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1

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.. , .. , ..


2006
536.24.08: 532.517.2
31
56
:
,
..
, .
..

56

.., .., ..
: . 2 . : - . . .
-, 2006. . 1. 204 .
,
. -

,
.
.

.
, ,
.

536.24.08: 532.517.2
31

ISBN 5-8265-0439-0

.., ..,
.., 2006

(), 2006


,
,

..
..
30.01.2006.
60 84/16. . .
imes New Roman. : 11,86 . . .; 11,75 .-. .
100 . . 41
-

392000, , , 106, . 14


,

, 210217 210200 . , 200410 ,
, , 200415 ,
200400 , .
, [1 3, 56, 10 14, 17, 18, 23
27, 57], . , ,
.
.
. ,
.
,
:
;
() , , ;
()
, ;

( , , , ,
..);

.
,
, , , , , .
, ,
( 02-02-17587 05-08-01515). .
,
, :
; ; : , ,
, , , , , , , , .

1
, .. , .
,
[1].
1.1
[1] - , ,
T = f ( x, y , z , ) ,

(1.1)

; x, y, z ; ; f
, x, y, z .
.
(1.1) [1],
x, y, z, .
[1]
T = F ( x, y , z ) ,

T
=0,

(1.2)

, .. x, y, z.
(1.1) (1.2) , .
x, y
T = f 2 ( x, y , ) ;

(1.1)

T = F2 (x, y ) ,

(1.2)

(1.1), (1.2) .
(1.1b)
T = f1 (x, ) ;
T = F1 (x ) ,

(1.2b)

(1.1b), (1.2b) [1].


:
, ;
, ();
.
, , , .
, , , (. 1.1). (, ).

G
q

G
( 1n )

G
q

grad T

G
( 1n )

grad T

7
1

7
2

3
4
5

. 1.1 , grad T
G
q :
1, 2 1 T2 = T1 + T ; 3, 4 (
1 2 , 5, 6; 7

.
n , ,

G T
,
grad T = 1n
n
G
T
( 1n ) , ;
n
n .
grad T .

( )

grad T T = 1x

T
T
T
,
+ 1y
+ 1z
x
y
z

(1.3)

1x, 1y, 1z , x, y, z T T T
;
T (x, y, z, ) x, y, z.
,
,
x y z
1.2
Q, S , q [1]

( )

( )

G dQ 1
G
,
q = 1n
d S

(1.4)

G
1n , S ;

G
dQ
, ; q . ,
d
G
q ,
(grad T ) T . qG grad T , (. . 1.1).
G
, q ,
. .
, , [1].
, ,
G T
G
,
(1.5)
q = grad T = T = 1n
n

( )

, .
, , ( , , -

).
, (1.3),

G
T
T
T
q = 1x q x + 1y q y + 1z q z = ( 1x )
+ 1y
+ ( 1z ) ,

y
z

( )

(1.6)

, x, y, z

q x =

T
;
x

q y =

T
;
y

q z =

T
.
z

T T T

=
=
= 0


dT
.
(1.7)
q =
dx

,
dT T T2 T1
Q
; q=
,
=

S
dx x x2 x1
(1.7)
Q
T T
= 2 1 ,
S
x2 x1
.. Q [], []
S [2] (2 1) = 1
(2 1) = 1 .
(1.5) :
G

q = grad (cT ) = a grad h ,


(1.8)
c
h = cT [/3] ; [/3] ; [/]

[2/] .
c
G
(1.8) q h ( , [/3]).
, a =
c
thermal diffusivity, .. .

dh
(1.9)
q = a .
dx
Q
dh h2 h1
,
, q=
, (1.9)

S
dx x2 x1

; a =

Q
h h
= a 2 1 ,
S
x2 x1

2

3 = Q [], .. a 2



S = 1 2 = 1 c
h ( ) h2 h1 =1 /3 (2 1) = 1
.
1.3

,
, -


.

, .
(. . 1.2) ,
V = dxdydz . qx [/2] , , qx + dx
, . , dydz
, qx dydz, , , qx + dx dydz.
q x > q x + dx , ; q x < q x + dx .
V = dxdydz

Pq = qx dydz qx + dx dydz . q x + dx "", dxdydz.

qx+dx

qx
dy

dz
dx
x

z
. 1.2

W [/3]. PW = WV = Wdxdydz .
V = dxdydz
Pq + PW = q x dydz q x + dx dydz + Wdxdydz .

(1.10)

, V = dxdydz , , :
P = c

T
dxdydz,

Q
= P ,

..
= q + Pw ,
c

T
dxdydz = (q x q x + dx ) dydz + Wdxdydz.

(1.11)

qx + dx :
q x + dx = q x +

dq x
dx;
dx
(q x q x + dx ) dydz =

dq x
dxdydz.
dx

(1.12)

(1.12) (1.11)
c

T
q
dxdydz = x dxdydz + Wdxdydz.

V = dxdydz

T
q
= x +W.

