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WCDMA Network Planning & Optimization Training Presentation Slides

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Version:Apr

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General

Preface
Thanks for using Manual for WCDMA Network Planning & Optimization Training Presentation Slides In order to use the Manual properly, please read the Preface first.

1. Application
It should not be used for the purpose of on-site installation or trouble shooting.

2. About This Manual


This manual is composed of One volumesand the table of contents of each volume is shown below: Volume Course Name WR_BT02_E1_1 WCDMA Wireless Principle WR_BT03_E1_1 Channel Structure and Function WCDMA Key Technologies WCDMA Radio Network Planning Process I Introduciton to ZTE RNPO ToolsFelix WR_BT06_E1_1 Interface Protocol and signaling flow WCDMA RAN KPI introduction WCDMA Network Optimization Cases study

3. Manual Update history


Version 1.0 Date 2009-4 New Comments

4. From the Author


Thank you for using this manual and your continuous support. We would appreciate your comments and suggestions on this Manual. We can be reached at Telephone +8675526778072 Fax +8675526778999

ZTE UNIVERSITY

WR_BT02_E1_1 WCDMA Wireless Principle

ZTE University TD&W&PCS BSS Course Team

Content
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication Radio Propagation Characteristics Spreading Technology Channel Coding Interleave Technology Modulation WCDMA Radio mechanism

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Multi-path characteristics of radio channel


T

Electromagnetic propagation: --direct radiationreflectiondiffraction and scattering

Signal attenuation:
B Path loss Loss of electromagnetic waves in large scope of the spread

reflects the trend of the received signal in the spreading


B Slow fadingLoss because of being blocked by the building and hill in the

propagation path
B Fast fadingElectromagnetic signals rapidly decline in a few dozens

wavelength ranges
T

Description of Fast fading distribution


B Rayleigh distributionnon line-of sight(NLOS) transmission B Rician distributionline-of sight(LOS) transmission

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Multi-Path Effects

sending signal

strength

receiving signal
0
time

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Characteristics of Radio Propagation

Interference

dithering
0

2 3

Sending signal

Accepting signal

Sending signal

Accepting signal

delay
0dB 0

fading
-25dB

Sending signal

Accepting signal

Sending signal

Accepting signal

Frequency -set caused off Frequency offoff-set causedby bythe themovement movementof ofmobile mobile that thatis isDoppler Dopplereffect effect

Contents
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication Radio Propagation Characteristics Spreading Technology Channel Coding Interleave Technology Modulation WCDMA Radio mechanism

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Spread Spectrum Principles


SHANON Formula

C C= = Blog Blog22(1+S/N) (1+S/N)


T T T T T T

Where, C is capacity of channel, b/s B is signal bandwidth, Hz S is average power for signal, W N is average power for noise, W It is the basic principle and theory for spread spectrum communications.

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Spread Spectrum Principles

MA HAM TH MER

Power is Spread Over a Larger Bandwidth

MATH HAMMER

30 KHz 1.25 MHz

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Spread Spectrum Principles

Despreading Spreading radio channel Noise

Transmitter

Receiver

B User information bits are spread over a wide bandwidth by

multiplying high speed spread code(chip)


B Spread signal bandwidth W wider than original signal

bandwidth Rb
B For WCDMA, W=3.84Mchip/s Rb(voice)=12kbit/s

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Spread Spectrum Principles


Sf signal signal
f0 Sf

Before spreading

f0

After spreading

Sf

Sf

White noise signal


f0

signal White noise


f0

Before despreading

After despreading

signal

interference

White noise

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication v

Spreading Mode
T

Direct sequence spread spectrumDS-SS


B Base band data is spread by multiplication of pseudo-noise sequence and base-

band pulse, the pseudo-noise sequence generated by the pseudo-noise generator


B BER subject to Multiple Access Interference and near-far effect B Power control can overcome the near-far effect, but it is limited by power

detection accuracy
B WCDMA uses DS-SS

Frequency hopping spread spectrumFH-SS


B Data is transmitted in the random channel by the carrier frequency hopping B Before FH again, data is transmitted using traditional narrowband modulation B No near-far effect

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

DS-SS communication system


T

A technology of transmission after spreading signal spectrum.


Wideband Signal

Slow Information Sent

Slow Information Recovered

TX

RX

Fast Spreading Sequence

Fast Spreading Sequence

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Spread Spectrum Principles

Many code channels are individually spread and then added together to create a composite signal

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Spread Spectrum Principles


B Any Code Channel can be extracted from the received composite

signal by using the right orthogonal code


B Energy for transmitting signal can be lower than interference and

noise

Processing Gain
Broadband Interference Unwanted Power from Other Resoures

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Concept of orthogonal code

Code1 Code2 Mul Sum

+1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 0 Orthogonal

Code1 Code2 Mul Sum

+1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1 -2 Non-orthogonal

Orthogonal
the result of multiplying and sum is 0

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Example of orthogonal code

-1 1

MUL
1 -1 1 -1

-1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1

MUL
1 -1 1 -1

-1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1

Integral

-4 0

4 0

Judge

-1

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Direct spread technique

S1

S1xC1

W S2XC2

Spreading
Air Interface

S2

S N

[S1xC1+S2xC2]xC1 =S1

(S1xC1)+(S2xC2)

Despreading
[S1xC1+S2xC2]xC2 =S2

C1xC2=0, C1,C2,orthogonal

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Sketch map of Spreading and Despreading


Symbol

Data=010010
Chip

1 -1

Spreading code = 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 ( SF = 8 ) Spread signal = Data code

Spreading

1 -1 1 -1

Despreading

Spreading code

1 -1 1 -1

Data = Spread signal Spreading code

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Characteristics of Spreading Communication

T T T T T

High anti-multi-path- interference capability Anti-sudden-pulse High security Lower transmitting power Easy to implement large-capacity Multiple Access Communication

T T

Occupy band wide Complex realization

Contents
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication Radio Propagation Characteristics Spreading Technology Channel Coding Interleave Technology Modulation WCDMA Radio mechanism

10

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Purpose of Channel Coding


T

By adding redundant information in the original data stream, receivers can detect and correct the error signal, and improve data transmission rates.

No correct coding: BER<10-1 ~ 10-2

Can not satisfy the communication Can satisfy the speech communication Can satisfy the data communication

Convolutional codingBER<10-3

Turbo coding

BER<10-6

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Principle of Channel Coding


T

Channel coding B Error-correcting ability obtains by adding redundancy in the original data B Convolutional coding and Turbo coding 1/21/3 are widely applied. B Increase noneffective load and transmission time B Suitable to correct few non-continuous errors
WWCCDDMMAA T T UURRBBOO S S PPEEAAKK
Decoding

WCDMA TURBO SPEAK


Encoding

W? CCDDMMAA T T

? URRBBOO

S S PPEE A? KK

11

Contents
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication Radio Propagation Characteristics Spreading Technology Channel Coding Interleave Technology Modulation WCDMA Radio mechanism

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Principle of Interleave Technology


T

advantage B Interleave is to change the sequence of data to random the unexpected errors B Advance the correcting validity disadvantage B Increase the processing delay B Especially, Several independent random errors may intertwined for the unexpected error .

e.g.
x1 x6 x11 x16 x21

Data input
A = (x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x25)

x2 x7 x3 x8 x4 x9 x5 x10

x22 x23 x24 x25

Data output
A= (x1 x6 x11 x16 x25)

12

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Encoding and Interleaving

WCDMA TURBO SPEAK

Encoding

WWCCDDMMAA T T UURRBBOO S S PPEEAAKK

WTSWTS
Interleaving

CUPCUP DREDRE MBAMBA AOKAOK

Encoding + Interleaving can correct both continuous and non-continuous errors

Decoding

WTS??? W ? ? C D D M M A ? Deinterleaving ? ? ?CUP T ? ?UR??BOO DR?D?E S ? ?P?EAAKK M?AMBA AOK?OK

Contents
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication Radio Propagation Characteristics Spreading Technology Channel Coding Interleave Technology Modulation WCDMA Radio mechanism

13

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Principle of Modulation
T

Definition
B Modulation is the process where the amplitude, frequency, or

phase of an electronic or optical signal carrier is changed in order to transmit information.


B Using symbol stand for one or more bits to improve

communication effectiveness
bit

Modulation

Symbol

Classification
B Analog Modulation B Digital Modulation

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Analog Modulation

The purpose of analog modulation is to impress an information-bearing analog waveform onto a carrier for transmission.
B Common analog modulation methods include: O Amplitude modulation (AM) O Frequency modulation (FM) O Phase modulation (PM)

14

The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication

Digital Modulation

The purpose of digital modulation is to convert an information-bearing discrete-time symbol sequence into a continuous-time waveform (perhaps impressed on a carrier).
B Basic analog modulation methods include O Amplitude shift Keying (ASK) O Frequency shift Keying (FSK) O Phase shift Keying (PSK)

Contents
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication WCDMA Radio mechanism WCDMA Data transmission Procedure Channel Coding of WCDMA Spreading Technology of WCDMA Modulation of WCDMA

15

WCDMA Radio mechanism

WCDMA Data transmission Procedure

UE Data

Encoding & Interleaving

Baseband modulation

Spreading

Modulation

RF Transmitting

Despreading

Demodulation

RF Receiving

Baseband demodulation

Decoding & De-inteleaving

UE Data

Contents
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication WCDMA Radio mechanism WCDMA Data transmission Procedure Channel Coding of WCDMA Spreading Technology of WCDMA Modulation of WCDMA

16

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Convolutional Code

Characteristics
B Mainly used in the voice channel and control signal channel B Coding rate : 1/2 & 1/3 B Channel bit error rate is 10-3 magnitude B Easy decoding B Short delay B Suitable for realtime service O e.g. speech and video service.

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Turbo Code
T

Characteristics
B Used in Data service channel B Code Rate is 1/3 B Channel bit error rate is 10-6 magnitude B Can be implemented in the transmission for large block and long

delay services
B Complex decoding, needs cycle iterative calculation B Very suitable for non-realtime package service which is BER

sensitive & delay insensitive


O e.g. WWW, FTP, E-mail , multimedia transmission .

17

Contents
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication WCDMA Radio mechanism WCDMA Data transmission Procedure Channel Coding of WCDMA Spreading Technology of WCDMA Modulation of WCDMA

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Spreading Process of WCDMA


Symbol

Chip

Data
3.84Mcps 3.84Mcps

Spread Data

OVSF Code

Scrambling Code

Symbol rate SF = Chip rate=3.84Mcps


For WCDMASF of uplink channelization code4~256 SF of downlink channelization code: 4~512 OVSF: Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor

18

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Channelization Code
T

Adopt OVSF code


B Definition: Cch,SF,k, describe channelization code, where B SF : spread factor k : code number, 0 < k<SF-1
C ch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1) C ch,2,0 = (1,1) C ch,4,1 = (1,1, -1, -1) C ch,1,0 = (1) C ch,4,2 = (1, -1 ,1, - 1) C ch,2,1 = (1,-1) C ch,4,3 = (1, -1, -1, 1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Scrambling Code
T

WCDMA Scrambling code is pseudo random binary sequence (PN code)


B It has similar noise array character, seemingly random but with

regularity.
B Can make the user data further random , strengthened by

scrambling a code to keep secret the user data, at the same time easy to carry out multiple access communication.
T

WCDMA scrambling code is generated from Gold sequence


B Gold sequence has excellent self-correlation. B Cross-correlation is very week between two codes. B It is used to identify cell and user for multiple access.

19

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Characteristic of Scrambling code


T

There are 224 Uplink Scrambling Codes, they are used to distinguish different users in one cell.

There are 218-1 Downlink Scrambling Codes, used to distinguish different cells
B Scrambling codes usually used are the first 8192 codes, which are

code 018191. They are divided into 512 aggregationseach aggregation has 1 primary scrambling code (PSC) and 15 secondary scrambling codes (SSC).
B The 512 primary scrambling codes are divided further into 64

primary scrambling code groups , with 8 primary scrambling codes in each group.

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Numbering rule for Downlink Scrambling Codes


2 -1 Downlink Scrambling Codes in all (0..262142) No.63 Primary Scrambling Code Group
18

No. 511 Scrambling Code No.0 Primary Scrambling Code Group Group No. 7 Scrambling Code 510 Scrambling Code 8176 No. 8176 PSC Group Group 8177 8177SSC No. Code 1 Code 504 Scrambling 112 8176 Scrambling PSC 8160 No. 8160 Group No. 0 Scrambling Code Group 113 8177 8161 8161 8191 8191SSC Group 16 16PSC 8064 8064 0 0PSC 17 17SSC 8065 8065 127 8191 8175 8175 1 1SSC 8079 31 31SSC 8079 15 15SSC

20

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Code Functions

B Channelization code ---- for separation of physical channels

in the uplink and separation of users in the downlink

B Scrambling code ---- for separation of users/terminals in the

uplink and cells/sectors in the downlink.

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Spreading code & scrambling code

c ch 1

Air Interface

c ch 2 c ch 3
B Cchspread code
O O

c scrambling

Modulation

Relative to service rateextended to 3.84Mchips/s A kind of orthogonal code

B Cscramblingscrambling code O Have no effect on signal bandwidth O downlink for identifier celluplink identifier terminal O A pseudo-random sequence

21

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Processing Gain

Processing Gain Despreading W Rb

Processing Gain =

Wc Rb

PG=Wc/Rb (Wc : Chip rate , Rb : Service bit rate)


B Transmitter/receiver can obtain gain after spread/despread B The narrower original signal bandwidth, the larger Pg , the

better The higher PG, the more anti-interference capability system has.

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Question

Whats the Processing Gain for voice service in WCDMA system?


Given: Voice data rate = 12.2kbps
T

PG=10lg(Wc/ Rb) , dB units


B Wc: 3.84Mchip/s B Rb: 12.2kbps

So for voice service,


B PG=10lg(3.84* 106 /12.2* 103)= 25 dB

22

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Despreading procedure
T

Method of despreading

Input signal
Ts (*)dt
0

Output after despreading

When T=Ts, judge integral Local PN code

Contents
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication WCDMA Radio mechanism WCDMA Data transmission Procedure Channel Coding of WCDMA Spreading Technology of WCDMA Modulation of WCDMA

23

WCDMA Radio mechanism

Modulation Methods in WCDMA


T T T

BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying) in Uplink channles QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) in Downlink channels 16QAM (16-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) in HSDPA

WCDMA Radio mechanism

summary
T

Principle of WCDMA
B All users are simultaneously transmitted in the same frequency band B Users interfere with each other B Adjacent cells use the same frequency B Cells, users (terminals), and physical channels are separated by codes

Channel coding
B Convolutional code B Turbo code

Codes
B Channelization code B Scrambling code

Modulation
B BPSK B QPSK B 16QAM

24

25

26

WR_BT03_E1_1 Channel Structure and Function

ZTE University TD&W&PCS BSS Course Team

Objectives

At the end of this course, you will be able to master: Classification of channels Structure and Function of channels

27

Content

Classification of channels Structure and Function of channels Physical layer procedure

Classification of channels

Architecture of UMTS
CN Iu RNS RNC Iub NodeB Iub NodeB Iur RNC Iub NodeB Iub NodeB RNS Iu

UE

28

Classification of channels

Channel Type

UE
T T T

Physical channel Transport channel Logical channel


Node B

RNC

Logical channel Transport channel Physical channel

Classification of channels

Concept of channel

RLC layer Logical channel MAC layer Transport channel PHY layer Physical channel

L2

L1

29

Classification of channels

Channel Type

Logical channels:
B Describe what is transported (i.e., the information to be

transmitted)
T

Transport channels:
B Describe how the logical channels are to be transmitted.

