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CBSE Class 7 - Science - CH13 - Motion and Time

Motion and Time

MCQs, NCERT Chapter Solution, Q & A Q1(MCQ/NCERT): The basic unit of speed is: (a) km/min (b) m/min (c) km/h (d) m/s Answer: (d) m/s Q2(MCQ): A faster moving object covers: (a) Less distance in more time (b) More distance in more time (c) Less distance in shorter time (d) More distance in shorter time Answer: (d) More distance in shorter time Q3(MCQ): If the an object moving along a straight line, keeps changing its speed then, (a) The motion is said to be a uniform motion (b) The motion is said to be a non uniform motion (c) The object is said to be stationary (d) The motion is said to be a fast motion Answer: (b) The motion is said to be a non uniform motion Q4(MCQ/NCERT): Which of the following relations is correct? (a) Speed = Distance Time (b) Speed = Distance Time (c) Speed = Time Distance (d) Speed = 1/(Distance Time) Answer: (b) Speed = Distance Time Q5(MCQ/NCERT): A car moves with a speed of 40 km/h for 15 minutes and then with a speed of 60 km/h for the next 15 minutes. The total distance covered by the car is: (a) 100 km (b) 25 km (c) 15 km (d) 10 km

Answer: (b) 25 km Distance = Speed Time 15 minutes = 15/60 = 0.25 hours Distance Covered in first 15 min or 0.25 hours (D1) = 40 0.25 =10.00 km Distance Covered in next 15 min or 0.25 hours (D2) = 60 0.25 =15.00 km Total Distance Covered = D1 + D2 = 10 + 15 = 25 km Q6(MCQ): 72 km/hr is same as (a) 72 m/s (b) 7.2 m/s (c) 200 m/s (d) 20 m/s Answer: (d) 20 m/s 72km/hr = 72 1000m / 3600 seconds = 20m/s Q7(MCQ/NCERT): Which of the following distance-time graphs shows a truck moving with speed which is not constant?

Answer: (c).

Q8(NCERT): Classify the following as motion along a straight line, circular or oscillatory motion: (i) Motion of your hands while running. (ii) Motion of a horse pulling a cart on a straight road. (iii) Motion of a child in a merry-go-round. (iv) Motion of a child on a see-saw. (v) Motion of the hammer of an electric bell. (vi) Motion of a train on a straight bridge. Answer: (i) Oscillatory (ii) Straight Line (iii) Circular (iv) Oscillatory (v) Oscillatory (vi) Straight Line Q9(MCQ): The time interval between two consecutive sunrises is known as a (a) Month (b) Year (c) Day (d) Interval Answer: (c) Day Q10NCERT): Which of the following are not correct? (i) The basic unit of time is second. (ii) Every object moves with a constant speed. (iii) Distances between two cities are measured in kilometres. (iv) The time period of a given pendulum is not constant. (v) The speed of a train is expressed in m/h. (vi) A nanosecond is one billionth of a second. (vii) The time taken by the pendulum to complete one oscillation is called its time period.

(viii) An hourglass is used to measure the movement of the Sun to compute time. Answer: (i) True () (ii) False () Different objects have different speeds. (iii) True () (iv) False () The time period of a given pendulum is fixed. (v) False () The speed of train is usually expressed in km/hr or miles/hr. (vi) True () (vii) True () (viii) False ()

