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FLAMMABLE GAS LEAKAGE DETECTOR

Chapter 1:-

Introduction to FLAMMABLE GAS LEAKAGE DETECTOR.

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1.1 Introduction The MQ6 Gas Vapor Monitor detects gas vapors at 10%, 20% or 30% of the concentration required for an explosion (LEL or Lower Explosive Limit). The desired sensitivity can be selected from the front panel and stored in the non-volatile memory. When activated, the MQ6 built-in 85 dB alarm will sound and make call to the stored cell number.

The alarm will continue to sound as long as the sensor detects a dangerous concentration of gas vapor or until the reset button is pressed. If the alarm is silenced by the use of the reset button, the MQ6 will automatically sound the alarm again as soon as the gas vapor has subsided.

This project is microcontroller based project. A Gas sensor is used to Detect dangerous gas leaks in the kitchen or near the gas heater. This unit detects 300 to 5000ppm of Natural Gas. Ideal to detect dangerous gas leaks in the kitchen. Sensor can be easily configured as an alarm unit. The sensor can also sense LPG and Coal Gas. Ideal sensor is used to detect the presence of a dangerous LPG leak in your car or in a service station, storage tank environment. This unit can be easily incorporated into an alarm unit, to sound an alarm or give a visual indication of the LPG concentration. The sensor has excellent sensitivity combined with a quick response time if gas is detected 5 calls are made by the device to authorized person or numbers assigned to the device In this project there are mainly two units, telephone and microcontroller unit. Telephone is used to call authorized persons configured by standard programming of the telephone unit. Depending upon the Gas sensor output microcontroller can call to the authorized person and a alarm will start to warn the people around or near there.

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The main aim of this project is to develop a gas leakage control and Auto dialing system. This system will detect any chances for a gas leakage from cylinder-based appliance (e.g. LPG cylinder). Usually fire occurs in a cylinder- based appliance due to leakage of gas through the gas pipeline. By using a gas sensor, the above reason can be detected in advance. With the use of an alarming system the user can be alerted about this. If the user is in a remote place GSM technology can be incorporated to alert the user. If gas leakage occurs, by using an exhaust fan the leaked gas can be expelled out. The controlling operation on fan is done by the microcontroller. And GSM modem performs an auto dialing to a user. The gas leakage sensor senses the gas leakage and triggers a signal. The microcontroller signal senses it and sends the signal using telephone modem. Further for safety the exhaust fan is turned ON to expel the gas out of the window.

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1.2 Literature survey. The new age of technology has redefined communication. Most people nowadays have access to telephones and thus the world indeed has become a global village. At any given moment, any particular individual can be contacted with the telephone. But the application of telephone cannot just be restricted to starting conversations. New innovations and ideas can be generated from it that can further enhance its capabilities. . Security management of several home and office appliances is a subject of growing interest and in recent years we have seen many systems providing such security. These days apart from security from robbery there must be security from flammable gases Present in the surrounding to protect houses, offices, vehicles, industries etc. From various harmful gases. There is a need to have security from this gases. Mobile phone is also playing role in its parallel world with telephones. When there is Gas leakage the telephone and mobile phone both will play great role in the detector to contact and warn the authorized person about flammable gas leakage. Both Mobile Phone and Telephone are required to perform the project.

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1.3 Objective of FLAMMABLE GAS LEAKAGE DETECTOR.

The project FLAMMABLE GAS LEAKAGE DETECTOR as the title suggests is aimed to construct a alarm that warns the authorized person of leakage of flammable gas on which it is based. General objectives of the project are defined as; 1. To warn authorized person about flammable gas leakage. 2. To effectively call 5 authorized persons about it. 3. To start exhaust fan and expel the gas outside in open air. 4. Stop the destruction due to gas leakage or gas explosion.

