, and mentality.
Key words: philosophy of management, science, methodology, rationality,
model, efficiency, organization, society, culture.

, XXII 2008 .;
, , . , * , 08-03-00392 a.
, , , .
630090, . , . , . 8.
E-mail: diev@smile.nsu.ru

28

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33


13 + 37.0 + 316.7


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VALUES AND METAPHORS


(THE ROLE OF AXIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
IN THE SOCIO-HUMANITARIAN EDUCATION)

E. Yu. Potapchuk (Khabarovsk)


The paper deals with the essence and meaning of values, their relations with
metaphors, and also with the significance of axiological problems in teaching
the socio-humanitarian disciplines in the institutions of higher education. The
author considers the content of the value concept, discovers a relative nature
of values, and uncovers subjective and objective meanings in them. It is
emphasized that the type of culture and society depends on the features of the
system of values and norms. The article affirms that only the person puts a
specific meaning into values. The person participates in the construction and
transformation of the social and cultural realities. In the research there is
considered an extra-linguistic meaning of the metaphors which participate in
establishing certain standards and patterns of behavior. The author specifies
that studying axiological problems is extremely important for the processes of
education and socialization of the students.
Key words: value, norms, metaphors, socio-humanitarian education,
person, culture, society, philosophy, patterns of behavior.
,
.
680035, . , . , . 136, . 409-.
E-mail: epotapchuk@mail.ru

34

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40

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37.014


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ON THE STRATEGY OF EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT

N. L. Rumyantseva (Moscow)
The purpose of the article is to analyze the education reform and to propose
some changes to it. The main problem is the strategy of the education development.
In the article the system approach to the problems of education is realized.
The purpose of the education system is defined as saving the civilization. From
this purpose the new strategy of education development is derived: transition
from education for economy to education for saving the civilization. Only on the
, - .
142702, ., . -2, 2- , . 20.
E-mail: nlrumyantseva@mail.ru

41


basis of such education system the human being, while developing from the
existential to spiritual level, can provide saving the civilization and can also
provide a high innovative potential. The author proposes changing the principles
of financing of education, its humanitarization, and integrity of education.
Key words: strategy, education, development, saving the civilization,
humanitarization, integrity, spiritual level.

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. 2006. . 2.
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5.
// : I . 2005. 19.
6. , . . / . . // . . :
6 . . : , 1983. . 3.
7. , . : , , / . . . : , 2002.
8. 2010 .
., 2002.
9. , . . . / . . . . : , 1999.
10. , . . / . . , . . // . . : , 1996.

48

I.
13 + 316.7 + 37.0



. . ()

. . ,
, ,
.
: , , .

THE CRISIS TENDENCIES OF THE PUBLIC CONSCIOUSNESS


AND EDUCATION SYSTEM OF MODERN RUSSIA

S. A. Khrapov (Astrakhan)
The purpose of the article is to disclose the essence of the crisis tendencies of
the evolutionary transformation of public consciousness and education system
of modern Russia. The main theme of the article is the influence of the public
consciousness crisis on the destructive processes in the education system of modern
Russia. The author reveals an interconnection between the destructive dynamics
of public consciousness, deformation of the value system, the decrease of the level
of culture, and the crisis tendencies in the development of modern Russian
education.
Key words: risis of public consciousness, education system of modern Russia,
deformation of a valuable matrix.

, . .
,
. , .

,
.
414056, . , . , . 20 .
-mail: Psychoan21@yandex.ru

49

. . ,
. , ,
, -, - :
, , , .
, ,
.
,
-, - [6, . 4]. . . , .
, , . - ,
. . ,
, .
,
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50

I.

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51

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- 52

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.
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. 53

, . , : ; ,
, , , .
- .
, . , - - .

1. , . . XXI
/ . . // . 2007. 3. . 8894.
2. , . / . ; . . .
. . . . . : , 2000. 387 .
3. , . . : - / . . . . : , 2002. 568 .
4. , . . /
. . // . 2006. 6. . 1319.
5. , . . - / . . ,
. . // . 2007. 3. . 170175.
6. , . . : / . . // . 2001. 6. . 315.
7. Jung, C. G. Traumsymbole des Individuationsprozesses / C. G. Jung // Psychologie
und Alchemie. Olten und Freiburg im Breisgau : Walter Verlags, 1990. S. 59264.

37.014.7 : 316.485.26



. . ()
. . , . . . . .
660014, . , . , . 31.
E-mail: lm25193@rambler.ru

54

I.

; ,
- . , , , ,
, , ,
.
: , , .

EDUCATIONAL AND SOCIO-CULTURAL POLICY IN THE CONTEXT


OF THE FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM

E. N. Malysheva (Krasnoyarsk)
The purpose of the article is to analyze the problem of overcoming terrorism.
The main reasons of arising of terrorism and the strategies of its overcoming
are considered. The author makes an accent on the need of realization of a state
educational and socio-cultural policy aiming at prevention and eradication of
terrorism on the basis of spiritual-creative potential of the members of the society.
The most important component of an antiterrorism strategy is, in the authors
opinion, the pedagogical, educational activity in order to change the public
consciousness, influence the major values and attitudes, and master the
behavioral strategies that reduce the social tension.
Key words: global terrorism, educational and socio-cultural policy,
ideologization of public consciousness, conflictology.

, . ,
.
,
. . , , :
, , , .

, - [1, . 2829].
, . .

, ,
, 55

. .
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.
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.
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, , <>
. - , . [2, . 24].

, . , , [3, . 52].

. ,
.
, , .
, , , , , . ,
. 56

I.

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[4, . 9]. . , , [5, . 780].
. , , : ( ) 57

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I.

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[8, . 49].
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1. , . . / . . //
. 2007. 5. . 2845.
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4. , . . : . /
. . . . : , 2001.
5. , . / . . . : -, 2003. 850 .
6. , . . . . / . . . . : , 1992. 280 .
7. : / /
. 2001. 5.
8. , . / . // . 2005. 9.

59


37.017


-

. . ()
-
, .
: ; ;
- ; .

THE NATIONAL SECURITY AND THE CIVIL SOCIETY IN THE


CONTEXT OF MENTAL AND MORAL VALUES OF EDUCATION

O. P. Signaevskaya (Ekaterinburg)
In the article it is expanded the interaction between mental and moral values
of education and the successfulness of the construction of the civil society and it
is also showed the new understanding of the national security of the country in
the course of the problems of modern education.
Key words: the civil society; modern education; mental and moral values
of education; the national security of the country.

, , , , ,
, .
,
, .
, .
,
. . , ,
- :
, ;

,
.
620017, . , . , 26.
-mail: belyaeva@uspu.ru

60

I.

. , , , , .
,
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. , . : , , ; ,
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, , ,
, .

,
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. .
61

(, ) ,
. (, , , ,
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, , , , , ). 11,7 ,
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.
, , , . , IXX . , , , . 988 .
, , , . 1054 . :
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1990- .
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, . -
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62

I.

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,
, .
- , .
. , ,
, . , , . , , ,
, , .
, -
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,
.
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, - ,
.

1. , . .
/ . . // : VI- . .. . . , 2007.
2. -, . . /
. . - // . 1996. 5.
3. , . . / . . . . : , 1998.
4. , . . /
. . // . 2008. 1(22). . 5268.
5. , . . ? / . . // .
. 1994. 1.
6. , . . . I . : . / . . . ., 2007.

66

II. :

II
:

Part II. VOCATIONAL TRAINING:
MODERN TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT
371.314.6 051


-
. . ()
-.
: . , . , .
: , -, , , ,
, ,
, , .

SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE EDUCATOR-DESIGNER PROFESSION

T. A. Artashkina (Vladivostok)
The aim of the research is to study the designing work of an educator-designer.
The structure of this activity corresponds to two specialties: those of a creator
and a technologist. The object, results, and peculiarities of creators activity are
analyzed in the article in detail. The uncertainty-developing mechanism, which
considerably influences the target-setting issue in the system of higher education,
is also discussed at large.
Key words: Bologna process, educator-designer, creator, target-setting issue,
model of a specialist, national educational standard, social relays, infrastructure
of higher education, conditions of uncertainty, social system.
,
,
.
690950, . , . , . 8.
E-mail: artash@mail.primorye.ru

67

1970- . . . , -, :


.
-,
[6, . 145]. . .
,
, .
, . , ,
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[4, . 40].
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68

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70

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72

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73


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. , . 60- . XX . , ,
. , ,
. .
,
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.
,
, , . ,

.
, , .

1. , . . : . / . . . 5- ., . . . : . ,
1977. 479 .
2. , . / . // http://www.abc-globe.com/word-1.htm
3. , . . / . . ; . .
. . ; . . . - ; . . - //
:
. .-. . : 2 . : , 2006.
. 2. . 7985.
4. , . . / . . // . : , 2003. . 4043.

74

II. :
5. , . . / . . // . : , 2003. . 1216.
6. , . . / . . ; . . . . . // : . , 1970. . 102180.

316.344.3 : 378.12(571)

:
*
. . ()

. . ( , ,
). , (
), .
: , , .

POST-GRADUATE STUDENTS OF THE SIBERIAN INSTITUTIONS


OF HIGHER EDUCATION: AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL
CHARACTERISTICS

A. M. Ablazhey (Novosibirsk)
The article is devoted to the analysis of the major reproduction mechanism
of the sciences personnel potential - the institute of postgraduate studying. For
the first time, the object of research is post-graduate students of the Siberian
regional institutions of higher education. The professional self-estimations of
the post-graduate students (frequency of usage of various information sources;
the degree of mastering of foreign languages, modern computer and information
technologies) are presented. There are also described the motives of their choosing
the scientific career, the dependence of the choice on the surrounding society
(the prestige of science), and the criteria of success.
Key words: personnel potential, postgraduate study and career, siberian
universities.
*

,
( 06-03-00571
, .
630090, . , . , . 8.
-mail: ablazhey@philosophy.nsc.ru

75

I
, - [14],
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, , - 2005 .,
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.
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,
, . , : 89,9 % . . 65 %
, 33 % 4, 2 % ,
.
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76

II. :

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. :
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79

, ,
41 % , . 6 % , , ,
.
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;
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. ,
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1. , . .
( 2003 .) / . . // . 2004. 1. . 7174.
2. , . . :
/ . . // . 2006. . 1. . 7984.
3. , . . :
/ . . // . (. ). 2007. . 5. . 1.
. 7580.
4. , . . / ( ) / . . , . . , .. // .
. . . . 2004. 4. . 130141.
5. , . .
( 2003 .) / . . // . 2004. 1. . 7174.

80

II. :
37 : 316.477


. . ()
,


. .
.
: ; ; ; ; ; .

EDUCATION IN THE PROFESSIONAL CAREER

Y. A. Chernyshev (Ulyanovsk)
The papers aim is to analyze the current system of education in its relation
to ones professional career and to suggest possible improvements to the existing
system as a means of enhancing professional and personal growth. The author
highlights a gap between the content and forms of education, both general and
professional, and the development of ones career. The authors understanding
of professional career in its broad socio-cultural context allows outlining an
optimal model of education in its relation to ones career.
Key words: personal growth; educational content; professional career;
person-occupation interaction; relevance of education for career, life integrity.

, [4, . 109].
, , ,
. [1, . 104], , ,
, , - -- .
432600, . , . . , . 42.
-mail: yanchernyshev@bk.ru

81

, , .


, .
(, )
( ,
, )
.
( , , ) : -,
.
. , , , [2, . 197].
, , ,
[6, . 28], , , ( ) : , ,
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, , , .


.
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, ,
82

II. :

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84

II. :

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85

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.

86

II. :

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.
,

, , .

, ( )
[3, . 171].

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. , , , ; ( ) .


, , . , .
-
; ; (
)
-
,
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,
, -
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87

, , [5, . 99], , , ,
, , .

1. , . . / . . // .
1995. 3. . 103109.
2. , . . / . . .
. : ; , 2007. 288 .
3. , . . - /
. . . ., 1999.
4. , . . / . . //
. ., 1992. . 107121.
5. , . . : ? /
. . // . . 1992. 1. . 98105.
6. , . .
/ . . // . . 1985.
6. . 2636.
7. , . . : - / . . // . 2007. 4. . 257267.

378 35.074.5

-

:
-
. . ()
, - - .
- .
: - , - , .

, ,
.
460052, . , . , 14/2.
-mail: frolov1961@rambler.ru

88

II. :
THE FORMATION OF THE SOCIO-PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE
OF A PROSPECTIVE STATE MANAGER: AN INTEGRATIVE
CULTUROLOGICAL APPROACH

O. V. Frolov (Orenburg)
The author believes that the formation of the socio-professional competence
of prospective state managers should be considered from the viewpoint of an
integrative culturulogical approach. The formation of the socio-professional
competence aims at achieving the main professional value, the culture of
professional activity.
Key words: socio-professional competence, integrative culturological
approach, state manager.

- , , , , - , , - ,
.
-
, , : , , .
. [1, . 36]; , -
. , -
:
- ;
- ;

89

-
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.
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;
.
- , , , ,

90

II. :

, , .
, , , ,
. , , ,
.
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,
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. , ,
, .


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;
; ;
[2, . 94].

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,
, , , . ,
, .
XX . ,

91

. ,
,
. ,
, , . . [3, . 231].
, . . , , , .

. [4, . 71].
- - ,
. :

,
;
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;
[5, . 136].
-
-
- - , .
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, , , , , ,
, [6, . 43].
. .
, - , , -

92

II. :

; , - .
,
: ; ; ; .
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93

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;
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;
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,
;

.
, - ,
,
, - , , . -
, , ,
,
,
. - ,
, .

1. , . . / . . // Credo. 1997. 4. . 36.
2. , . . : . /
. . . : .-. . -, 1996. 190 .
3. , . . , / . . // . . . . : , 1974. 413 .
4. , . . /
. . // XXI . :
. . (1214 . 2000 .). , 2000. . 4048.
5. , . . : . / . . . : , 1999. 351 .
6. , . . / . . . . : ,
1981. 236 .

94

II. :
378 + 355/359




. . ()
, ,
( ).
( ), , , .
: , ,
,
.

THE SYSTEM OF TECHNICAL TRAINING IN THE MILITARY


INSTITUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION AS
THE BASIS OF THE CADETS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

A. A. Miller (Novosibirsk)
The author analyzes the system of technical training as the foundation of the
cadets professional development, considers some issues concerning the technical
training of the cadets of the Russian military institutions of higher education in
the period of army reform and new principles of the military specialists
recruitment for the Armed Forces (recruitment on the contract basis). The author
analyzes the criteria of readiness to further professional activity of the graduates
of the higher command military schools (military institutes), future commanding
officers, organizers, and managers.
Key words: combat training, technical training of the cadets of military
institutions of higher education, professional training of the cadets in the period
of army reform, recruitment for the army on the contract basis.

,
, , .
,
( )
( ) .
630117, . , . , 49.
-mail: manja.cream@mail.ru

95

, - ,
, ;
, , - , , ,
( ), - . ,
.

[1; 3; 4; 6; 11; 12]. ,
( ) , : . , , , ,
, .
,
. , , -
.
. . (2003) . . (2004)
: - [9, . 900] -
, . ., - [10, . 234]. : , - [2, . 701]. (
) -, - ,
- [2, . 544].
.
. ,
. .
. ,

96

II. :

[8, . 515].
,
, , [7, . 3]. - - , - - .
,
, - .
.
,
,
,
.

, , , () , .
-,
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, , .

, .
, .
: , - . , , , , , ,
, .

, -,
, . ,

97

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(, -, -,
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. ,
.

, . . , , , , , .
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630092, . , . . , . 20.
-mail: elenam@fgo.nstu.ru

101


THE PROBLEM OF GOAL-SETTING IN MODERN THE SYSTEM
OF HIGHER PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

. . Melekhina (Novosibirsk)
The article deals with the problem of goal-setting in the system of higher
professional education in present social and economic conditions. The accent is
made on the market demand for training competent specialists able to efficiently
operate in the competitive environment of the global economics. The analysis of
needs is considered to be one of the crucial parts in the syllabi design and curricula
planning with regards to the learner-centered approach. A special emphasis is
made on the hierarchical character of educational goals as one of the key features
in effective management of the teaching/learning process. A number of reasons
of failures in goal-achieving are mentioned.
Key words: goal, pedagogical activity, goal-setting, higher professional
education, learner-centered approach, subject, specialists training, competence,
result.

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2007. 60 .
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, 1989. 190 .
3. , . . / . . //
XXI : . . .-. -. . 5. . 1. /,
2007. 490 . . 720.
4. , . . / . . //
. 2007. 2. . 3744.
5. , . . / . . , . . // . 2007. 1 (18). . 112120.
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/www.eidos.ru/journal/2007/0222-11.htm
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10. , . . / . . . . : , 1996.