Physical channels:
B Represent the transmission media providing the platform

through which the information is actually transferred.

Classification of channels

Protocol stack of the Uu interface


GC Nt DC D u p li c a tio n a v o id a n c e GC C -p la n e s ig n a llin g Nt DC U uS b ou nd ary U -p la n e in fo r m a t io n

RRC

c o n tr o l

L3
R a d io B earers PDCP PDCP

control

control

control

control

L 2 /P D C P
BM C

L 2 /B M C

RLC RLC RLC RLC R LC RLC R LC

R LC

L 2 /R L C

L o g ic a l C h a n n e ls MAC

L 2 /M A C
T ran sp o rt C h a n n e ls

PHY

L1

30

Classification of channels

Logical Channels

Control Channel (CCH)

Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH)

Traffic Channel (TCH)

Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Common Traffic Channel (CTCH)

Classification of channels

Transport Channel

Common Transport Channels

Broadcast Channel (BCH) Paging Channel (PCH) Random Access Channel (RACH) Forward Access Channel (FACH) Common Packet Channel (CPCH) Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH)

Dedicated Transport Channels

Dedicated Channel (DCH)

31

Classification of channels

Physical Channel

Uplink Physical Channels

Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH)

Downlink Physical Channels

Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) Synchronization Channel (SCH) Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH) Page Indication Channel (PICH) Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH)

Classification of channels

Mapping relationship
Uplink
Logic Channel CCCH DCCH DTCH

Downlink
PCCH BCCH CCCH CTCH DCCH DTCH

Transport Channel

RACH CPCH DCH

PCH

BCH

FACH

DSCH

DCH

32

Classification of channels

Mapping relationship
Transport Channels
DCH

Physical Channels
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)

RACH CPCH

Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)

BCH FACH PCH

Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH)

Synchronization Channel (SCH) DSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH) Page Indication Channel (PICH)

Content

Classification of channels Structure and Function of channels Physical layer procedure

33

Structure and Function of channels

WCDMA frame structure

Structure and Function of channels

Physical Channels(1)
T

The physical channel is in a 3-layer structure by the time:


B Superframe O One superframe lasts 720ms, and consists of 72 radio frames. B radio frame O One radio frame has a period of 10ms, and comprises 15 timeslots with the same length. Corresponding to 38400 chips, it is a basic unit of the physical layer. B Timeslot O A timeslot is a unit composed of a bit domain, corresponding to 2560 chips. The bit number and structure of a timeslot depends on the specific type of the physical channel.

34

Structure and Function of channels

Physical Channels(2)
T

The frame structure of the physical channels is shown:

Ttimeslot= 2560 chip

Tslot #1 Tslot #2

Tslot #I

Tslot #15

Tframe=10 ms

Frame #0 Frame #1

Frame #I

Frame #71

Tsuperframe=720 ms

Structure and Function of channels

Uplink physical channel


T T

2 UL Dedicated physical channel (DPDCH and DPCCH) 2 UL Common physical channel (PRACH and PCPCH)

Dedicated physical Control channel DPCCH Dedicated physical DPDCH data channel Physical random PRACH Access channel Physical common PCPCH Packet channel UL Dedicated physical channel

UL Common physical channel

35

Structure and Function of channels

Uplink Dedicated physical channel

Structure and Function of channels

PRACH
T

Physical Random Access Channel


B PRACH consists preamble part and message part B Random access transmit 1or more 4096 chips length preambles and 10ms

or 20ms length message part.

Preamble

Preamble

Preamble

Message part

4096 chips

10 ms (one radio frame) Preamble Preamble

Preamble

Message part

4096 chips

20 ms (two radio frames)

PRACH transmitted structure

36

Structure and Function of channels

PRACH
T

Physical Random Access Channel


B 10ms message part is split into 15 timeslots, each timeslot consists of

2560chips.
B Each timeslot includes data part and control part. They are transmitted in

parallel .
B Data part :SF=32~256 , Data Control Pilot Npilot bits Tslot = 2560 chips, 10*2k bits (k=0..3)

control part: SF=256.


Data Ndata bits TFCI NTFCI bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i Message part radio frameRACH T = 10 ms

Slot #14

Structure and Function of channels

Downlink physical channel


T

DL physical channel include Dedicated physical channel1 Shared physical channel and five Common control channels.
SCH CPICH PICH DL common physical channel AICH CCPCH PDSCH

DPCH

37

Structure and Function of channels

Downlink dedicated physical channel

Structure and Function of channels

CPICH

38

Structure and Function of channels

CPICH
T T

There is 2 types of CPICH:P-CPICH and S-PICH P-CPICH:


B P-CPICH of different cell uses the same Cch,256,0 OVSF code to spread ,the bit

rate of P-CPICH is also fixed.


B The P-CPICH is scrambled by the primary scrambling code. B There is one and only P-CPICH per cell. B The P-CPICH is broadcast over the entire cell. it is used to search cell primary

scrambling code during cell selection procedure. And it is also used for measurement and estimation during handover, cell selection and cell re-selection.
T

S-CPICH:
B A arbitrary channelization code of SF=256 is used for the S-CPICH. B A S-CPICH is scrambled by either the primary or a secondary scrambling code. B There may be 0,1 or several S-CPICH per cell. B A S-CPICH may be transmitted over the entire cell or part of the cell. It is may be

a phase reference for a dl DPCH, but it is decided by high layer signalling.

Structure and Function of channels

P-CCPCH

39

Structure and Function of channels

SCH (1)
T T T

The Synchronization Channel (SCH) is a downlink signal used for cell search. The SCH consists of two sub channels, the Primary and Secondary SCH. The 10 ms radio frames of the Primary and Secondary SCH are divided into 15 slots, each of length 2560 chips.

Structure of synchronization channel

Structure and Function of channels

SCH (2)
T

P-SCH
B The Primary SCH consists of a modulated code of length 256

chips. The modulated code need not spreading and scrambling.


B The primary synchronization code (PSC) is transmitted once every

slot
B The PSC is the same for every cell in the system.

S-SCH
B The Secondary SCH consists of repeatedly transmitting a length

15 sequence of modulated codes of length 256 chips.


B the Secondary Synchronization Codes (SSC), transmitted in

parallel with the Primary SCH.


B Each SSC is chosen from a set of 16 different codes of length 256. B This sequence on the Secondary SCH indicates which of the code

groups the cell's downlink scrambling code belongs to.

40

Structure and Function of channels

S-CCPCH

Structure and Function of channels

PICH

PICH carries PIPage IndicationSF=256radio frame=10ms consists 300bits288 bits for paging indication12 bits Tx Off

PICH relates to S-CCPCH which mapping to PCH

288 bits for paging indication b0 b1

12 bits (transmission off) b287 b288 b299

One radio frame (10 ms)

PICH frame structure

41

Content

Classification of channels Structure and Function of channels Physical layer procedure

Physical layer procedure

Cell Search

UE has to get the system information before it registers with the network and access to services.

The system information is beared in the BCH channel, and its data is mapped into the Primary CCPCH.

So the cell search procedure is mainly to decode the data of P-CCPCH.

42

Physical layer procedure

Cell search procedure (1)

T T

The cell search is typically carried out in three steps: Step1: Slot synchronization
B During the first step of the cell search procedure the UE uses the

SCH channel's primary synchronization code to acquire slot synchronization to a cell.


B This is typically done with a single matched filter (or any similar

device) matched to the primary synchronization code which is common to all cells. The slot timing of the cell can be obtained by detecting peaks in the matched filter output.

Physical layer procedure

Sketch of Slot Synchronization

43

Physical layer procedure

Cell search procedure (2)


T

Step2: Frame synchronization and code-group identification


B During the second step of the cell search procedure, the UE uses the

SCH channel's secondary synchronization code to find frame synchronization and identify the code group of the cell found in the first step.
B This is done by correlating the received signal with all possible

secondary synchronization code sequences, and identifying the maximum correlation value. Since the cyclic shifts of the sequences are unique the code group as well as the frame synchronization is determined.

Downlink Scrambling Code Grouping


No.63 Primary Scrambling Code Group

No. 511 Scrambling Code Group No.0 Primary Scrambling Code Group

8176 8177

8176PSC
No. 7 Code Scrambling No. 510 Scrambling GroupCode Group

8191

8177SSC 112 8176PSC 8160 8160 No. 1 Scrambling Code Group No. 504 Scrambling Code Group 113 8177 8161 8161 8191SSC 16 16PSC 8064 8064 No. 0 Scrambling Code Group 17 17SSC 8065 8065 127 8191 8175 8175 0 0PSC 1 1SSC 31 31SSC 8079 8079 15 15SSC

44

Physical layer procedure

Mapping of the Secondary Synchronization Code

Physical layer procedure

Cell search procedure (3)


T

Step3: Scrambling-code identification


B During the third and last step of the cell search procedure, the UE

determines the exact primary scrambling code used by the cell.


B The primary scrambling code is typically identified through symbol-

by-symbol correlation over the CPICH with all codes within the code group identified in the second step.
T

After the primary scrambling code has been identified, the Primary CCPCH can be detected so that the cell specific BCH information can be read.

45

Physical layer procedure

Cell search procedure

Physical layer procedure

Summary of the process

Channel
Primary SCH

Synchronization acquired
Chip, Slot, Symbol Synchronization

Note
Synchronization 256 chips The same in all cells 15-code sequence of secondary synchronization

Frame Synchronization, Secondary SCH (one of 64) Code Group

codes. There are 16 secondary synchronization codes. There are 64 S-SCH sequences corresponding to the 64 scrambling code groups 256 chips, different for different cells and slot intervals

Common Pilot CH PCCPCH

Scrambling code (one of 8)

To find the primary scrambling code from common pilot CH

Synchronization, BCCH info

Fixed 30 kbps channel spreading factor 256

46

Physical layer procedure

RACH procedure
T

UE decodes BCH to find out the available RACH sub-channels and their scrambling codes and signatures It selects randomly one of the available sub-channels and signatures The downlink power is measured and the initial RACH power level is set with a proper margin due to open loop inaccuracy UE transmits 1 ms long preamble with the selected signature Node B replies by repeating the preamble using Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH) UE decodes AICH message to see whether the NodeB has detected the preamble
B If AICH is not detected, the preamble is resend with 1 dB higher transmit power B If AICH is detected, a 10 or 20 ms long message part is transmitted with the

T T

T T

same power as the last preamble

Physical layer procedure

RACH procedure

47

48

Key Technologies of WCDMA

ZTE University TD&W&PCS BSS Course Team

Objectives

At the end of this course, you will be able to:


Master key technologies of WCDMA Master characteristic of WCDMA system

capacity

49

Content

Power Control Handover Rake receiver Call Admission Control & traffic control Intelligent Antenna and MUD Capacity of WCDMA system

Power Control

Why Power Control?

All CDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time! Frequency and time are not used as discriminators. CDMA operates by using CODES to discriminate between users. CDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd -- but with a uniquely recoverable code.

Transmit power on all users must be tightly controlled so their signals reach the base station at the same signal level and at the absolute minimum power level necessary to ensure acceptable service quality.

50

Power Control

Near-Far Effect

Block the whole cell Overpowered by strong signals

Power f

Power Control

Power control

Power

Power f f

Nearby terminals have higher probability of success

Power control tech reduce the interference among each UEs and increase system capacity

51

Power Control

Power Control
DL power control
Cell transmitting power

UL power control
UE signal

Transmitting power control bit

Power control order

Overcome Near-Far effect and fading compensation Reducing multi-address interference, ensuing network capacity Prolonging the working time of cell

RX vs TX Power

RX power

TX power

Channel Fading

52

Power Control

Three methods of power control

Open loop: measure received signal level and adjust transmitting power Inner-loop (closed loop): Frequency:1500HZ Measured SIR> Target SIR, lower transmitting power Measured SIR< Target SIR, increase transmitting power Outer-loop (closed loop): Measure BLER, adjust target SIR

Power Control

Power control
Open loop power controlno feedback

RNC

UE

Node B

Closed loop power controlfeedback

Inner-loop

RNC
Outer-loop

UE

Node B

53

Power Control

Open loop power control

Open loop
1 Node B 2 Node B 2 1

If received signal is stronger,then UE can speak softer problem

If received signal is weaker,then UE can speak louder

Unbalanced for UL/DL signal, not accurate, only used in initial stage

Power Control

Closed loop power control


Power down command Power down Power up command

RNC

SIR target

Node B

Power up Power ...

SIR estimation

SIR estimation

...

BLER tar
T T

SIR tar

TPC:1500Hz

Inner-loop power control is fast Inner-loop according to SIR estimation,Node-B control UE transmission power.conducted every 0.66ms (1500Hz )

Outer-loop according to BLER measurement estimation RNC control and adjust SIR target

54

Power Control

Closed loop power control


T

Inner Loop Power control UL/DL (fast)


B UE or Node-B will use: B Signaling channel, TPC, B Continuously @ rate 1500 times/s, B To relatively changes (up or down) the power to reach the

SIR target.
T

Outer loop Power control (Slow)


B If the BLER measured is below/above the target, B UE/RNC increase/reduce SIR target. B Use the new target for the Inner loop PC.

Power Control

The Effect of Power Control


T

The purpose of DL power control:


B Saving power resource of NodeB, reducing interference to

other NodeB.
T

The purpose of UL power control:


B Overcoming Near-Far effect, save power of UE

capacity WCDMA system control depend on power

55

Content
Power Control Handover Rake receiver Call Admission Control & traffic control Intelligent Antenna and MUD Capacity of WCDMA system

Handover

Handover

Handover refers to the process in which when a UE moves from one Node B to another during calling.

Purpose:
B Keep service continuity.

In the WCDMA system, handover is divided into soft handover and hard handover.

56

Handover

Type of handover
Soft handover
T

Intra-RNC, inter-Node B Inter-RNC

WCDMA system support multi handover technology

Softer handover
T

Same Node B, Inter- sector

Hard handover T Intra-frequency handover


T T T

Inter-frequency handover Inter-system (3G&2G) Inter-mode (FDD&TDD)

Handover

Hand-over

Hard Handover

Soft Handover

57

Handover

Soft/Softer Hand-over

C A B C A B A B A B

C A B A B

Handover

Soft/Softer Handover
T

The soft/softer handover allows to swap from one cell to another without call interruption or without deleting all old radio links (by opposition to hard HO). It also allows the UE to be connected to more than one cell simultaneously and take benefit from macrodiversity.
Soft Handover Handover Soft Soft Handover Softer Handover Handover Softer Softer Handover

The two Node Bs Node may Bs The two may Same belong RNC to the belong to the
same RNC

CN CN CN
SRNC Iur DRNC

CN CN
SRNC

Node B

Node B

58

Handover

Hard Handover
T

The hard handover procedure is used in case of service quality degradation or for traffic distribution management.