(1.13)


q x =

T
.
x

(1.14)

(1.14) (1.13),
c

T
T
=
+W.
x x

, T = T ( x, ), W = W ( x, )
x ,
T ( x, ) T ( x, )
c
=
(1.15)
+ W ( x, ) .

x
x
, = const , :
T ( x, )
2T ( x, ) W ( x, )
=a
+
,

c
x 2

(1.16)

.
c
, , (1.15)

a =

T ( x, y, z , ) T ( x, y, z , ) T ( x, y, z , )
+
=
+

x
x
y
y

T ( x, y, z, )
+ W ( x, y, z , ).

z
z

(1.17)

(1.15) . (1.15),
(1.16) . :
() = 0;
= 1;
= 2.
(1.15) (1.16) :
c

1 T
T
=
x
+W ;
x x
x

(1.18)

T
1 T
=a
(1.19)
x
.

x x x
(1.15) (1.19) (. . 1.3).
, , ,
:
1) ;
2) ,
;
3) , , , ().

T(, 0) = = const
=0

T(r, 7)

1 > 0

q = const

2 > 1

T(r, 3)

3 > 2
T(0, ) = 0

T(H, ) = 0

0 T(r, 0) = T

T(h, )

T(h)

T(H,)

2 > 1
1 > 0

T(0, )

T() = 0
h

)
. 1.3 :
; , q = const;
x = h

1.4

, ( )
, :
T (x, y, z, 0) = T(x, y, z);
T (x, 0) = T (x).
,
, :
(x, y, z) = T = const T(x) = T = const.
1.5

, , .
. , . 1.3, , (-1) :
T (0, ) = 1 () ;
T ( H , ) = 2 ().

1 (), 2 () :
T (0, ) = 1 () = T0 (1 e 2 ) ;
T ( H , ) = 2 () = k.


T ( x , y , z , ) = 1 ( x , y , z , ) ,

x , y , z .

T
, . qx =
x
. 1.3, , (-2)
T (0, )

= q1 () ;
x

T ( H , )
= q2 ().
x


q1 () = const;
q2 () = const.

q1 (), q2 ()
q1 () = 0;
q2 () = 0.

,
q = (T c T ) ,

[/(2 )]; T c ; .

T (0, )
q (0, ) =
;
x
q ( H , ) =

T ( H , )
,
x

, . 1.3, ,
(-3) :

T (0, )
= 1 T1 () T (0, ) ;
x

T ( H , )
= 2 T2 () T ( , ) .
x

(. . 1.3, )
() :
T (h 0, ) = T (h + 0, ) ;

(1.20)
T (h + 0, )
T (h 0, )
= 2
.
1
dx
dx

(-4)
, ,
(. . 1.3, ).
[2],
() [/2],
. , , x = h (. . 1.3, ) (), -4 :
T (h 0, ) = T (h + 0, );

T (h + 0, )
T (h 0, )
2
= p () .
1
x
x

,

.

, .

1 . , x = 0 , x =
:
T ( x, )
2T ( x, )
;
(1.21a)
=a

x 2
> 0, 0 < x < ;

(1.21b)

T ( x, 0) = T = const ;

(1.21)

T (0, ) = () ;

(1.21d)

T ( H , )
= q () .
(1.21e)
x
2 . , x = 0 , x =
, :
T ( x, )
2T ( x, )
;
(1.22a)
=a

x 2

> 0, 0 < x < ;

(1.22b)

T ( x, 0) = T = const ;

(1.22c)

T (0, )
= q1 () ;

T ( H , )
= [ 2 () T ( H , )] .
x

(1.22d)
(1.22e)

3 .
R c T = 0 , = 0 T = 50 , :
T (r , )
1 T (r , )
=a
r
;

r r
r

(1.23a)

> 0, 0 < r < R ;

(1.23b)

T (r , 0) = T = 0 ;

(1.23c)

T (0, )
= 0;
r

(1.23d)

T ( R, ) = T = 50 .

(1.23e)

4 .
T (r , 0) = T = const , = 0 -

T = const, :
T (r , )
1 2 T (r , )
=a 2
;
r

r
r r

(1.24a)

> 0, 0 < r < R ;

(1.24b)

T (r , 0) = T = const ;

(1.24c)

T (0, )
= 0;
r

(1.24d)

T ( R, ) = T = const.

(1.24e)

5 . , ,
, = 0 ,
, :

T (r , )
1 2 T (r , )
=a 2
;
r

r
r r

(1.25a)

> 0, 0 < r < R ;

(1.25b)

T (r , 0) = T = const ;

(1.25c)

T (0, )
= 0;
r

(1.25d)

T ( R, )
= T c ( ) T ( R , ) .
r

(1.25e)

6 . (0 < r < R1 R1 < r < R2) 1, 2, 1, 2 r = R1 (p () = p = const), r = 0 q = 0, r = R2


T (), T (r) = 0.
T(r, ) :
T (r , )
T1 (r , )
= a1 r 1
;

r
r

(1.26a)

> 0, 0 < r < R1 ;

(1.26b)

T2 (r , )
T (r , )
= a2 r 2
;

r
r

(1.26c)

> 0, R1 < r < R2 ;

(1.26d)
(1.26e)

