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7.

1.
. G Oxyz . ,
( ), M(x;y;z)G
,
M.
: =
(x;y;z)=
(M)

= P(x;y;z)i+ Q(x;y;z)j+ R(x;y;z)k


,
.
().
(
) .

:
1)
, (M) , .. (M) = .
2)
,
(M)
, (M)
.
, = P(x;y)i+ Q(x;y)j

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

2.
. (M)
,
(..
(M) ).
:
1) .
2) ()
.
= P(x;y;z)i+ Q(x;y;z)j+ R(x;y;z)k

dx
dy
dz

P( x, y, z ) Q( x, y, z ) R( x, y, z )

3. .

.

GOxyz :
(M) = P(x;y;z)i+ Q(x;y;z)j+ R(x;y;z)k
(S) G.
. (M) (
(M) ) (S) K,

K P( x, y, z )dydz Q( x, y, z )dxdz R( x, y, z )dxdy


(S )


(M) . K
, (S)
( ).

v( M i )

n
( S i )
(M)
, K<0
,
.
(M)
90, K = 0
(
).



(M) ,
(S) ( ), (V)
K=K2K1 , K1
(V), K2 (V)
.
1) K>0, (V)
( (V) ,
)
2) K<0, (V) ( (V) ,
)
3) K=0, (V) , ( (V) , )

. M

, M,
, , ,
M.
: div(M).
,
(M) = P(x;y;z)i+ Q(x;y;z)j+ R(x;y;z)k

Pdydz Qdxdz Rdxdy


div a ( M ) lim

( S ) M

(S )

div(M)>0 , M .
div(M)<0 , M .
|div(M)| ().

. GOxyz :
(M) = P(x;y;z)i+ Q(x;y;z)j+ R(x;y;z)k ,
P,Q,R G .
MG div(M)

P( M ) Q( M ) R( M )
diva ( M )

x
y
z
.
(M) = P(x;y;z)i+ Q(x;y;z)j+ R(x;y;z)k
(S) (..
)
, (S):

Pdydz Qdxdz Rdxdy div a( x, y, z)dxdydz

(S )

(V )

:


.

1) (M) = const, div(M) = 0;
2) C1,C2 const, div(11 + 22) = 1div1+ 2div2 ;
3) u = u(x,y,z) = u(M) ,
div[u(M) (M)]= u(M) div(M) +(grad u(M) , (M))

4. .

.

GOxyz :
(M) = P(x;y;z)i+ Q(x;y;z)j+ R(x;y;z)k
() G.
. (M)
( (M) ) ()
C,

P( x, y, z)dx Q( x, y, z)dy R( x, y, z)dz

()


(M) = P(x;y;z)i+ Q(x;y;z)j+ R(x;y;z)k ,
(),
(M) .

()
.

; ;
:
x y z
-
.
.
(M) = P(x;y;z)i+ Q(x;y;z)j+ R(x;y;z)k
[, a]
: rot(M)

i
j k

rot a ( M ) [ , a ]

x y z
P Q R
R Q P R Q P
i
k

j
y z z x x y


rot(M) ,
.

( ).
(M) = P(x;y;z)i+ Q(x;y;z)j+ R(x;y;z)k

,
(: ).

1) (M) = const, rot(M) = 0;
2) C1,C2 const, rot(11 + 22) = 1rot1+ 2rot2 ;
3) u = u(x,y,z) = u(M) ,
rot[u(M) (M)]= u(M) rot(M) +[grad u(M) , (M)] ;
4) rot(grad u) = 0 ;
5) div(rot) = 0 .