Hard Handover CN
RNC or BSC

During the hard handover procedure, all the old radio links with the UE are abandoned before new ones are established.
SRNC

Hard handover may occur in the following main cases :


B When the UE is handed over another UTRAN

Node B

Node B or BTS

carrier, or another technology mode.


B When soft handover is not permitted (if O&M

constraint)

Handover

Basic concepts

Active Set:
B The set of cells connected with UE; B User information is transmitted from these cells.

Monitor Set:
B The set of cells not within the active set but being monitored

by a UE according to the adjacent node list allocated by UTRAN.


T

Detect Set:
B The set of cells in neither the active set nor the monitor set.

59

Handover

Soft handover process


T

Measurement B The RNC sends a measurement control message to UE. B UE should perform measurement as required and report the measurement result. B Generally, the measured quantity is the common pilots Ec/No. Decision B The RNC stores data of different cells according to the measurement results. B The RNC makes preliminary decision according to the event decision method. B e.g. B When the event is reported and the target cell is acceptable, send an active set update command to add/delete the cell into/from the active set. Execution B The RNC sends an active set update command to UE and UE starts handover.

Handover

Soft handover event

Event 1A

Description Quality of target cell improves, entering a report range of relatively activating set quality Quality of target cell decreases, depart from a report range of relatively activating set quality The quality of a non-activated set cell is better than that of a certain activated set cell Best cell generates change Quality of target cell improves, better than an absolute threshold Quality of target cell decreases, worse than an absolute threshold

1B

1C 1D 1E 1F

60

Example of soft handover

Handover

Soft handover Case

In especially urban environment, the handover region between two cells might be too small.

If the UE passes such an area in a very quick speed, the call might be dropped.

61

Content
Power Control Handover Rake receiver Call Admission Control & traffic control Intelligent Antenna and MUD Capacity of WCDMA system

Rake receiver

RAKE Receiving

d1

d2

d3

transmitting

Receiving

Rake combination noise

62

Rake receiver

Multi-finger receiver
Direct signal

coding

decoding

transmitter
T T

Reflect signal

receiver

Dispersive time < 1 chip length Multi-finger receiver cant supply multi-finger diversity
Direct signal

coding
Reflect signal

decoding

transmitter
T T

receiver

Dispersive time > 1 chip length Multi-finger receiver can supply multi-finger diversity,improve signal gain

Rake receiver

RAKE Receiving
Single receiving Single receiving Single receiving

receiver receiver

combining

signal

searcher s(t) s(t)

calculate calculate

t
T

RAKE overcome multi-finger interferenceimprove receive capability

63

Rake receiver

Multi-finger receiver
T

Maximal ratio combining(MRC)


at each time delay phase shifting by adding

Finger 1

Finger 2

Finger 3

Content
Power Control Handover Rake receiver Call Admission Control & traffic control Intelligent Antenna and MUD Capacity of WCDMA system

64

Call Admission Control & traffic control

Call Admission Control

When user initiates a call, RRM decides weather access or deny this call according to the resource situation.

When accessing, network allocate resource (such as OVSF, Scramble code)

Call Admission Control & traffic control

Traffic control

When traffic surpass system threshold, traffic control begin.

To accept as many as possible services while keep the stability of the system.

65

Call Admission Control & traffic control

Example for load control


T

Breath effect of cell T With the increase of activated terminals,interference increasethe increase of high speed service,the increase of interference The shrink of cell coverage area Coverage blind spot occurs Drop of call will happen at the edge of cell

Coverage and capacity are relative

Content
Power Control Handover Rake receiver Call Admission Control & traffic control Intelligent Antenna and MUD Capacity of WCDMA system

66

Intelligent Antenna and MUD

Intelligent Antenna

Interference

user

Intelligent Antenna and MUD

Intelligent Antenna

Omni-cell

cell with Three sector

Cell with smart attenna

67

Intelligent Antenna and MUD

Intelligent Antenna

Intelligent Antenna and MUD

Multi-user Detection Principle

68

Content
Power Control Handover Rake receiver Call Admission Control & traffic control Intelligent Antenna and MUD Capacity of WCDMA system

Capacity of WCDMA system

Soft Capacity
System capacity and QoS can be interconverted

Different service has different capacity

Different combination of service has different capacity

69

Capacity of WCDMA system

Capacity of WCDMA System

Under the circumstance of single services:

= = =

Capacity of WCDMA system

Capacity of WCDMA System


T

Under the circumstance of mixture of services

...

+ Y

+Z

70

Capacity of WCDMA system

Coverage and Capacity


T

WCDMA performance is determined by such factors as


B Number of users B Transmission rate B Mobile rate B Wireless environment O indoors O Outdoors

The sizes of cell depend on such factors as:


B Local radio conditions (local interference) B Traffic in neighbouring cells (distanced interference)

Cell Radius decrease according to the Increase of user number

Capacity of WCDMA system

Coverage/capacity vs Data Rate


T T

Higher rate needs higher power High data rate transmission is only available nearby the station

Coverage decrease

>384 kbps >144 kbps >64 kbps

Subscriber num increase

>12.2 kbps

71

Capacity of WCDMA system

Coverage and Capacity

In order to overcome cell breath caused by increased traffic and different requirement for capacity and coverage in different environment ,such solution supplied:

DL

transmission diversity (Tx Div) high power amplifier(TEU 50 W)

DL/UL: Add carrier six sectors Smart antenna

UL

tower mounted amplifier (TMA)

4RxDiv OTSR

Add Addbasestation basestation last lastchoice choice

72

WCDMA Radio Network Planning Process

ZTE University TD&W&PCS BSS Course Team

Content

WCDMA Technical Features WCDMA Network Planning Process

73

WCDMA Technical Features

Multi-Address Technology
T

FDMA
B Different channels are at different bands,

such as AMPS and TACS.


T

TDMA
B Different channels at the same band are

distinguished by timeslots, such as DAMPS and GSM.


T

CDMA
B Different channels at the same time and

band are distinguished by different frequency spreading codes, such as WCDMA and CDMA2000.

WCDMA Technical Features

Self-Interfering System
T

T T

Source Shared spectrum, MultiMulti-Path transmission, no ideal frequency spreading code with selfself-related and mutualmutual-related features. Symptom Power escalation, soft capacity, etc. Solution Power control, access control, load control and detailed planning
One of radio network planning goals is to minimize selfself-interfering

74

WCDMA Technical Features

Power Escalation
Uplink noise rise increases with the number of subscribers nonnon-linearly

Downlink Node B power increases with the number of subscribers nonnon-linearly

WCDMA Technical Features

Soft Capacity
T

Soft Capacity

Cell Breathing

Interference

75

WCDMA Technical Features

Power Control

One subscriber subscribers signal is noise to the others. The transmission power should be controlled in order that it would not block other subscribers.
Node B

Power control Near - far problem despreading


Node B

despreading

NearNear-Far effect

WCDMA Technical Features

Soft Handover
T

Soft handover
B UE can connect with

more than one Node B


T

Softer handover
B UE can connect with

more than one cell under one Node B


T

Hard handover
B Inter frequency

handover

76

WCDMA Technical Features

Multi-Service Hybrid System


Differentservices serviceshave have Different differentrates, rates,and andtheir their different coverageranges rangesand and coverage capacities are different. capacities are different.
UMTS LCD: 64 kb/s Radius = 0.73R UMTS UDD: 64 kb/s Radius = 0.78R UMTS UDD: 144 kb/s Radius = 0.64R

UMTS LCD: 144 kb/s Radius = 0.60R

UMTS Voice: 12.2 kb/s Radius = 0.87R

UMTS UDD: 384 kb/s Radius = 0.56R UMTS LCD: 384 kb/s Radius = 0.49R

UMTS Voice: 8 kb/s Radius = R

Differentproportions proportionsand and Different composition of hybrid service,with with composition of hybrid service, differentsystem systemcapacities capacities different

Coverage, capacity and quality of the WCDMA system are tightly coupled

WCDMA Technical Features

Network Planning Goals


We We should should do do
T

Fulfill operators operators requirement on coverage, capacity, and service quality, estimate network scale, minimize investment, and simulate to verify. Predict network development trend, and prepare for future development. Goals Goals

T T

Maximize coverage in time and space. Minimized intraintra-system interference to reach the required service quality. Optimize radio parameters to maximize service quality. With capacity and service quality fulfilled, minimize equipment number and cost.

77

Content

WCDMA Technical Features WCDMA Network Planning Process

WCDMA Network Planning Process

WCDMA Radio Network Planning Process


Requirement Analysis

Network Dimensioning

PrePre-Planning Simulation

Propagation Model Test and Calibration

Sites Survey

Sites Layout

Network Simulation

Output Planning Report

78

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Planning Process - Requirement Analysis


Requirement Analysis

Network Dimensioning

PrePre-Planning Simulation

Propagation Model Test and Calibration

Sites Survey

Sites Layout

Network Simulation

Output Planning Report

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Requirement Analysis
Requirement Requirement Analysis Analysis
T T T

Learn the customer customers requirement of coverage, capacity, and QoS. Learn the landform and environments of the planned area. Learn the population distribution and average income per person in the planned area. Learn information about the existing network in the planned area.

79

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Requirement Analysis (Cont.)


Planning Planning Area Area Sorting Sorting
T T

The purpose to sort the planning area is to refine network design and layout. Different areas have different geographical environment, vegetation distribution, and building density. Different areas require different number of Node B to meet the coverage requirement.

Area type Dense Urban Mean Urban Suburban Rural

Area characters Central business district, dense shopping center, dense residential area Industrial park, shopping center, residential area The edge of city, the center of village and town Farm, the edge of village and town

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Requirement Analysis (Cont.)


Coverage Coverage Requirements Requirements
T

64 k CS

Different areas have the different requirements for the service type coverage rate. Different requirements for service type and coverage rate in the same area will get different number of Node B

144k PS data

384k PS data

80

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Requirement Analysis (Cont.)


Capacity Capacity Requirements Requirements
T T

No. of subscribers and their profile profile, traffic model, service type , forecast, hot spots spots

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Requirement Analysis (Cont.)


Cell Cell load load
T

Load increases, Coverage reduces , System unstable


12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0
st Ju
tem sys ble Sta
Un s

Noise Rise

bl e s ta

m ste sy

10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Load

81

tab

le

sy ste m

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Requirement Analysis (Cont.)


Other Other information information
T T T

The important building in the planning area The information of traffic line, just as highway The important villages and towns in the planning area

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Planning Process Propagation Model


Requirement Analysis

Network Dimensioning

PrePre-Planning Simulation

Propagation Model Test and Calibration

Sites Survey

Sites Layout

Network Simulation

Output Planning Report

82

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Propagation Model Test (Cont.)


Site Site Selection Selection
T T T T

Test sites should be selected form each environment categories. To cover enough clutters. The testing site shall be free of visible obstructions around. The testing site shall be higher than the surrounding buildings.

Antenna Transmitter

Receiver Laptop

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Propagation Model Test (Cont.)


Route Route Selection Selection
T T

All directions from the testing site should be included. The vehicle should take a route to or from the testing site in the shape of 8, net, ring, or spiral, with a constant speed.

83

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Propagation Model Calibration (Cont.)


Data Data Process Process
T T T

Distance Filtration. Intensity Filtration. Land Feature Filtration

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Propagation Model Calibration (Cont.)


Propagation Propagation Model Model Selection Selection

PathLoss = K1 + K 2 log(d ) + K 3Hms + K 4 log( Hms ) + K 5 log( Heff ) + K 6 log( Heff ) log(d ) + K 7(diffractionloss ) + Clutterloss

T T T T T T T T T

K1-Fading Constant K2-Distance Fading Coefficient K3K4-Mobile Station Antenna Height calibration Coefficient K5K6-Base Station Antenna Height calibration Coefficient K7-Diffraction calibration Coefficient Clutterloss-Calibration Value of Physiognomy Fading D-Distance between base station and mobile station (km) Hms -Mobile Station Antenna Effective Height (m) Heff-Base Station Antenna Effective Height (m)

84

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Planning Process Network Dimensioning


Requirement Analysis

Network Dimensioning

PrePre-Planning Simulation

Propagation Model Test and Calibration

Sites Survey

Sites Layout

Network Simulation

Output Planning Report

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Network Dimensioning

Network Network Dimensioning Dimensioning


T T T

Link budget Capacity analysis Give need analysis report, and estimate the Number of Node Bs in the planned area.

85

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Network Dimensioning (Cont.)


Input:system load requirment and coverage requirement

Uplink coverage estimation

Downlink coverage estimation

Uplink capacity estimation

Quantity of BSs satisfying uplink coverage

Quantity of BSs satisfying downlink coverage

Quantity of BSs satisfying uplink capacity

Compare the results and evaluate the larger one

Based on traffic type Downlink capacity estimation

Based on power Quantity B of channels availably provided by every cell on the downlink

Quantity A of channels to be provided by every cell on the downlink

Add BSs

No A<B

Yse End

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Link Budget
Link Link Budget Budget
Antenna Gain Feeder loss

PA

BS Power

Receiver Sensitivity

Path Loss

Penetration Loss

Margin

Body Loss UE Power

86

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Capacity Analysis
Capacity Capacity Analysis Analysis

Total _ virtual _ Erl Cell _ virtual _ Erl

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Planning Process Pre-Planning Simulation


Requirement Analysis

Network Dimensioning

PrePre-Planning Simulation

Propagation Model Test and Calibration

Sites Survey

Sites Layout

Network Simulation

Output Planning Report

87

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Pre-Planning Simulation
Pre-Planning Pre-Planning Simulation Simulation
T T

Verify estimation with simulation Give suggestions for Node B layout, location, and area. Guide site survey work

Existing site sites sources Propagation model Traffic model

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Planning Process Sites Survey


Requirement Analysis

Network Dimensioning

PrePre-Planning Simulation

Propagation Model Test and Calibration

Sites Survey

Sites Layout

Network Simulation

Output Planning Report

88

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Sites Survey
Site Site Survey Survey
T

T T T

To get the necessary data needed by network planning and simulation To learn geographical environment and radio environment of the site To learn the condition of building site To learn the traffic distribution of planning area To provide the candidate sites for planning area

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Site Survey
Site Site Selection Selection Principles Principles
T

T T

convenience in traffic, reliability in city power supply, lightning lightning protection and grounding, small floor space; network construction initial stage, ensure the coverage and quality of VIP subscribers and the area with high user density under the condition of no effects to the site layout, should choose the currently existed sites as the candidate sites and utilize their equipment room, power supply, tower, etc. avoid the site location which is close to radar, if necessary, for for the security factors, should apply the correspond methods to avoid the mutually interference avoid to locate the site on the mountain, in the forest ; avoid to select the sites which will be affected by the potential potential constructed buildings ;

89

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Site Survey
Data Data Recording Recording
T T T T

Site information: site name, site address, latitude, longitude, building height, tower height Radio Parameter: azimuth angle, downdown-tilt, antenna height antenna type, diversity type and separation Radio environment description Interfering source

WCDMA Network Planning Process

ZTE Node B Family


Middle Capacity Indoor Coverage
Normal citysuburban rural

High Capacity
Dense Urbanoutdoor

ZXWR BBUC ZXWR P8925 Pico RRU ZXWR B06C ZXWR BBUB ZXWR P Bridge Pico Hub ZXWR B09 ZXWR B03C ZXWR R8840 ZXWR B09C

ZXWR H8901 ZXWR R8905

Blind ,hotspot, particular scene

Dense Urban

90

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Planning Process Network Simulation


Requirement Analysis

Network Dimensioning

PrePre-Planning Simulation Sites Survey

Propagation Model Test and Calibration

Sites Layout

Network Simulation

Output Planning Report

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Network Simulation
Simulation Simulation
T T T

Input several optional solutions simultaneously. Simulate all optional solutions. Select the most appropriate solution according to the simulation result.