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1.4 Organisation of Report. Our topic FLAMMABLE GAS LEAKAGE DETECTION is thoroughly explained in all the chapters in this report. Planning and organization of this subject has been done with curiosity and as per the given deadline. So this project report gives us the entire overview of this subject. The report is divided into various chapters to understand each aspect of the subject technically and separately. Chapter 1 gives us a brief introduction of this project topic. This consists of literature survey, objective of this project and history. Chapter 2 gives us a detailed description of the proposed system with its circuit diagram and its description. It also gives the block diagram of the system with its working principle. Chapter 3 describes the implementation of the project with its hardware and software description that is detailed analysis of each component. Chapter 4 gives us the advantages, disadvantages and applications of this system. It also gives the costing of the project with name of the component, cost of single component, number of components and total cost. Chapter 5 concludes this project report with its future scope, reference (books and websites) and datasheets.

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Chapter 2:-

Proposed system.

2.1 Block diagram of proposed system.


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Power Supply:-

Fig 2.2

There are many types of power supply. Most are designed to convert high voltage AC mains electricity to a suitable low voltage supply for electronic circuits and other devices. A power supply can by broken down into a series of blocks, each of which performs a particular function.

Each of the blocks is described in more detail below:


Transformer - steps down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC. Rectifier - converts AC to DC, but the DC output is varying. Smoothing - smoothes the DC from varying greatly to a small ripple. Regulator - eliminates ripple by setting DC output to a fixed voltage.

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Transformer

Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with little loss of power. Transformers work only with AC and this is one of the reasons why mains Transformer circuit symbol electricity is AC.

Step-up

transformers

increase

voltage,

step-down

transformers reduce voltage. Most power supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high Fig 2.3 mains voltage (230V in UK) to a safer low voltage.

The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the secondary. There is no electrical connection between the two coils, instead they are linked by an alternating magnetic field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in the middle of the circuit symbol represent the core.

Transformers waste very little power so the power out is (almost) equal to the power in. Note that as voltage is stepped down current is stepped up.

The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the turns ratio, determines the ratio of the voltages. A step-down transformer has a large number of turns on its primary (input) coil which is connected to the high voltage mains supply, and a small number of turns on its secondary (output) coil to give a low output voltage.

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Rectifier

Bridge rectifier

A bridge rectifier can be made using four individual diodes, but it is also available in special packages containing the four diodes required. It is called a full-wave rectifier because it uses all the AC wave (both positive and negative sections). 1.4V is used up in the bridge rectifier because each diode uses 0.7V when conducting and there are always two diodes conducting, as shown in the diagram below. Bridge rectifiers are rated by the maximum current they can pass and the maximum reverse voltage they can withstand (this must be at least three times the supply RMS voltage so the rectifier can withstand the peak voltages). Please see the Diodes page for more details, including pictures of bridge rectifiers.

Bridge rectifier

Output:

full-wave

varying

DC

Fig 2.4

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Single diode rectifier

A single diode can be used as a rectifier but this produces half-wave varying DC which has gaps when the AC is negative. It is hard to smooth this sufficiently well to supply electronic circuits unless they require a very small current so the smoothing capacitor does not significantly discharge during the gaps. Please see the Diodes page for some examples of rectifier diodes.

Single diode rectifier Fig 2.5 (a)

Output: half-wave varying DC Fig 2.5 (b)

Smoothing

Smoothing is performed by a large value electrolytic capacitor connected across the DC supply to act as a reservoir, supplying current to the output when the varying DC voltage from the rectifier is falling. The diagram shows the unsmoothed varying DC (dotted line) and the smoothed DC (solid line). The capacitor charges quickly near the peak of the varying DC, and then discharges as it supplies current to the output.

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Fig 2.6

Note that smoothing significantly increases the average DC voltage to almost the peak value (1.4 RMS value). For example 6V RMS AC is rectified to full wave DC of about 4.6V RMS (1.4V is lost in the bridge rectifier), with smoothing this increases to almost the peak value giving 1.4 4.6 = 6.4V smooth DC.

Smoothing is not perfect due to the capacitor voltage falling a little as it discharges, giving a small ripple voltage. For many circuits a ripple which is 10% of the supply voltage is satisfactory and the equation below gives the required value for the smoothing capacitor. A larger capacitor will give less ripple. The capacitor value must be doubled when smoothing half-wave DC.