T1 (r , 0) = 0, T2 (r , 0) = 0 ;
T1 (0, )
=0;
r

(1.26f)

T1 ( R1 , ) = T2 ( R1 , ) ;
(1.26g)

T2 ( R1 , )
T1 ( R1, )
2
=(1.26h)
p = const ;
1
r
r

T2 ( R2 , )
= T c () T2 ( R2 , ) .
r

(1.26i)

1.6

1.6.1
, ,
:
= 0;
= 1;
= 2.
:
(1.21a) (1.21e); (1.22a) (1.22e);
(1.23a) (1.23e);
(1.24a) (1.24e); (1.25a) (1.25e);
(1.26a) (1.26i),
.
():
(1.21a);
( = 0) (1.21b);
(, );
(1.21c);
(1.21d), (1.21e),

() T (x, ),
( 0 < x < H > 0).
1.6.2

( = 0, 0 < x < H), (, const), , T (x) = T0 = const, ,


,
T (0, )
= 0;
x

T (H, ) = U (),

U () , [4], , ,
= min T = const.
:
T ( x, )
2T ( x, )
=a
;

x 2

(1.27a)

> 0, 0 < x < H ;

(1.27b)

T ( x, 0) = T = const ;

(1.27c)

T (0, )
= 0;
x

(1.27d)

T ( H , ) = U ()

(1.27e)

T ( x, ) T < ,

(1.27f)

d = min .

(1.27g)

(1.27c) , (1.27f) , T ( x, ) = T = const


, , , > 0.
(1.27g) , [4, 5].
, (1.27a) (1.27g)
U (), , T (x, 0) = T = const
= 0,
T ( x, ) = T = const , .
1.6.3 ()
( )
:
(1.27a);
( = 0) 0 < x < H (1.27b);
(1.27c);
(1.27d) ;
T (H, ) = 0 ,
T ( H 2, ) = f () , , T ( H 2, ) f () .
( = ?) :
T ( x, )
2T ( x, )
=a
;

x 2

(1.28a)

> 0, 0 < x < H ;

(1.28b)

T ( x, 0) = T = const ;

(1.28c)

T (0, )
= 0;
x

(1.28d)

T ( H , ) = 0

(1.28e)


T (H / 2, ) = f () .

(1.28f)

[T ( H / 2, ) f ()] d = min .

(1.28g)

, (
) [5] .


.

2

2.1

, , .
. 2.1.

. 2.1
:
; ,
(), () (); , (),
(), (); ; - ; ; ; , : ; ;
; ; ;

() () ()
(), , ().

, .
() (), (), (), , , , .. , . -
() , .
()
, , , .
() , . ()
.
2.2

, , .
I
1)

2)

:
, :
[/( )];
c [/(3 )];
[/( )];
a [2/];
[ ];
am [2/] ..;
, :
c, = /c;
;
am ..

II
:
1) , , :
;
;
;
2) , , :
;
;
..;
3) , , :
;
, ..
. . (),
, ().
, (, , ) .

III :
1) ,
, .. , T = const,
T
q
= 0 q = const,
=0;

2) , -

T
q
0 / q const,
0.

,
(. . 2.2), :
;

, T const,

. - / , ( )
. , 40100
30100
. , , ,
. - -
/ .

( , );
;
;
(, ) (, , / - ,
);
3) , , .

(0, )

. 2.2 (0, )
(R, )
> :
1 ;
2 ,
(r, 0)
T (0, ); 3

IV :
1) ( ) (. 2.3, , );
2) ( ) (.
. 2.3, , );
3) (. . 2.3, );
4) ( ) (.
. 2.3, , );
5) W [/3]
, , ,
:
;
, ..

( ) = ( ) h()

)
q
q = qn h()

qn

( ) = ( ) [h( 1) h( 2 )]

q
q = qn[ h( 1 ) h( 2 )]

qn
1

= 0 + k

= 0 + T sin
+
0

2n

3n

. 2.3

V ,
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ();
4) ;
5) () ;
6) .
VI , () , :
1) , ,
(
, - );
2) ,
; :
a. , ,
);

b.
.
VII
:
1) () ;
2) .
. (
) .

3
, [3, 6, 7]
, , , (, , ).
:
;
, ;
( ).
.
, ,
Q = Qa + Qo + Q ,
Q , ; Qa , ; Q , ; Q ,

Q = m (T T),
, , Q, ; m .
3.1

[3]
(. . 3.1).
1 ( ) m , , - 2
m. 3 2 ( 1 ) , . 4
W (), 3,

Q = W () d ,

(3.1)

, 1 2. 5
6 . . 3.1 , 5 ( ), ,
5 2.
7 , . , 8, 9, 10 11,
( 1 2 ) 7 2.

7
6
5

11

3
2

U
4

10
9

. 3.1 :
1 m; 2 ( );
3 ; 4 (); 5, 8, 9 ; 6 ; 7 ; 10 , ( 8 9) 2 7; 11

()
()

c()

max

(0 + )/2
0

. 3.2 ()
[3]:
;

,
1 2, 1 2 .
2 1 (3.1) , . 3.2.