91

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Network Simulation

Best server

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Network Simulation

CPICH_Ec

92

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Network Simulation

CPICH_Ec/Io

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Network Simulation

Handover type

93

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Network Simulation

The number of pilot polluters

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Network Simulation

Voice service coverage rate

94

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Network Simulation

Uplink Load

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Network Simulation (Cont.)


Simulation Simulation Statistics Statistics Analysis Analysis

95

WCDMA Network Planning Process

WCDMA Radio Network Planning Process


Requirement Analysis

Network Dimensioning

PrePre-Planning Simulation Sites Survey

Propagation Model Test and Calibration

Sites Layout

Network Simulation

Output Planning Report

WCDMA Network Planning Process

Planning Report Output


T

Report contents
B Networking requirements for the WCDMA network B Service model and demand analysis B Radio network scale estimation B Policy and principle analysis B Networking proposal and solution to network construction by stages

Attachment contents
B Propagation model test result B BS address survey table B BS engineering parameter table B Radio parameter configuration table B Network diagram and site layout diagram B simulation result report

96

97

98

Introduction to ZTE 3G Network Planning & Optimization Tools

ZTE University TD&W&PCS BSS Course Team

Content
ZTE Pilot Transmitter and 3GSS ZTE WiNOM RNT ZTE WiNOM RNA ZTE NOP

99

ZTE Pilot Transmitter and 3GSS

ZX-WCT 3G Pilot Transmitter


Overview
T

Features

Pilot transmitter is developed independently by ZTE to meet the market needs. Pilot transmitter is designed to transmit the WCDMA CPICH signals or CW signals. Pilot transmitter is applicable to radio propagation model test and pilot coverage test

T T T T

Pilot transmitter is portable, easy to carry. Pilot transmitter controlled by laptop is easy to control and operate. Pilot transmitter is powered by 220VAC or 24VDC. Flexible to configure test frequency and transmitting power.

ZTE Pilot Transmitter and 3GSS

AIRCOM Enterprise Asset3G

100

ZTE Pilot Transmitter and 3GSS

ZTE Network Simulation Platform


3GSS: 3G System Simulation
T

3GSS is a network simulation platform developed by ZTE, aimed at the research of network planning technology and system algorithm analysis. Now it supports the combined simulation of R99 and HSDPA. 3GSS is based on Monte Carlo simulation method, just like Aircom Asset 3G. Network behavior is deduced through the statistical average of multiple snapshots. Each snapshot is an iteration of simulated terminal access process until the convergence condition is satisfied. So, whats the difference between 3GSS and Aircom?

ZTE Pilot Transmitter and 3GSS

Comparison between 3GSS and AIRCOM

Suit for study the influence of algorithm on network performance Not aimed at engineering simulation, e.g., it doesnt support digital map, but uses ideal hexagonal cell topology to model the radio network. The result of 3GSS simulation cannot be used directly for practical network design.

A typical engineering simulation suite, the results are used as guidance for network construction, including engineering parameters and radio parameters. Can be used in different phases of network roll out, e.g., network planning, network optimization, capacity expansion, etc.

101

ZTE Pilot Transmitter and 3GSS

3GSS and AIRCOM Complement Each Other


T

The design goals of 3GSS and AIRCOM differ from each other to a certain extent, but they can be used as complementary tools.

Theoretical parameter values from 3GSS can be used as input of Aircom, and simulation results from Aircom can be used to verify the accuracy of 3GSS simulation engine.

3GSS 3GSS is is designed designed as as a a modulized, modulized, extensible extensible system, system, normally normally used to study theoretical problems such as algorithm used to study theoretical problems such as algorithm verification, verification, interference interference between between different different radio radio systems, systems, network planning scheme benchmarking, etc. network planning scheme benchmarking, etc. All All these these functions functions cannot cannot be be provided provided by by Aircom. Aircom.

ZTE Pilot Transmitter and 3GSS

Key Features of 3GSS


T

Support modeling of various cell environment (omni-cell and sectorized cell, single cell and cell clusters)

Support multiple path loss scenario (HATA/COST231 /3GPP)

Support 3D antenna modeling for multiple antenna types and parameters.

Flexible UE distribution (at cell edge or uniform distributed in cell, in door or outdoor)

Adjustable equipment capacity input (power, code, common channel configuration, carrier allocation)

102

ZTE Pilot Transmitter and 3GSS

Key Features of 3GSS (Cont.)


T

Support three main stream scheduling algorithm for HSDPA (Max CI / PF /RR)

T T

Adjustable HSDPA/R99 channel conditions (0120km/h) Adjustable HSDPA power/code resources allocation (statically or dynamically)

Simulation of combined R99 and HSDPA services, or both can be simulated separately.

Simulation of five service models, i.e., FTP,HTTP, EMAIL, WAP, STREAMING

ZTE Pilot Transmitter and 3GSS

3GSS Simulation Results

Node B topology

1 4

Power consumption

2 5

BLER and Retransmission

Active cell statistic

HSDPA throughput

Pilot quality

UE distribution

Service model statistic

103

Content
ZTE Pilot Transmitter and 3GSS ZTE WiNOM RNT ZTE WiNOM RNA ZTE NOP

ZTE WiNOM RNT

WiNOM RNT Characteristics


T

A professional radio network test tool supporting multiple systems including WCDMA and GSM/GPRS networks.

T T T T T T T T

Support Qualcomm test handset and ZTE WCDMA handset Support scanner test Support simultaneous test of multiple handsets and scanner Support indoor test Support analog path test Auto test of voice and data services Real-time display during 2/3G handover Full technology support, TD-SCDMA version has been widely used

104

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Test Devices Supported


T

Test handsets:
B Qualcomm TM5200, 6200,

TM6200

ZTE F808

ZTE F866

6250,etc
B ZTE F866, F868,etc

Scanner:
B Anritsu ML8720B, ML8740A B Agilent E6455C

ML8720B

ML8740A

GPS:
B Support all GPS devices in

Agilent E6455C

compliance with NMEA0183 and using RS-232 communication interface. GPS

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Geological Display
T

T T T

Display in real-time the current test values, and indicate different values of parameters with different colors on the drive test track. Display call events in real time Support site information loading Support cell connection function

Load the map needed

Test item Current point value

Legend

Cell

Drive Test Track

105

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Indoor Test
T T

Support indoor GPS signal simulation, with import of indoor map. Support predefined path test and Walk and Click test.

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Multi-handset, Multi-scanner & Multi-system Test


T

Support simultaneous test of multi-handset and multi-scanner as well as multisystem test, such as WCDMA and GSM/GPRS networks.

T WCDMA T GSM

106

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Powerful Voice Service Test Capability


T T

Powerful service plan queue function to flexibly define auto test plans. Display statistic information of current calls, such as call process, call time, originating call, hangup, and air interface. Record in real time the time information during voice service dialing test, such as probe count, setup time, teardown time and idle time.

Define auto test plan

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Voice Service Test Call Status Display


Call status display
Status display of a call at different stages

Time parameters of current calls

Statistical information of current test plan

Call status display of voice service can help quickly analyze the the failure cause of specific calls.

107

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Voice Service Test Time Statistic Display


Time statistic display
Y Y Probe Count Y Y Setup Time Y Y Call Time Y Y Teardown Time Y Y Idle Time

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Powerful Data Service Test Capability


T T T T

Integrate PPP, FTP and PING protocols Support PPP redialing on broken link, PPP Call by Call test, and FTP and PING test. All test processes are display in the form of graph or message. Provide traffic monitoring on IP, UDP and TCP three layers.

108

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Data Service Test Multi-protocol Test


PPP test

FTP test

Ping test

Query IP address

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Scanner Test
Scrambling code measurement

Spectrum analysis

Continuous wave measurement

109

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Parameters of WCDMA Layer 1 and Layer 2


T

Provide display of kinds of layer 1 and layer 2 parameters

Finger Info

Pilot Histogram

RLC Info

BLER

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Browsing WCDMA RRC Layer and NAS Layer Signaling


T

Support real time decoding of RRC layer and NAS layer signaling, and support concatenation of system information blocks and signaling filtering function, set display color by types of signaling.

Concatenation and full decoding of system information blocks

110

ZTE WiNOM RNT

GSM/GPRS Parameter Display

Cell Parameters

GSM Parameters

RxLev Signaling Window

ZTE WiNOM RNT

2/3G handover Observation


T

Visually display the 2/3G handover and provides comparison of camped cells before and after handover .

Observation of system handover Comparison of cells before and after 2/3G handover

111

ZTE WiNOM RNT

Data Playback
Playback Toolbar
To the start Pause Fast backward Stop Play Fast play To the end Move forward Auto fill in a section of data before the point of playback

Data playback, repeating the test process, helps us to quickly locate locate the network faults.

Content
ZTE Pilot Transmitter and 3GSS ZTE WiNOM RNT ZTE WiNOM RNA ZTE NOP

112

ZTE WiNOM RNA

WiNOM RNA Characteristics


T

WiNOM RNA(WCDMA Edition) is a professional analysis software for WCDMA network optimization. Based on the drive test data and other auxiliary data, its able to make smart analysis of the radio network to locate the network problems in a fast and accurate manner for network optimization.

T T T T

GIS related functions Message related functions Advanced analysis functions Report related functions

ZTE WiNOM RNA

GIS
T

Message
T T

Make analysis based on drive test data along with site information and GIS data.

Complete RRC message decode. SIBs are decoded and concatenated automatically. Detailed NAS message decode. Show message list by color mapping and filtering plan, support browse, play, query and bookmark functions.

The spatially overlapped data layers are automatically or manually offset to avoid mutual coverage.

T T

Auto associate the data layer with the base station cell layer through PSC.
T T T

Self define event analysis. Multiple KPI analysis. Flexible query and statistics.

T T

Flexible layer control. User defined marks

113

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Analysis
T T T T T T T

Correlated synchronized analysis of data points and cells on the test path. Specify best and full Ec/Io coverage rendering analysis of PSC. Pilot pollution analysis algorithm. Over shoot analysis algorithm. Missed neighbor cell analysis. Coverage rate analysis. Inter-system and Intra-system neighbor planning.

Report
T T

Detailed export of graphs and tables. One-click auto report generation.

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Data File Management


T

Load APT, SD5 and ZRX data files, and merge multiple data files in multiple ways.

Load SD5 data file

Merge multiple data files

114

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Workspace Management

Save the user s settings and restore to the saved configuration of views and windows layout upon next startup.

Save workspace

Load workspace

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Geological Analysis Window

Graphic button Shortcut menu Display zone

Legend

115

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Geological Analysis Setting


T

Provide layer setting, map parameters setting, legend setting, cell color setting and analysis connection setting.
BIN setting

Drive test symbols

Legend type

Offset setting

Layer control setting

Map parameter setting

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Geological Analysis Setting (cont.)

Legend management

Cell color

Legend setting

Cell color setting

116

ZTE WiNOM RNA

In-Building Test Analysis


T

Load in-building test data, import in-building test map, and analyze the parameters of in-building test.

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Table Analysis
T

Table shows the values of parameters on a data layer, on which a user can browse, copy, search, export and synchronize the data.

Show all parameters

117

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Graph Analysis
T

Describe the trends of observed parameters in 2D graph.

ZTE WiNOM RNA

PDF Curve Diagram Analysis


T

Probability distribution curve analysis

118

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Information Browsing
T

The message analysis window is divided into two parts, the upper part is MessageList subwindow, while the lower part is Decode subwindow.

Detailed decoding

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Analysis of Multiple Types of Messages


T

Including message filtering, customized event analysis, call delay analysis and KPI analysis.

Delay analysis (CS separated from PS)

119

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Complete Data Replay


T

After the test is finished the data is replayed to represent the actual test process. The replay supports synchronous display of replay window that shows signal strength, pilot, power and BLER.

Power replay Signal strength replay

Pilot replay

BLER replay

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Single Track Point Data Replay


T

Show full information of one point on the test path in the map window.

Single point parameter

120

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Data Filter Function


T

To filter the records and ratio of the data meeting certain conditions. Filtered results (points) can be displayed on the map.

Filter table Optional filter items


Filter conditions

Filter results

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Pilot Analysis: Specify Coverage Rendering of a PSC


T

Specify best coverage of a PSC (PSCs Ec/Io is best) and specify full coverage of a PSC (PSCs Ec/Io in NBList)

Best analysis

Full analysis

121

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Pilot Analysis: Best Coverage Rendering of All PSC

The function can display best Ec/Io (Best Ec/Io in NBlist) and best Ec/Io PSC (Best PSC in NBlist) along the test path.

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Pilot Pollution Analysis


T

PSCs Ec/Io is above the defined pilot pollution threshold, but is not in the active set.

122

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Over Shoot Analysis


T

PSCs coverage exceeds defined threshold, and may cause negative influence on remote region.

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Coverage Rate Analysis


T

Show the coverage according to coverage rate algorithm, 1: covered, 0: not covered

RxPower>m &AggEc/Io>n

123

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Neighbor List Planning and Check


T T T T

Neighbor list generation from site topology Import neighbor planning result from Aircom Visual presentation of neighbor defined in OMCR Check validity of certain neighbor scheme and make modifications manually

T T

Export modified neighbor list to OMCR Support 2G-3G two-way neighbor planning
Master Cell

Neighbor Cell

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Neighbor List Planning and Check (cont.)

124

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Neighbor List Planning and Check (cont.)

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Visual Presentation of Neighbor Cells

125

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Statistics Report

T T T

Count the number and proportion of data points of interested items. Data can be filtered and averaged using bin mode. Result graph can be previewed and exported to Excel or Word.

ZTE WiNOM RNA

Report Export
T

Export in multiple formats is supported, such as histogram, pie chart and table.

126

ZTE WiNOM RNA

One-Click Report Generation


T

Automatically export the selected analysis items to the Word document with the predefined template in the form of map, table and curve diagram.

Output option

Content
ZTE Pilot Transmitter and 3GSS ZTE WiNOM RNT ZTE WiNOM RNA ZTE NOP

127

ZTE NOP

What is NOP?

ZXM-NOP is the network optimization subsystem of ZTE WCDMA Solution.

ZXM-NOP is based on the performance data, configuration data and engineering parameters.

ZXM-NOP provides various of data views to plan and optimize the network quickly and efficiently.