C = smoothing capacitance in farads (F) Io = output current from the supply in amps (A) Vs = supply voltage in volts (V), this is the peak value of the unsmoothed DC

= frequency of the AC supply in hertz (Hz), 50Hz in the UK

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Regulator

Voltage regulator ICs are available with fixed (typically 5, 12 and 15V) or variable output voltages. They are also rated by the maximum current they can pass. Negative voltage Voltage regulators are available, mainly for
Photograph

regulator

use in dual supplies. Most regulators include some automatic protection

Fig 2.7

from excessive current ('overload protection') and overheating ('thermal protection').

Many of the fixed voltage regulators ICs have 3 leads and look like power transistors, such as the 7805 +5V 1A regulator shown on the right. They include a hole for attaching a heat sink if necessary.

Please see the Electronics in Meccano website for more information about voltage regulator ICs.

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Microcontroller:-

Fig 2.8

An embedded microcontroller is a chip, which has a computer processor with all its Support function (clocking and reset), memory (both program storage and RAM), and I/O (Including bus interfaces) built into the device. These built in function minimize the need For external circuits and devices to the designed in the final applications.

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effective, faster and more efficient to develop an application using a micro-controller Rather than discrete logic. Creating applications for micro-controllers is completely different than any other development job in computing and electronics. In most other Applications, number of subsystems and interfaces are available but this is not the case for The micro-controller where the following responsibilities have to be taken.

Power distribution System clocking Interface design and wiring System Programming Application programming Device programming

There are two types of micro-controller commonly in use. Embedded micro-controller is the micro-controller, which has the entire hardware requirement to run the application, provided on the chip. External memory micro-controller is the micro-controller that allows the connection of external memory when the program memory is insufficient for an application or during the work a separate ROM (or even RAM) will make the work easier.

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b) ATMEL Micro-controller

The AT89C51 is a low-power; high performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 and 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The main features of this micro-controller are as follows; Compatible with MCS-51 TM \ Products 8K Bytes of In-system reprogrammable Flash Memory Endurance: 1,000 write/erase cycles Fully static operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 256 x 8-bit internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Eight Interrupt Sources Programmable Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

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GAS SENSOR:FEATURES * High sensitivity to LPG, iso-butane, propane. * Small sensitivity to alcohol, smoke. * Fast response. * Stable and long life * Simple drive circuit APPLICATION They are used in gas leakage detecting equipments in family and industry, are suitable for detecting of LPG, iso-butane, propane, LNG, avoid the noise of alcohol and cooking fumes and cigarette smoke. SPECIFICATIONS

Structure and configuration of MQ-6 gas sensor is shown as (Configuration A or B), sensor
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composed by micro AL2O3 ceramic tube, Tin Dioxide (SnO2) sensitive layer, measuring electrode and heater are fixed into a crust made by plastic and stainless steel net. The heater provides necessary work conditions for work of sensitive components. The enveloped MQ-6 have 6 pin, 4 of them are used to fetch signals, and other 2 are used for providing heating current.

LCD DISPLAY:-

Fig 2.9 In this project we have used two 16-pin LCD panel one at the transmitter side and another at receiver side. At transmitter side, we are able to see the changes in ADC readings of the microcontroller according to responses of two LDR. At receiver side, we are able to see the states of output device i.e. which device is ON/OFF.