W () d = Q = Cx m (T ) + m ( ) ,

(3.2)

Q , 3; , m 1;
, m 2 ; , ,
5 .
, 2 ( 3 )

= m ,

Q = Cxm (T T) + C ( ).
(3.3)
Q = ( ) [Cxm + C],

(3.3)

C x m + C =

Q
,
T

1 Q
Cx =
C .
m T

(3.4)

. [3]:

Q = C x m (T ) + ( ) + K [ () ()] d ,
0

K ;
; () () ;

. Q =

[ () ()]d -

.
, ()
, . 3.2, . (W =
const 0 < < ), K = const, = const
Q = C x m (Tm ) + ( m ) ,

Tm
= (0 + ) / 2,
, . 3.2, .
(3.4)

1 Q
Cx =
(3.4)
C .
m Tm

,
K
.
- 2 3 .
, , ,
.
3.2

--400, , , , 800 /3.


- --400 . 3.3.

77

99

11

33

22

10
10

88

1212

44

11
11

55

66

. 3.3 - --400

1 , 2
3. 4, 5 6.
1, 2 3, 4.
3 , 7 8.
7 ( 9) 2 ( 10) , 8, 7. 1 6, 5.
3.2.1
, 4 (. 3.3),
1, 2 3
P = P0 + Pa ,

(3.5)

P0 ( ), ; P ( ), ; P (
), 4.
P0, P
P0 = cm0b ;
Pa = ca ma b = Cb ,

c, ca [/( )] ; m0 , ma [];
dT
[/]; C = ca ma [/].
d
C = () , , .
, 4,
4 K ,

P = K .
b=

K = K (T )
T. , (3.5)

K = cm0b + Cb,


c=

1 K
C .

m0 b

(3.6)

. 3.4 , , 11 12
(. . 3.3). , 11 T () 4,
12 T () , 4 (. . 3.3).
. 3.4 , () T () T (), ..
() = T () T ().
T
T()

T()
3
1

()
2

()

. 3.4 T () T ()

1-2-3 . 3.4,
dT

=b
b ,
d

. (3.6),
c=

1
K C .
m0

(3.7)

(3.7) K ,
c=

K
m0

C

.
KT

C / K = n , n , ,

K (T )
c=
n (T ) ,
(3.8)
m0

--400. K (T ), n (T ) --400.
3.2.2
1 (. 3.3) 2, 3.
7 5. 7 ( 7 . 3.3 ).
11 12.
6.
() ( ) .
( , 8)
( 9 10) 7 -

2 1.
, ,
25 Ta ()
T () 5. (3.8) K (T ), n (T ) .
dT
0,1 / ,
d
7 2, ,
.
b =

3.3

, .
[7]. , ( ), (
103 , 104 /), .
(. . 3.5, ) () 1, ( )
2 3 . 2, 3 1
4, 5 .
2
4
2

4
1

3
5

9
8

11

10
1

2 5

11

10

() = 0 + k

E()

12

)
. 3.5 :
;
3 ;
4 5

2 , ,
. 3
, , .
, 3 6, 7. , 1 , , , 2
3 . 6
2.
11, 1,
, 10 2, 3.
10, () 9, 2 3. . 3.5, , 9
.
() 4, 5 8. E() 4, 5 . 3.5, .
E() 4, 5 W() 2
W () = kE (),

(3.9)

k .

Q = W () d S

E() 0, . 3.5, , (3.9)

Q = W ()d = k [E () 0 ]d = kS ,

S =

(3.10)

[E () 0 ]d E() 0,

12 (. . 3.3, ), E(), 2 ; , , .
T() E(), . 3.5, , , T < T < T , () , , T() = T0 + k, . 3.5, .
k (3.10) . 2
, < <
Q=

P() d ,

P() .
P() = P = const,
Q = P( ) .

S E() 0

S=

[E () 0 ]d ,

k
k=

Q
.
S

k = k(T)
, T . k = k(T) Q .
, 2, 3 , 4, 5,
k (T),
, .
k
. ,
.

4
. , ,
. ,
q = grad T,

q =

T
,
x

Q
Q [], S [2]
S
T
T
T
[c]; grad T = 1x
+ 1y
+ 1z
x
y
z
.
, , ,
T
grad T = 1x
,
x
T
q =
.
x

q =

4.1

4.1.1
, (. . 4.1) ()
, .
,

1
()

. 4.1

q, . 4.1,

,


1 2.


q, T1, T2, H .