ZTE NOP

What Kind of Problems Can NOP Solve

NetWork Quality Evaluation

Performance Analysis

Optimize Adjacent Cell

Find Equipment Fault

NOP
Optimize Project Parameter

Interference Analysis

Optimize Radio Parameter

System Capacity Analysis

128

ZTE NOP

All-in-One Tool Suite


T T T

Each tool has its operate scene Each tool has its data format Expert experiences accumulated are hard to share

PLMN PLMN

ZTE NOP

Functions of NOP

Data Management

Network Planning

Performance Analysis Customize regions Customize Indices Customize Templates Inquire performance data Display performance analysis

Expert System

Import OMCR data Import radio configuration parameters Import project parameters Import performance data antenna Management Export data to OMCR NOP data management

GIS display View and inquire radio configuration data View and inquire project parameters View and plan adjacent cells Auto adjust and optimize adjacent cells Divisional display Compare and check configuration data Plan NodeB/Cell project parameters Generating Change Request Note and MMI Command

Creating Network Optimization Report Creating Network Evaluation Report

GIS System Management

129

ZTE NOP

Highly Integration

Integrate the network planning, optimization and performance analysis

Generate advices of network optimization synthetically

T T

Closely integrated with OMCR Provide a unified work platform of network optimization

ZTE NOP

Powerful Functions
T

Provide many functions used most commonly in work of network planning and optimization
B Correlated analysis of UE

and RNC signal trace logs.


B Auto optimize PSC

assignment
B Verify network planning

data
B Expert system support B

130

ZTE NOP

Powerful Functions (cont.)


T

Provide detailed logs and help engineers know the history C/S structure, allow multiengineers to work together Classified and detailed Change Request Notes, provide information of adjusted network elements and parameters

ZTE NOP

Complete and Flexible Indices Inquiring


T

Inquire with customized index formula templates

Support different granularities of time to inquire

All indices of performance analysis reports can be modified

131

ZTE NOP

Complete and Flexible Indices Inquiring (cont.)


T

Support tables and charts display

Support correlation of different index data

ZTE NOP

Powerful Compatibility

T T

ZXM-NOP supports all OMCR versions If other manufacturers can provide the data interface mode, NOP could import the performance data of other manufacturers

Depends on the powerful compatibility, NOP can be used in all kinds of PLMN system, including WCDMA, TDSCDMA, GSM

132

ZTE NOP

Use Case 1: KPI Alarm and Visual Presentation


T

Engineer choose KPI alarm threshold, may be performance or resource related KPI.

KPI query condition may be single or combined, e.g., CS Traffic (erl)>1 and Call Drop Rate(%)>2

NOP output the filter result, and selected cells are rendered on map using different colors. KPI value can be displayed as well.

Query condition can be saved as template for reuse in different projects.

ZTE NOP

Use Case 2: Neighbor List Optimization

Engineer choose to export handover statistics in certain periods.

Handover related counters include attempt number, success number, and virtual handover number according to detected set measurement report.

Missed neighbor can be identified quickly, and unnecessary neighbor relationship can be removed.

Modified neighbor list configuration can be imported into OMCR directly.

133

ZTE NOP

Use Case 3: Low Data Service Throughput Analysis

Engineer identify Top N cells with cell throughput KPI lower than threshold.

Engineer query for related statistics which maybe the root cause of network problem.
B E1 configuration of target cell? B BLER and RLC retransmission rate of target cell? B Any alarm log in OMCR related to target cell? B Interference exists in target cell? B

ZTE NOP

Use Case 4: Uplink Interference Identify

T T

Engineer query for RTWP data in a certain period. If multiple cells uplink RTWP rises at the same time, and the value exceeds a certain threshold for a long time, they might be interfered by unknown source.

If azimuth of all influenced cells points to nearly the same direction, the interference source may be there.

134

135

136

WR_BT06_E1_1 Interface protocol and signaling flow

ZTE University TD&W&PCS BSS Course Team

Objectives
At the end of this course, you will be able to:
Understand ATM basic knowledge Master Network interfaces protocol Master signaling flow

137

Content

ATM Basics Network Interfaces UE State transition Signaling flow

ATM Basics

ATM Basics
T

ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode


Synchronous Frame

Periodical

STM STM

Need no exact timing Nonperiodical

ATM ATM

138

ATM Basics

ATM Cell format


T T

ATM transfers information in fixed-size units called cells. Each cell consists of 53 bytes, with 5 bytes of header and 48 bytes of payload.

5bytes cell-header 53 bytes 48 bytes payload (user information) ATM cell

ATM Basics

ATM Switch Type


T

Circuit Switch
B Fixed connecting, synchronization time division multiplexing B Good real time performance but weak flexibility

Packet Switch
B Virtual circuit connecting without fixed time slot B Weak real time performance but good flexibility

ATM Switch
B One which falls in between Circuit Switch and Packet Switch and

combines their advantages.


B ATM Switch consists of two types: O VPS (Virtual Path Switch) O VCS (Virtual Channel Switch)

139

ATM Basics

ATM protocol reference model(1)

ATM Basics

ATM protocol reference model(2)


T T

The ATM protocol reference model consists of four layers: Physical layer
B responsible for correct and effective cell transmission via the

physical media
T

ATM layer
B responsible for cell switching, routing and multiplexing

ATM adaptation layer


B the AAL layer is responsible for adaptation of higher-layer service

information or signaling information to ATM cell flow


T

Higher layer
B equivalent to the application layer of each service or the higher

layer of signaling.

140

ATM Basics

VP&VC
T

VC (Virtual Channel) and VP (Virtual Path) are logical conceptions

ATM Basics

VP & VC Switching
T

The VPI value has to be changed during VP switching While all VCI values contained in it remain unchanged. During VC switching, both the VPI and VCI values should be changed.
VC Switching
VCI 1 VCI 2 VCI 3 VPI 3 VCI 4 VPI 2 VPI 2 Port 2 VCI 4

VP Switching
Port 1 VCI 1 VCI 2 VCI 1 VCI 2 VPI 1

VPI 1

VPI 3

VCI 3

VPI 4

VPI 5

VCI 1 VCI 2 Port 3

141

ATM Basics

ATM Adaptation layer


T

AAL between ATM layer and high-layer applications


B Implements the service functions needed by the high layer B

(such as error processing and timing control).

B Supports the adaptation between the high layer and ATM

layer-mapping PDU of the high layer to the information segment of the ATM cell and vice versa.
B Different services need different adaptation. According to

the Timing between source and destination, Bit rate and Connection mode, ITU-T divides them into 4 classes: Type A/B/C/D.

ATM Basics

AAL classes
Traffic Parameter Timing between source & destination Bit rate Connection mode AAL types AAL 1 Circuit simulation QoS1 fixed Connection-orient AAL 2 Moving image video and audio QoS2 AAL 3 Connectionorient data transmitting QoS3 Class A need Class B Class C Not need various Connectionlessorient AAL 4 AAL 5 connectionless data transmitting QoS4 Class D

Service sample QoS

142

ATM Basics

AAL2

AAL2
B suitable for VBR (variable bit rate) traffic, typically includes

services characterized as voice or video.


B Traffic must be real-time transmitted for existing timing

relationship between signal source and signal destination.


B In UMTS, transmission of user-plane data is beared by

AAL2, such as voice.

ATM Basics

AAL5

AAL5
B Efficient Data traffic transmitting adaptation protocol. B Supplying the same traffic with AAL3/4 B In the WCDMA signaling stack, AAL5 is used to bear the

signaling in Iux interface and the PS data in Iu-PS interface

143

Content

ATM Basics Network Interfaces UE State transition Signaling flow

Network Interfaces

UTRAN Architecture

144

Network Interfaces

Universal model of the UTRAN interfaces


Radio Network Layer Application Protocol Data Stream(s) Control Plane User Plane

Transport Transport Network Network User Plane Layer

Transport Network
Control Plane

Transport Network
User Plane

ALCAP(s) Signalling Bearer(s) Signalling Bearer(s) Data Bearer(s)

Physical Layer

Network Interfaces

Universal model of the UTRAN interfaces


T

Horizontal: UTRAN falls into 2 layers


B Radio Network Layer (RNL) B Transport Network Layer (TNL)

Vertical: UTRAN falls into 4 planes


B Control plane B User plane B TNL control plane B TNL user plane

In R99 and R4, the ATM technology is adopted at the transport network layer, while R5, IP transmission is introduced.

145

Network Interfaces

Iu Interface

UTRAN

Core Network (CN)


CS Domain RNC Iu-CS PS Domain
Iu-PS

Node B

Node B

Node B RNC Node B

BC Domain Iu-BC

Iu Interface

Network Interfaces

Iu-CS Interface Stack Structure


Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User Plane
Iu UP Protocol Layer Transport Network Control Plane Q.2630.1 Transport Network Layer SCCP MTP3b SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 Q.2150.1 MTP3b SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network User Plane

AAL2

ATM Physical Layer

146

Network Interfaces

Iu-PS Interface Stack Structure


Radio Control Plane
RANAP

User Plane
Iu UP Protocol Layer

Network
Layer

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Control Plane

Transport Network User Plane

Transport
Network

MTP3-B

SCCP M3UA GTP-U UDP IP AAL5

Layer

SCTP SSCF-NNI IP SSCOP AAL5

ATM Physical Layer

ATM Physical Layer

Network Interfaces

Iu interface Functions
T

RAB management
B RAB setup, modification and release B mapping of RAB characteristics to the Uu bearer B mapping of RAB characteristics to the Iu transmission bearer B RAB queuing, preemption and priority

T T T T T T T

Iu radio resource management


B radio resource acceptance control

Iu connection management
B Iu signaling connection management

Iu-UP (RNL) management


B Iu-UP frame protocol mode selection and protocol initialization

Mobility management Security management Service and network access Paging coordination

147

Network Interfaces

Iur Interface Stack Structure


Radio Network Layer Control Plane User Plane

RNSAP

Iur data stream

Transport User

Network Plane

Transport Network Control Plane ALCAP Q.2630.1

Transport User

Network Plane

Transport Network Layer

SCCP MTP3B SSCF-NNI SSCOP M3UA SCTP IP

STC Q.2150.1 MTP3B NN SSCF-NNI SSCF I SSCOP M3UA SCTP IP

AAL5

AAL5 ATM
Physical Layer

AAL2

Network Interfaces

Iur interface Functions


Iur interface has the following functions: T Inter-RNC mobility management
B SRNC relocation, inter-RNC cell and UTRAN registration

area update, inter-RNC paging, and protocol error report.


T

Dedicated channel data transmission


B used to transmit dedicated channel data between two

RNCs.
T

Common channel data transmission


B setup and release of the transmission connection needed in

common channel data stream transmission of the Iur interface,


T

Global resource management


B transmission of inter-RNC cell measurement information. B transmission of inter-RNC Node B timing information.

148

Network Interfaces

Iub Interface Stack Structure


Radio Network ControlPlane Transport Network ControlPlane

User Plane

Radio Network Layer

Node B Application Part (NBAP)

PCH FP

RACH FP

USCH FP

FACH FP

DSCH FP

CPCH FP

DCH FP

ALCAP Q.2630.1

Transport Layer

Q.2150.2 SSCF-UNI SSCOP AAL Type 5 SSCF-UNI SSCOP AAL Type 5

AAL Type 2

ATM
Physical Layer

Network Interfaces

Iub interface Functions


T T

Management of the Iub interface transmission resources. Logic operation maintenance of Node B, including:
B the cell configuration management B radio network performance measurement B common transmission channel management B radio resource management

T T T T

Transmission of application-related operation & maintenance data. System information management. Channel traffic management. Timing and synchronization management, including:
B node synchronization B transmission channel synchronization between the RNC and Node B

149

Network Interfaces

Uu Interface Stack Structure


G C N t D C Duplication avoidance D N C t U-plane information

G C C-plane signalling

UuS boundary

RRC control control control contro

control

L3 Radio Bearers PDCP PDCP L2/PDCP BMC

L2/

BMC

RLC RLC

RLC

RLC RLC RLC RLC

RLC

L2/RLC

Logical Channels MAC L2/MAC Transport Channels PHY L1

Network Interfaces

Uu Interface Stack Structure(1)


T T T

Physical Layer Protocol B provides the MAC sublayer with transmission channel services. MAC Protocol (Media Access Control) B provides the RLC sublayer with logic channel services. RLC Protocol (Radio Link Control) B on the control plane, provides the RRC sublayer with signaling radio bearer services. B on the user plane, provides service radio bearer services together with the PDCP sublayer. PDCP (Packet data convergence protocol) B adapt different types of network layer protocols to the radio interface. B only exists in the packet domain BMC (Broadcast main control) B transfer broadcast and multicast information over the radio interface

150

Network Interfaces

Uu Interface Stack Structure(2)


T

RRC (Radio resource control)


B Provide services for the non-access layer, for example, transmitting

messages like call control, session management and mobility management at the control interface.
B Setup, maintenance and release of an RRC connection between UE

and UTRAN.
B Setup, reconfiguration and release of radio bearer. B Distribution, reconfiguration and release of radio resources used in the

RRC connection.
B RRC connections mobility function management. B Request for QoS control. B UE measurement report and report control. B Outer loop power control, ciphering control, paging. B Initial cell selection and reselection in the idle mode.

Network Interfaces

Appendix
Abbreviation SCCP MTP3B SSCF-NNI SSCF-UNI SSCOP Q.2630.1 Q.2150.1 M3UA SCTP GTP-U Full Name Signaling connection control protocol Broadband message transfer protocol Service specific coordination function for support of signaling at the network node interface Service specific coordination function for support of signaling at the user network interface Service specific connection oriented protocol AAL2 signaling control protocol AAL2 signaling transport converter at NNI MTP3 user adaptation protocol Stream control transmission protocol GPRS tunneling protocol user

151

Network Interfaces

Radio Network Control-Plane protocol


CN
RANAP RRC RNSAP

UE

RNC
NBAP Node B

RNC

NBAPNode B Application Part RANAP: Radio Access Network Application Part RNSAP: Radio Network Subsystem Application Part RRC: Radio Resource Control

Network Interfaces

UTRAN Control Plane Protocol Stack

UE
CC SM

Node B

RNC

CN
CC SM

MM/GMM RRC RLC MAC L1 L1 NBAP Transport Layer NBAP RRC RLC MAC RANAP Transport Layer

MM/GMM RANAP Transport Layer

Transport Layer

Uu

Iub

Iu

152

Network Interfaces

UTRAN User Plane Protocol Stack UE Node B RNC CN

User data PDCP RLC MAC L1 L1 FP Transport Layer PDCP RLC MAC FP Transport Layer

Iu UP

Iu UP

Transport Layer

Transport Layer

Uu

Iub

Iu

Content

ATM Basics Network Interfaces UE State transition Signaling flow

153

UE State transition

UE Working Modes

There are two basic working modes:


B Idle O UE stands by without any service. Theres no connection between UE and UTRAN. B Connected O UE transferred to the connected mode after accomplishing RRC Connection Setup. O UE has 4 states under the connected mode: Cell-DCH, Cell-FACH, Cell-PCH, URA-PCH

UE State transition

UE States Under the Connected Mode


T

Cell-DCH
B UE is activated, and in service using its dedicated channels. B There are dedicated channels in both uplink and downlink. B UTRAN knows exactly which cell the UE is in.

Cell-FACH
B UE is activated, but without too much date to transmit, so

theres no need to assign dedicated channels to it.


B Downlink data transmitted in FACH, while uplink in RACH. B UTRAN knows exactly which cell the UE is in.