351.745.708

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. ,
.
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.
656099, . , . , . 49.
-mail: info@buimvd.ru

109

: , , , , , .
FORMATION OF THE PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF THE
EMPLOYEES OF THE CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION DEPARTMENT

E. V. Malchenkov (Barnaul)
The article deals with the contents of professional competence of the CID
men and modeling of its formation in the process of adaptation to service. The
conditions, directions, and methods of the process are revealed. To confirm the
effectiveness of the model of the CID men professional competence in the process
of adaptation to service, the author carried out significant experimental work.
Based on the experimental results, a teaching technique to form professional
competence of the CID men in the process of adaptation to service was worked
out and the methodical recommendations Organization of professional
adaptation of the CID men were created.
Key words: vocational training, dialectic of the process of competence
development, pedagogical conditions of adaptation, staff of the Criminal
Investigation Department (CID men), tutors, curators, competence approach.


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110

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. 1723.
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3. , . . - / . . , . . , .. . ., 2006. 126 .
4. , . . / . . // . ., 2004. 3. . 1417.
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656049, . , . , 61, . 320.
-mail: fdump@mail.ru

115


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: ,
.

PHILOSOPHER AS AN EDUCATED PERSON:


ANTIQUE AND MODERN PERCEPTIONS

I. V. Cherdantseva (Barnaul)
The purpose of the article is to elucidate the fundamental traits, which
characterize philosopher as an educated person in the antique and modern
philosophy. In connection with this, the author defines the problem field of the
work, which is related to understanding of the mission and vocation of the
philosopher. The author comes to a conclusion about a principal difference
between the antique and modern interpretations of the philosopher. The author
concludes that educated philosopher in antiquity is a man, who has changed his
life, and educated philosopher in modern times is a man, who has become a
specialist and mastered the specificity of the philosophical discourse. The article
is devoted to studying the figure of philosopher in two aspects. The first aspect is
connected to the antique conception related to philosophers mission. The second
aspect concerns the conception of philosopher in modern philosophy.
Key words: philosopher, lifestyle of the philosopher, philosophical exercises,
philosophical discourse.

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120

III.

III


Part III. EDUCATION IN THE CONDITIONS
OF THE WORLD-OUTLOOK AND ECOLOGICAL CRISIS
37.014.3



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A CRISIS OF EDUCATION AND EDUCATION AS THE WAY


OUT OF THE WORLD CRISIS

N. Peltsova (Prague, Czech Republic)


Power and violence are necessary there where the valid authority is absent.
The authority is possible only under the condition of responsibility of the person.
The educational responsibility is twofold and multidirectional: on one hand, it
is the responsibility for children, for a new life, for that that nothing bad happens
to them and they succeed; on the other hand, it is also the responsibility for the
world into which we introduce children.
Key words: power, violence, the responsibility of the person, authority,
education.
, ,
(, ).
116 39 Praga 1, M. D. Rettigove, 4.
-mail: nadezda.pelcova@centrum.cz

121

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122

III.

1930- 1940- . , : ,
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124

III.

. c , .
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125

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[1, S. 120].

1. Arendtov, H. Krize kultury. tyi cvien v politickm mylen / Hannah
Arendtov. Praha : Vyehrad, 1994.
2. Gadamer, H.-G. Wahrheit und Metode. Grundzuege einer
philosophischer Hermeneutik / Hans-Georg Gadamer. Tuebingen : J. C.
Mohr, 1990.
3. Blohradsk, V. O post-modern dob / Vclav Blohradsk // Most 001.
Brno : Atlantis, 1990.
4. Blohradsk, V. Je vzdln na cest stt se zbom?
/ Vclav
Blohradsk // Prvo. 2003. Sept., 1. S. 5.
5. King, A. Prvn globln revoluce. Svt na prahu novho tiscilet / A.
King, B. Schneider. Bratislava : Bradlo, 1991.
6. Rdl, E. tcha z filosofie / Emanuel Rdl. Praha : MF, 1969.

126

III.
37(520)

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ON THE UNCONDITIONAL: THINKING OF EDUCATION IN JAPAN

T. Takahashi (Tokyo, Japan)


The starting point of the authors reasoning is the philosophical
deconstruction of Jacque Derrida, especially his works of the last period. The
author emphasizes that Derridas deconstruction does not mean total
destruction and nihilism, but, on the contrary, opens and clears the ways to the
original genuine concepts such as justice, gift, forgiveness, and hospitality.
In the second half of the paper the author considers a tragic incident in Tokyo,
when a young man attacked random passer-byes. The underlying reason for
such action was the feeling of alienation from society. The author analyzes how
Tetsuya Takahashi Professor of Philosophy, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences,
the University of Tokyo.

127


this is connected with the contemporary Japanese education system with its rigid
pursuit of success. The author analyzes the Japanese education system as a whole
and notices that the system has lost a certain foundation unconditional value of
each pupil regardless of his/her academic achievements.
Key words: education, Japan, Derrida, deconstruction, unconditional,
justice, gift, forgiveness, hospitality, alienation.

Though I have written some essays on education before, I am not a specialist


in the field. While I am a philosopher, I am not familiar with the philosophy of
education. I was, therefore, much surprised and embarrassed when I was asked
to deliver a keynote lecture for this conference. Yet I am grateful for the
invitation and am determined to try hard to fulfill my responsibility as the first
keynote speaker for the 11th biennial meeting of the International Network of
Philosophers of Education. Your patience and generosity would be appreciated
if my talk sounds to be unprofessional and irrelevant.
1. Derrida and the Unconditional
When I started my philosophical career with studies on Husserlian
phenomenology, I also began to read Jacques Derridas work. Since then I
have been strongly inspired by his thought in various ways. I presented an
outline of my understanding of Derrida in a book written in Japanese, entitled
Derrida: datsukochiku datsuku (Derrida: Deconstructiori), published from
Kodansha in 1998.
As is well known, by the early 1970s Derrida had established the
philosophical approach that would later be called deconstruction. In this
approach, he puts into question the overall frame of thought underlying Western
history, which he characterizes as metaphysics or, more specifically, as the
metaphysics of presence, logocentrism, phonocentrism, or onto-theo-teleology.
As he points out, the Western philosophical tradition stretching from Plato to
Levi-Strauss revolves around a series of hierarchical binary oppositions: inside/
outside, self/other, identity/difference, origin/repetition, truth/falsity, good/
evil, life/death, mind/matter, intellect/sensibility, nature/technics, man/
animal, man/woman, West/East, reality/fiction, seriousness/unseriousness,
philosophy/literature, meaning/sign, speech/writing (parole/ecriture\ full
speech/empty speech (parole pleinelparole vide), and so forth. While the first
term of each binary is considered to be superior to the second, Derrida discloses
some conceptual moments within metaphysics itself- ones that disrupt andmake
impossible such pure presence. These moments include differance, archewriting (archi-ecriture), the trace, the pharmakon, and the supplement
(supplement}.
The Derridean project of trie deconstruction of metaphysics - as its
influence grew particularly in the United States and then spread worldwide met also with adverse reactions. As a typical criticism, deconstruction is
considered to be nothing but a form of nihilism - one that attempts to destroy
the very values sustaining our society. Especially it is assumed to erase the
distinctions between truth and falsity, good and evil, and justice and injustice,
thus leading to a chaos in which anything goes. In response, from the 1980s
onwards Derrida started to emphasize that deconstruction was not nihilism
but rather affirmation. In the 1981 interview Deconstruction and the Other,

128

III.

for example, he speaks as follows: deconstruction in itself is an affirmative


response to an alterity which necessarily calls, summons or motivates it
(p. 118). At that time, the remark was perceived by many to be
incomprehensible. Derridas assiduous exploration of related themes, however,
subsequently made the point clearer, especially in those writings from the
1990s until his death in 2004.
In his 1989 lecture Force of Law, Derrida presents ideas that may be
outlined as follows. 1. All laws, all forms of legality, are deconstructible.
2. Justice in itself is undeconstructible. 3. Undeconstructible justice makes
possible the deconstruction of law and legality. 4. Justice is never present as
such. 5. Justice is powerless unless it takes the form of a law or legality.
On the basis of this it follows that deconstruction is an affirmation of the
undeconstructible, an affirmation of justice. In Derridas account, the idea of
justice is irreducible in its affirmative character, and deconstruction is mad
about (folle de) this justice (p. 25). What, then, is justice? Although Derrida
never gave an explicit definition, it is certain that at the core of justice is the
relation to the other. As he repeatedly says, this is a response and responsibility
to the call of the other - the other as a singular other, wholly other (tout outre)
Deconstruction as an affirmation of justice is precisely an affirmation of the
other as a singular, wholly other. There are, however, innumerably many
singular others. Indeed, as Derrida puts it, Every other is wholly other (Tout
autre est tout autre) If we respond only to the call of a particular other and
ignore those of the rest, this does not deserve the name of justice. If so, then,
justice implies that we should respond universally to the calls of all others,
assingular others.
This being the case, justice certainly cannot be present as such. For it is
impossible for us mortals to respond simultaneously to the calls of all others,
as singular others. If I try to respond fully to the call of a particular other, I
will not be able to respond to the calls of innumerable singular others. In short,
it is impossible to respond universally to the calls of all singular others. Derrida
by no means abandons, however, this demand of justice because it is impossible
to fulfill. On the contrary, he maintains it precisely as an experience of the
impossible (p. 16). Since justice does not serve its role without both respect
for singularity and response to the demands of universality, justice in itself is
impossible, and yet, as the impossible, it should be pursued.
In a particular context of decision the pursuit of justice as the impossible is
embodied in a law as the possible. As far as singular others call on us, we
must make a decision incessantly, here and now: to which calls of those
singular others should we respond, and to what extent should we respond?
[p. 3] The result of each decision, however, will always set up a boundary in
the form of a law that inevitably excludes other calls, other appeals. This
law will in turn be subject to further deconstruction due to its deviation from
justice as the undeconstructible. From this point of view, we can now understand
why deconstruction is an affirmative response to an alterity which is
impossible justice, and which is justice as the impossible and why this alterity
of justice necessarily calls, summons or motivates deconstruction.
What kind of image can we have of this Derridean justice beyond law? The
most telling image I have in mind is the Divine Justice in the New Testament
129

the very justice Jesus espouses in the Sermon on the Mount when he says:
seek first the kingdom and the justice of God (Matthew 6:33). For those who
had accused Derrida of nihilism it must have seemed completely
incomprehensible that deconstruction could be conceived as an affirmation
of justice or that Derridean justice could be seen in terms of this Christian
vision of justice. It is by no means unreasonable, however, to compare the
Derridean relation between law and justice with the Christian equivalent in
the thought of Jesus or Paul. In fact, from the Biblical and theological points of
view, Theodore W. Jennings, Jr., has recently made such a study in his book
Reading Derrida/ Thinking Paul (Stanford University Press, 2006). Incidentally,
unless seen from such a perspective, the degree of the influence of Kierkegaard
on Derrida cannot be understood.
Along with justice, Derrida discusses the ideas of the gift, pardon, and
hospitality as the experience of the impossible. This also evokes associations
with the biblical Justice of God. For Derrida, the gift is nothing but the
impossible. Suppose someone gives something as a gift to someone else. In
order, however, for this not to be the object of an exchange or investment,
but to be a gift in the true sense of the word, there should be no return or debt
on the part of the receiver. This is the case whether it happens on material,
psychological or symbolic levels. If the receiver has to thank the giver, this
means that the receiver has incurred a psychological debt; and if the giver
feels satisfied being thanked, this means that the giver has received a return
on a psychological level. Thus, in the last analysis, once the gift is recognized
as the gift either by a giver or a receiver, it will no longer be a gift. Once the gift
presents itself as a gift, it falls into the category of an object of exchange in the
economy of investment and assimilation, and abrogates its nature as a gift.
This is not to say, however, that the notion of the gift should be dismissed
because it is impossible. On the contrary, Derrida affirms the thinking and
desire that the gift implies. Just as thinking of, and desire for, justice as the
impossible incurs the deconstruction of the law, so the thinking and desire of
the gift incite deconstruction within the economy of exchange.
The distinction between the gift and exchange can also be characterized as
the distinction between the pure and the impure gift, or between the
unconditional and the conditional gift. As for pardon and hospitality, Derrida
makes a clear distinction between the pure and the impure, or the unconditional
and the conditional, [p. 4] Insofar as (with the condition that) the problem
concerned is not serious, we easily forgive others. The nature of forgiveness,
however, is deeply questioned when serious suffering or harm is incurred and
when the offender refuses to repent or apologise. Under these circumstances
we feel that we cannot forgive the offender, unless, that is, they repent and
apologize with adequate reparation or make a pledge never to repeat the same
offense. In the case of a crime, the offender is not forgiven without a legal
sanction. In this regard, forgiveness is only conditional. According to Derrida,
forgiveness with conditions cannot be true forgiveness as it is nothing more
than forgiveness in exchange for compensation, repentance, or apology. To
this extent, it may be better called reconciliation, which is based on
negotiation, trade, or calculation. In contrast, true forgiveness, pardon that
deserves its name, must be unconditional. It is not that we forgive if a certain
130

III.

condition is satisfied, but that we forgive unconditionally what can never be


forgiven. Hence it is a kind of unconditional forgiveness given to an offender
who does not repent or apologize, even in the midst of their crime. Again this
forgiveness is impossible in the sense that it is the forgiving of the
unforgivable. In Derridas view, this impossible should not be abandoned in
order that the conditional forgiveness, however impure it is, at least resembles
forgiveness.
The same holds with hospitality. As world citizens, we are called upon to
extend hospitality not only to our friends and compatriots but also to strangers,
foreigners, and others in general. Pure hospitality, if there is any such thing,
would have to mean the unconditional welcome and acceptance of all others.
In reality, however, such unconditional hospitality is the impossible. It is
impossible for all others to be unconditionally accepted into our home or
country. We can only accept a limited number of others with some conditions,
whether this is a matter of our individual judgments or of strict public laws.
This applies, for instance, to reception at an academic conference. While it is
stated that anyone can participate, it is actually an invitation with the following
restriction: you are requested to pay . . . If a complete stranger suddenly
appears and wants to participate, does the conference organizer unconditionally
approve of their participation? To ask their name and affiliation is itself a violation
of the unconditional. As an extreme case, if apparently homeless people come
to the conference, the organizer will immediately refuse them admission, before
asking their names or affiliations? Unconditional hospitality is impossible. Yet,
according to Derrida, unless we somehow think of and desire pure hospitality,
any hospitality will be deprived of its very nature.
If we can imagine the unconditional state of pardon and hospitality,
the same holds with justice and the gift. Justice beyond law and the gift
that exceeds the economy of exchange are nothing but unconditional. In
short, the four terms - justice, the gift, pardon, and hospitality - have in common
a dimension that is to be pursued in itself, unconditionally, beyond exchange
and calculation, and beyond the appropriation of investment or the gaining of
profits [p. 5].
Unconditional justice, giving, forgiveness, and hospitality, on the one hand,
and conditional justice, giving, forgiveness, and hospitality, on the other. These
two terms the unconditional and the conditional - are characterized by Derrida
as at once essentially heterogeneous and indissociable. Why are they
indissociable? Justice does not deserve its name unless it is concretely
realized. Justice without force is impotent; force without justice is tyrannical
(Pascal). Unconditional justice contains in itself an impulse toward the
realization of justice. Similarly forgiveness is meaningful only where it is most
urgently needed, and unconditional forgiveness contains in itself an impulse
toward its realization. The same is true in the cases of the gift and hospitality.
To be sure, once they are realized, they lose their purity and become caught
up in the movement of exchange and calculation. But still conditional justice,
giving, forgiveness, and hospitality are what they are only because we can
think of their unconditional states.
We have seen earlier that deconstruction is an affirmation of justice and the
other. It is now reconfirmed that deconstruction is an affirmation of the
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unconditional gift, unconditional forgiveness, and unconditional hospitality.