4.1.2
, :
= 0
(0) = 1,
=
() = 2,
T (0)
, , = 0 q =
,
x
:
c

T ( x, ) T ( x, )
=

x
x

(4.1)

> 0, 0 < x < H ;

(4.2)

T(x, 0) = ();

(4.3)

(0, ) = 1 = const;

(4.4)

T(H, ) = T2 = const

(4.5)

T (0, )
= q = const .
x

(4.6)

(4.1) (4.6) () . , () (4.1) (4.5) .


lim

T ( x, )
= 0,

(, ) = () , (4.3)
.
, (4.1) (4.5)
:

d dT ( x)

= 0;
dx
dx

(4.1)

0 < x < H;

(4.2)

T(0) = T1 = const;

(4.4)

T(H) = T2 = const

(4.5)

dT (0)
= q = const.
dx

(4.6)

(4.1), (4.2), (4.4) (4.6), ()


.
(4.1),
d dT ( x)
dx = 0dx,
dx

dx

dT ( x)
= C = const.
dx

(4.7)

(4.7) (4.6),
= q.
(4.7)

dT ( x)
= q ,
dx

dT ( x)
q
= .
dx

= 0 = .
H

q
dT ( x)
dx dx = dx,
0
0

q H
x ,
0
q
T ( H ) T (0) = ( H 0),

T ( x) 0 =

qH
,
T ( H ) T (0)

, . 4.1
() = 2,

(0) = 1,
=

qH
.
1 T2

(4.8)

4.1.3
.
1 ( ) , , (. . 4.2), .

ll

ll

dd

)
. 4.2 :
;

2 ( , )
:
1 + 2 + ... + n
.
n
3 ( ) q ().
4 1, 2 (. . 4.1) .
5 ,
1 = const,
2 = const,
q = const,
q 1, 2.
6 (4.8) , q, T1
T2.

= (1 + 2)/2.
4.1.4 ,

=

, d , l (. . 4.2) .
1, 2
( ), 0,10,4
, :
1) -
,
2) .

[2, 3, 8, 9]:
1) -, ;
2) -, , ( 106578);
3) -, -1, S ( 106578).
, , .
q , .
(. . 4.3, ) 1 2,
3. , 3, , ,
1, 2. , 1 2,

q=

P 2 UI I 2 R U 2
,
=
=
=
2S
2S
2 RS
S

= UI = I2R = U2/R , 3; U ,
3; I , ; R ; S , q.
2

,
,

,
,

H,

T
T

+ 2

,
1

)
. 4.3 :
1, 2 3;
4 ;
5 6

3 , S
, q , :
(. 4.2, )
S =

d2
;
4

(. 4.2, )
S = l 2.
, 1, 2, q, (4.8),
.
(. . 4.3, ) 4, .
4 ,
1 . , 1 4 :
4
q =


= + 0 1 ;


q =

T T
T
= + 1 2 ,
H
x

, , q ,
:
q = q =

1
.
= + 0

q = q (4.8).
(4.8),
=

0 1
,
1 2

(4.9)

(4.9)

= 0 1 ; = 1 2 , .
(4.9), (4.9) ,
(. . 4.3, ) : , ;
; = 0 1, = 1 2 , .
q

= 0 1
.

, .
1881 [8]. , .

,
.
(. . 4.3, ) , ,
5.
q
q =

T
x

q = +

T
H

(. . 4.3, ) . , = const, H = const, , ..


q = K1 T,

(4.10)

.
H

, , ,
(. . 4.3, ), 6.
( )
, ..
= K2

E
.
=
K2

K1 =

(4.10),
q = K1

1
E
K2

q = K E,

(4.10)

K ( ) ,
K =

K1

,
=
K2 2

K
1 (. . 4.3, ),
K.
() 1 (. . 4.3,
) K.
q, , ,
q . K

q
,
E
E ; q ,
,
K =

q = q= K ,
K ;
q = q .
, 1, 2, , q (4.10), (4.8) .
4.1.5

[15] (4.8),
=

qH
.
1 T2

1
ln = lnq + lnH ln (T1 T2)
:
d ln = d lnq + d lnH d ln (T1 T2);
d dq dH d (T1 T2 )
.
=
+

q
H
T1 T2

2 :
d ;
dq q;
dH H;
d (T1 T2) (T1 T2),
, q, H, (T1 T2) , ,
, q, (T1 T2) .
, q, H, (T1 T2) ,
q H (T1 T2 )
.
=
+

q
H
T1 T2

, , q, H, (T1 T2) . , q, H, (T1 T2) .


3 (
), +,

+ .
q H (T1 T2 )

,
+
+
=

q
H
T1 T2


( ) =
,

, q, H, (T1 T2) ,
.

q =

q
H
(T1 T2 )
; H =
; (T1 T2 ) =
,
(T1 T2 )
q
H

( ) = q + H + (T1 T2 ),
.. () q, H, (T1 T2) q, H
(T1 T2).
4 T1, T2 , (T1 T2) (T1 T2)
(1 2 ) = 1 + 2 .
1, 2 = 1 = 2 ,
(1 2 ) = 2 .

5 ,
q H
2T

+
+

=
q H (T1 T2 )

( ) = q + H + (T1 T2 ) ,

(T1 T2 ) =

2T

(T1 T2 )

( )
, q, H , (T1 T2 ) ( ) , , q, H ( ) , (T1 T2 )

( ) .