154

UE State transition

UE States Under the Connected Mode


T

Cell-PCH
B There is no data transmitted in both uplink and downlink. B UE needs to listen to PICH for paging information. B UE works in discrete receiving, which saves the power effectively. B UTRAN knows exactly which cell the UE is in. B UE needs to do cell update procedure when it passes cells.

URA-PCH
B There is no data transmitted in both uplink and downlink. B UE needs to listen to PICH for paging information and receive discretely. B UTRAN only knows which URA (UTRAN Registration Area) UE exists. B UE updates its location information only when its URA changes, which

further reduces the signaling saves resource.

UE State transition

RRC State Transition (I)


Transit from IDLE Mode
URA_PCH CELL_PCH

After RRC Connection Setup, UE will transit to CELL_FACH or CELL_DCH. CN indicates UE using dedicated channel (CELL_DCH) or common channel (CELL_FACH) according to the service request. If there is no service right now, UE will be indicated into PCH mode or release RRC connection back to IDLE mode.

CELL_DCH

CELL_FACH

IDLE

DEAD

Sketch of RRC State Transition

155

UE State transition

RRC State Transition (II)


Transit from CELL_FACH Mode
URA_PCH CELL_PCH

T
CELL_DCH CELL_FACH

UE do not occupy dedicated channels In the mode of CELL_FACH.

T
IDLE

UE receives downlink data through FACH(S-CCPCH).

T
DEAD

UE transmits uplink data through RACH(PRACH).

Sketch of RRC State Transition

UE State transition

RRC State Transition (III)


Transit from CELL_DCH Mode
URA_PCH CELL_PCH

UE transceives uplink and downlink data through dedicated channels (DPDCHs and DPCCHs).

CELL_DCH

CELL_FACH

T
IDLE

During the time when there is no data transmitted, CN may indicate UEs transiting to URA_PCH or CELL_PCH.

DEAD

Sketch of RRC State Transition

156

UE State transition

RRC State Transition (IV)


CELL_PCH and URA_PCH states
URA_PCH CELL_PCH

T T
CELL_DCH CELL_FACH

UE has no activated uplink. Paging Information makes UE back to CELL_FACH or CELL_DCH mode. In CELL_PCH, UE should transit to CELL_FACH first to finish cell updating, and go back if no service request. In URA_PCH, if URA changes, UE also transits to CELL_FACH to finish cell updating first before it goes back to URA_PCH.

T
IDLE

DEAD

Sketch of RRC State Transition


T

System resource can be saved in these two modes.

Content

ATM Basics Network Interfaces UE State transition Signaling flow

157

Signaling flow

Basic Conception (1)


T

RRC (Radio Resource Control)


B provides information transfer service to the NAS (Non Access

Stratum).
B responsible for controlling the configuration of UMTS radio

interface Layers 1 and 2.


T

RRC Connection
B A point to point bi directional connection between the RRC (Radio

Resource Control) entities on the UE (User Equipment) and UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network).
B The UE requires an RRC connection to access the services of the

UMTS network.

Signaling flow

Basic Conception (2)


RAB -Radio Access Bearer
B Identify the service the AS (Access Stratum) provides to the

NAS (Non Access Stratum) for transfer of user data between the UE (User Equipment) and the CN (Core Network).
T

RB -Radio Bearer
B The service provided by the Layer 2 for the transfer of user

data between UE (User Equipment) and UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network).

158

Signaling flow

Basic Conception (3)

RL (Radio Link)
B RL is a logical association between single UE (User

Equipment) and a single UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) access point.
B Its physical realization comprises one or more radio bearer

transmissions.
B It is possible for a UMTS mobile to have many radio links

established, when this occurs the mobile is said to be in a soft handover.

Signaling flow

Sketch of the basic conceptions

159

Signaling flow

UE Call Procedure Overview

Startup Startup CellSearching Searching Cell

Handover Handover

Cell/URA Cell/URA Update Update


Location Location Update Update RL RL Reconfiguration Reconfiguration RB/RAB RB/RAB Reconfiguration Reconfiguration

Standby Standby RRC RRC Connection Release Connection Release

RAB RAB Assignment Assignment

Call/Called Call/Called initiate initiate

RRC RRC Connection Setup Connection Setup

NAS NAS ConnectionSetup Setup Connection

Signaling flow

Trilogy of Call Setup

RRC Connection Setup


B The signaling interacting in UTRAN is normal when receiving the

signaling RRC Connection Setup Complete.


T

NAS Connection Setup


B UE interacts with CN about the service request, authentication and

ciphering, etc. through the Non-Access Stratum (NAS) signaling,


T

RAB Assignment
B CN allocates resource according to UEs service requests.

160

Signaling flow

Call Setup Flow


B CN initiates a paging message to RNC. B RNC judges the paging message from the CN and then sends a paging

message to the corresponding UE.


B If no RRC connection is available, UE will send a RRC connection setup

request message (RRC Connection Request) to RNC.


B RNC determines to set up a RRC connection according to the service

request and system resource occupation then sends a RRC connection setup message (RRC Connection Setup) to UE.
B After signaling connection setup, the higher layer of UE (NAS) sends a

service request message to CN through a directly transfer message.


B CN sends a RAB assignment message (RAB Assignment Request) to

the RNC to allocate resource for UEs request.

Signaling flow

RRC setup
UE RRC Node B RNC RRC Allocate RNTSelect L1 and L2 parameters 2.Radio Link Setup Request NBAP

1.CCCH: RRC Connection Request

NBAP Start RX NBAP

3.Radio Link Setup Response NBAP

ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup DCH-FP 4.Downlink Synchronisation 5.Uplink Synchronisation DCH-FP DCH-FP

DCH-FP Start TX RRC RRC

6.CCCH: : RRC Connection Setup 7.DCCH: : RRC Connection Setup Complete

RRC RRC

161

Signaling flow

RAB setup

UE

Node B

SRNC
RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
ALCAP setup

CN

RL RECONFIG PRE RL RECONFIG READY ALCAP setup, synchronization RL RECONFIG COMMIT RRC RB SETUP RRC RB SETUP COMPLETE RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE

Signaling flow

Call Setup Flow


UE Node B
Paging (RRC) RRC connection setup request RRC connection setup

RNC
Paging (RANAP)

CN

NAS message interaction (service request)


RL setup request RL setup response RB setup RB setup completion RAB assignment response RAB assignment request

162

Signaling flow

Soft Handover Flow


UE NodeB
DRNS)

NodeB (SRNS)

DRNC

SRNC

Measurement report

RL setup request RL setup response Active set update command Active set update completion

RL creation request RL setup response

RL Deletion request RL Deletion response

Signaling flow

Hard Handover Flow


UE Target Node B Original NodeB SRNC

Measurement report RL setup request RL setup response Reconfiguration command Reconfiguration completion RL deletion request RL deletion response

163

Signaling flow

Call setup flow (1)

Signaling flow

Call setup flow (2)

164

Signaling flow

Call setup flow (3)

Signaling flow

Call setup flow (4)

165

Signaling flow

Call setup flow (5)

Signaling flow

Call setup flow (6)

166

Exercise
T

vertical:UTRAN interface universal model involve 4 planes,they are ( )( )( )( )

horizontal :UTRAN interface universal model involve 2 layers, they are ( ) ( )

pls write down IUCS\ IUPS \IUB interface control plane application protocol and user plane protocol.

T T T

Uu Interface is fall into ( )plane and (

) plane. ) ( ).

There are 3 layers in Uu Interface, they are ( ) ( pls describe the RRC setup procedure.

167

168

WCDMA RAN KPI Introduction

ZTE University TD&W&PCS BSS Course Team

Content

KPI Overview WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods Libya WCDMA Network KPI Values

169

KPI Overview

KPI Overview

T T T

What is KPI? KPI is Key Performance Indicator. The general characters of KPI
B Measurability B Comparability B Integrality B Applicability

KPI Overview

RAN KPI Category


Coverage Class Capacity Class ' CS Capacity ' PS Capacity ' Cell UL Load Factor ' Block Call Ratio ' Mobility Class ' RNC Soft Handover Success Ratio ' Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Success Ratio ' Intersystem Hard Handover Success Ratio (CS domain and PS domain)

' Coverage Probability

Resource Usage Class ' Trouble Cell Ratio ' Busy Cell Ratio ' Sleeping Cell Ratio

RAN KPI Class

QoS Class ' RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio ' RAB Setup Success Ratio ' Call Setup Success Ratio ' Drop Call Ratio 'Average UL/DL Throughput ' RTT Ping with 32Bytes

'

170

Content

KPI Overview WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods Libya WCDMA Network KPI Values

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Coverage Probability

Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period Period Statistic Statistic Area Area Clutter-wise Clutter-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor Outdoor BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Methods Methods DT DT or or CQT CQT Index Index Meaning Meaning The The coverage coverage probability probability reflect reflect the the RF RF coverage coverage strength strength and and RF RF signal signal quality. quality.

W W

W W

W W

W W

171

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Coverage Probability
Indicator Description Indicator Signaling Flow Definition Indicator Extension

F=RSCPR and Ec/Io S


(NotesRSCP is the Received Pilot Signal Chip Power Ec/Io is the received pilot signal qualityR and S is the threshold for the RSCP and Ec/Io calculation. When these two conditions satisfiedF=1; otherwise F=0)

Coverage Probability is defined as the percentage of the samples whose F=1 to the all measured samples
(NoteUnreasonable samples are not included

The R and S are different to different service

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio (Service Related


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Definition

Signaling Flow

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period Period :15 :15 Mins,30 Mins,30 Mins,1 Mins,1 Hour. Hour. 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area Area cell-wise cell-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor Outdoor BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method Method calculate calculate based based on on the the OMC OMC Counters Counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning Meaning this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the accessibility accessibility of of the the service service of of the the Cell Cell and and RNC RNC

W W

W W

W W

W W

172

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio (Service Related

Indicator Description

Indicator Definition

Signaling Flow

Indicator Extension

RRC Connection Setup Success RatioService Related RRC Connection Setup Complete TimesService Related /RRC Connection Setup Request TimesService Related100%

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio (Service Related


Indicator Description Indicator Definition Signaling Flow Indicator Extension

RRC Connection Setup Request Times RRC Connection Setup Complete Times

173

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio (Service Related


Indicator Description Indicator Signaling Flow Definition Extension Indicator

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

Outgoing Outgoing Conversation Conversation Service Service RRC RRC Connection Connection Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio Outgoing Outgoing Streaming Streaming Service Service RRC RRC Connection Connection Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio Outgoing Outgoing Interactive Interactive Service Service RRC RRC Connection Connection Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio Outgoing Outgoing Background Background Service Service RRC RRC Connection Connection Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio Incoming Incoming Conversation Conversation Service Service RRC RRC Connection Connection Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio Incoming Incoming Streaming Streaming Service Service RRC RRC Connection Connection Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio Incoming Incoming Interactive Interactive Service Service RRC RRC Connection Connection Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio Incoming Incoming Background Background Service Service RRC RRC Connection Connection Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

RAB Assignment Success Ratio


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Definition

Signaling Flow

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period Period :: 15 15 Mins,30 Mins,30 Mins,1 Mins,1 Hour. Hour. 1 1 Day. Day.

W W

Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise

W W

Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH

W W

Measurement Measurement Method: Method: calculate calculate based based on on the the OMC OMC Counters Counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: RAB RAB assignment assignment is is the the last last step step of of the the service service connection. connection. If If it it is is successfully successfully assigned, assigned, the the connection connection to to the the User User Panel Panel is is Successfully Successfully Setup Setup

W W

174

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

RAB Assignment Success Ratio

Indicator Description

Indicator Definition

Signaling Flow

Indicator Extension

RAB Assignment Success Ratio CS RAB Assignment Success Times +PS RAB Assignment Success Times /(CS RAB Assignment Request Times PS RAB Assignment Request Times100%

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

RAB Assignment Success Ratio


Indicator Description Indicator Definition Signaling Flow Indicator Extension

RAB Assignment Request Times

RAB Assignment Success Times

175

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

RAB Assignment Success Ratio


Indicator Description Indicator Signaling Flow Definition Extension Indicator

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

CS CS RAB RAB Assignment Assignment Success Success Ratio Ratio PS PS RAB RAB Assignment Assignment Success Success Ratio Ratio AMR AMR RAB RAB Assignment Assignment Success Success Ratio Ratio CS CS C C 64/64 64/64 RAB RAB Assignment Assignment Success Success Ratio Ratio PS PS II 64/64 64/64 RAB RAB Assignment Assignment Success Success Ratio Ratio PS PS II 64/128 64/128 RAB RAB Assignment Assignment Success Success Ratio Ratio PS PS II 64/384 64/384 RAB RAB Assignment Assignment Success Success Ratio Ratio

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Call Setup Success Ratio


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15 15 Mins, Mins, 30 30 Mins, Mins, 1 1 Hour. Hour. 1 1 Day. Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method: Method: calculate calculate based based on on the the OMC OMC counters counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the accessibility accessibility of of the the service service of of the the Cell Cell and and RNC RNC

W W

W W

W W

W W

176

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Call Setup Success Ratio

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Call Setup Success Ratio RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio (Service Related) RAB Assignment Success Ratio100%

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Call Setup Success Ratio


Indicator Description Indicator Signaling Flow Definition Extension Indicator

RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio

RAB Assignment Success Ratio

177

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Call Setup Success Ratio

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

AMR AMR Call Call Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio CS CS C C 64/64 64/64 Call Call Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio PS PS II 64/64 64/64 Call Call Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio PS PS II 64/128 64/128 Call Call Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio PS PS II 64/384 64/384 Call Call Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio PS PS S S 64/64 64/64 Call Call Setup Setup Success Success Ratio Ratio

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Call Drop Ratio

Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15 15 Mins, Mins, 30 30 Mins, Mins, 1 1 Hour. Hour. 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method: Method: calculate calculate based based on on the the OMC OMC Counters Counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the Retainability Retainability of of the the network, network, it it is is one one of of the the most most important important indicators indicators of of the the customers customers experience. experience.

W W

W W

W W

W W

178

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Call Drop Ratio


Indicator Description Indicator Signaling Flow Definition Extension Indicator

Call Drop Ratio RNC Triggered CS RAB Release Times RNC Triggered CS Iu Release Times RNC Triggered PS RAB Release Times +RNC Triggered PS Iu Release Times /(CS RAB Assignment Success Times PS RAB Assignment Success Times100%

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Call Drop Ratio

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

RNC RAB R ELE ASE R EQ U ES T

CN

RNC Triggered RAB Release Times, it includes CS and/or PS RAB

RNC

CN IU RELEASE REQUEST

RNC Triggered Iu Release Times, When UE is lost or it is inactive, or the UTRAN failure is happened, RNC will send the Iu Release Request to CN

179

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Call Drop Ratio

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

CS CS Call Call Drop Drop Ratio Ratio PS PS Call Call Drop Drop Ratio Ratio AMR AMR Call Call Drop Drop Ratio Ratio CS CS C C 64/64 64/64 Call Call Drop Drop Ratio Ratio PS PS II 64/64 64/64 Call Call Drop Drop Ratio Ratio PS PS II 64/128 64/128 Call Call Drop Drop Ratio Ratio PS PS II 64/384 64/384 Call Call Drop Drop Ratio Ratio

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

RNC Soft Handover Success Ratio (Including Softer Handover)


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15 15 Mins, Mins, 30Mins,1Hour. 30Mins,1Hour. 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: RNC-wise RNC-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method: Method: calculate calculate based based on on the the OMC OMC counters counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the soft soft handover handover mobility mobility in in the the RNC RNC control control area. area.