Q11NCERT): A simple pendulum takes 32 s to complete 20 oscillations. What is the time period of the pendulum? Answer: Time Period = Total Time Taken No. of Oscillations No. of Oscillations = 20 Total Duration = 32s Time Period = 32 20 = 1.6s Q12(NCERT): The distance between two stations is 240 km. A train takes 4 hours to cover this distance. Calculate the speed of the train. Answer: Distance between two stations = 240 km Time taken by train to cover the distance = 4 hours Speed = Distance Time Speed of Train = 240 / 4 = 60 km/hour. Q13(NCERT): The odometer of a car reads 57321.0 km when the clock shows the time 08:30 AM. What is the distance moved by the car, if at 08:50 AM, the odometer reading has changed to 57336.0 km? Calculate the speed of the car in km/min during this time. Express the speed in km/h also. Answer: Odometer reading at 8.30 AM ( O1) = 57321.0 km Odometer reading at 8.50 AM (O2) = 57336.0 km Distance covered by car = O2 - O2 = 57336.0 - 57321.0 = 15 Km Time interval between 8.30 AM to 8.50 AM = 20 min. Speed of car = Distance Time = 15km 20 min = 0.75 km/min 1 Hr = 60 min. Speed of Car in km/hr = 0.75 60 = 45 km/hr. Q14(NCERT): Salma takes 15 minutes from her house to reach her school on a bicycle. If the bicycle has a speed of 2 m/s, calculate the distance between her house and the school. Answer: Distance = Speed Time Speed of the bicycle = 2 m/s Time taken to reach school = 15 min = 15 60seconds = 900s Distance = 2 900 = 1800 m = 1800/1000Km = 1.8 Km Q15(NCERT): Show the shape of the distance-time graph for the motion in the following cases: (i) A car moving with a constant speed. (ii) A car parked on a side road. Answer: (i) A car moving with a constant speed. When a car moves with a constant speed, it will cover equal distance in equal intervals of time. In a distance-time graph it is a straight line inclined to time-axis.

(ii) A car parked on a side road. A car parked means, the car is not moving at all. It is at rest. The distance-time graph will be a horizontal line parallel to time-axis.

Q16(NCERT): Suppose the two photographs, shown in Fig. A and Fig. B below, had been taken at an interval of 10 seconds. If a distance of 100 metres is shown by 1 cm in these photographs, calculate the speed of the blue car.

Answer: 1 cm = 100 m Distance covered by blue car = 2.0 cm = 2.0 100 = 200 m Time taken to cover 200m = 10s Speed of Car = Distance Time = 200 / 10 = 20m/s Speed of Car (in km/hr) = 20 3600s/1000m = 72 km/hr Q17(NCERT): Figure below shows the distance-time graph for the motion of two vehicles A and B. Which one of them is moving faster?

Answer: The steeper the line, greater the speed. Vehicle A moves faster than B.

Q18: Rohan covers a distance of 10 km by running with uniform speed of 4.5 km/hr. Sohan runs 1.2 km in 15 minutes. Who runs faster? Answer: Let us compare the speed of these two persons. Rohans's speed = 4.5 km/hr 15 mins = 15/60 = 0.25 hrs Sohan's Speed = Distance/Time = 1.2km/0.25 = 1.2 4 = 4.8 km/hr Therefore, Sohan's speed is higer than Rohan. Q19: Give Reasons: a. b. c. d. e. f. Accurate measurements of time became possible much after accurate measurements of length and mass. The time measured by quartz clocks is much more accurate than that by the clocks available earlier. All clocks make use of some periodic motion. Speed is called scalar quantity. Displacement is called vector quantity. Average speed is same as actual speed in case of a body having uniform motion.

Answer: (a) Accurate measurements of time became possible much after accurate measurements of length and mass. Length and mass were the earliest measurements made mankind. Time measurement was done in terms of length as distance and mass. For example position of sun, moon and stars give idea of days, months and years. Later mechanical clocks based on weights and spring can measure time accurately up to minutes. Today atomic clocks measures time accurate upto nano-seconds by measuring waves emitted by Cesium clock in terms of speed of light and frequency. Over the time improvements in accuracy in measuring length and mass help in measuring time with more accuracy and precision. (b) The time measured by quartz clocks is much more accurate than that by the clocks available earlier. Quartz crystals emit vibrations are fixed frequency. These vibrations (pulses) are counted and are used to measure time. It can measure time up to milliseconds and has high accuracy i.e. a normal quartz wristwatch may lose or gain less than a fraction of a second in a day. While the mechanical clocks used earlier were based on weights and spring which rotate the gears. The lowest time interval these mechanical clocks is up to minute. Hence accuracy of quartz clocks is more accurate than the clocks of earlier times. (c) All clocks make use of some periodic motion. The working principle of all clocks is same i.e. periodic motion. A sundial measures the periodic position of shadow on a dial.A pendulum clock measures number of oscillations of the bob. A spring clock measures back and forth motion of the spring. A quartz clock measures the number of vibrations or oscillations of the quartz crystal. (d) Speed is called scalar quantity. Speed tells how much distance is travelled by a body per unit time. It is simply a numerical value and does not tell the direction of the moving object. speed is a scalar quantity. (e) Displacement is called vector quantity. Displacement has both magnitude and direction. e.g. John's car is now 450m away from here in north direction.