6 [15], ,

( ) = (q )2 + (H )2 + [ (T1 T2 )] 2

q H
2(T )2
+

,
+
2
q H (T1 T2 )
2

,
(T1 T2 ) , = 1 = 2 ,

[(1 2 )] =

(1 )2 + ( 2 )2
(1 2 )

2 ( )2

(1 2 )

7 , , q
q = q =

( 0 1 ) ,

, :

(q ) = + H + (T1 T2 ) ;
2
(q ) = ( )2 + (H )2 + 2( ) 2
[ 0 1 ]


, :

( ) = + + +
( ) = ( ) + ( ) + ( )
2

2
2
;
+
(1 2 ) ( 0 1 )
2



+ 2
.
+ 2
(1 2 )
( 0 1 )

, (4.9).
0 , 1 1 , 2
.
(0 1) (1 2) (0 1), (1 2) , = 0 = 1 = 2 0,
1, 2, .. (0 1) = , (1 2) = , :

( ) = q + H +
( ) = + + +

T
;
(T1 T2 )

(1 2 ) ( 0 1 )

1 2

( ) = (q )2 + (H )2 +


.
+
(1 2 ) ( 0 1 )

( ) = ( )2 + ( )2 + ( )2 +

, 0, 1 1, 2 (0 1) (1 2)
.
4.1.6
:
;
,
;
, () ( , ),
, ;
, .
,
( )

. , ,
.
4.2
4.2.1
, (. . 4.4) (- ) L . R1 R2.
r = R1
q, r
T
R1 R2,
, r = R1
T(r)
T1
(R1) = T1, r = R2 (R2) = T2, T2
L
(r).
q q

r 0 R1 R2
,
. 4.4

R1, R2, T(R1) = T1, T(R2) = T2, q.


4.2.2

4.2.1 :

T (r , ) 1 T (r , )
;
=
r

r r
r

(4.11)

> 0, R1 < r < R2 ;

(4.12)

T (r , 0 ) = T (r ) ;

(4.13)

T (R1, ) = T1 ( ) ;

(4.14)

T (R2 , ) = T2 ( )

(4.15)

T (R1 , )
= q () .
(4.16)
r
(4.11) (4.16) ()
.
, 1 = const, T2 = const, q = const, , ,
,

T (r , )
=0,

lim

, (4.13).
(4.11) (4.16) :
1 d dT (r )
r
=0;
r dr
dr

, ,

(4.11)

R1 < r < R2 ;

(4.12)

T (R1 ) = T1 = const ;

(4.14)

T (R2 ) = T2 = const

(4.15)

dT (R1 )
= q = const .
dr

(4.16)

(4.11), (4.12), (4.14) (4.16) () , .


(4.11)
d dT (r )
r
=0
dr
dr
r = R1 r, (r R2):
d dT (r )
= 0 dr .
r
dr R
dr

R1

,
r

0 dr = 0 ,

R1

dT (r )
dr

=0
R1

dT (R1 )
dT (r )
R1
=0,
dr
dr

dT (r )
dT (R1 )
= R1
.
dr
dr

(4.17)

(4.16),

dT (R1 )
= q .
dr

(4.17),
r

dT (r )
= R1q
dr

dT (r )
qR 1
= 1 .
dr
r
( r = R1 r = R2)
R2

R1

dT (r )
qR
dr = 1

dr

d ln r 1
=
dr
r

T (r )

R2
R1

R2

r dr.

R1

dr = ln r , :
=

qR1
ln r

R2
;
R1

T (R2 ) T (R1 ) =
=

qR1
[ln R2 ln R1 ];

qR1 [ln R2 ln R1 ]
.
T (R2 ) T (R1 )

,
T (R1 ) = T1; T (R2 ) = T2 ;

[ln R2 ln R1 ] = ln R2 ,
R1

(4.17)

R
qR1 ln 2
R1 .
=
T1 T2

(4.18)

(4.18) .
4.2.3


.
1 (. . 4.4) L
R1 R2.
. (), ( ) L, R1, R2.

2
R1, R2, L .

. () R1, R2, L
.

3 () q, ( r = R1) .
4 T(R1) = T1, T(R2) = T2 .
5 ,
T1 = const;
T2 = const;
q = const,
q T1, T2.
6 (4.18) R1, R2, T1, T2, q.
R1, R2 (. . 4.5, ) d1 = 2R1,
d2 = 2R2, (4.18)
d
d1 ln 2
d1 .
(4.18)
=q
2 (T1 T2 )
4.2.4 ,

R1, R2, L T1, T2, . 4.1.4.
, . 4.1.4.
q .
P 1 c
R1, 2 (. . 4.5, ).
q, 2,

q=

P
P
P
=
=
,
S 2 R1L d1L

, 1; S = 2R1L 2; R1 =

d1
, L 1,
2

2 .

d2=2R2
d1=2R1

T0
T1

T1

11

33

T1
22

22

T2

T2

22
-R2 -R1

R1 R2
)

44

T2
r
L
l

0 R0 R1 R2 r
)

0 R0 R1 R2 r

22
B D

EC A
G

F
H

11

. 4.5
:
P 1, 2;
3 R0, R1 ; 4 ; 1

(4.18), (4.18) :
R
R
PR1 ln 2
P ln 2
R1 =
R1 ;
=
2R1L (T1 T2 ) 2L (T1 T2 )
d
d
Pd1 ln 2
P ln 2
d1 .
d1 =
=
2d1L(T1 T2 ) 2L(T1 T2 )

(4.19)

(4.19)

, (4.18), (4.18)
(4.19), (4.19), .
3 R0, R1.
1,
P = const. , (
3 2
) 2 3 P, r = R0
P = q (R0 ) S 0 = q ( R0 )2R0 L,

r = R1

P = q (R1 ) S 1 = q (R1 ) 2R1L .