W W

W W

W W

W W

180

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

RNC Soft Handover Success Ratio (Including Softer Handover

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Soft Handover Success Ratio Soft Handover Requirement Times Soft Handover Failure Times /Soft Handover Requirement Times100%

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

RNC Soft Handover Success Ratio (Including Softer Handover


Indicator Description
UE

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition


Success flow

Indicator Extension
UTRAN

ACTIVE SET UPDATE A ACTIVE SET UPDATE COMPLETE B

Soft Handover Requirement Times

UE

Failure Flow

UTRAN

ACTIVE SET UPDATE A ACTIVE SET UPDATE FAILURE B

Soft Handover Failure Times. If the handover is failed, RNC will received this Message. And if the Update Complete Message is not replied in a certain time delay, it will be counted to the handover failure time.

181

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

RNC Soft Handover Success Ratio (Including Softer Handover


Indicator Description Indicator Signaling Flow Definition Extension Indicator

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

configuration configuration unsupported unsupported failure failure caused caused handover handover failure failure ratio ratio physical physical channel channel failure failure caused caused handover handover failure failure ratio ratio incompatible incompatible simultaneous simultaneous reconfiguration reconfiguration caused caused handover handover failure failure ratio ratio protocol protocol error error caused caused handover handover failure failure ratio ratio cell cell update update occurred occurred caused caused handover handover failure failure ratio ratio invalid invalid configuration configuration caused caused handover handover failure failure ratio ratio No No reply reply caused caused handover handover failure failure ratio ratio

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Success Ratio

Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15Mins, 15Mins, 30Mins,1Hour. 30Mins,1Hour. 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method: Method: calculate calculate based based on on the the OMC OMC counters counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the hard hard handover handover mobility mobility in in the the RNC RNC control control area. area.

W W

W W

W W

W W

182

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Success Ratio

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Success Ratio Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Requirement Times Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Failure Times / Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Requirement Times 100%

Inter-Frequency Hard Handover should Include Intra-RNC hard handover and Inter-RNC Hard handover

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Success Ratio


Indicator Description
UE

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition


Success Flow SRNC

Indicator Extension

PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION

Inter-frequency hard handover requirement times

IntraRNC Inter -Frequency Hard Handover Flow

PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE

UE

Failure Flow

SRNC

PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION

PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION FAILURE

Inter-frequency hard handover failure times

183

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Success Ratio


Indicator Description Indicator Signaling Flow Definition Extension Indicator

InterRNC Inter -Frequency Hard Handover Flow

Sent from SRNC

Feedback to DRNC

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Success Ratio

Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

configuration configuration unsupported unsupported caused caused intra-NodeB intra-NodeB inter-frequency inter-frequency hard hard handover handover failure failure ratio ratio

W W W W W W W W W W W W

configuration configuration unsupported unsupported caused caused intra-RNC intra-RNC inter-frequency inter-frequency hard hard handover handover failure failure ratio ratio configuration configuration unsupported unsupported caused caused inter-RNC inter-RNC inter-frequency inter-frequency hard hard handover handover failure failure ratio ratio physical physical channel channel failure failure caused caused intra-NodeB intra-NodeB inter-frequency inter-frequency hard hard handover handover failure failure ratio ratio physical physical channel channel failure failure caused caused intra-RNC intra-RNC inter-frequency inter-frequency hard hard handover handover failure failure ratio ratio physical physical channel channel failure failure caused caused inter-RNC inter-RNC inter-frequency inter-frequency hard hard handover handover failure failure ratio ratio

184

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS Intersystem Handover Success Ratio WCDMA->GSM


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Definition

Signaling Flow

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise or or RNC-wise RNC-wise

W W

W W

Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH

W W

Measurement Measurement Method Method Calculate Calculate based based on on OMC OMC Counters Counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the intersystem intersystem CS CS handover handover mobility, mobility, the the handover handover is is from from WCDMA WCDMA system system to to GSM GSM system. system.

W W

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS Intersystem Handover Success Ratio WCDMA->GPRS


Indicator Description Indicator Definition Indicator Extension

Signaling Flow

CS Intersystem Handover Success RatioWCDMA->GSM 1CS Intersystem Handover From UTRAN Failure Times /CS Intersystem Handover From UTRAN Required Times100%

185

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS Intersystem Handover Success Ratio WCDMA->GPRS


Indicator Description
Success Flow UE RNC Relocation required
Handover from UTRAN command

Indicator Definition
CN

Signaling Flow

Indicator Extension

2GMSC

Prepare handover Prepare handover response

Relocation command

Handover complete

CS Intersystem Handover From UTRAN Required Times

UE

Failure Flow

UTRAN

HANDOVER FROM UTRAN COMMAND

CS Intersystem Handover From UTRAN Failure Times, if the handover is failed, RNC will receive this message

HANDOVER FROM UTRAN FAILURE

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS Intersystem Handover Success Ratio WCDMA->GPRS

Indicator Description
W W W W W W W W W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

configuration configuration unsupported unsupported caused caused CS CS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio physical physical channel channel failure failure caused caused CS CS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio Configuration Configuration incomplete incomplete caused caused CS CS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio protocol protocol error error caused caused CS CS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio cell cell update update occurred occurred caused caused CS CS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio invalid invalid configuration configuration caused caused CS CS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio

W W W W

No No reply reply caused caused CS CS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio

186

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

PS Intersystem Handover Success Ratio WCDMA->GPRS


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Definition

Signaling Flow

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15Mins, 15Mins, 30Mins,1Hour. 30Mins,1Hour. 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise or or RNC-wise RNC-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method: Method: calculate calculate based based on on the the OMC OMC counters counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the intersystem intersystem handover handover mobility, mobility, the the handover handover is is from from WCDMA WCDMA system system to to GPRS GPRS system. system.

W W

W W

W W

W W

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

PS Intersystem Handover Success Ratio WCDMA->GPRS

Indicator Description

Indicator Definition

Signaling Flow

Indicator Extension

PS Intersystem Handover Success RatioWCDMA->GPRS 1PS Intersystem Handover From UTRAN Failure Times /PS Intersystem Handover From UTRAN Required Times100%

187

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

PS Intersystem Handover Success Ratio WCDMA->GPRS


Indicator Description
Success Flow UE NODEB

Indicator Definition
RNC Iu Release Command

Signaling Flow

Indicator Extension

3G SGSN

Cell change order from UTRAN RL Del Req RL Del Resp

PS Intersystem handover from UTRAN required Times


Iu Release Complete
UE

Failure Flow

UTRAN

PS intersystem handover from UTRAN failure times. If the RNC received this message, or response message of Iu Release Command is not received by RNC, it means the PS handover from UTRAN is failed.

CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN

CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN FAILURE

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

PS Intersystem Handover Success RatioWCDMA>GPRS


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

configuration configuration unsupported unsupported caused caused PS PS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio

W W W W

physical physical channel channel failure failure caused caused PS PS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio Configuration Configuration incomplete incomplete caused caused PS PS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio

W W W W W W W W W W

protocol protocol error error caused caused PS PS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio cell cell update update occurred occurred caused caused PS PS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio invalid invalid configuration configuration caused caused PS PS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio No No reply reply caused caused PS PS intersystem intersystem handover handover from from UTRAN UTRAN failure failure ratio ratio

188

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

PS Intersystem Handover Success Ratio GPRS->WCDMA


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Definition

Signaling Flow

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise or or RNC-wise RNC-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method Method Calculate Calculate based based on on OMC OMC Counters Counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the intersystem intersystem handover handover mobility, mobility, the the handover handover is is from from GRRS GRRS system system to to WCDMA WCDMA system. system.

W W

W W

W W

W W

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

PS Intersystem Handover Success Ratio GPRS->WCDMA

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

PS Intersystem Handover to UTRAN Success RationGPRS->WCDMA PS Intersystem Handover to UTRAN Success Times /PS Intersystem Handover to UTRAN Required Times100%

189

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

PS Intersystem Handover Success Ratio (GPRS>WCDMA


Indicator Description
UE

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition


Serving RNC CN

Indicator Extension

1. UE initiated signaling connection establishment

The flow of PS intersystem handover to UTRAN is similar to the PS setup flow on the UTRAN Side

2. Direct Transfer

3. Radio Access Bearer Establishment

RNC received message RRC Connection Requestfrom UE, the cause is Inter-RAT cell reselectioncan be used for calculation the PS intersystem handover to UTRAN required timesRNC received message RRC Connection Complete (From UE) can be used for calculation the PS intersystem handover to UTRAN success times

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS12.2K Service Access Time

Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Definition

Signaling Flow

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: Statistic Statistic Area: Area: Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method Method Statistic Statistic from from the the logging logging files files of of system system signaling signaling Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the integrity integrity of of CS CS 12.2K 12.2K service. service. It It is is one one of of the the most most important important indicators indicators of of the the customers customers experience. experience.

W W

W W

W W

W W

190

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS12.2K Service Access Time

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

CS12.2K Service Access Time Average TCC Alert) T RRC Connection Request

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS12.2K Service Access Time


Indicator Description UE UE Indicator Signaling Flow Definition RNS RNS MSC MSC Indicator Extension Incoming Incoming MSC MSC

RRC Connection Request RRC Connection Setup RRC Connection Setup Complete CN Signaling Connection Process RRC DT(CM Service Request) Authority and Safe Mode Process RRC DT(Setup) RRC DT(Call Proceeding) RAB Assignment Process ISUP IAM CN Bear Setup Process ISUP ACM ISUP ANM

TRRC Connection Request

TCC Alert
RRC DT (Alert) RRC DT(Connect) RRC DT(Connect ACK)

Service data talking

191

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS64K Service Access Time


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Definition

Signaling Flow

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: Statistic Statistic Area: Area: Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method Method Statistic Statistic from from the the logging logging files files of of system system signaling signaling Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the integrity integrity of of CS CS 64K 64K service. service. It It is is one one of of the the most most important important indicators indicators of of the the customers customers experience. experience.

W W

W W

W W

W W

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS64K Service Access Time

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

CS64K Service Access Time Average TRRC Request) TCM Service Request

192

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS64K Service Access Time


Indicator Description UE UE Indicator Signaling Flow Definition RNS RNS MSC MSC Indicator Extension Incoming Incoming MSC MSC

RRC Connection Request RRC Connection Setup RRC Connection Setup Complete CN Signaling Connection Process RRC DT(CM Service Request) Authority and Safe Mode Process RRC DT (Setup) RRC DT (Call Proceeding) RAB Assignment Process ISUP IAM CN bear setup process ISUP ACM ISUP ANM

TRRC Connection Request

TCC Alert
RRC DT (Alert) RRC DT (Connect) RRC DT (Connect ACK)

Service data talking

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Average PS Download Data Rate


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: Statistic Statistic Area: Area: Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method Method DT DT or or Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the integrity integrity of of average average PS PS download download data data rate. rate. It It is is one one of of the the most most important important indicators indicators of of the the customers customers experience. experience.

W W

W W

W W W W

193

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Average PS Download Data Rate

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Use the software flashget to download and Upload large files from and to FTP server Use the software dumeter to statistic the application layer data rate for about 15 Mins And from the software dumeter we can get the PS service average transfer data rate

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS Service Traffic Erlang


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Definition

Indicator Signaling Flow Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method Method Calculate Calculate based based on on OMC OMC Counters Counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the traffic traffic Erlang Erlang of of the the CS CS conversation conversation service service

W W

W W

W W

W W

194

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS Service Traffic Erlang

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

CS Call Duration TimeRadio Link Setup Response TimeRadio Link Deletion Response

CS Service Traffic ERLTotal CS Call Duration of a Certain Period/3600

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

CS Service Traffic Erlang

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

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CS CS AMR AMR Voice Voice Service Service Traffic Traffic Erlang Erlang

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CS CS Video Video Phone Phone Service Service Traffic Traffic Erlang Erlang

195

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

PS Service Throughput
Indicator Description
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Indicator Definition

Indicator Signaling Flow Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method Method Calculate Calculate based based on on OMC OMC Counters Counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the total total throughput throughput of of PS PS service service

W W

W W

W W

W W

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

PS Service Throughput

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

UL PS Service ThroughputRNC Received Total RLC PDU Bytes DL PS Service ThroughputRNC Sent Total RLC PDU Bytes
Including user dataRLC head dataretransfer datasignaling dataUnitKbytes

196

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

PS Service Throughput

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

PS PS II 64/64 64/64 UL UL Throughput Throughput PS PS II 64/64 64/64 UL UL Throughput Throughput PS PS B B 64/64 64/64 UL UL Throughput Throughput PS PS B B 64/64 64/64 UL UL Throughput Throughput PS PS S S 64/64 64/64 UL UL Throughput Throughput PS PS S S 64/64 64/64 UL UL Throughput Throughput

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

UL Interference Load Factor


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method: Method: Calculate Calculate based based on on Measurement Measurement Report Report value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the cell cell average average UL UL load load factor factor in in a a defined defined period, period, it it is is calculated calculated based based on on the the RTWP RTWP value value on on a a certain certain frequency. frequency.

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W W

W W W W

197

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

UL Interference Load Factor

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

UL Interference Load Factor UL RTWP measurement valueN0 /UL RTWP measurement value100%

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

DL Power Load Factor


Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method: Method: Calculate Calculate based based on on Measurement Measurement Report Report value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the cell cell average average DL DL load load degree degree in in a a defined defined period, period, it it is is calculated calculated based based on on the the base base station station Tx Tx power. power.

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W W

W W

W W

198

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

DL Power Load Factor

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

DL Power Load Factor DL Average Transmitting Carrier Power/ Configured DL Maximal Transmitting Carrier Power100%

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Trouble Cell Ratio

Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: RNC-wise RNC-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method Method Calculate Calculate based based on on OMC OMC Counters Counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the ratio ratio of of dead dead cells cells to to total total cells, cells, it it is is an an assistant assistant to to analyze analyze the the QoS QoS of of whole whole network. network.

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199

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Trouble Cell Ratio

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Trouble Cell Ratio Trouble Cell Number/ Active Cell Number100%

Trouble Cell is the cell whose drop call ratio>a or Call Setup Success Ratio<b

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Busy Cell Ratio

Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method Method Calculate Calculate based based on on OMC OMC Counters Counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the ratio ratio of of busy busy cells cells to to total total cells, cells, it it is is an an assistant assistant to to analyze analyze the the QoS QoS of of whole whole network. network.

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W W

W W

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200

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Busy Cell Ratio

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Busy Cell Ratio Busy Cell Number/Active Cell Number100

Busy cell is the cell whose DL Power Load factor>c or Code Resource Occupation Factor>d

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Sleeping Cell Ratio

Indicator Description
W W

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Statistic Statistic Period: Period: 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 15Mins,30Mins,1Hour., 1Day. 1Day. Statistic Statistic Area: Area: cell-wise cell-wise Indoor Indoor or or Outdoor: Outdoor: BOTH BOTH Measurement Measurement Method Method Calculate Calculate based based on on OMC OMC Counters Counters value value Indicator Indicator Meaning: Meaning: this this indicator indicator reflect reflect the the ratio ratio of of idle idle cells cells to to total total cells, cells, it it is is an an assistant assistant to to analyze analyze the the QoS QoS of of whole whole network. network.