Undoubtedly these imply unconditional affirmations of the other. The
unconditional gift insofar as it involves the offering of the self to the other
without an expectation of any return - may also be called an unconditional
affirmation of the other. This is what deconstruction means. It should be noted
here that this affirmation is not a sovereign act of the subject. It is rather a
response to the being of the other and its arrival. To the call of the other, I am
here: look at me, one responds: Yes, I am here: for you. Affirmation is
fundamentally a passive and responsive act.
To spell out this point, Derrida develops his idea of the oui - one that is
perhaps at the pinnacle of his theory of language. Oui is usually a French
adverb opposed to non. In the eyes of Derrida, however, oui is no longer an
adverb juxtaposed to non, nor is it simply a constituent part of language among
other constituent parts. Rather, it is an originary affirmation that arrives before
language and always already accompanies and makes possible any utterance whether it is spoken or written, whether a word or a sentence. Even when I
say non, I should already have responded to the other with a tacit remark:
Oui. I heard what you said. You are there and asked me for a response. Yes, I
shall respond. This oui is an acknowledgment of the presence of the other
and of a need to respond to the other. This structure remains the same even if
I tell a lie or commit perjury, or even if I face the other in silence. Oui can be
called a transcendental condition of all performative acts, as no non can erase
it, and without it no speech act is possible. Again this oui is not an active and
sovereign affirmation given by the subject, [p. 6] Insofar as it is oui, it is a
passive affirmation in response to the call of the other.
2. Thinking of education in Japan
What implications does Derridas thought have for our thinking about
education in Japan? Let me start with a random street murder which recently
took place in Japan.
Around noontime on Sunday, June 8, 2008, a truck ran into a crowd of people
on a pedestrians paradise in Akihabara, Tokyo. Three people were killed.
The driver got out of the truck and, while running about one hundred meters,
stabbed other pedestrians and police officers: four more people were killed
and ten injured. This whole incident took place in a matter of several minutes
before the killer, Tomohiro Kato, a twenty-five year old man, was overpowered
and arrested on the spot.
Similar incidents happened last March. A twenty-four year old man killed
and injured eight people on the street in Tsuchiura, in Ibaragi Prefecture. Also,
an eighteen-year old man killed another man by pushing him onto the railway
line at Okayama Station. When he later said it did not matter who was killed,
this caused turmoil in Japanese society. Likewise in the Akihabara incident,
Tomohiro Kato confessed that he had come to Akihabara to kill someone and
that it did not matter whom he would kill. They did not intend to kill any
particular person - say, someone for whom they had a grudge or hatred: rather
their hostility was towards society as a whole, and eventually this exploded it
the crimes they committed.
As one of the shocking aspects of the Akihabara incident, Kato described
every detail of his feeling on the internet bulletin board accessed through his
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cellular phone. Within the five days before the day of the incident, he accessed
the bulletin board as many as seven hundred times. On the very day of the
incident, he did it as if he were relaying his crime live from the spot. There he
expressed apathetically a sense of despair towards himself- as someone who
had been pushed to the bottom of a differentiated society, and who felt himself
to be disposable, to be acknowledged either as a social being or as a human
being. He wrote: I continued to be a loser for eight years after graduating
from high school; Everything was in my way; I ended up as a vagrant with
no job. What despair!; A company gives me work because there is a shortage
of labor. But it is not because I am needed, but because of the shortage. Who
cares?
Those who have succeeded in life should die; I shall run down people
because they all look down on me, . . . and so forth. His remarks seem to
represent a sense of total exclusion from society, the sense shared by a group
of low-income young people who have become identified as the working poor.
These young people share the feeling that they have not been given any social
status or even the dignity of human being, that they cannot affirm their own
identity precisely because they are not acknowledged by others.
It is also worth noting that one of the causes of the Akihabara incident is
related to the issue of education - education both at school and in the home.
Tomohiro Kato performed well academically until the end of junior high school,
and then he entered one of the top-ranked high schools in Aomori prefecture.
Up to this time, he had been a success. His apparent success, however, was
the result of his efforts in playing the role of good boy in response to the
expectations of his parents, who were enthusiastic and demanding about the
education of their son. According to the testimony of Katos younger brother,
his mother was especially concerned about his grades in school, and she
expected her children to be perfect. When Kato submitted his homework
writings, drawings - his mother had always dictated its themes, its sentences
and its structure. Kato followed her directions, wrote sentences and did
drawings like a robot, and he achieved excellent grades. By contrast, if Kato
got poor grades, his mother complained at him hysterically. She was also
oppressive in other ways and prohibited him from dating a girl. When Katos
academic ranking at high school dropped to a level lower than three hundred
from the top, his mothers interest shifted from Kato to his brother. Kato wrote
from his cell-phone to the bulletin board: In the top-ranked high school in the
prefecture, I am at the bottom. Who cares? My parents expectations and their
money have all gone towards my brother.
The nature of Katos relationship with his parents is encapsulated by this
fact: that all the high expectations and the money went to his brother once his
grades dropped to the bottom. The love of Katos parents was conditional upon
his getting good grades. As long as his grades were excellent, Katos parents
seemed to love him: yet it was a love towards his grades, not an unconditional
love given to Kato himself, to the existence of their own son. His parents gave
affirmation to their son in so far as he adapted himself to their expectations.
Once he failed to do so, they rejected him. Probably Kato, from the very moment
of his birth, was expected to be a future member of the elite and wasgiven love
by his parents only on that condition. There was no unconditional affirmation
133

for this child who had been brought into this world. There was no unconditional
hospitality to the birth of this child, no unconditional pardon for the existence
of this child, no unconditional gift for the life of this child. Kato realized this
from his early childhood. He wrote that his parents egos ate away at his
childhood dream. From the time that he had left his parents home, after
graduating from high school, his friends and school-mates testified that he
had hated his parents from the bottom of his heart. Last May, Kato went back
home to return his fathers car, but he left the house without seeing his parents.
In Katos relationship with his parents, any fundamental responsiveness had
been lost - the kind of responsiveness that says in effect I am here: look at
me and Yes, I am here: for you.
It goes without saying that this whole issue goes beyond this particular
case and Katos individual family. Japanese education since the Second World
War has been dominated consistently and increasingly by the following sense
of value: a child should be evaluated on the basis of his grades at school; the
uppermost value in life is getting into a school of a higher academic level; and
only by so doing can a childs better life be guaranteed. Katos parents
attitudes were the products of these values in society. The whole system of
Japanese schools operates on the basis of this view of education. It cannot be
denied that The University of Tokyo and Kyoto University, at the top of this
hierarchical system, have their own responsibility in this regard. I cannot help
but think that, as a result of this dominant view on education, a fundamental
precondition of education has been lost from the Japanese education system a precondition that is necessary for any genuine education to be possible. This
precondition requires that each child is unconditionally affirmed by others for
his or her existence, and it is thanks to this affirmation that each child comes
to affirm him or herself.
This precondition, in my view, is a radical condition for making education
possible, and, hence, it is located on a different plane from other competing
ideals of education. The Fundamental Law of Education, which was originally
implemented in 1947, in post-war Japan, was revised for the first time in 2006.
In reaction to the ultra-nationalistic education of the pre-war period, the old
Fundamental Law of Education advocated a liberal, value-neutral ideal of
education, one which centered around respect for individuality. In contrast,
in the current resurgence of conservativism, the new Fundamental Law of
Education puts an emphasis on love of ones nation and traditional culture,
while valuing disciplinary education based upon a list of virtues. I myself have
been taking a firm stand against this revision of the Fundamental Law of
Education. Whether one is liberal or conservative, however, or individualist or
nationalist, is only a matter of difference among the competing ideals of
education: even if you are liberal and individualist, it does not necessarily mean
that unconditional affirmation exists. If nationalistic education develops
children into those who serve the nation, who are of use to the nation, and who
are willing to sacrifice themselves for the sake of the nation, it is inevitable that
the unconditional affirmation of their lives of children does not exist there.
The old Fundamental Law of Education, however, which was liberal and
individualist, also defined the perfection of the person as one of the aims of
education, and advocated the cultivation of people who will form a peaceful
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nation and society. Furthermore, it also announced that it would entrust the
realization of the ideal of the Japanese constitution to the power of education
the ideal of building a democratic and civilized nation in order to contribute to
world peace and the welfare of humanity. In other words, by guiding each
child towards the perfection of the person, the old Fundamental Law of
Education aimed to develop young people who would contribute to the formation
of a democratic, civilized and peaceful nation and society - namely the sovereign
being of a democratic nation, Japan. I cannot help but say that, with the old
law, once again education conceives children as a means, an instrument, to
building the citizens of the nation. Under these assumptions, it often happens
that a teacher who is eager for democratic education and peace education
in fact cannot affirm the existence of children as they are. Moreover any attempt
that aims to stipulate the ideal of education in terms of a law of the nation here, in the form of the Fundamental Law of Education - seems in itself to
contradict the justice beyond the law, that is, the affirmation of the
unconditional, in the dimensions of gift, pardon and hospitality.
In todays Japan, as is illustrated by the call for love of the nation, a
disciplinarian education has revived as the goal of education, while the principle
of competition permeates education without limits. Needless to say, the
affirmation of the unconditional is overridden if children are forced to compete
with each other on the basis of a set standard in terms of which they are
differentiated - whether in academic grades, scholastic abilities, or personality.
Whether the emphasis is on knowledge-based education or moral education,
ornational education or citizenship education, any such education will be
distanced from the affirmation of the unconditional so long as it aims to develop
children towards a fixed goal. In citizenship education, there is an element of
hospitality instead of exclusion, of pardon instead of sanction, and of justice
instead of regulation. Yet if the aim is the normalization of children by molding
them into the categories of citizenship, society and norms, this is again different
from the affirmation of the unconditional. Any education geared towards
normalization will lose sight of the affirmation of the unconditional.
Education that aims to develop children according to any ideals set up by
adults (as rulers, and as educators) can never realize the affirmation of the
unconditional. Is not education for the affirmation of the unconditional,
however, also geared towards the affirmation of the unconditional as its goal?
Are the affirmation of the unconditional and the unconditional gift, pardon,
hospitality and justice not ideals themselves? Yes, they are. Yet the
unconditional is not something that the nation, society and school, and adults,
rulers and educators can actively and with sovereignty set up and realize as its
goal or ideal. It is the differentiation between sovereignty and unconditionality
that the late Derrida tirelessly and repeatedly analyzed in view of the history of
western philosophy and politics. The unconditional is something that the subject
can only undergo receptively and responsively. It is not something that the
subject can experience intentionally. When one says yes, I am here, for you
in response to the call from the other, from the child, of I am here. Look at
me, the unconditional is being experienced as the impossible, between one
who calls and one who responds.

135

Is education for the unconditional possible education that affirms the


existence of children unconditionally, education that is engaged in unconditional
gift-giving, education that pardons childrens faults unconditionally and
education that receives the arrival of children with unconditional hospitality?
No, it is impossible. The unconditional gift, pardon and hospitality must all be
the impossible, and the unconditional affirmation must also be the
impossible in education. Was there any moment in the past when classroom
in school was not the place for normalization? Was there any time when it was
not a legal place on which various conditions that is, restrictions were
imposed? And insofar as there is an asymmetry between one who teaches and
one who is taught, the unconditional affirmation of one who is taught does not
seem to be possible, to be able to exist in a pure form. Does this mean that the
affirmation of theunconditional points towards the destruction of education
itself? Does the deconstruction of education then mean the destruction of
education as it was imagined by those who called Derrida a nihilist?
I do not think so, for it is also a truth that any education is impossible without
unconditional affirmation. The Akihabara incident is only an example that
suggests such truth. The wretched condition of Japanese education also
seems to demonstrate it. The crisis of Japanese education cannot be overcome
without rediscovering the affirmation of the unconditional. Again, however,
this is to get things wrong if the affirmation of the unconditional is conceived
as a means of overcoming the crisis of education. The affirmation of the
unconditional is needed only for each, single other: not for the social success,
development and growth of that person, but for celebrating her or his
existence in itself. Otherwise this stops short of being the affirmation of the
unconditional.
The affirmation of the unconditional is impossible, but without the
experience of this impossible, education is doomed. Is this not one of the
greatest contradictions of education? Does education not deserve to be
challenged precisely because of this contradiction namely, precisely because
education itself is the possibility of the impossible?

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John Colbeck
E-mail: j.colbeck@yahoo.co.uk

136

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DOING AN OSTRICH?

John Colbeck (United Kingdom)


In the short note written in metaphorical spirit the author addresses to a
problem of a survival of a human civilization. In opinion of the author, the
person similarly to an ostrich, instead of the decision of problems tries to leave
from them, but it is impossible in conditions of the globalization bringing
significant corrective amendments all of the party of human activity.
Key words: ostrich policy, ecological extinction, globalization.

Ostriches do not literally bury their heads in the sand. They do something
much more like what we are doing. We seem to be hell-bent on sweeping our
selves under the carpet (towards ecological extinction), in trying to be objective - like mere objects, bodies only. A person is not only an objective,
object-like body; a person also has a heart (emotions), a mind (intellect), a
soul (spirit, attitude, gestalt, or whole). A person has at least five human
dimensions (heart, mind, soul, body and neighbour) in addition to the four
dimensions of space-time. I call those dimensions of human being because,
like the four dimensions of space time, it does not make sense to ask Which
of them is most important? Nor Which of those would you rather do without,
if you had to lose one? All five are necessary, although it is possible to give
one or other too much emphasis or too little. Confucius E is the evil of too
little or too much. The trick of life is to integrate them all in balance, into one
whole, or soul. The Judaeo-Christian first and second commandments give
us this advice, but I think their origin lies in wisdoms much older than Christianity.
Thou shalt love the Lord THY God (not mine) with all thy heart, with all
thy mind, with all thy soul and with all thy strength, and, it is the same, love thy
neighbour as (not more, not less, but equally as) thy self. The commandment
is better seen as good advice from God, since it is surely not possible to
command love?
Back to the ostrich.
When an ostrich is walking along a road, if a lorry comes up behind it, the
ostrich begins to run, ever faster, along the same old road ahead, looking
anxiously backwards at the threatening lorry (read juggernaut of
globalisation). Only if I drive my lorry right up behind its tail does the ostrich
suddenly do a right-angle turn and escape into the safety of the road-less
bush (nature), where lorries cannot go.
In that metaphor, we are both ostrich and driver of the lorry (both and
more logic). We have our foot hard down on the accelerator pedal towards
collective suicide, by mistake. Will we frighten ourselves enough, soon enough?
Or could we, will we, stop being ostriches? It will require a change of HEART
(coeur-age) to want, to be, and to become (radically), different. Ye have heard
it said .. but I say . (the opposite, in my own name, authentically, and in
no-one elses). Can we not say that, too as the authors portray Jesus as
saying become more authentically ourselves, like the ugly duckling?
137

(Authenticity = becoming my own proper self.) When the ugly duckling saw
himself in the water/mirror, he saw what he really was, always had been,
always would be a beautiful swan?
Our only means of predicting the future is by induction, observing patterns
of activity from the past and assuming (fallibly, but we have no better way) that
they will continue into the future. Although such predictions can never be
certain, many predictions of consequences can and must (pace Kant) if we are
to act responsibly, be made into a foresee-able future, at least as far as
tomorrows world (the next world to come, tomorrow). It seems increasingly
clear that, if we continue, ever faster, on the same road, or way of life we pursue
now, we will destroy ourselves and possibly all of our family, on planet earth.
Future space-travellers may find our heads (skulls) literally buried in the sands
of a surface like that of Mars.
Inertia is massive against change (Newtons first law of motion) but lorries
do have brakes and reverse gears. Ostriches do not need so much stone, tarmac
or concrete?

37.0



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David P. Ericson Department of Educational Foundations College of Education
University of Hawaii at Manoa.
Honolulu, HI 96822, USA, 1776 University Avenue.
E-mail: ericson@hawaii.edu

138

III.
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IMAGES OF THE EDUCATED PERSON IN THE USA AND JAPAN

David P. Ericson (Honolulu, USA)


The author studies several traditional interpretations of the educated person
concept, which exist in the USA and Japan. In the USA, which is a successor of
the Greek-Roman traditions, two understandings of the educated person concept
are being used. One is connected with the idea of cultural literacy; the other,
with the critically-creative thinking. On the other hand, in Japan the
understanding of this concept was formed under the influence of Buddhism,
Taoism, and Confucianism. Because of that, the Japanese people created their
own ideas of cultural development and culture. These ideas are in the foundation
of such traditional Japanese arts as dance, tea ceremony, origami, and others.
Originally, only the priests and samurai could practice these arts; however,
during the Tokugawa period, which started in the XVII century, these arts began
to spread also among the ordinary people trying to imitate the noblemen. This
happened due to establishment of private schools. In the end of the feudal period
these arts had become the common property of all strata of the Japanese society.
The author notes that such kind of cultural education did not foster the social
and economic development of the country. The analysis of these concepts is a
sort of prelude to a wider investigation. The author suggests overcoming the
contradictions caused by different concepts of educated person among the Japanese
and Americans (these differences can be explained by the difference in mentality).
He introduces a term of a system concept of educated person. The fact that the
education system in both countries is oriented to distribution (social ranging)
implies distribution of the life trajectory for each concrete individual. The
pursuit of grades, test results and diplomas undermine the traditional
understanding of the person being educated, which causes significant damage
to both American and Japanese societies.
Key words: educated person, USA, Japan, culture.