(4.18) 2 R1 < r < R2


T T
q (R1 ) = 1 2 .
R
R1 ln 2
R1
, R0 < r < R1
T0 T1
q (R0 ) = q (R0 ) =
.
R1
R0 ln
R0

(4.20)

q (R0 ) S 0= q ( R1 ) S1 ,
q ( R0 ) 2R0 L = q ( R1 ) 2R1L ;
2R0 L

T0 T1
T T
= 2R1L 1 2 ,
R
R
R1 ln 2
R0 ln 1
R
R1
0


ln R2
ln R2
R1 T0 T1
R1 T

=
=
,
(4.20)
R
R
ln 1 T1 T2
ln 1 T
R0
R0
T = (T0 T1 ) R0,

R1; T = (T1 T2 )
R1, R2.
(4.20) , 3, .
(. . 4.5, ) 4, ,
( . 4.5, ).
(4.10)
q = K E ,
(. . 4.5, ) 1, 2 ,
q = K E , R1, R2, (4.18).
, . ( . 4.1.5
).
4.2.5
, 1 (. . 4.5, ),
( 0,1 ),
, ,
( ), ,
.
, , . 4.5, . 1888 [8]. XX
.
(4.19) (4.19),
[8]:
=A

P
,
(T1 T2 )

(4.19b)

d
ln 2
d
A = 1 ; P ,
2L
(. . 4.5, ) L; d1= 2R1 1; d2 2; (T1 T2) .
d1, d2 L
1.
P, T1, T2, (4.19b) .
.


.
(. . 4.5, ) [8]. CD 1 d1.
, DF, 2 d2,
, ,
. l 1
AG BH .

, 3 ,
d3. (T2 T3)
d
d
P ln 3 Pl ln 3
d
d2 ,
(T2 T3 ) = 2 =
(4.19)
2L
2l
T2, T3 2; d2, d3 2; , 1; L 1; 2; Pl ,
l 1.
1
2. . 1 . ( ,
l (/ L) 1) :
1) I 1;
2) Ul l 1 (. . 4.5, );
3) 1 1 l ( 1
U
Rl = l , Ul I);
I
4) 2 , , 3 2 2
T2 = T3 + (T2 T3 )p ,

(2 3) , (4.19).
I, Ul T1 2,
(4.19), (4.19) (4.19b),
Ul l ( . 4.5, )
R
d
ln 1 ln 1
R
d
(4.19d)
A= 2 = 2.
2l
2l
1 2
d1, d2 l, (4.19d), (4.19b). .
( ) = () ,
= (), d1, d2 l ( )
1 2.
.

4.3

4.3.1
, -

. (. . 4.6) R1 R2.
r = R1

T1 T
T(r)
T2
q0

R1

R2

T (R1 , )
= q = const,
r

r r = R1 r = R2,
T(r), :
r = R1
T(R1) = T1 = const;
r = R2

. 4.6

T(R2) = T2 = const.
4.3.2

:
c

T (r , ) 1 2 T (r , )
= 2
r r ;

r r

(4.21)

> 0, R1 < r < R2;

(4.22)

T(R, 0) = T(r);

(4.23)

T(R1, ) = T1 = const;

(4.24)

T(R2, ) = T2 = const

(4.25)

T ( R1 , )
= q = const .
r

(4.26)

, ,

(4.21) (4.26) ( [5])


.
, , :
T1 = const;
T2 = const;
q = const;
lim

T (r , )
= 0,

, T (r ) = lim T (r , )

(4.23), (4.21) (4.26) :

1 d 2 dT (r )
r dr = 0 ;
r 2 dr

(4.21a)

R1 < r < R2;

(4.22)

T(R1, ) = T1 = const;

(4.24)

T(R2, ) = T2 = const

(4.25)

dT ( R1 )
= q = const.
dr

(4.26)

(4.21), (4.22), (4.24) (4.26) ( [5])


, , , R1, R2, T1, T2, q, -

.
(4.21)
d 2 dT (r )
=0
r
dr
dr

r = R1 r R2
r

R1

d 2 dT (r )
r
dr = 0dr
dr
dr
R

r 2

r 2

dT (r )
dr

= 0;
R1

dT (r )
dT ( R1 )
R12
= 0;
dr
dr
r 2

dT (r )
dT ( R1 )
= R12
.
dr
dr

(4.27)

(4.16)

dT ( R1 )
= q.
dr

(4.27)
r 2

dT (r )
= R12q
dr

dT (r )
qR 2
= 12 .
dr
r

( r = R1 r = R2)
R2

R1

dT (r )
qR 2
dr = 1

dr

R2

r 2 dr

R1

dr = r , :
T (r )

R2
R1

qR 2
= + 1 r 1

T ( R2 ) T ( R1 ) =

R2

;
R1

qR12 1
1
;
R2 R1

1
1
R12
R2 R1 ;
=q
T2 T1
1
1
R12
R
R
2
1
.
(4.28)
=q
T1 T2
(4.28) , R1, R2, T1, T2, q,
.