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VOICE RECORDER:Features Single-chip, high-quality voice recording & playback solution - No external ICs required - Minimum external components Non-volatile Flash memory technology - No battery backup required User-Selectable messaging options - Random access of multiple fixed-duration messages - Sequential access of multiple variable-duration messages User-friendly, easy-to-use operation - Programming & development systems not required - Level-activated recording & edge-activated play back switches Low power consumption - Operating current: 25 mA typical - Standby current: 1 uA typical - Automatic power-down Chip Enable pin for simple message expansion General Description The APR9600 device offers true single-chip voice recording, non-volatile storage, and playback capability for 40 to 60 seconds. The device supports both random and sequential access of multiple messages. Sample rates are user-selectable, allowing designers to customize their design for unique quality and storage time needs. Integrated output amplifier, microphone amplifier, and AGC circuits greatly simplify system design. The device is ideal for use in portable voice recorders, toys, and many other consumer and industrial
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applications. APLUS integrated achieves these high levels of storage capability by using its proprietary analogy/multilevel storage technology implemented in an advanced Flash nonvolatile memory process, where each memory cell can store 256 voltage levels. This technology enables the APR9600 device to reproduce voice signals in their natural form. It eliminates the need for encoding and compression, which often introduce distortion.

Fig 3.0 TONE PULSE DIALER:Microcircuits of tone-pulse dialler IL91214AN, IL91214BN are intended for generation of the standard DTMF or pulse signals and are used in the phones. Performed functions: The given device makes it possible: - to form the standard DTMF or pulse signals of bumber dialling, as well as the pulses of the type flash; - to store and and transmit the last dialled number; - to form the interdigit pause in the transmitted signal pack of dialling.
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2.2 Circuit Diagram:-

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2.3Circuit working:The figure shows the circuit diagram FLAMMABLE GAS LEAKAGE DETECTION. In this the circuit diagram consist of a microprocessor Atmel IC 89S52,LCD display, ,transformer,10k resistor, diodes, a gas sensor MQ-6,IC APR9600 & a tone pulse dialer to make calls. The working of the circuit depends upon the gas sensor which tells the user about the gas leakage with the help of a tone pulse dialler to dial a call. TONE PULSE DIALLER:When a gas leaks the sensor senses it, which is connected to the microcontroller and, The Microcontroller sends appropriate signals to the dialler to dial a call. MICROCONTROLLER:Microcontroller receives the signal sent from the Gas sensor, then checks the status of it and then sends another signal to the tone pulse dialler and voice recorder. The microcontroller also sends a bit pattern to the LCD, to display the message. Microcontroller consists of 4 ports:1. Port 0 (P0.0 to P0.7) from pin 32 to 39. 2. Port 1 (P1.0 to P1.7) from pin 1 to 8. 3. Port 2 (P2.0 to P2.7) from pin 21 to 28. 4. Port 3 (P3.0 to P3.7) from pin 10 to 17. In this circuit, Port 3 is used as input port, all the other ports are output ports. GAS SENSOR:-

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In this circuit, there is a Gas sensor. Gas sensor is connected to the device which is to be controlled. It is used as switch for make and break operation with the device. .When gas leaks it warns microcontroller about it. LCD:A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of colour or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. When LCD receives bit pattern from microcontroller, it displays a message. For example, Appliance 1 is ON. Or Appliance 2 is ON. Or All appliances ON / OFF. The working of the circuit is held under 5 function stored with the help of a program & is brought into work with by sending message allotted to a particular appliance. 1. By sending a text message 1 to a GSM modem:-

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The GSM modem will receive the message with the help of SIM card connected to it. After receiving the message it will get stored in the SIM & it will activate the appliance allotted to appliance number 1 i.e. the bulb which is connected by relay 1. 2. By sending a text message 2 to a GSM modem:The GSM modem will receive the message with the help of SIM card connected to it. After receiving the message it will get stored in the SIM & it will activate the appliance allotted to appliance number 2 i.e. the battery charger point or connect any other home appliance which is connected by relay 2. 3. By sending a text message 3 to a GSM modem:The GSM modem will receive the message with the help of SIM card connected to it. After receiving the message it will get stored in the SIM & it will activate the appliance allotted to appliance number 3 i.e. the 12 v bulb which is connected by relay 3. 4. By sending a text message 4 to a GSM modem:The GSM modem will receive the message with the help of SIM card connected to it. After receiving the message it will get stored in the SIM & it will TURN ON all the appliances which are connected to a port 1, 2, 3 i.e. bulb 1 bulb 2 & the battery charger slot present on the electric board after message 4 is provided to a GSM modem. 5 By sending a text message 5 to a GSM modem:The GSM modem will receive the message with the help of SIM card connected to it. After receiving the message it will get stored in the SIM & it will TURN OFF all the appliances which are used as an indicator i.e. bulb 1, bulb 2, battery charger slot (mobile battery). The message 5 indicates that all the appliances are off & they are not in use.