139

When considering the question of what we mean by an educated person,


we should consider the tradition and context out of which that question arises.
For the Founders of the United States, steeped in the intellectual culture of
European Enlightenment thought of the 18th Century, the notion of the educated
person took a particular form. Foremostly, an educated person was one who
was steeped in the ancient Greek and Roman moral, legal, political, and
philosophical classics, and who could read, if not converse in, Latin, ancient
Greek, and French. Such a person was also one who was alive to and
knowledgeable about the emerging powers of the natural sciences and
mathematics and who had a knowledge and appreciation of art and music.
Echoes of this all-around or well-rounded person continue in America to this
day. But much of this notion has also been lost: Latin is rarely taught in the
schools anymore and ancient Greek almost never. And as these tongues die
out, so too does the teaching of the corresponding ancient literary classics.
Were they alive today, the Founders might despair. For the republic they
founded was built out of their re-working of the ideals of ancient Greece and
Rome. How can we chart Americas future if we are ignorant of its foundational
ideas?
However that may be, context and tradition provide different answers to
the question of what we mean by an educated person. Where the American
founders looked to the ancient past, a cultured Ming Dynasty official would
look to that answer in the classic and neo-classic Confucian texts. On the
other hand, followers of the Tao would disagree. And while the samurai class
of feudal Japan might well place great emphasis on sacred Zen Buddhist texts,
the arts, and Confucian classics, Bushido placed an equal emphasis on the
military arts in answering the question of what it means to be educated.
Different contexts and different traditions seem to dictate different answers.
But as the example of the Confucians and Taoists show, different answers
to the question of the educated person can exist at the same time in the same
culture. That is no less true than in America today. While all Americans would
agree that literacy and mathematical skills (to some extent) are necessary in
order to be considered educated, images of the kind of person educators should
aim to develop greatly differ. So, in what follows, I would like to take up and
draw out each of the most prevalent images of the educated person in America.
In so doing, I will comment on each ones power to endure, if not expand, into
the future. In this way, we might better understand where America is heading
in the current century. For what is valued in the educational system can be
rightly thought to project the future of a nation.
Following this section of the paper, I shall draw out the traditional Japanese
image of the educated person. Based upon the twin concepts of kyouyou
(cultivation) and bunka (culture), I show how this image is connected to the
Shinto, Buddhist, and Confucian traditions that have formed Japanese
consciousness and inspired traditional Japanese high arts such as sado (the
tea ceremony), kado (flower arrangement), shodo (calligraphy), and classical
forms of Japanese poetry. Unlike the American images of the educated person,
this image of the educated person is carries with it far deeper spiritual and
aesthetic meanings.

140

III.

In the final section of this paper, I show how the rise of modern educational
systems their structure, dynamics, and linkages to the employment system
have given rise to a new image of the educated person that both the USA and
Japan have come to share. It is an image that is very different than the others
and even hostile to them. In the words of one Japanese educator: The more
education [the educational system] expands, the more devastated culture
becomes (Umesao, 1990, p. 2).
American Image #1 The Traditionalists: Reviving Cultural Literacy
Since the United States is a nation of immigrants, comprised of people from
other lands throughout the world, the question of what might hold these
disparate people together has a long history. Given the dominant initial culture
inherited from the Anglo-Saxon world and the notion of the United States as an
English speaking nation, in the 18th and early 19th century educational emphasis
was placed on assimilating non-Anglo-Saxon immigrants into the dominant
northern European culture and into the English language as rapidly as possible.
For the most part, this educational policy was highly successful in that few
third generation Americans can any speak the native language of their
immigrant grandparents. And while traditional ethnic foods continue to enrich
the American cuisine, the culture and customs of the old country have generally
faded away.
Until the 1960s, worries about assimilation began to ease. But with the
birth of the Civil Rights Movement on behalf of African-Americans and other
minorities, political conservatives began once again to worry about perceived
threats to the dominant culture. Under the legal principle of segregation,
African-Americans and white Americans were required in most southern states
to attend different schools, even though the schools were supposed to enjoy
equal resources. As a matter of fact, that was seldom the case. Indeed,
segregation practices were so great that they were embedded in nearly every
major social institution in southern life. Though black and white Americans
might live in proximity to each other, they rarely intermingled on a social basis
with the exception that black Americans might serve as maids, butlers, and
cooks in white homes. In the northern part of the United States, there were no
obvious legal discriminatory sanctions against African-Americans. But,
unofficially, there tended to be discrimination in fact. Due to residential patterns,
encouraged by lending and insurance institutional practices, black and white
Americans lived in separate neighborhoods, ate at separate restaurants, and
played in different parks. It was as if African-Americans and white Americans
lived in two different nations; and, in a real sense, they did. (Asian-Americans
occupied a more nebulous position in America. While they were often
discriminated against in fact few lived in the segregationist south they
were often held by white Americans to be model minorities due to their greater
educational and occupational success in mainstream America.)
The historic U.S. Supreme Court case of Brown v. The Topeka School Board
in 1954 declared the beginning of the end to the two separate nations. It struck
down school segregation practices as inherently unconstitutional. In further
court action and through civil rights legislation at the national and state levels
during the 1960s and 1970s, all legal discriminatory practices based on race,
141