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W W

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201

WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods

Sleeping Cell Ratio

Indicator Description

Indicator Signaling Flow Definition

Indicator Extension

Sleeping Cell Ratio Sleeping Cell Number/Active Cell Mumber100%

Sleeping Cell is the cell whose DL power load factor<e

Content

KPI Overview WCDMA RAN KPI Definition and Measurement Methods Libya WCDMA Network KPI Values

202

Libya WCDMA Network KPI Values

Libya Large Scale Commercial Application


one of the few profitable WCDMA large Scale networks

Libya Libya

Network Scale
T 1.8 Million lines GSM network, MSS adopted ZTEs WCDMA R4 CN based on V3 platforms, finished at the end of 2005. T 1 Million lines WCDMA, covering the capital, Tripoli and the other 13 main cities, can serve 90% of the population in Libya. T Fast growth of subscriber: The number of subscribers broke through 300,000 at the end of 2006.

Speciality
T R4 architecture; GSM and WCDMA hybrid network; support 2G/3G handover and roaming T Both Pre-paid and Post-paid services are available T Thousands of dual mode mobile subscribers can smoothly migrate to 3G network T Within 3 months, finished the construction and

optimization of 1.1 M lines 3G network T HSDPA in scale application, smoothly evolve to HSPA+

Libya WCDMA Network KPI Values

Libya WCDMA Network Dimensioning

ZTE The Most Reliable Partner of 3G Operator


Network KPIs indicate the excellent of Libyanas network: Phase1 Tripoli260 sites Phase2 Highway and 5 cities, 91 sites Phase3 8 cities, 119 sites

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Libya WCDMA Network KPI Values

Libya WCDMA Network Coverage


T

ZTE Excellent Network Quality


In dense urban, the planning object is CS64K continuous coverage with CS64K. The road test for network coverage:

RSCP threshold level is -85dBm, coverage probability is 95.19%

Ec/Io threshold level is -12dB, coverage probability is 99.09%

Libya WCDMA Network KPI Values

Current KPI from OMCR


1 00 99.5 99 98.5 98 97.5 97 96.5 96 95.5

3-25

3-26

3-27

3-28

3-2 9

3- 30

3-3 1

4- 1

4- 2

4 -3

4- 4

4 -5

4-6

4-7

R RC S et up S uc ce ss Ra te (f or s er vi ce )( %) R AB S et up S uc ce ss Ra te (% ) R ad io A cc es s Su cce ss R at e( %)

204

Libya WCDMA Network KPI Values

Current KPI from OMCR (cont.)


1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0. 1 0

3- 25

3 -26

3 -27

3 -28

3 -29

3 -30

3-31

4-1

4-2

4-3

4-4

4-5

4-6

4-7

CS Call Drop Rate(%)

Libya WCDMA Network KPI Values

Current KPI from OMCR (cont.)


1 00

98

96

94

92

90

88

86

84

3- 25

3 -26

3 -27

3-28

3 -29

3 -30

3-31

4-1

4-2

4-3

4-4

4-5

4-6

4-7

SHO Success Rate(%)

CS iRATHO Success Rate(%)

205

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WCDMA Network Optimization Cases study

ZTE University TD&W&PCS BSS Course Team

Content

WCDMA DT Cases WCDMA Network optimization Cases

207

WCDMA DT Cases

DTBest Ec

Weak coverage area

WCDMA DT Cases

DT Best SC
Ant reverse

Over cover

No domi server

208

WCDMA DT Cases

Uplink/downlink unbalance

TX is high

WCDMA DT Cases

Over Shoot Analysis


T

PSCs coverage exceeds defined threshold, and may cause negative influence on remote region.

209

WCDMA DT Cases

Handover problem analyze


Monitor set 267&283 arestrong

Adjacent cell problem

Call drop

Content

WCDMA DT Cases WCDMA Network optimization Cases

210

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case1(Handover problem)
T

In especially urban environment, the handover region between two cells might be too small. If the UE passes such an area in a very quick speed, the call might be dropped.

There might be sudden changes of signal strength at crossroads of the city.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case1

For successful handover, the increase and decrease speed of the signals received by the UE can enable the UE to complete the necessary active set updating process.

211

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case1

The handover region should be big enough to ensure the UE to complete the active set up-dating process before being interfered or compressed.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case1

Cover the crossroad with one cell.

212

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case1

The antenna of the cell should be put higher than the buildings along the street so that the cell coverage area can be bigger.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case1
T

How to determine that the call-drop is caused by too small handover region or sudden change of signal strength?
B Before the call is dropped, the Ec/Io reported by the UE is very

poor.
B Once in the idle mode, the UE sets up connection with the new

cell.
B The Ec/Io reported by the UE becomes very good. B The big difference of Ec/Io indicates that the call-drop is caused by

these reasons.
B The pilot strength data of the two cells recorded by the Scanner

also proves the above conclusion.

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WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case2
T

It is found that the call-drop rate is very high on the seaside express way from TRI002 to TRI004. According to the testing data analysis, the coverage distance of 404 is very short at the call-drop venue.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case2

To take a birds-eye view from the sky, it is found that there are several tall buildings in front of the 404 cell.

214

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case2

Problem analysis:
T

As the handover region is short and the call-drop venue on the seaside road is close to the TRI002 site (only 400m), signals might be strong at first but disappear quickly. This can cause slow speed of strong signals of the adjacent 404 cell in adding the active set. It can also cause a lot of ping-pang handover and result in call-drop.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case2
Solution:
Event 1A event Reporting Range Constant
Hysteresis

Optimize the handover parameter: Adjust 1A and 1B event handover parameters so that adding events can easily occur and deleting events occur slowly and difficultly. The values of handover parameters 1C and 1D events are adjusted. Replacement threshold with strongest pilot is reduced; replacement observation duration is increased. The advantage of such adjustment is to enable high percentage of the users using strongest and stable scramble.

Setting before optimization

Setting after optimization

3 3.5dB 200ms

5 2dB 200ms

Time to trigger 1B event Reporting Range Constant


Hysteresis

7 3.5dB 200ms

6 4dB 640ms

Time to trigger 1C event


Hysteresis

Effect after optimization:


6dB 200ms 4dB 320ms
T

Time to trigger 1D event


Hysteresis

According to the route testing after handover parameter adjustment, the handover success rate on this section is greatly improved; the call-drop rate is reduced.

6dB 200ms

4dB 320ms

Time to trigger

215

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case3

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case3
Problem analysis:
T

Spot A is about 2.7km from Sousse2 site. A is the entrance of a uptown highway and has a turn of about 90 degrees. Signals of cell 228 of Erriadh TT site become weak suddenly because the cell is sheltered.

Spot B is about 2km from CTT Skanes site. The seaside road that B located is at a lower sea level than the CTT Skanes site. Signals of cell 332 of CTT Skanes site can be received by the mobile phone after penetrating several 2~3-layer buildings. At around spot B, the pilot signal strength is reduced to be below -100dBm.

The NodeB in Sahaling is quite restricted by the environment. The site height is only 25m; there is little space for increasing the height.

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WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case3
Solution:
T
Channel CPICH BCH FACH PCH PSCH Before adjustment 10% -3dB 0dB -3dB -4dB -4dB -7dB -7dB After adjustment 15% 0dB 3dB 0dB -3dB -3dB -4dB -4dB

Adjust the transmit power of common channels;

Increase the pilot transmit power

Effect after optimization:


T

SSCH PICH AICH

The coverage effect and the calldrop rate is optimized. There is almost no dropped call along the express way.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 4 (High Sites problem)


T

Flower hall site is located on the Gaoxun Tower beside the Quzhuang cloverleaf junction. Its is at a height of 70m. After line testing, it is found that the 425 (scramble) cell of the site provides cross-cell coverage. Cell signals are still strong in the First Zhongshan Road, which is far from the Flower hall site. As the 425 cell is not configured as the Neighbor-Cell of cell 436 in the first sector of the Shuqianlu site located on the First Zhongshan Road, calls are easily dropped in this area.

The above figure shows the pilot Ec/Io route testing result on the First Zhongshan Road (affected by signals from the Flower hall site, Ec/Io in area A is very poor; call-drop rate in the area is high; however, the pilot strength of the area is good.)

217

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 4
T

Analysis of the call-drop reason:

As there is shadow fading, the occurrence of the following events can be detected from the active set upgrading report. Cell2 is the best service area; Cell1 is deleted from the activation cell; Cell3 is not in the Neighbor-Cell list of Cell2; strong signals from Cell3 result in poor Ec/Io; Poor Ec/Io results in call-drops.

Solution:

Add Cell3 into Cell2s Neighbor-Cell list; As Cell3 is in a far distance, it is not expected to be a member of the active set in the problematic area; Reduce the transmit power of Cell3 and increase its tilt angle in order to control its signal coverage range. At the same time, take into consideration the coverage range to be provided by Cell3.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 4
Execute solution:
T

Add the mechanical tilt angle of the antenna of Huachang site 425 cell;

Add Huachang site 425 cell into the Neighbour-Cell list of Shuqianlu site;

Reduce the maximum transmit power, public channel power and pilot channel power of Flower hall site 425 cell by 3dB.

Effect after optimization:


T

After optimization, the pilot Ec/Io of area A is obviously improved.

After optimization, there is no call-drop

218

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 4
T

There is no strict definition for the high site. It is a relative concept.

It is not necessarily wrong to put the UMTS base station on the top of the hill.

The high site can easily receive uplink interference generated by other users.

The bigger the loads in the high site coverage area, the more possible the problem might occur.

If the network is vacant or lightly loaded, the effect of the high site is not obvious. But it still cause cross-cell coverage, pilot pollution and call-drop.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 4
T T

Suggestion In urban areas, buildings are densely located and the penetration loss is big; the radio transmission environment is complicated and the NodeB coverage distance is small. Hence the antenna should not be put too high. According to the present building density and average height, the antenna height can be about 35m; it should be 10~15m higher than the average height of surrounding buildings. Of course, the specific height of the antenna should be determined according to the local radio transmission environment.

In rural areas, population is relatively small and buildings are not densely located; distances between base stations are big. Hence the antenna should be high; in general, the antenna height in rural areas is around 50m and should be 15m higher than the average height of its surrounding.

In the sea, the radio transmission model is similar as the transmission model for free spaces. The radio transmission environment is good; radio electric waves can be transmitted to a far distance. The site can be located on a high hill (higher than 100m) in order to expand its coverage.

In deserts and Gobi areas, signals are transmitted to a farer distance than in ordinary plains. The antenna height is usually 60m or higher in order to expand the signal coverage area.

219

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 5
The Neighbour-Cell list problems
T

The Neighbour-Cell list is a cell list that might be added into the active set;

Cells in the Neighbour-Cell list will be measured as whether they meet the requirement for soft handover or softer handover with the main service cell;

T T

The number of cells in the Neighbour-Cell list is up to 32; Avoid missing Neighbour-Cells with best signals in the Neighbour-Cell list.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 5

The network planning tool can use proper algorithm to automatically plan the Neighbour-Cell list; such planning is always based on the interference among cells; If the pilot signals of one cell is very strong but the cell is not added in the active set, signals of the cell will become strong interference; Either single-directional configuration or bi-directional configuration might be adopted between Neighbour-Cells; In setting the Neighbour-Cell list, take into first considerations about the cell interference and the cells possibility of becoming a main service cell of the MS; The method of automatically creating the Neighbour-Cell list via the network planning tool can be regarded as an initial reference of the Neighbour-Cell list. Manual adjustment is needed. The Neighbour-Cell list should finally be optimized by using the route testing data.

220

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 5
T

According to repeated route tests, it is found that calls are usually dropped during the handover in the direction from the Flower hall site to the Yunshan Hotel site; in the opposite direction from the Yunshan Hotel site to the Flower hall site, no call-drop occurs.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 5
Problem analysis:
T

According to testing data analysis, the section 20m from the call-drop venue is mainly covered by signals from the third sector (scramble 426) of the Flower hall site instead of signals from the first sector (scramble 424) of the Flower hall site. The reason might be the third sector (scramble 426) of the Flower hall site is sheltered by a tall building in front of it; signals of this sector are reflected to the road segment of 20m between the Flower hall site and the Yunshan Hotel site. Check the Neighbour-Cell list; it is found that the third sector (scramble 414) of the Yunshan Hotel site has configured the third sector of the Flower hall site as an Neighbour-Cell, while the third sector (scramble 426) of the Flower hall site does not configure the third sector (scramble 414) of the Yunshan Hotel site as an NeighbourCell. This has caused a failure in single-directional handover and resulted in call-drop.

Solution:
T

Configure the third sector (scramble 414) of the Yunshan Hotel site as an Neighbour-Cell of the third sector (scramble 426) of the Flower hall site.

Effect after optimization:


T

After the Neighbour-Cell is configured, route tests are made on the road segment between the Flower hall site and the Yunshan Hotel site. No call-drop occurs.

221

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 5

Summary
T

In the network planning phase, the Neighbour-Cell list can be automatically generated via the network planning tool.

Optimization of the Neighbour-Cell list can be executed via route tests and statistics analysis of the route testing data.

The Neighbour-Cell list optimized via route test data statistics analysis is a short Neighbour-Cell list. And if necessary, the preference sequence in the Neighbour-Cell list can be very clear.

By analyzing the route test data, Neighbour-Cells not configured in the Neighbour-Cell list via planning tool can be found.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 6

If the path loss values from the MS to multiple cells are similar, problems will be generated as there is no dominant server.

Such problems include poor Ec/Io, low downlink capacity, and frequent updating of the active set.

222

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 6

Add loads on a small network with 7 omni-directional sites; there are 200 voice terminals in average; the connection rate is 100%.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 6

Remove the central site; pilot pollution will be generated in the central area, which leads to the emulated Ec/Io failure (the coverage probability now is 78%).

223

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 6

Increase the pilot power from 33 dBm to 38 dBm; simulated Ec/Io failures disappear; but downlink Eb/No failures occur in the same area.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 6

Zoom in

Pilot pollution

224

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

Case 6

Solution:

In the precondition of satisfying coverage, adjust the tilt angle, azimuth and power parameters of Neighbour-Cells so that signals of one cell become a dominant server.

Add a site in the problematic area; adopt one cell of the new site into the dominant server.

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

ZTEs Rich Experience


Perfect Perfect WCDMA WCDMA Trial Trial Network Network Planning Planning & & Optimization Optimization in in China China
W Excellent and comprehensive Test Result with CMII, CMCC, CNC, CTC, CRC; W Rich Planning & Optimization experience is acquired and prepared for the coming large-scale commercial application of 3G.

Beijing Shanghai

Guangzhou

Nanjing

Jinan

Shenzhen

225

WCDMA Network optimization Cases

ZTEs Rich Experience


Perfect Perfect WCDMA WCDMA commercial commercial system system Planning Planning & & Optimization Optimization in in the the world world
W Tunisia 3G commercial System W Libya 3G commercial System W Success of ZTE WCDMA in Brunei

226