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Chapter 3:-

IMPLEMENTATION OF PROJECT - HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE.

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3.1 Hardware description. Microcontroller:-

An embedded microcontroller is a chip, which has a computer processor with all its

support function (clocking and reset), memory (both program storage and RAM), and I/O

(including bus interfaces) built into the device. These built in function minimize the need

for external circuits and devices to the designed in the final applications.

Microcontroller 89c51 has 4 KB of flash memory and 128 B of RAM.

Microcontroller consists of 4 ports:1. Port 0 (P0.0 to P0.7) from pin 32 to 39. 2. Port 1 (P1.0 to P1.7) from pin 1 to 8. 3. Port 2 (P2.0 to P2.7) from pin 21 to 28. 4. Port 3 (P3.0 to P3.7) from pin 10 to 17. All four ports in the AT89C51 are bidirectional. Each consists of a latch (Special Function Registers P0 through P3), an output driver, and input buffer. The output drivers of Ports 0 and 2, and the input buffers of Port 0, are used in accesses to external memory. In this application, Port 0 outputs the low byte of the external memory address, time-multiplexed with the byte being written or read. Port 2 outputs the high byte of the external memory address when the address is 16 bits wide. Otherwise the Port 2 pins continue to emit the P2 SFR content. All the Port 3 pins, and two Port 1 pins (in the AT89C52) are multifunctional. The alternate functions can only be activated if the corresponding bit latch in the port SFR contains a 1. Otherwise the port pin is stuck at 0. It has less complex feature than other microprocessor.
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In this circuit, Port 3 is used as input port, all the other ports are output ports. GAS SENSOR:A gas detector is a device which detects the presence of various gases within an area, usually as part of a safety system. This type of equipment is used to detect a gas leak and interface with a control system so a process can be automatically shut down. A gas detector can also sound an alarm to operators in the area where the leak is occurring, giving them the opportunity to leave the area. This type of device is important because there are many gases that can be harmful to organic life, such as humans or animals. LCD:A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCDs). LCD does not emit light directly. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes, and two polarizing filters, the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters, light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. TONE PULSE DIALER:Microcircuits of tone-pulse dialler IL91214AN, IL91214BN are intended for generation of the standard DTMF or pulse signals and are used in the phones. Performed functions: The given device makes it possible:
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- to form the standard DTMF or pulse signals of bumber dialling, as well as the pulses of the type flash; - to store and and transmit the last dialled number; - to form the interdigit pause in the transmitted signal pack of dialling. PCB:A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. It is also referred to as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board. A PCB populated with electronic components is a printed circuit assembly (PCA), also known as a printed circuit board assembly or PCB Assembly (PCBA). Printed circuit boards are used in virtually all but the simplest commercially produced electronic devices. PCBs are often less expensive and more reliable than these alternatives, though they require more layout effort and higher initial cost. PCBs are much cheaper and faster for high-volume production since production and soldering of PCBs can be done by automated equipment. VOICE RECORDER IC:The APR9600 device offers true single-chip voice recording, non-volatile storage, and playback capability for 40 to 60 seconds. The device supports both random and sequential access of multiple messages. Sample rates are user-selectable, allowing designers to customize their design for unique quality and storage time needs. Integrated output amplifier, microphone amplifier, and AGC circuits greatly simplify system design. the device is ideal for use in portable voice recorders, toys, and many other consumer and industrial applications. APLUS integrated achieves these high levels of storage capability by using its
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proprietary analog /multilevel storage technology implemented in an advanced Flash nonvolatile memory process, where each memory cell can store 256 voltage levels. This technology enables the APR9600 device to reproduce voice signals in their natural form. It eliminates the need for encoding and compression, which often introduce distortion.