sex, religion, etc. was banned. Schools, in particular, were desegregated and
steps were taken to address segregation in fact based upon residential patterns
between white Americans and minorities.
With African-Americans, Mexican-Americans, and a new wave of immigrants
from Latin America and Asia now moving into mainstream white institutions,
many political conservatives began to fear for the loss of their culture. They
felt that such minority populations did not share the same culture and the
same values that they took to epitomize America. Thus, many began to call
for a new cultural literacy to form the basis of the curriculum in the schools.
Indeed, they argue that without having a common language and common frame
of values, one could not be an educated American. They further argue that it is
the lack of this cultural literacy that holds African-Americans and other nonmodel minorities from succeeding in America today.
The major proponent of this vision of the educated American is E.D. Hirsch,
Jr. (1988) who argues in his book Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs
to Know:
Besides the English language and the national legal codes, American culture
possesses first of all a civil religion that underlies our civil ethos. Our civil
ethos treasures patriotism and loyalty as high...ideals, and fosters the belief
that the conduct of the nation is guided by a vaguely defined God. Our tradition
places importance on carrying the rites and ceremonies of our civil ethos and
religion through the national flag, the national holidays, and the national
anthem...and supports the morality of tolerance and benevolence, of the Golden
Rule, and communal cooperation. We believe in altruism and self-help, in
equality, freedom, truth-telling and respect for the national law.
...The American civil religion...is in fact a central source of coherence in
American public culture, holding together various and even contradictory
elements of its tradition (p. 98).
Under this conception of the educated person in America, the image is one
of a child, of whatever sex, race, or sectarian religion, who is inducted into this
civil religion of the United States. It is to accept, apparently uncritically, the
stories and myths of Americas past, to share a common language with deep
background understanding of their referents whether they be a place, event,
or person, and to use these as guideposts to chart a glorious American future.
Induction into this civil religion is the glue to hold Americans together, despite
all the other differences that separate them. It is, however, no accident that
this civil religion coincides with that culture first crafted by Anglo-Saxon
America. The new cultural literacy has the ethos of assimilation at its core. It
resonates strongly, as mentioned, amongst political conservatives. Indeed, it
may have received new momentum as a result of the events of 9/11, since
there has been an upsurge of patriotism and a growing suspicion of immigrants
in America in its wake.
What seems to be valuable about this conception of the educated person is
its emphasis on learning ones national heritage in deeper and connected detail
than is usually found in social studies and language arts classes. There is no
doubt that many Americans young and old are profoundly ignorant of
how American culture developed, about the persons, forces, and events that
have led to the present, and about the challenges America has confronted, the
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victories won, and the losses mourned. No doubt, if taught in the right way,
the emphasis on cultural literacy would give Americans greater insight into
the national birthright.
American Image #2: Critical and Creative Thinking in a Liberal Democratic
Society
Many educators and lay persons in America have long put forward the view
that critical and creative thinking is central to our understanding of the educated
person. Proponents of this view tend to be highly critical of parts of the cultural
literacy position. While the cultural literacy view emphasizes the learning of a
great deal of content about American history and culture, together with a
positive rendering of the basic decency of Americas civil religion, proponents
of critical/creative thinking believe that such a view is dogmatic at best and
dangerous at worst. It is dogmatic, at best, in the sense that, with its
concentration on just learning content provided in textbooks, it provides little
room to explore whether the conclusions reached by textbook authors are
supported by evidence and good reasoning. And it is dangerous, at worst, in
that it encourages the young to believe unquestionably that America tends to
act for good and laudable reasons and that God is on Americas side. While
critical and creative thinking proponents may be just as patriotic as cultural
literacy proponents, they would scarcely presume that the United States always
does the right thing, in the right way, and for the right reasons.
Despite their agreement on the goal of developing critical and creative
thinkers, educators and philosophers of education often disagree on the nature
of critical thinking and how to teach it in the schools. Be that as it may, critical
thinking as the mark of the educated person in America first became popular
among educators due to the influential views of the American philosopher John
Dewey in the early decades of the 20th century. Dewey, impressed with the
advances in the natural and life sciences, developed a logic of inquiry based
upon a general method of problem solving that he took to be central to scientific
thinking. In Deweys view, children should be put into an educational context
in which they come to be confronted with a problem that they cannot initially
resolve. In this predicament, they might be guided by the teacher, who
understands both the inner life of children and the knowledge domain involved,
to begin to develop a variety of hypotheses that might help explain the puzzling
phenomena. From there the children might proceed to test each hypothesis
in an experimental manner until the problem is temporarily resolved (until
new difficulties are noticed). Dewey thought that this problem solving method
was far superior to traditional forms of education that emphasized rote learning
and recitation from standard textbooks. For here children learn to discover
the principles behind how things actually work, rather than just memorizing
words and formulae that have little meaning to them.
More recently, educators and philosophers of education have put forward
three very different views concerning critical and creative thinking. The first,
introduced in the 1960s, was called the new mathematics, It was the response
of the higher education community to the allegedly poor teaching of
mathematics in the schools. The new mathematics sought to teach children
the deep foundations of mathematics, especially set theory and the rules of
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logical inference developed in symbolic logic. Little help, however, was provided
to schoolteachers in mastering set theory and formal logic. So, if teachers of
mathematics did not understand elementary arithmetic, algebra, and geometry,
as alleged, they certainly did not understand set theory and symbolic logic.
Thus, the new mathematics view of teaching critical thinking never made
much headway in the schools.
The second view of critical thinking the informal logic or good reasons
approach has been far more influential. In this view, critical and creative
thinkers exhibit certain tendencies and habits. These include examining claims
and statements for their truth or falsity, checking assumptions, offering wellorganized lines of reasoning, understanding whether a claim is conceptual,
empirical, or normative (value), drawing correct inferences from statements
and observations, and detecting fallacies in thinking. For the most part, these
are general skills that proponents of the informal logic approach believe to cut
across disciplines or knowledge domains. And if so, they can be taught in a
general manner in schools, quite apart from specific subject matter. Beyond
these dispositions, Richard Paul has introduced a distinction between critical
thinking in the weak and strong senses.1 In the weak sense of critical
thinking, a person is able provide a critique of other peoples reasoning, but
tends to use these skills to shield his or her own favorite view from equivalent
examination, much like a debater who will defend a view quite without regard
to its truth. In other words, the weak critical thinker holds his or her own
beliefs in an uncritical manner. Much rarer is the person who has the courage
to examine the truth or falsity of his or her own beliefs and the soundness of
his or her own reasoning. This is the strong critical thinker. And it is precisely
this trait, such proponents urge, that is the mark of the educated person.
The third view of critical and creative thinking is itself critical of the informal
logic view. Formulated primarily by John McPeck2, though implicit in the
views of Paul Hirst3, he claims that critical thinking is embodied in the disciplines
of knowledge. You cannot, he thinks, teach critical and creative thinking in a
general way. He notes quite correctly that the physical sciences differ in
concepts, methods, and tests for truth from mathematics, history, philosophy,
the arts, the social sciences, and moral knowledge. And they each in turn
differ from the others in these ways. Hence, he claims, critical thinking is
rather unique to each knowledge domain; critical thinking skills do not transfer
across the distinct disciplines of knowledge. So, while he agrees that critical
and creative thinking is the mark of the educated person, it will be a person
who understands well the differences among the disciplines of knowledge,
educated in the content of each of them individually at least to the point that he
or she is capable of making good judgments within the domain, and is able to
carry on a good conversation with specialists (though not to their depth) in
each. Here the image of the educated person is that of the well-rounded,
liberally educated person a conception first developed in ancient Greece.
McPeck makes a good point, I believe, but he pushes his view too far. It is
too exclusionary. The matter here is not one of either/or but both/and.
He is correct in arguing that having general skills without an understanding of
content makes one blind to the nuances of the disciplines. But he is wrong in
thinking that many of the skills taught and dispositions engendered in informal
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logic are never transferable across the disciplines. Indeed, one could become
well-versed in the various disciplines of knowledge, but never become even a
weak critical thinker in Pauls sense, let alone a strong critical thinker. Both
disciplinary understanding and critical thinking skills and dispositions are
necessary.
While both of these are needed, this image of the educated person is still
incomplete, I believe. For neither of these views is grounded in the world of
action, they are primarily confined to the world of thought. Indeed, in the
worst case, you might find a person extremely adept at critical thinking
(involving both views) who is able to offer a fine critique of the oppression and
injustice that surrounds him or herself in society, but who is never moved to
act on that critique to address the oppression and injustice through moral and
political action. While the lack of that kind of courage may be understandable
in a totalitarian society, is it so easily imaginable in the context of a liberal
democratic society in which the rights of citizenship exert certain
responsibilities in their wake? The office of citizen is the most basic and
fundamental political office in a liberal democratic order. That office requires
that we, as citizens, be actors in our politics, not merely complacent (even
cynical) observers and thinkers. Thomas Jefferson, a founder of America and
author of the Declaration of Independence, understood how important
education is to the preservation of liberty, indeed finding it to be the only
bulwark between freedom and tyranny in a democratic society. Thus, an
education in moral and political education must be added to the ideals of critical
thinking in etching out the image of the educated person in America. It must
be an education of the heart, and not merely the head. To the extent that this
understanding of the educated person is threatened in America, and I dare say
that it is, we are in grave difficulty.
Japanese Image #1:Cultivation and Refinement, a Pure Heart and Noble Mind
The traditional Japanese word for culture is bunka. And here is not meant
the anthropologists notion of culture as an all-embracing way of life, but rather
it refers to the high culture as practiced and refined during the Tokugawa
period (1603 1867 C.E.) when Japan mainly closed itself off from the rest of
the world (especially the West). Kyouyou (personal culture or cultivation)
was later coined to translate the English term culture, the French culture,
and the German kultur, but its meaning is closest to that of the German
Bildung (humanizing education, formation, personal cultivation) (Miura, 1999/
2000). Though kyouyou is more recent than bunka, the ideas behind these
terms are of a matched set. This is best displayed by examining education in
Tokugawa period.
In traditional China, Confucian society consisted of four classes in
descending order of status: the scholar/political administrator (gentry), the
farmer/peasant, the artisan, and the merchant. These were not caste-like,
since theoretically any individuals in the lower classes might aspire to the
scholar/political administrator class through a strong showing in the classical
examination system that governed admission to that class (knowledge could
then become power). In practice, however, the need for leisure in order to
acquire theoretical and spiritual knowledge required resources to support that
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leisure. Upward social mobility was, therefore, limited and the most likely
mobility was downward. But the important point is that political power rested
upon a reputation for Confucian learning and refinement.
Medieval Japanese society emulated the Chinese class system with one
major exception. Instead of the highest class being composed of scholar/
political administrators, the warrior class (bushi) of samurai with its code of
conduct (bushido) and its skills in the arts of warfare and large-scale
management held most political power. (Perhaps the closest analogue to the
samurai were the ancient Greeks and their Homeric code of honor, a warrior
ethical system that Plato vainly tried to gentle for civic life.) This did not end
when Ieyasu Tokugawa consolidated his Shogunate in 1603 after a long period
of civil war. Indeed, he and his Tokugawa successors decreed that only the
samurai class could hold power. Moreover, the Tokugawas strengthened the
divisions among the four classes, so that upward mobility from one of the lower
classes into that of the samurai became an extreme rarity (though downward
mobility for samurai, usually through impoverishment, was frequent enough).
Thus, bushido and the practice of warrior skills, endured through over two and
a half centuries of the enforced peace of the Tokugawa period, for it defined
what it meant to be samurai (Jansen, 2000, pp. 101 110).
But, as Umesao (1990, p. 6) points out, the samurai of the Tokugawa period
were not just warrior brutes or gangsters, even if they enjoyed certain
impunities from the lower classes. Since the Tokugawa hegemony ended the
need for large and ready standing armies, the trick was to turn fierce samurai
warriors into peaceful agents and bureaucrats of civil government. Ieyasu and
his descendents turned to the promotion and diffusion of culture and literacy
among the samurai class to turn this trick (much like Plato had advocated
nearly two thousand years earlier; unfortunately for Plato, he did not enjoy the
absolute power of the Shogun). At first glance, this was not an easy task.
Except for many of the major generals of Ieyasus time, most of the samurai
were illiterate. While they may have enjoyed partaking of the high arts (refined
from earlier peasant culture and native Shinto heritage) during their leisure
time, even high-ranking nobles could be ridiculed for any fondness for
Confucian classics. Despite early attempts to diffuse education, as late as 1715
only twenty daimyo domains had established official schools for samurai
(Jansen, 2000, p. 160).
Indeed, the literacy rate during Ieyasus time among the farmer/peasant,
artisan, and merchant classes may have matched or exceeded that of the
samurai. Leading villagers needed literacy in order to demarcate, map, and
document agrarian land divisions that could survive the scrutiny of future
generations (agrarian land disputes were common in feudal Japan). Such
documents required a stamp by a samurai official, but it was not unusual to
find that the samurai official placing the chop could not even read what the
peasant had written up! And artisans and merchants naturally needed literacy
skills to carry on their arts and commerce. (Taking advantage of illiterate
samurai became a favorite pastime for some of these, a situation that often
ended with the samurai having to drop out of his class due to impoverishment.)
Because samurai were not permitted to farm or engage in commerce (but lived
off a stipend of rice koku according to rank which they were permitted to sell
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or borrow against), there was, before the Tokugawa peace, little need for literacy
skills. But an illiterate samurai class, the political masters of the realm, would
hardly do in running an empire. So, official schools for samurai proliferated
during the 18th century to such an extent that by its end illiteracy was a shameful
position to be in.
Thus, the samurai class truly entered the world of kyouyou and bunka. As
Jansen (2000, p. 160) puts it:
The material the young samurai was expected to read and write began with
edifying excerpts from Chinese classics about morality and loyalty. Besides
basic calligraphy in Chinese characters and the Confucian Four Bookshe
was taught deportment, the tea ceremony, and some ekyolementary No chanting
and drums.
[After then learning the martial arts, the arts of administration, and the
heart of bushido under samurai tutelage], by the age of eighteen or nineteen,
the young warrior-turned gentleman was supposed to be competent in Chinese
and Japanese verseand military [and civil] administration.
Under the Tokugawa peace and official sponsorship, the high arts,
Confucian, and Buddhist classics flourished no less than the Japanese feudal
economy. The teachers of the samurai were predominantly Confucian and
Buddhist scholars in the hankou (daimyo feifdom) schools. And while they
educated and cultivated the young samurai, they had no share in political power,
a situation unlike their counterparts in China and Korea. What they taught,
kyouyou and bunka, was in a very real sense useless knowledge. While
Confucian philosophy, Buddhist sutras, the refined arts, etc. had a civilizing
effect on the samurai class, it provided no basis for the right to rule.
Kyouyou and bunka, at the same time, was scarcely a class-based
phenomenon. During the 18th century, private schools began springing up to
serve commoners. While the Shogunate had little interest in educating farmer/
peasants, artisans, and merchants, they did not prevent commoners from
receiving the fruits of education, as some aristocratic societies have done.
Indeed, some wealthy merchants with samurai connections (it was not
uncommon for some samurai to abdicate their class for the world of trade)
even managed to send their children to hankou schools. But by far the more
popular development was that of terakoya, shijuku, and goukou schools private
schools, sometimes under Buddhist sponsorship, founded by commoners to
serve commoners that numbered over 10,000 by the end of the Tokugawa
period (Jansen, 2000, p. 163). Literacy, as a result, blossomed throughout
Japan such that by the 19th century the country could boast one of the more
literate populations in the world (Rubinger, 1982, p. 5). As a result, wood
block printing and publishing entered the scene on a wide scale. And while
most of the reading public indulged their taste for popular fare (as they do
today), the Chinese and Buddhist classics also became widely available to
commoners who wished to emulate the educated upper class.
As Kurita (1990) points out, the entertainment arts of sado (the tea
ceremony), renka (14 and 17 syllabic poetry), and Noh play (later confined by
decree to the samurai class) all had their roots in the village meetings of the
farmer/peasant class in which the principle of ichimi doushin (close cooperation)
was held paramount. And from the beginning of the 18th century, yugei (hobbies
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which include the tea ceremony, dance, singing, theatre-going, origami, kado,
bonsai, painting, ceramics, and even the study of breeding and mathematics)
became extremely popular among commoners with a modicum of leisure time
(Umesao, 1990). Many of these cultural activities were taught in private schools
and academies that formed the basis for the non-formal educational sector of the
iemoto system that perpetuated these arts down to the popular cultural centers
to be found throughout contemporary Japan (Kobayashi, 1990, pp. 85 86).
The image of the educated person in Japan, as expressed in the concepts of
kyouyou and bunka, was a thoroughly non-utilitarian image. It reflected that
aspect of Japanese culture both native and derived that emphasized the
philosophical, the aesthetic, the ethical, and the spiritual dimensions of life
(Kobayashi, 1990). Even the study of breeding and mathematics was pursued
here for its own satisfactions and not for its applications in war or commerce
(Umesao, 1990). Nor could it. Though the samurai class may have done much
to popularize the pursuit of kyouyou and bunka, it could not be used to advance
oneself in Tokugawa Japan. Culture and education could only be pursued for
its intrinsic value.
With the Meiji Restoration that destroyed the old feudal system, we have
the roots of a new image of the educated person in Japan, an image that the
USA began to share at about the same time. It is an image that focuses upon
the development of the formal educational system in both countries, one that
connects education to the scientific, commercial, and military fortunes of the
nation-state. And for the individual, it is one that connects education to
subsequent life chances. And here we must be careful when we talk about the
pursuit of education in the formal educational system. For it may have little to
do with the pursuit of education, per se; but rather have a great deal to do with
the pursuit of grades, degrees, diplomas, and getting into the right school.
Umesao (1990, p. 2) may be exactly right when he states, The more [the]
education [system] expands, the more devastated the culture becomes.
Meritocracy and The Educational System
If a person comes to form certain goals, then one comes to have a certain
interest in the means to reaching them. The point is conceptual. If it is young
persons considered desire to truly explore a school subject, to get the most
out of it, then it is in her interest to master the art and skills of studenting.4 To
the student in the ideal sense, performing the acts of studenting and performing
them well is always in her self-interest. And it might be thought that it is a
major function of the educational system to encourage this interest in studenting
and to see that it is spread to as many students as possible. There is no doubt
that most educators at the classroom and school levels are in business to do
exactly that. Bringing students along to become intrinsically motivated in a
subject matter is widely held to be one of the highest aims of teaching and
education.
At the level of the education system as a whole, however, the story is rather
different. Here, what is encouraged is not so much the attitudes and activities
of studenting in the ideal sense as studenting in what may be called the
systemic sense. Here the goals of studenting in the ideal sense the zestful
pursuit of knowledge and understanding give way to the goals of studenting
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in the systemic sense: the pursuit of grades, degrees, and careers. In the
systemic sense of studenting, knowledge and understanding, at best, are merely
means to these other goals. At worst, the true pursuit of knowledge and
understanding is an impediment to their attainment.
I shall now explore why the educational system at the aggregate level
encourages studenting in the systemic sense, explore what those activities
and attitudes are, and show how they work to discourage students from
becoming students in the ideal sense. I will do so in a way that discusses the
American educational system, but which is also applicable to the Japanese
educational system, as we shall see.
The Distributive Behavior of the System5
It is difficult to understand the emergence, development, and expansion of
the American educational system without taking into account deeply-rooted,
American cultural beliefs concerning the value of education. Jefferson long
ago noted that a liberal education is essential to the preservation of the republic.
The pioneers, who immediately established schools upon settling, saw in
education the extension of civilization and the preservation of cultural tradition.
And as the nation became transformed from an agrarian to an incipient and
now full-blown technological society, the American school was viewed as more
and more central to the creation of a skilled workforce. It is this latter view
concerning the value and importance of education, of course, that primarily
motivates the current American educational reform movement, concerned as
it with Americas position in the world economy.
But there were other social forces at work that help explain the now nearly
universal attendance and attainment of pre-collegiate education and rapidly
expanding post-secondary education. Chief among these forces is that longentrenched, almost fervent, American belief in the social and economic efficacy
of education. It is a belief, or related collection of beliefs, that far predates the
transformation of the early American agrarian economy. Writing in the 19th
century, Alexis de Tocqueville (1835, 1969) clearly recognized this boundless
faith in the power of education:
Even the crowd can now plainly see the utility of knowledge, those who
have no taste for its charms set store by its results and make some effort to
acquire it
As soon as the crowd begins to take an interest in the labors of the mind, it
finds out that to excel in some of them is a powerful aid to the acquisition of
fame, power, or wealth (p. 458).
The belief in the social and economic efficacy of education springs from
18th century liberal ideology that holds that social rewards and privileges belong
not to an elite, hereditary class, but should go to those individuals of talent,
intelligence, and industry. The ideology of America, if not the reality, has
always been one of meritocracy. Thus, with the growth of the common school
in the 19th century, it takes little imagination to understand how beliefs
concerning the social and economic efficacy of education could be translated
into a conviction that schooling pays social and economic dividends. Clearly,
it is a conviction that could appeal to employers interested in the relatively
greater profits an educated workforce could generate. And it could appeal to
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individuals who viewed schooling as a way to better their life chances. The
transformation of the secondary school from an elite to a mass institution in
the 20th century appears to have cemented the relationship between the social
and economic efficacy of education and the conviction that schooling pays off
socially and economically.6 In the later rapid expansion of higher education,
we find ample confirmation of that expected relationship.
To understand why, imagine a society that distributes social and economic
benefits (income, status, earnings opportunities, etc.) on the basis of the
distribution of purely educational benefits (knowledge, skills, judgment, refined
tastes, etc.). Such a society is likely to be extremely inefficient. It is difficult
and time-consuming to discover who knows more and who less. But if there
were an intervening social institution that functions to evaluate individuals
relative possession of educational benefits, then such official testimony would
straightforwardly provide the basis for a subsequent distribution of social and
economic benefits.
In our own society, it is through the development of certification in the
educational system (by such instruments as grades, test scores, diplomas, and
transcripts) that made possible the development of a relatively efficient
meritocracy based on education and gave powerful confirmation to the belief
in the efficacy of education. Further, it welded a hodgepodge of schools and
colleges into a national educational system. For just as certification serves the
social and economic system, grades, transcripts, etc. serve the educational
system as a medium of exchange. This medium of exchange function of
grades, transcripts, and diplomas is based on their rough surrogate capability
to stand in for or represent the possession of relative levels of knowledge,
skills, and judgment. The standard grade of A, for example, is shorthand, a
way of saying that a student has shown superior mastery of a subject (given a
certain system level). It permits the avoidance of exhausting discussions of
exactly what the student has mastered. And in their medium of exchange
function, these surrogate educational benefits make possible communication
among educational institutions creating easier transfer and placement policies
between schools at the same level and ease and efficiency in selection and
placement policies between schools at different levels (say, high school and
college). Thus, surrogate educational benefits make the educational system
possible. Yet they also provide the basis for linking the educational system as
a whole with the social and economic system.
It is not difficult, then, to understand how an actual educationally-based,
meritocratic society works. Basically, it encompasses four distinct distributions
of which only two are the educational systems own. They can be encapsulated
as follows:
Figure 1
1
Educationally
Relevant

Attributes

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2
Educational
Benefits

3
Surrogate
Educational
Benefits

4
Non-educational
Social and Economic
Benefits

III.

Figure 1 can be understood as saying that the distribution of educationally


relevant attributes (intelligence, tenacity, and choice) in the school-age
population in large part gives rise to the distribution of educational benefits in
that same population (some learn more than others). In turn, the distribution
of educational benefits produce a distribution of surrogate educational benefits
(some are evaluated more highly, get higher test scores than others, and get
into more prestigious schools and colleges). Finally, the distribution of social
and economic benefits (some get better jobs, earn more, obtain higher status
than others) is distributed on the basis of the relative distribution of surrogate
educational benefits.
Of these four distributions, only 2 and 3 are clearly distributed by the
educational system directly. (The genetic lottery and early childhood life
chances generate the distribution of educationally relevant attributes; the social
and economic system directly distributes social and economic benefits.) But
what is central to the idea an educationally-based meritocratic society is the
notion that adult social and economic advantages should be based on the
distribution of (surrogate) educational benefits. On the basis, then, entails
that there is more than an empirical likelihood of a positive relation between
the two distributions. Rather, it has to do with the manner in which the adult
distribution of social and economic benefits is socially legitimated. As Green
et al. (1980, 1997, Ch. 6) put it, entailed is the following normative principle:
Those having a greater share of (surrogate) educational benefits merit or
deserve a greater share of social and economic benefits. This educationallybased meritocratic principle provides a social basis for the way that subsequent
social and economic inequalities can be regarded as justified. It is a principle,
in other words, of distributive justice. It is the principle concealed in the very
notion that schooling pays. It is also the principle responsible for prompting
students to student in the systemic, rather than ideal, sense that I shall explore
below. Moreover, it is the principle that may well prevent any real and lasting
educational reform. It remains now to draw out how the systemic student
might rationally interact with a meritocratic educational and social system.
Suppose, now, that this kind of rational agent neither extrinsically nor
intrinsically values pure educational benefits (knowledge, skills, understanding,
etc.). This student, who we shall call the status and wealth seeker (one kind
of systemic student; the other kind is the indifferent/hostile student often
found in American schools), wants the degree (or the grade) only because it is
a reasonable means to social and economic benefits. But this kind of student
will regard the acquisition of knowledge and understanding as an arbitrary
hurdle or obstacle to getting the diploma (and then the goods). Though the
status and wealth seeker will want the grade and eventually the diploma, he or
she will regard the learning as utter drudgery something to be done as
minimally as possible and something to be forgotten as soon as it is practical
(i.e., as soon as the grade is assigned, the degree received, or the SAT test
taken. The popularity of Scholastic Assessment Test coaching firms, such as
the Princeton Review and Kaplan, is a testament to this widespread attitude.
They typically guarantee higher SAT scores through emphasis on test taking
skills and strategies, not the acquisition of knowledge and understanding).
This type of student will be like a chameleon to his or her teachers. For this
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types public display will be like the intrinsically-oriented student, but with a
fair emphasis on brown nosing behavior. Privately, however, he or she finds
it all a rather disgusting game to have to play, though one played with typical
thespian resources. When it is possible to avoid detection, the status and wealth
seeker will lie and cheat, steal or buy the necessary work (term paper mills),
and do anything that will prevent other students from receiving higher grades
than his or her own.
Though morally rather unattractive, we should expect little else from a
rational agent who sees the institutional norms of schooling and the social
tradition of academic education as basically arbitrary matters. The normative
principle connecting the educational and social and economic systems strongly
encourage status and wealth seekers to remain in the educational system when
their talents and capacities might be more productively not to say morally
engaged in pursuits outside it. But the development of this kind of person is
an unintended effect (perhaps) of our adoption of an educationally-based
meritocracy.
The Systemic Student in Japan
While there are differences between the Japanese and American educational
systems, especially in the role that examinations play in admitting students to
the next sub-level of the system or to particular schools within those sub-levels,
there is a doubtless similarity in the fact that Japan has, like the United States,
developed an educationally-based meritocratic social system. After the fall of
the Shogunate and the rise of the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the first national
requirement for compulsory elementary schools at public expense was made
in 1872. This government act also called for the development of higher
secondary schools and universities. The Meiji government acknowledged that
the nation was far behind the West in science and technology, one reason for
the downfall of the Shogunate, and feared that only a rapid development of a
schooled population stood between continuing independence and Western
colonization. The Imperial Rescript on Education (increase production and
promote industry and a rich country with a strong army) of 1890 introduced
the education of the now-abolished samurai class (the essence of bushido minus
most of the military arts until their re-emergence in the 1930s) into the schools
for the nation as a whole. As Umesao (1990, p. 3) puts it:
National education set general norms for the nationwhich incorporated
many of the rules that had governed the lord-vassal relationship of samurai
warriors. For example, among them are the typical norms of the samurai warrior
class, chu (loyalty to ones sovereign) and ko (filial piety). These concepts
were taken up in the Imperial Rescript on Educationand were expressed as
The people of Japan should endeavor to fulfill the norm of Chuand Ko.
The ethics and norms of the samurai warrior class thus penetrated Meiji society
including the governing system, politics and the economy.
The emphasis in the curriculum was placed on literacy, mathematics,
science, and shushin (moral education). Apart from a common literacy, the
Meiji drive for industrialization, with a concomitant militarization, eclipsed the
image of the educated person as conveyed by kyouyou and bunka. What the
Tokugawa Shogunate had joined together (bushido and bunka) was now
152