displacement is a vector quantity. (f) Average speed is same as actual speed in case of a body having uniform motion. Uniform motion means the object covers equal distances in equal intervals of time. Average speed means total distance covered in total time. Consider an object in uniform motions goes from A to B in 5 seconds and then B to C in 5 seconds. Let AB = BC = 20m. Actual speed of the object (A to B) or (B to C) = Distance time = 20m 5s = 4m/s Average Speed = Total Distance Total Time = (20m + 20m) (5s + 5s) = 40m 10s = 4m/s Thus Average speed is same as actual speed in case of a body having uniform motion.

Q24: Why do frogs have thin and moist skin? Answer: Thin and moist skin helps frog in breathing. Because of thin skin, gases can diffuse (or exchange through) easily. Moist surface also helps gases to dissolve and diffuse into and out of skin cells.

CBSE Class 7 Science - CH10 - Respiration in Organisms

Respiration in Organisms

NCERT Chapter Solutions and other Q & A Q1: How breathing is different from respiration? Answer:
S.No. 1 2 Breathing It involves intake of oxygen and release of Carbon dioxide. It is a physical process i.e. exchange of gases. Respiration Respiration is more complex and it includes breathing as well as oxidation of food in cells to release energy. It is a bio-chemical process in which food is broken along with release of energy.

S.No. 3

Breathing It involves breathing organs e.g. lungs in mammals. It occurs at cellular level

Respiration

Q2(NCERT): Why does an athlete breathe faster and deeper than usual after finishing the race? Answer: Our body needs energy for all activities. While doing heavy exercises like running, there is larger demand of energy to perform those activities. Hence more oxygen is required to meet extra demand of energy. Therefore an athlete breathe faster and deeper than usual after finishing the race. Also during running, due to lack of oxygen, some muscles may respire anaerobically and form lactic acid. Extra oxygen is also required to burn this lactic acid into carbon dioxide. Q3: Rearrange the following parts of the Respiratory system in order. cavity, bronchiole. Answer: Nose Nasal Cavity Trachea Bronchi Bronchiole Alveoli Q4: What are different types of respiration Answer: Two types: Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration Trachea, nose, alveoli, bronchi, nasal

Q5(NCERT): List the similarities and differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Answer:
S.No. 1 2 3 4 Aerobic It uses oxygen in the process. In this process, glucouse is completely broken down into CO2 , Water along with release of energy. It occurs in all organisms like mammals. Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy Anaerobic Anaerobic respiration takes place in the absence of oxygen. In this process, glucouse is broken into ethyl alcohol, CO2 and energy. It usually occurs in lower organisms like yeast (fungi) and bacteria. It can occur muscles of higher organisms during heavy activities. Glucose Ethyl alcohol + Carbon dioxide + Energy

Q6: Why yeast is used in wine making industry? Answer: Yeast is a type of fungi which respires anaerobically and produce alcohol. Therefore, they are used to make wine and beer. Q7(NCERT): Why do we often sneeze when we inhale a lot of dust-laden air? Answer: When we inhale dust-laden air, dirt particles are captured within the nostrils. Sometimes they get past the nostril hair in the nasal cavity and irritate the lining of the cavity. As a result we sneeze. Sneezing expels these foreign particles from the inhaled air and a dustfree, clean air enters our body. Q8(NCERT): Take three test-tubes. Fill

th of each with water. Label them A, B and C. Keep a snail in test-tube

A, a water plant in test-tube B and in C, keep snail and plant both. Which test-tube would have the highest concentration of CO2? Answer:

Test tube A will have highest concentration of CO2. The experiment shows the relationship between plants and animals. During breathing snail inhales dissolved oxygen from water and releases carbon dioxide(CO 2). Water-plant along with respiration performs another important function called photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, water-plant, absorbs CO2, prepares food and releases oxygen. Therefore, Tube B and C has less amount of CO 2concentration as compared to test tube A. Q9(NCERT): Tick the correct answer: (a) In cockroaches, air enters the body through(i) lungs (ii) gills (iii) spiracles (iv) skin Answer: (iii) spiracles (b) During heavy exercise, we get cramps in the legs due to the accumulation of (i) carbon dioxide (ii) lactic acid (iii) alcohol (iv) water Answer: (ii) lactic acid (c) Normal range of breathing rate per minute in an average adult person at rest is: (i) 912 (ii) 1518 (iii) 2124 (iv) 3033 Answer: (ii) 1518 (d) During exhalation, the ribs(i) move outwards (ii) move downwards (iii) move upwards (iv) do not move at all Answer: (ii) (ii) move downwards (and inwards)

Q10: Name the two steps in breathing. Answer: Breathing involves intake of oxygen-rich air and out-take of CO2-rich air. The two steps involved are: 1. Inhalation 2. Exhalation

Q11(NCERT): Match the items in Column I with those in Column II:


Column I a. Yeast b. Diaphragm c. Skin d. Leaves e. Fish f. Frog g. insects Column II (i) Earthworm (ii) Gills. (iii) Alcohol (iv) Chest cavity (v) Stomata (vi) Lungs and skin (vii) Tracheae

Answer:
Column I a. Yeast b. Diaphragm c. Skin d. Leaves e. Fish f. Frog g. insects Column II (iii) Alcohol (iv) Chest cavity (i) Earthworm (v) Stomata (ii) Gills (vi) Lungs and skin (vii) Tracheae

Q12(NCERT): Mark T if the statement is true and F if it is false: (i) During heavy exercise the breathing rate of a person slows down. (T/F) (ii) Plants carry out photosynthesis only during the day and respiration only at night. (T/F) (iii) Frogs breathe through their skins as well as their lungs. (T/F) (iv) The fishes have lungs for respiration. (T/F) (v) The size of the chest cavity increases during inhalation. (T/F) Answer: (i) During heavy exercise the breathing rate of a person slows down. (False ) Explanation: During heavy exercise, more oxygen is required to meet extra demand of energy. Therefore breathing rate increases. (ii) Plants carry out photosynthesis only during the day and respiration only at night. (False ) Explanation: Photosynthesis occurs in the presence of sunlight. Respiration is a continuous process and occurs all the time (day and night). (iii) Frogs breathe through their skins as well as their lungs. (True ) (iv) The fishes have lungs for respiration. (False ) Explanation: Fishes breathe through gills. (v) The size of the chest cavity increases during inhalation. (True ) Q14(NCERT): The mountaineers carry oxygen with them because: (a) At an altitude of more than 5 km there is no air.

(b) The amount of air available to a person is less than that available on the ground. (c) The temperature of air is higher than that on the ground. (d) The pressure of air is higher than that on the ground. Answer: (b) The amount of air available to a person is less than that available on the ground.