PCB Layout:-

Fig 3.1
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3.2 Hardware Testing:At first Power supply is switched ON then microcontroller is turned on which is connected to dtmf encoder, dtmf encoder is used to call authorized person to warn about gas leaks. It also rotates the Exhaust fan and turns LED ON The 5V power supply is given to the microcontroller IC89s52 using power supply unit. The inputs are given to input ports of microcontroller & dtmf encoder and out ports are tested with the multi meter. The supply is given to the Exhaust Fan. Using microcontroller input is given to the Fan and checked the status of Fan. 5V supply is given to the LCD, depending upon status of gas leak and the status of leak is displayed on LCD screen.

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3.3 Software Description:-

3.4 Algorithm:1. At first power supply is switched on. 2. Power supply switch is turned on and all the devices present in both the sides are supplied with 5v dc power supply. 3. Some gas leaks. 4. Gas Sensor senses the gas. 5. Gas sensor sends the fault signal to the microcontroller. 6. Microcontroller receives the data. 7. Microcontroller compares the Fault. 8. If the match is successful then the microcontroller sends high signal and turn on the LED & Exhaust Fan. 9. The DTMF encoder & Voice recorder turns ON. 10. Authorized person are called to check for gas leaks. 11. Status of gas leak displayed on LCD.

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3.4 Flowchart:-

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Fig 3.2

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Chapter 4:-

Result

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4.1 Advantages:1. This is cheaper and the calling rates by telephones are way cheaper than mobile calls. 2. The telephone which is used at are home is connected by extension no extra connection needed. 3. Security by calling pre-stored 5 mobile or telephone. 4. Wired Technology can work where telephone line is present.

4.2 Disadvantages:1. If there is short circuit while calling when gas leaks may be harmful to the user. 2. If the called party doesnt accept the call he wont know about it. 3. Operation is possible just through telephone line. 4. The Controlling unit must compulsorily attend the call. 4.3 Applications:1. Applications in household kitchen. 2. Industries dealing with flammable or harmful gas etc. 3. Cars, vehicles running on LPG and CNG.

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4.4 Costing:-

Name of component

Cost of single component ( Rs)

Number of components 1 1 3 1 5 2 14 13 25 31 3 6 10 3 20-30 1 1 meter 1 meter 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 131 component

Total cost(Rs)

IC 89S52 LCD LED Gas sensor Ic socket Crystal oscillator Capacitor 2 Pin keys Resistor Connector Transistor 1N 407 diode Terminal strip Condenser Mic PCB (Normal size) PCB designing Soldering wire Connecting wire Ic apr9600 Ic 7805 Ic 91214A Ic 93C46 Ic LM386 Speaker/Alarm Transformer Board TOTAL

65 165 1 350 4 6 2-3 1 0.5 1 2 2 2 1 2 330 10 10 100 20 50 20 10 40 40 100 Rs.1367.50

65 165 3 350 20 12 40 13 13 30 6 12 20 3 50 330 10 10 100 20 50 20 10 40 40 100 1512

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CHAPTER 5:-

Conclusion

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5.1 Future Scope The future scope is very easy to implement in household things in kitchens, vehicles, industries & mines where natural flammable gases are found. The project we have undertaken can be used as a reference or as a base for realizing a scheme to be implemented in other projects of greater level such as percentage of flammable Gases found in nature.

The project itself can be modified to achieve a complete Home Security System from flammable gas leaks which will then create a platform for the user to interface between himself and his household.

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5.2 Reference Books:1. 8051 Microcontroller. By - Mazidi. 2. 8051 Microcontroller. By Muhammad Ali. 3. Embedded systems. Websites:1. www.embedtronics.com. 2. www.wikipedia.org. 3. www.webopedia.com.
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5.3 Past /previous Knowledge

We were previous going to make a gas leak detector connected to gsm module. Afterwards we changed it to gas leak detector with telephone line for cost cutting of the project.

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FLAMMABLE GAS LEAKAGE DETECTOR

5.4 Datasheets:-

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