III.

separated once more by the Meiji elites. Education, in the form of a national
school system, was harnessed to the utilitarian task of modernizing the nation.
With the demise of the (nearly) hereditary samurai class as the source of
national leadership, new ways had to be found to identify emerging leaders in
society. That task was entrusted to the nascent school system. But in order to
sort between the sheep and the shepherds of industry, politics, education, and
the military, a new mechanism was needed. Gazing westward to China, as
Japan had done in the past, the Meiji leaders saw in Chinas examination system
the perfect tool to perform the sorting. Based on Confucian values, commonly
held between the mandarin class and the samurai, the examination system
relied mainly on brute memorization in schools. The Meiji leaders, thus,
envisioned a pyramiding educational system that extended from the elementary
school upwards toward its apex: the Imperial University of Tokyo (and later
other imperial universities, as well as the roku dai: the big six of private
universities). Access to successively higher levels of the system depended
upon surviving the competition of the examination (a clearly surrogate
educational good) through the massive memorization of inert (Alfred North
Whitehead) literacy, mathematical, and scientific facts. The few who survived
this competition were, thusly, guaranteed a seat at the elite table set for the
leaders of Japanese society.
Though clearly meritocratic and ostensibly fair yet access to elite private
schools, private tutors, and prestigious juku (cram schools) clearly favor the
advantaged this kind of schooling had little to do with becoming a cultured
(educated) person. This system, of course, survived Japans defeat in WWII
and continues today. Some maintain that it is responsible for the modernization
of Japan in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and the post-war rise of a
technological and post-industrial giant. And it is true that Japanese high school
students do extremely well on international comparison examinations in
mathematics and science, especially in comparison with American peers.
However that may be, one can wander whether Japan is in danger of losing its
soul kyouyou and bunka as a result.
In todays Japan, the examination system has been extended and intensified.
Most Japanese now send their children to pre-school and a spot in a
prestigious pre-school is itself governed by an entrance exam! This pattern
is repeated for entrance into a prestigious elementary school, junior high
school, and university. Children feel pressure to do well in preparing for
examination competition from kyoiku mama (education mamas and filial piety)
and norms stressing wa(harmony) that help ensure social conformity. If it
can be afforded, juku that center directly on examination knowledge become a
necessity. And if the public schools attempt to introduce subjects more closely
related to kyouyou and bunka, students soon learn pay them and their teachers
little attention if they in no way are relevant to examination knowledge. In this
way, Japanese children become systemic students in the scrap for position and
place in society. The only relief from this inexorable push to succeed is to
jump off the educational escalator. The Japanese system offers this in the
form of commercial, agricultural, fisheries, and industrial high schools.
Typically, these vocational schools are of low prestige and do not lend
themselves as an avenue to university admissions. Moreover, the trend is
153

moving away from them and toward academic high school attendance: whereas
decades ago nearly 40% of Japanese youth attended vocational high schools,
today that rate stands at only about 20% (Japan Ministry of Education, Culture,
Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Statistical Abstract, 2002). For the
strong majority of Japanese students, there is no alternative to the gauntlet of
schooling to prepare for examinations that will dictate their future. Gone are
the old koto gakko or higher secondary schools operated by the
centralgovernment (and later prefectures and private schools) that guaranteed
admission into an imperial university. With no pressure to prepare for high
school or university examinations, kyouyou and bunka (especially philosophy,
high literature, and foreign languages) genuinely flourished during the late
Taisho and early Showa periods in these elite schools. But these were laid to
rest by the occupation after the Pacific War because of their elite, allegedly
non-democratic nature (however, entrance into them, at middle school or after
it, was roughly meritocratic). Thus, the allied occupation even conspired to
monopolize the examination systems grip on Japanese education.
The clearest evidence, however, that the Japanese educational system
creates thousands and thousands systemic students (students in name only)
is highlighted by the best and brightest: those students who continue on to
four-year universities. Most recently, about 46% of all high school graduates
continue on to higher education (all types of IHEs in Japan), and the majority
of these enter four-year institutions (MEXT Statistical Abstract, 1998). As with
the USA, it is not sufficient to simply choose to go on to four-year higher
education, for one must also be chosen (except as noted below). And, of course,
admission here is governed by a national centralized exam (National Center
Test for University Admissions) for entrance into the national and prefectural
public universities and individual university examinations for both public and
private universities. At the apex of Japanese higher education, stand the ninety
plus national universities (their prestige depending on their founding date and
location) with the University of Tokyo on top, as well as the roku dai (top six)
of private universities. Private universities comprise over 70% of four-year IHEs
in Japan. Competition to enter the most prestigious universities is incredibly
intense, while entrance is available to nearly anyone who is willing to take the
admissions examination of the lowest ranked private universities and pay the
tuition. What makes the competition to the elite public and private universities
so intense is not necessarily related to the quality of education to be found
there. Rather, it is strongly related to the status system in the corporate and
government worlds of Japan. For the corporations of the highest status and
central government tend to confine their hiring to the graduates of the most
prestigious universities. Thus, where one goes to university largely determines
where one ends up in society. A similar pecking order exists in the USA,
though it is less intense than in Japan.
It is doubtlessly true that fine examples of educational activities and
opportunities emphasizing kyouyou, bunka and the learning of science and
mathematics for their own sake do take place in Japanese daigaku, especially
at the most prestigious institutions. The problem is that many students fail to
take advantage of them and suffer few consequences for doing so. After
cramming for the university entrance exams that largely focus on a students
154

III.

ability to memorize and spit back inert, often arcane facts (one question on the
University of Tokyos entrance examination asked students to identify a
particular small river next to a small mountain range in the eastern part of The
Netherlands), joyful first-year university students are understandably fed up
with the years of such cramming that led finally to their admission, so that
they cease having to do anything with further and deeper learning. McVeigh
(2002) in his recent provocative book puts it this way:
What some foreign observers fail to understand is that unlike problems
found in higher education in other places, the poverty of teaching and learning
in Japans higher educational system is widespread, profound, systematic, and
deeply structural. What we have is not mere weaknesses at some sites, but
organized hypocrisy. In a word, failure is institutionalized in such a way that
school can be called simulated (p. 26).
What McVeigh conveys, and is supported by accounts by Hall (1998) and
Cutts (1997) and many other observations by non-Japanese (e.g., Mack-Cozzo,
2002) and Japanese (e.g., Okazaki, 1999) alike, is that many Japanese
universities are simply sites where sensei pretend to teach and students pretend
to learn. Surrounded by the ritual ceremonies of the academy, little real learning
takes place. In some cases, McVeigh and others document how university
officials actually overturn the grades of failing students and how a culture has
developed among sensei to discourage holding students to standards of
learning. Apparently, employers understand this system, for they continue to
hire graduates from the same institutions that turn a blind eye to teaching
quality and student learning, while raking in entrance examination fees and
tuition from parents anxious to see their children succeed in the university
(i.e., simply graduate with a diploma). Employers sometimes seem to be more
concerned to recruit students for their survival qualities in the competition for
university admission to prestigious institutions than to care about what they
acquire there. Many employers believe that universities are irrelevant to their
concerns anyway, and simply expect that real training will have to take place
on the job.
One root difficulty in this system of pretending to teach and pretending to
learn concerns the traditional autonomy of university faculty. In many
universities (especially the privates), the presidents are selected directly by
the faculty, and so central administrations have less control over faculty activities
and the curriculum than exists at American universities. Added to this are the
facts that tenure is often awarded to full-time faculty at the outset of employment
and the Japanese tendency to see their primary responsibility as that of gakusha
(researcher) rather than kyoikusha (teacher) at a rate that may even surpass
that found at the most research-intensive universities in the USA. Apparently,
little time is spent by faculty in planning and coordinating the curriculum,
standardizing the syllabi of core courses, or evaluating the overall effectiveness
of the educational program (Poole, 2003). Given this level of autonomy, many
central administrators throw up their hands at reining in an individualisticminded faculty (which contrasts with the stereotype of Japanese groupmindedness).
But the possibility (even probability) of reform of higher education in Japan
is scarcely the bleak picture that McVeigh paints. Driven by demographics
155

and central government induced reforms, higher education in Japan is headed


for rapid transformation in the next decade. Demographically, the size of the
18 year-old population in Japan the traditional market for four year institutions
is in drastic decline from 1.8 million in 1992 to 1.2million in 2002 and heading
lower. Whereas 80% of four-year university applicants now succeed in entering
some university or other, the projection is that by the end of the decade, the
admission success rate will be 100% (Tsuruta, 2003). Except for the most
selective and highly sought-after public and private universities (and even they
may have to at least contemplate lowering entrance standards), many private
universities, at least, will face a shortage of new entrants. Recruitment pressures
are likely to increase and retention practices including scrutiny of and reform
to the educational program are likely to intensify. Sheer survival will focus
not only the attention of university presidents, but also the faculty whose jobs
will be on the line. Japanese higher education has switched from a perpetual
sellers market to a perpetual buyers market (Poole, 1983).
Moreover, the reforms to public higher education initiated by the Nakasone
government in the late 1980s and hastened by the Koizumi government in the
last few years promise to drastically change this scene. In exchange for
allegedly greater internal autonomy from MEXT, the government is
corporatizing the public sector, consolidating some institutions, strengthening
the hand of university presidents vis--vis their faculties, weaning universities
from customary block government grants (the convoy system), forcing them
to compete for externally-awarded grants, and extolling them to create tighter
links with high technology industries (MEXT, 2004). And for the first time,
the government is introducing the universities to the practice of independent,
external evaluation and assessment that will be used as a basis to award external
funding to encourage university centers of excellence, especially in science,
technology, and the health sciences. And since most private universities are
funded by the government in part, they will not escape the Ministry of
Educations gaze. Many faculty, however, wonder what kind of autonomy this
really means. Moreover, unless faced with job dismissal, university closings,
or other sanctions, it will still be difficult to move the current generation of
university faculty in the directions envisioned.
But even should these reforms actually increase the quality of higher
education in the private and public sectors, it is doubtful that it will lead to
higher student engagement with curricular offerings. As Poole (2003, p. 9)
puts it:, it is not uncommon for 20% of the student body to be enrolled in
name only, rarely showing their face on campus. What incentive will better
quality programs provide to these disengaged students? Moreover, even in
the face of a less content driven, more integrated, and flexible curriculum at
the secondary level of the system supposedly to nurture more creative, less
anxious, independent thinkers a growing number of educational
stakeholders (parents and teachers, especially university faculty members and
cram school instructors) have become more skeptical of the reforms by the
Ministryand have expressed their concerns about students declining
scholastic ability and regressive attitudes towards learning (such as the lack of
eagerness and independence)[Such concern and public debate] eventually
led the former Education Minister to propose in January 2002 the significance
156

III.

of academic ability ( Tsuruta,, 2003, p.5). In response to this re-emphasis on


academic ability, MEXT emasculated its own guidelines on more integrated
studies and less content driven teaching and called on measures to re-introduce
the basic principle of measuring the overall academic abilities on the general
entrance exam by requiring public university applicants to be tested for content
knowledge in more subjects (Tsuruta, 2003, p. 6).
Thus, rather than abandoning an examination system that places most
emphasis on the memorization and cramming of knowledge, MEXT has
regressively moved to re-enforce such a regime as the means to combat
regressive attitudes to learning! Yet it is the examination system, as such, and
its washback effects on lower education instruction and curriculum that is
creating systemic students in the first place. It is little wonder that higher
education students, when finally relieved of the obligation to cram for any further
high stakes exam, turn to personal amusement and extra-curricular club
activities during their university years. And now, in the buyers market of
higher education, few universities are in a position to make these systemic
students take their studies seriously, higher quality programs or not.
The Reality of Systemic Students in the USA and Japan
The absence of a central examination system in the USA that focuses upon
cramming and that is the primary, if not sole, determinant of school or university
placement combats the systemic student syndrome somewhat. Though there
is a widespread use of the SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) and the ACT
(American Collegiate Test) for admission to colleges and universities, such
test scores alone are scarcely decisive in admissions decisions. Furthermore,
they generally cannot be crammed for in the way that their Japanese
counterparts require. A new generation of these tests also requires (SAT) or
makes optional (ACT) the writing of a persuasive essay that examines a
students ability to conceptualize, write, and argue a point of view surely a
critical skill that is central to the educated person in the USA. (It is at the same
time dismaying to see college and university applicants beginning to flock to
the ACT because writing the essay is optional: the avoidance strategy of the
systemic student.).
It is true, as well, that American college and university students cannot
shirk their responsibilities in classrooms and in their degree programs.
Absenteeism and failure to hand in quality work assignments (even in an age
of grade inflation) are a fairly quick ticket to low grades and academic dismissal
(the ratio between starts and completions of the B.A. degree has remained
about 56% since the 1920s). The systemic student, however, will have a strategy
for dealing with this: cheating on tests, plagiarizing off the internet, or outright
purchase of term papers from term paper mills. And while it is possible to
remain anonymous at our large university campuses and never really come to
grips with substantive ideas, arguments, and educational ideals, Americans
have a wonderful tradition of small liberal arts colleges where exposure to the
great intellectual ideas and products of human genius is impossible to avoid.
And there the college faculty have no illusion that their primary responsibility
is teaching. If it is true that Japanese students, on the average, do much better
on international comparison tests in math and science in secondary schools
157

(American elementary and secondary teachers are generally less grounded in


these subjects than Japanese teachers), it is likely that through tertiary
education American students surpass their Japanese peers.
But like Japan, it is an incontestable fact that the USA is creating generation
after generation of systemic students. Despite the existence of pockets of true
educational excellence in public and private elementary and secondary schools,
most of the teaching and the textbooks are unimaginative, boring, and focused
on the learning of inert facts. In the public schools, activity is now being driven
by the anti-intellectual educational policies of the Bush administration that
threaten to undermine the ideal of public education though it is not clear that
Americans remember what that ideal was, since they, too, seem to connect
education with only getting a job or getting a better job.
If kyouyou and bunka are threatened by the expansion of the educational
system in Japan, then the ancient Greek ideal of paideia (culture and education),
the root meaning of the educated person in the USA, is threatened as well by
the expansion of its educational system. The two countries, despite the
differences I have noted, share the same system dynamics in rewarding the
educational life chances of holders of mere surrogates of systematic and critical
knowledge, life-affirming skills, deep understanding, educational ideals, and
educated tastes, and not the real things themselves. We simply deceive
ourselves in thinking that we have produced highly educated populations when
we note the high levels of participation in the educational system at its highest
levels. The task that remains is to make passage through the educational system
less fateful and less decisive for the life chances and opportunities for people
(see Ericson and Ellett, 2002) in a way that true culture and learning may flourish
once more. Failing this, we will reap the bitter fruits of being highly schooled,
educational wastelands.
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159


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A CONCEPT OF THE EVOLUTION-ONTOLOGICAL LITERACY

J. Shmajs, E. Vishnevsky (Bratislava, Slovakia)


Alongside with various kinds of literacy such as, for example, informational,
technological, computer, cultural, ecological literacy, bio-literacy (their basis is
not any new ontology of nature and culture) we suggest introducing an
alternative concept: the evolution-ontological literacy. It is a new paradigmatic
concept of literacy, which starts from the evolutionary ontology, whose studies
are being presently performed by the authors.
Key words: evolutional-ontological literacy, ontological evolution,
informational conflict, biophilic changes.

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STUDYING OF SELF-RENEWING POTENTIAL OF NATURE
IS THE TASK OF MODERN NATURE MANAGEMENT

A. V. Vershkov (Krasnoyarsk)
The necessity of new approaches to teaching the nature management is shown
in the article. The present economic approaches, based on the understanding of
nature as just a resource of human activity, have led to global ecological problems
which put humanity to the edge of survival. Thus, there is a need for a new
ecological approach based on understanding nature as an equal in rights partner.
A course in nature management should include the topics devoted to studying
the self-renewing potential of nature and the possibilities of its strengthening by
man, because this allows developing the foundations of a co-evolutionary
cooperation between man and biosphere. Possible ways of such strengthening
are presented in the article.
Key words: anthropogenic pollution, nature management, natural
purification, nature.