Q15: Answer the following: (a) When does a person need artificial respiration? (b) From where can the person get supply of oxygen for artificial respiration? (c) Does the person need to be kept on artificial respiration temporarily or permanently? Answer: (a) During emergency conditions (e.g. fatal accidents, lungs failure etc.), lungs do not work properly, artificial respiration is required. (b) The person gets oxygen though an instrument called ventilator which act as artificial lungs. (c) The person is kept on artificial respiration temporarily. When a person regains his health and starts breathing naturally, artificial respiration is no longer required. Q16: Name the animal who does dual breathing? Answer: Frogs. Inside water, they breathe through their skin. When on land, they breathe through lungs. Q17: How does plant respire? Answer: Plant respires through the following ways 1. Through stomata present in leaves. 2. Through lenticels present on the bark of stem 3. Through root hairs which takes up air via spaces present between the soil particles.

Q18: How does breathing take place in fishes? Answer: Fish respire through their gills. Dissolved air in the water is taken in by the gills and is supplied to blood capillaries where exchange of gases takes place.

Q19: What are the functions of ribs and diaphragm during breathing? Describe their functioning. Answer: Diaphragm and ribs help in breathing activity. During inhalation, ribs move up and outwards and diaphragm moves down. This movement increases space in our chest cavity and air rushes into the lungs. The lungs get filled with air. During exhalation, ribs move down and inwards, while diaphragm moves up to its former position. This reduces the size of the chest cavity and air is pushed out of the lungs Q20: Why is smoking bad for us? Answer: Smoking contains harmful gases and substances which damages our lungs. These harmful substances can also cause lung cancer. We must avoid it. Q21: How do birds breathe? Answer: Bird have lungs for breathing.

Q22: How do insects breathe?

Answer: Insects have several small openings called spiracles on the lateral sides of their bodies. These spiracles lead to air tubes called trachea. Exchange of gases takes place through spiracles into trachea. Q23: Which cell organelle is a site for cellular respiration? Answer: Mitochondria

Q24: Why do frogs have thin and moist skin? Answer: Thin and moist skin helps frog in breathing. Because of thin skin, gases can diffuse (or exchange through) easily. Moist surface also helps gases to dissolve and diffuse into and out of skin cells.

CBSE Class 7 - Science - Light - Questions & Answers


Class 7 - Ch 15 - Science - Light - Questions & Answers
Question1: Fill in the blanks a. An image that cannot be obtained on a screen is called ______. b. Image formed by a convex _______ is always virtual and smaller in size. c. An image formed by a __________ mirror is always of the same size as that of the object. d. An image which can be obtained on a screen is called a _________ image. e. An image formed by a concave ___________ cannot be obtained on a screen. Answers: 1 a) virtual image b) convex mirror c) plane d) real e) concave lens Question2: Mark T if the statement is true and F if it is false:
(a) We can obtain an enlarged and erect image by a convex mirror. (T/F) (b) A concave lens always form a virtual image. (T/F) (c) We can obtain a real, enlarged and inverted image by a concave mirror. (T/F) (d) A real image cannot be obtained on a screen. (T/F) (e) A concave mirror always form a real image. (T/F)

Answers: a-false b-true c-true d-false e-false

Question 3: Match the following:


Column 1 (a) A plane mirror (b) A convex mirror (c) A convex lens (d) A concave mirror (e) A concave lens Column 2 (i) Used as a magnifying glass. (ii) Can form image of objects spread over a large area. (iii) Used by dentists to see enlarged image of teeth. (iv) The image is always inverted and magnified. (v) The image is erect and of the same size as the object. (vi) The image is erect and smaller in size than the object.

Answers: a-(v)

b-(ii) and (vi)

c-(i)

d-(iii)

e-(iv)

Question 4: State the characteristics of the image formed by a plane mirror. Answer:
1. Image is Virtual 2. It is behind the mirror 3. Image is erect (means not inverted) 4. Image is of same size as the object 5. Image is at same distance from the mirror as the object is from the mirror.

Question 4: Find out the letters of English alphabet or any other language known to you in which the image formed in a plane mirror appears exactly like the letter itself. Discuss your findings. Answer: The alphabets A, H, I, M, O, T, U, V, W, X, Y will have images in plane mirror exactly the letter itself.The
reason for this is such letters are vertically symmetric i.e. vertical plane divides into identical halves.Even if image interchanges, it appear same as the letter.