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3. , . . / . . . ., 1999.
4. , . / . . . : , 1968.
5. , . . (
) / . . , . . , . . //
. 2007. 4. . 311.
6. , . . / . . , . . ,
. . // . 2007.
5. . 4354.
7. , . . ( ) /
. . . . : , 1976.
8. , . . / . . // . . 2007. 10. . 5363.
9. , . . / . . . . : , 2004. 444 .
10. , .. / . . //
. . 1985. 1. . 4254.

176

IV.

IV

Part IV. INNOVATIVE AND ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION


IN A CONTEXT OF GLOBAL PROBLEMS
316.422 : 37 + 316.422 : 001



. . ()
, - . ,
- . ,
.
: , - , , , , - .

THE PROBLEMS OF THE INNOVATIVE PROCESS


IN SCIENCE AND EDUCATION

V. V. Kopein (Kemerovo)
In the article, there are examined the reasons and special features of
insensitivity of the Russian economy to the innovative way of development, the
need for the active introduction of the achievements of scientific and technical
progress. There are specified the basic conditions, under which the scientific
and technical progress becomes the leading factor of dynamic economic
development. A special contribution of the author consists of distinguishing the
,
() - .
650000, . , / 1999.
-mail: valkem2@mail.ru

177


key role of science and education as the basic elements of the system of innovative
process. The need for regulation of the innovative process in various branches of
economy, on the level of the country and the regions is emphasized.
Key words: innovation, science, scientific and technical progress, education,
commercialization of scientific and industrial activity, Russian sciences being
in demand.

, - , .
- .
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178

IV.

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,
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. 1/3 , 75 % , 64 % , .
- . 2000 2002 . 1,05 1,24 % . : 2,7 2,82 %, 1,86 1,9 %, 2,48
2,5 %, 2,19 2,2 %, 2,98 3,09.
. , , .
, , 179

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;
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19922001 . 5 % ) 180

IV.

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182

IV.

, , , . . 1998 .
(65 %). 2000 . 71 %, 30
25 %. 4,54,8 % [3, . 106];
,
;
.
.
. , 1999 . 62 %
[4, . 66];
,

.
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. , -183

, .
, ,
, , . ,
, , .

1. The Global Competitiveness Report 1999. World Economic Forum. Geneva, 1999.
P. 280290.
2. , . / . /
/ . . 2005. 10. . 4749.
3. ( 2015 .).
. : , 2001.
4. , . /
. , . , . // . 1999. 6.

378.147.88

-

. . ()

, ,
.
: ; ; ; ; , , ; ; , ; ; - ; ,
.

, (. ).
665709, . , . , 40.
E-mail: Human@pisem.net

184

IV.

INNOVATIVE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS IN THE MODERN
INSTITUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION

O. N. Bolshakova (Bratsk)
In the article the author presents the results of an analysis of the problems of
modern education modernization, discusses the necessity of innovative
transformations in the system of specialists training in the institutions of higher
education, and studies one of the directions of improvement of the innovative
preparation for creative professional activity of the prospective specialists.
Key words: humanistic culture, two-level system, innovative, specificity;
cognitive, functional, personal competence; endogenous basis, diversification,
internationalization of higher education, information technologies, constructive
active approach, thinking criticism, integrative thinking competences.

XXI , , , . .

2010 , , , , , ,
, , .
,
, , .
, , 59 1998 ., ,
, .
, ,
, .

. ,

, ,

185

. , , , : 9 % (IQ>120), (IQ>130) 2,2 %,


(80<IQ>120) 82 % [1].

, , ,
,

, , , .
2003 . , 45 . ,
. , ( ) ( ) 2009 .
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, .
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, -

186

IV.

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[4; 5].
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187

(1997 .). 19981999- .



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188

IV.

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, - , ,
-
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.

1. , . XXI / . //
. 2007. 4. . 9397.
2. , . . /
. . // . 2006. 7. . 109114.
3. , . / . , . // . 2007. 8. . 315.
4. : . . / . . . . ., 2006.
5. , . / . , . // . 2006. 7. . 8589.
6. , . . / . . //
. . . . -. 2003. 1.
7. , . . / . . // . 2006. 9.
8. , . . / . . // . . -. . 1.
(). 2006. 1. . 8289.

190

IV.

37.0 + 159.9



. . ()
.
, .
. ,
(). , , .
: , , ,
, , .
INNOVATIONS IN THE DOMESTIC SYSTEM
OF FAMILY EDUCATION

T. E. Shaposhnikova (Novosibirsk)
In the paper there are considered the specificities of the relation between the
concepts of violence nonviolence in the family. The author considers the question
of family violence from the sociological, psychology, juridical, pedagogic
viewpoints. The accent is made on the understanding of the sources and forms
of violence, and the possibilities of violence reduction. The author offers various
definitions of the family violence concept. This problem is on the first stage of
investigation, although there is already some unique experience of separate
research and the practice of creation of crisis centers (shelters). In the article,
the psychological and pedagogical aspects of family violence are analyzed. The
author considers the ways of rehabilitation for children who were subject to
violence.
Key words: violence, family, physical violence, sexual abuse, moral cruelty,
risk factors.


,
. ,
.
,
.
630126, . , . , . 28.
-mail: shaposhnikova@gmai1.com

191

, .
. . . . , : ,
, .
, . , , , . ,

[2, . 171172].
. , .
, , ;
.
1990- .,
1960- .
(, ,
) -
, : , . 3040 %
. ,
- ,
. , [2].
. ,
30 % 57 ,
6070 % , . ,
. , . .
: -;
-, ; , . . . : , ;
, , [4]. -

192

IV.

: , ; , [1].

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.
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193

[7].

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194

IV.

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196

IV.

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197

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1. : 30 . . 17. . : . ., 2005.
2. , . . / . . , . . . : - , 2004.

198

IV.

3. : . . / . . . ., 1997.
4. , . . / . . ; . . . . . : . ., 1991.
5. , . .
: . . . . : 13.00.01 : 08.02.2005 / . . . , 2005. 26 .
6. , . . . - : . . . : 19.10.2003 / . . . , 2003.
197 .
7. , . . . ,
, , / . . . ., 2001.

37.01

. . (), . . ()
, - . . , . .
; , - . , .
.
, ,
, .
: , , , , , , , .
,
.
127562, , , 30, . 104.
-mail: aktor@mail.ru
, .
634041, , , 75.
-mail: prosk@mail.ru

199


PHILOSOPHICAL-METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF THE PRACTICES
OF PEDAGOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY OF SELF-DETERMINATION

A. A. Popov (Moscow), I. D. Proskurovskaya (Tomsk)


The article is devoted to the origins of the theory of education, based on the
philosophical-anthropological project of L. S. Vygotsky, his theory of search in
particular. In the article, there is introduced a key notion of educational task as
the leading notion of anthropology and pedagogy of self-determination. An
educational task initiates an open activity of a subject. The authors propose an
idea of practical thinking as a thinking which provides realization of this or
that cultural-historical practice.
The authors of the article pay attention to the fact that the theory of act as a
theory of self-determination is an important direction in the Russian philosophical
tradition. The idea of self-determination is described in the article as the leading
concept of the modern pedagogical culture. The article contains the notion of
human potential as the object of self-determination pedagogy. Thanks to this,
there are described the ideas of modern educational practices such as the practices
of institutiolization, actualization, and self-determination.
Key words: human potential, possibility, anthropo-practice, selfdetermination, liberal anthropology, anthropo-practices of institutiolization and
actualization, idealization and transformation of a social-cultural object,
educational task, practical thinking.

, - . . ,
, , [2]. ,
, , .
, .
-, ,
. ,
. , , , , .
,
, .
-, - ( ) , (). , -
, .

200

IV.

, -, ,
, , , , -. , . . , , ,
- , 1915 ., . ,
1926 .
, , ( )
.
, - . , ,
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(
XXI: ). -,
, ().
, . -,
. -, , : ().

.

.

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,
.
201

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, .
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, [1].
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, .
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,
[8, . 132]. , ( , ), ,
, , , , Dasein (
). ,
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Fremd bestimmung ( ).

,
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202

IV.

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IV.

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205

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206

IV.

. , ,
.
, .

1. , . / . // . : - : ,
1998. 96 .
2. , . . / . . . . : ,
1986. 573 .
3. , . : / . , . , . // . 1996. 4. . 522.
4. , . . . /
. . . ., 1995. 447 .
5. , . /
. . ., 1999. 336 .
6. , . : . .
/ . . ., 2000. 351 .
7. , . ? / . , . . . : - . ; . : , 1998. 288 .
8. , . . /
. . . ., 1993. 224 .
9. , . . / . . //
. ., 1991. . 618.
10. , . . / . . // . 2001. 3. . 517.
11. , . . - : . . . / . . . , 1999. 176 .
12. , . . :
/ . . , . . // : . ,
2002. . 5174.
13. , . / . . ., 1995. 576 .
14. , . / . . . : . ., 2004. 416 .
15. , . : , .
/ . . . : , 1996. 448 .
16. , . / . //
. ., 1991. . 195206.
17. , . / . . . : , 1997.
176 .
18. , . . /
. . , 1996.
19. , . . . / . . // : : 1- . . . , 1996. . 73128.

207


82.081 : 27 22

. . ()
, , . ,
, , -
.
:
, ,
.

A CYCLIC COMPOSITION FORMULA OF THE BOOK


OF REVELATION

O. P. Kozhina (Krasnoyarsk)
We examine the problem of understanding of the Book of Revelation. As a
basis of solving the problem, we take a cyclic composition formula worked out by
the author in accordance with a new educational method Ruslo (Riverbed).
The main idea of the analysis is to interpret the Apocalypse not as a
preparation for the inevitable end of the world but as a form of defining and
resolving the traditional philosophical problematics of the foundations of humans
Being. Our philosophical analysis of the Apocalypse is a result of our professional
experience in teaching philosophy. The analysis extends and deepens the subject
under investigation.
Key words: new educational method Ruslo, philosophical analysis,
formula of Revelation, revelation as a phenomenon of consciousness.

, -
() , .
: ;
; , , , ;
. .
660025, . , . , . 95.
-mail: kozhina_olga_p@mail.ru

208

IV.

, . ,
[2, c. 35].
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[3, c. 6567]. ,
. , , , [3, c. 65]. , , .
209

[3, c. 65]. 1882 . , , . , : [3, c. 66].


, , , . , , , , , , , ,
,
[1, c. 297].

, ; :
, -, ;
,
, , ;
.
. : 1- 7 ;
2- 7 ; 3- 7 ; 4- 7 ; 5-
; 6- 7 ; 7- 7 .
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.

210

IV.

, .
,
-, .
, , , . ,
, , ,
,
.
, , , ,
, .


, ,
. ,
, , , .
; , ,
.

1. , . . / . . ; . . . //
. . : , 1986. 297 .
2. , . . - / . . , . . . : . .
-, 2007. . 35.
3. , . . : . /
. . . : , 1999. . 6570.
4. , . . : . / . . , . . .
: . . -, 2007. . 34.

211


37.014.52

:

. . ()

. , , ,
.
: , , , .

THE DYNAMICS OF INTER-ETHNIC CONFLICTS


AND THE PROSPECTS OF POLYCULTURAL EDUCATION

O. S. Terekhov (Novosibirsk)
The purpose of the article is to analyze the prospects of polycultural education
in Russia and to develop a system of early prevention and blocking of negative
consequences of inter-ethnic conflicts, which could obstruct the progress of this
educational direction. This work investigates the factors which could further the
inter-ethnic tension. The main contribution of the author is revealing the issues
of the inter-ethnic conflict.
Key words: polycultural education, ethnic conflict, upbringing, group,
ethnic culture, tolerance.


.
,
, , ( ). , .

( , )
[2, . 41]. .
630126, . , . , . 28.
-mail: Terehoff@ngs.ru

212

IV.

,
.
, ,
.
: , , . .
,
,
,
.
, , , ,
.
( ,
, ,

), : ( ). , ,
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, [5, . 35].
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213

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[7, . 55]. , ; - .
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). , , , .
; ,
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,

[4, . 139].
,
.
3. 214

IV.

. . (
) ,
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[6, . 55]. , , , , .
,
. ,
,
. , . ,
,
.
.

:
, .

,
. , , .

215


; , , .

1. , . . : /
. . . ., 2003. 186 .
2. , . . XXI / . . .
., 2002. 115 c.
3. , . . / . . . ., 2003.
135 .
4. , . . / . . . . : , 2003. 198 .
5. , . . : /
. . . ., 2000. 85 .
6. , . . .
- / . . . ., 1998. 235 .
7. , . . /
. . . ., 1999. 198 .
8. , . : / . . ., 1999. 215 .

02



. . ()
. , ,
, .
.
: ,
, ,
.

, ,
.
630126, . , . , . 28.
E-mail: Sophos310@mail.ru

216

IV.

LIBRARY SERVICES AS A CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL VALUE

O. D. Oleinikova (Novosibirsk)
The purpose of the article is to interpret library services as a cultural and
educational value. Its prevailing theme is to make a comparison between the
media culture and the culture of book reading, the visual information user and
the reader, the sociocultural roles of domestic television and literature in public
education, the Internet and the library. The article analyses the sociocultural
functions of library services in the university as compared with the functions of
contemporary television.
Key words: sociocultural environment, education, library services,
information civilization, value, intelligentsia, alienation, existential vacuum.

.
, , ( ) ,
. , (
)
.
, , - , ,
, .
, , , .
;
, . ,
, , .

. 80 %
. 0,5 %. -
56 , 1,5 % .
.
. .
- .
. . ,

217

- .
. ,
. 52 % , 37 % , 34 %
. : , , ,
,
.
,
,
,
,
. , , . ,

, , . , , ,
( ) , , . , , , -.
, . , ,
,
, ,
.


.
, , . ,
. , ,
.
[1, . 648].
, , [1, . 651]. . ,
- . , , , -

218

IV.

.

. . :
, . , . 10 %,
, 20 % , 50 % , 100 %
, 300 % ,
, .
,
[2, . 770]. , , , , , ,
, , ,
.
. , 18 1988 . 900-
, ,
- , , , [3, . 11].
, . , , . ,
.
Claustrum sine armarium est castrum sine armamentarium , . . .
, , ,
. , , . .
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; , . 220

IV.

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.
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222

IV.

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.

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, ,
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1. , . . : . . / . . . : Academia, 1999. 956 .
2. , . . . . 1, . 1. / . . . : , 1969. 907 .
3. : : / . . . . . . : . . , 2002. 408 .
4. , . . : 2 . / . . . . : , 1975. . 1. 224 .
5. , . / . // . 2006. 11. . 149160.
6. , . / . . . : , 2005. 245 .
7. , . / . // .
. 2008. 1218 .

378 + 159.9

. . ()

. ,

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, .
: , ,
.
, .
630126, . , . , . 28.
-mail: Rdu2@mail.ru

224

IV.

CREATIVE PERSONALITY FORMATION AS A PHILOSOPHICAL
PROBLEM OF EDUCATION

V. Ya. Laluev (Novosibirsk)


Modern philosophy of education shows great interest in the problem of persons
creative abilities and creative activity during the process of education. The
changes that take place require the institutions of higher education to form
active students with creative thinking, who are able to solve various problems
and evaluate new information. The urgency of this article is in the considered
philosophical problems, which determine the vector of the further development
of the Russian educational system.
Key words: creative person, philosophy of education, culture of development.

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1. , . . / . . //
. 2008. 3 (24).
2. : : . . /
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316.320.12



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().
660100, . , . , . 70 .
E-mail: serge@krkime.com

227


GLOBALIZATION AS ENGINEERING OF A NEW WORLD ORDER

N. S. Dureeva (Krasnoyarsk)
The article is about the features of the modern phase of globalization as a
formation of the social structure according to the western example. The absence
of a clear definition of globalization leads to different perception of this social
phenomenon. Most of the research of this problem is dedicated to the economic
side of globalization. However, spreading of the western lifestyle envelops all the
spheres of social life and it has different forms of its development. The stages of
the globalization development are usually studied by the civilization approach.
This makes the possibilities of researching this social phenomenon too narrow.
That is why this article offers to conduct the research of globalization also by the
formation approach, which is a new method in the methodology of the
globalization research.
Key words: globalization, interdependency, society, form, civilization and
formation approaches, globalization waves, unipolarity.


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[2, . 173].

1. , . . / . . . . : , 1999. 432 .
2. , . . : : . /
. . . : , 2006. 484 .
3. , . . : / . . .
. 2-, . . . : -, 2003.
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9. , . . XXI / . . // . 2002. 7. . 136159.

316.320.12


. . ()
, . ,
. , . , .
: , , .

GLOBALIZATION IN THE MODERN WORLD CONDITIONS

V. I. Panarin (Novosibirsk)
The phenomenon of globalization is an objective phenomenon which has
naturally arisen during the evolution of mankind. With the development of
globalization, economic, informational and cultural association of various
, - .
630007, . , , . 18, . 438.
-mail: Kav@obladm.nso.ru

233


regions of the globe is gaining strength. The intensive exchange of material and
cultural wealth, created in the local communities of people, is widening.
Education is in the epicenter of globalization, because the foundations of the
development strategy for all mankind and each country are formed in the sphere
of education.
Key words: globalization, higher education, education.

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1. , . . / . . // : . . . I. . : ,
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.
630099, , . , . 48, . 706.
E-mail: Kinolog@ngs.ru

239


; , , . , , , .
,
.
: , , , .

THE CONCEPT OF NOOSPHERE EDUCATION AS THE BASIS


OF PREVENTION OF EXTREME SITUATIONS

Y. N. Polikarpova (Novosibirsk)
In the article there is presented the viewpoint of the author concerning the
efficiency of development of the noosphere education in Russia. The modern
society is considered by the author as a society of risk; accordingly, it is necessary
to develop education on a new level. The noosphere education is a system of
scientific-theoretical, gnoseological, methodological and practical ideas
concerning the nature of education and its efficiency in the society; this type of
education implies consciously operated, value-focused and mutually conditioned
development of the person, society and the nature. In turn, in the context of
noosphere, there arises an opportunity for a synthesis: unification of the individual
and collective intelligence, as well as spirituality. This creates a new quality of
integral thinking. However, the danger of losses, resulting from the specificity of
various natural phenomena and various activities of human society, is
increasing.
Key words: the noosphere education, the society of risk, efficiency, the nature
of education.

XX XXI . , , , , , , . ,
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IV.

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2. , . / . //
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3. , . . , / . . // . 2003. 8.

243

V


Part V. METHODOLOGY AND THE TECHNIQUE
OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION
372.016:51

-

. . ()
. ; , , ,
- .
, - ,
,
.

.
: , , , - .

PHILOSOPHICAL-METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
OF THE MATHEMATICAL TRAINING PROCESS

L. V. Podgornaya (Novosibirsk)
The article analyzes the issues of organizing of the teaching mathematics
process applying to the students of pedagogical institutes. The dynamically
developing modern society sets up new requirements for the quality of the
specialists training: the ability of self-education, self-development, the activities


.
630126, . , . , . 28.
E-mail: lv_p@mail.ru

244

V.
changing, adequate reactions to the social and cultural conditions. One of the
most important directions of solving of these problems is developing and
implementation of adaptive pedagogical technologies, based on the individual
activity approach, when the knowledge, received by the students, is not the goal,
but the means of developing their personal qualities and widening their abilities
to act. The article presents the results of investigations and examples of the
authors technologies of teaching mathematical disciplines.
Key words: formation of individual self-consciousness, methodological
culture, pedagogical technology, individual activities approach.

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248

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1. , . . - , /
. . // . 1992. 34. . 6582.
2. , . . / . . // http://www.mccme.ru/edu/index.php?ikey=viarn_sovr_mir
3. , . . ? / . . // . 2002. 22.
4. , . . / .. // . 2000. 6 (36).
5. , . . / . . . , 1995. 18 .

372.016:51



. . ()
. -
, . - , , - -, .
,
.
: - , - , , , .


.
667000, . , . , . 36.
-mail: evkrum@mail.ru.

250

V.

THE PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS OF INCREASING


THE QUALITY OF THE MATH TEACHERS TRAINING

E. V. Krum (Kyzyl)
The recent years have been marked by intensive implementation of innovative
technologies into the educational process. In the article there is considered a
modular-rating technology of teaching geometry to the students of pedagogical
institutions of higher education, created by the author. A teaching-methodical
set, which includes the authors program, teaching-technological charts, and
computer textbook, provides individualization and differentiation of the teaching
process. This set creates conditions for the active independent work of the students.
All this creates preconditions for organization of the teaching process, which
admits of quality training of the future math teachers.
Key words: modular-rating technology of teaching, teaching-methodical
charts, informatization of the teaching process, individualization, differentiation.

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252

V.

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254

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256

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- , , . , . ,

- . : ,
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1. , . . - / . . . . : , 2005.
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2. : . / . . ,
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372.016:51

. . ()
- .
, . : ; (, , .);
, (, , ). , , .
: ; ; ; ; .
, .
630126, . , . , . 28.
-mail: tmv13@inbox.ru

257


ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMS OF THE STUDENT RESEARCH
ACTIVITY IN STUDYING MATHEMATICS

M. V. Taranova (Novosibirsk)
The article considers the content of the academic-research activity of
schoolchildren while studying mathematics. The author compares the activity of
a scientist and a pupil in the research process, reveals the peculiarities and the
content of the pupil research activity. These peculiarities are the following: the
aim of gaining knowledge and skills in the research process, the aim of acquiring
scientific investigation methods (analogy, induction, deduction, etc.), influence
on the pupil personality change, pupils development (sense of purpose, curiosity,
development of the creative potential). The content of the pupil research activity
includes theoretical knowledge and activity methods, as well as the corresponding
skills.
Key words: academic research, stimulation of mental activity, hypothesis,
analogy, modeling.

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1. , . . : 8000
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6. , . / . . . : , 1956. 384 .
7. , . . / . . . . : , 1924.
8. , . . : / . . . . : , 1975. 368 .

266

V.
372.016:51



. . ()
( , )
. , , ,
-
(-) .
. , , ,
.
: , , .
MATHEMATICAL TRAINING OF STUDENTS AS A FACTOR OF
INCREASING OF THE EDUCATION QUALITY

M. V. Mongush (Novosibirsk)
In the article there is considered the problem of quality training of the students
of agricultural specialties, in particular, mathematical training. There is also
described the role of mathematics as an educational subject, its peculiarity, the
goal of its studying; there is described the content of the educational-methodical
materials on mathematics and the probability theory electronic textbook. A high
professional level of the contemporary specialist cannot be achieved without
solid knowledge of mathematical methods and informational technologies. Their
application in the education process arouses students interest, increases
motivation to study mathematics, wakes up curiosity, and forms such qualities
as the ability to think logically, the will and persistence in attainment a purpose.
Key words: improvement of quality education, mathematical training,
agricultural specialties.


2010 . ,

, ,

.
630126, . , . , . 28.
-mail: mmengi@mail.ru

267

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272

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2. , . . / . . // : . .-. . (1618 2005 .)
: - , 2005. . 1. . 1923.
3. , //
. 1995. 23 .
4. , . . / . . ; . . . // : . .-. . (3 2003 .). :
. . -, 2004. . 6971.
5. / . . . , . . . : , 1969. 202 .
6. , . . / . . , . . // . . . . 2002. 2. . 6171.
7. , . . / . . //
: .
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372.016:53



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690091, . , , 19.
, , .
690091, . , , 19.
-mail: plotolga@yandex.ru

273


KEY COMPETENCES AND A PROBLEM OF MODERNIZATION
OF THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES IN PHYSICS

V. K. Suhanova, O. V. Plotnykova (Vladyvostok)


The purpose of the article is to define the ways of forming key competences on
the basis of the physics training material. The article considers the opportunities
of the experimental studies in physics to solve this task and the trends of its
modernization, taking into account the principles of the problem-oriented
training and the professional adaptation requirements. The authors give a
classification of the general labor skills which can be formed while studying
physics. The peculiarities of teaching physics at the institutions of higher education
in economics and nutrition have been considered. There is presented a list of
experiments including some elements of scientific research, which can be applied
to the experimental studies in physics at the institutions of higher education of
that type.
Key words: education, modernization, key competences, experimental
studies in physics, institution of higher education in economics, professional
adaptation.

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THE PECULIARITIES OF GOAL-SETTING IN DESIGNING


A SYSTEM OF TRAINING IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS

D. A. Vlasov (Moscow)
In the article, there is considered a technological procedure of goal-setting,
which is essentially a key component of the methodical system of any academic
discipline. The presented theoretical conclusions and generalizations are
illustrated by the concrete examples reflecting the problems of improvement of
the future experts training in applied mathematics.
Key words: technological approach, the purposes of training, methodical
system of training, training in applied mathematics.


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VI

Part VI. INFORMATION

II -


. . , . . , . . ()

ABOUT II INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFICALLY-PRACTICAL


CONFERENCE
INNOVATIONS IN PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION

L. A. Barahtenova, T. A. Gorelova, E. A. Pushkareva (Novosibirsk)

2224 2008 . . II
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MATERIALS OF CONSTANTLY OPERATING SEMINAR
AND THE ALL-RUSSIA CONFERENCE QUALITY OF THE MODERN
RUSSIAN EDUCATION: ESSENCE AND PROBLEMS

N. V. Nalivaiko, E. A. Pushkareva (Novosibirsk)

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299

PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
N. V. Nalivaiko
Editor-in-chief, Doctor
of Philosophical Sciences,
Professor, Director of the
Research Institute of
Philosophy of Education
at Novosibirsk State
Pedagogical University

V. I. Parshikov
Assistant Editor-in-chief,
Doctor of Philosophical
Sciences

B. O. Mayer
Executive Editor, Doctor
of Philosophical Sciences
ISSN 18110916
The founders
of the journal:

4(25) 2008

Editorial Board
Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor
V. A. Dmitrienko
Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Science
A. Zh. Zhafyarov
Pro-Rector of Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University
Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor,
A. A. Korolkov
Academician of the Russian Academy of Education
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor
P. V. Lepin
Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Deputy Chair
O. N. Smolin
of the State Duma Committee on Education and Science
Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
V. S. Stepin
President of the Russian Philosophical Society
Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Director
V. V. Tselishchev
of the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian
Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Ya. S. Turbovskoi Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, Academician
of the Academy of Pedagogical and Social Sciences
Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor
A. K. Chernenko
Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor
A. N. Chumakov
Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor
N. M. Churinov

CONTENT
Word of the main thing editor .................................................... 3
Part I. MODERN SOCIETY AND EDUCATION

The Research Institute M. I. Ananich, B. O. Mayer, G. A. Sapozhnikov (Novosibirsk).


On the ontology of the technopark ideology in the system
(Training-Methodological
of development of the innovative activity of Novosibirsk region ......... 5
Center) of Philosophy
of Education
N. V. Nalivaiko, V. I. Panarin (Novosibirsk). Interaction
at Novosibirsk State
of democracy and education (the philosophical analysis) .................. 21
Pedagogical University
V. S. Diev (Novosibirsk). Modern management: philosophical and

methodological foundations ..................................................................... 28


E. Yu. Potapchuk (Khabarovsk). Values and metaphors (the role
of axiological problems in the socio-humanitarian education) ........... 34
N. L. Rumyantseva (Moscow). On the strategy of education
development ............................................................................................... 41
The journal is included S. A. Khrapov (Astrakhan). The crisis tendencies of the public
consciousness and education system of modern Russia ..................... 49
in the list of the leading
reviewed scientific
E. N. Malysheva (Krasnoyarsk). Educational and socio-cultural
editions and journals
policy in the context of the fight against terrorism .............................. 54
that are recommended O. P. Signaebskaya (Ekaterinburg). The national security and the
by the State Commission
civil society in the context of mental and moral values of education ..... 60
Institute of Philosophy
and Law of the Siberian
Branch of the Russian
Academy of Sciences

for Academic Degrees


and Titles (VAK) for
publication of basic
scientific results of the
Candidate of Science
and Doctor of Science
dissertations.
The journal
is included in the
Russian scientific
citation index.
Certificate
PI N 77-2553

The Research
Institute (TrainingMethodological
Center) of Philosophy
of Education
at Novosibirsk State
Pedagogical
University, 2008

300

Part II. VOCATIONAL TRAINING: MODERN TRENDS


OF DEVELOPMENT
T. A. Artashkina (Vladivostok). Special features
of the educator-designer profession ....................................................... 67
A. M. Ablazhey (Novosibirsk). Post-graduate students
of the siberian institutions of higher education: an analysis
of social characteristics ............................................................................ 75
Y. A. Chernyshev (Ulyanovsk). Education in the professional career .. 81
O. V. Frolov (Orenburg). The formation of the socio-professional
competence of a prospective state manager: an integrative
culturological approach ............................................................................ 88
. A. Miller (Novosibirsk). The system of technical training in the
military institution of higher education as the basis of the cadets
professional development ......................................................................... 95
. . Melekhina (Novosibirsk). The problem of goal-setting in the
system of higher professional education in present conditions ....... 101
E. V. Malchenkov (Barnaul). Formation of the professional competence of the employees of the criminal investigation department ... 109
I. V. Cherdantseva (Barnaul). Philosopher as an educated person:
antique and modern perceptions ........................................................... 115

Part III. EDUCATION IN THE CONDITIONS


OF THE WORLD-OUTLOOK AND ECOLOGICAL CRISIS
N. Peltsova (Prague, Czech Republic). crisis of education
and education as the way out of the world crisis ................................ 121
T. Takahashi (Tokyo, Japan). On the unconditional: thinking
of education in Japan ............................................................................... 127
J. Colbeck (United Kingdom). Doing an ostrich? ................................... 136
D. P. Ericson (Honolulu, USA). Images of the educated
person in the Usa and Japan .................................................................. 138
J. Shmajs, E. Vishnevsky (Bratislava, Slovakia). A concept
of the evolution-ontological literacy ...................................................... 160
A. V. Vershkov (Krasnoyarsk). Studying of self-renewing potential
of nature is the task of modern nature management ........................ 169
Part IV. INNOVATIVE AND ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION
IN A CONTEXT OF GLOBAL PROBLEMS
V. V. Kopein (Kemerovo). The problems of the innovative process
in science and education ........................................................................ 177
O. N. Bolshakova (Bratsk). Innovative educational process
in the modern institution of higher education .................................... 184
T. E. Shaposhnikova (Novosibirsk). Innovations in the domestic
system of family education ..................................................................... 191
A. A. Popov (Moscow), I. D. Proskurovskaya (Tomsk).
Philosophical-methodological bases of the practices of pedagogy
and anthropology of self-determination ............................................... 199
O. P. Kozhina (Krasnoyarsk). A cyclic composition formula
of the book of revelation ......................................................................... 208
O. S. Terekhov (Novosibirsk). The dynamics of inter-ethnic
conflicts and the prospects of polycultural education ........................ 212
O. D. Oleinikova (Novosibirsk). Library services as a cultural
and educational value ............................................................................. 216
V. Ya. Laluev (Novosibirsk). Creative personality formation
as a philosophical problem of education .............................................. 224
N. S. Dureeva (Krasnoyarsk). Globalization as engineering
of a new world order ............................................................................... 227
V. I. Panarin (Novosibirsk). Globalization in conditions
of the modern world ................................................................................ 233
Y. N. Polikarpova (Novosibirsk). The concept of noosphere
education as the basis of prevention of extreme situations .............. 239
Part V. METHODOLOGY AND THE TECHNIQUE
OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION
L. V. Podgornaya (Novosibirsk). Philosophical-methodological
aspects of the mathematical training process ..................................... 244
E. V. Krum (Kyzyl). The philosophical aspects of increasing
the quality of the math teachers training ............................................ 250
M. V. Taranova (Novosibirsk). Analysis of the problems
of the student research activity in studying mathematics ................ 257
M. V. Mongush (Novosibirsk). Mathematical training of students
as a factor of increasing of the education quality ............................... 267
V. K. Suhanova, O. V. Plotnykova (Vladyvostok). Key competences and
a problem of modernization of the experimental studies in physics .... 273
D. A. Vlasov (Moscow). The peculiarities of goal-setting
in designing a system of training in applied mathematics ............... 278
Part VI. INFORMATION
L. A. Barahtenova, T. A. Gorelova, E. A. Pushkareva (Novosibirsk).
About II International scientifically-practical conference Innovations
in pedagogical education ....................................................................................... 284
N. V. Nalivaiko, E. A. Pushkareva (Novosibirsk). Materials of constantly
operating seminar and the All-Russia conference Quality of the modern
Russian education: essence and problems .......................................................... 287

PHILOSOPHY
OF EDUCATION

4(25) 2008
The edition is
carried out with
the financial
support of the
Administration
of Novosibirsk
Region
dogovor 125
from 30.06.2008

Editor
A. G. Makhova,
V. I. Smirnova.
Translator
L. B. Vertgeim
Electronic
make-up operator
Yu. V. Pushkarev

Editors address:
630126
Novosibirsk,
Vilyuiskaya street, 28
Tel. (383)2681671
Signed for printing
05.12.2008

Format 70x100/16.
Offset printing.
Offset paper.
Printers sheets: 24,5
Publishers
sheets: 25.0
Circulation
1000 issues.
Order 437

Siberian Branch
of the Russian
Academy of Sciences
Publishers
630090, Novosibirsk,
Morskoi avenue, 2

301



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