4.3.3
, .
1 (. . 4.6) R1 R2.
.
1 ,

;

T1.
2 , , R1, R2.
3 ,
, .

2 R1, R2 .

. , , R1, R2
.

3 T1
T2 q, ( r = R1) .
4 T(R1) = T1 T(R2) = T2
r = R1 r = R2 ,
.
5 ,
T1 = const,
T2 = const,
q = const,
T1, T2 q.
6 (4.28).
, :
R1, R2 ;
T1, T2 ;
q, r = R1 , , . 4.1.3 4.2.3 .
4.3.4

[3, 8, 12] (4.26)


- .
,
[12].
/ ,
:
, , ,
;
, ( ) .
. -
.
4.4

, , , .
,
, .
, , , , , .
4.4.1 ,

:
(4.1), (4.2), (4.4) (4.6);

(4.11), (4.12), (4.14) (4.16);


(4.21), (4.22), (4.24) (4.26),
, :
q;
T1, T2,
() , .
q, T1, T2,
, , .
. , Eq, E :
Eq =

dq qi qi 1 qi qi 1

=
q ;

q d qi
qi
=

dT Ti Ti 1

,
T d
Ti

qi Ti; q , q ; qi , qi1 , Ti, Ti1


i- (i 1)- .
q :
Eq =

qi qi n
q ;
qi

E =

Ti Ti n
,
Ti

qi , qin , Ti, Tin i- (i - n)- (


n ).
, n (n = 15),
n.
4.4.2 ,
,
,
.
4.4.2.1

, 1 2 3
, . 4.7.
3, 4,
1 2, ( ) . ,
, ()
1 .

9
8
7
6
5

. 4.7 ,
[8]:
1 ; 2 ( ); 3
4; 5, 7 ; 8
; 6, 9

3, 2 1 , . q
. 3 4.
5, 7,
8, 6, 9 .
( . 4.7 ), .
, . 4.7, 5, 7 8. 6, 9 , 1 .
(. 4.7) ,
.
. [8, .
32].
(. .
4.5, ) :
,
, ( ,
; , , );
( ).
, , , ,
,
. , - , .
4.4.2.2 -

Q, [/] = [], (
;
( ) ),
-:
T 4 T 4
Q = 1 2 F
100 100

(4.29)

q =

T 2 T 4
Q
= 1 2 ,
F
100 100

(4.29)

Q
, /2, ; F , 2; 1,
F
2 ( , ) ; -

q =

, /(24).
, .
, .

, , .
, , (
) . . (4.29) , Q,
, F , ..
. ,
183 +306
[8, . 41]. - d1 = 1,465 , :
= 0
1 %,
= 210
8 %,
= 306 20 %
, .

d1 = 0,1 , = 400 0,35 %
.
4.4.3 ,


[18].

(4.30)
= = f (Ra ) ,

, , ; ( = 1,
c
g3 2 T

> 1); Ra = Gr Pr ; Gr =
; Pr = =
a
2
; g ; ; ( = ; = R2 R1 ); , , ,
, ; c, = /, =
c
; .
1934 [8, 18] . (4.30) , , I, . 4.8.
=


lg

II

lg (Gr Pr)

lg(Gr Pr )
. 4.8 lg Ra = lg (Gr Pr) [8, 18]:
I ; II

I ,
R > 1000, lg (Gr Pr) > 3. ( I . 4.8)
.

.
Ra < 1000,
(4.31)

.
,
= 7300 . ,
= 0,22 35 .
- .. , .. , .. .. XX
6
. , . 4.8
II = f ( Ra) , ,
, I.
, ( > 1) [18] R >
20002500 (lg Ra > 3,33,4).
[18]
R 2000,
(4.32)
:
, ;
, .
(4.32)
( )
.
4.4.4 ,

(4.1) (4.6); (4.11) (4.16); (4.21) (4.26) , ,


, :
(4.4), (4.5), (4.6) ;
(4.14), (4.15), (4.16) ;
(4.24), (4.25), (4.26) .
,
.
. .
4.4.4.1

, . 4.9,
q , .
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 :
q1 = 1

TA TB
;
h1

(4.33)

q2 = 2

TC TD
;
h2

(4.33b)

q3 = 3

TE TF
;
h3

(4.33)

q
1

q4 = 4

TB TC
;
4

(4.33d)

q5 = 5

TD TE
.
5

(4.33)

h1

4
2

h2

5
3

h3

. 4.9 :
1, 3 , ; 2 ;
4, 5

,
q1 = q2 = q3 = q4 = q5 = q = const ,

(4.33) (4.33) ,
TA TB =

h1
q;
1

TB TC =

4
q;
4

TC TD =

h2
q;
2

TD TE =

5
q;
5

TE TF =

h3
q.
3

, :
TA TF = (TA TB ) + (TB TC ) + (TC TD ) + (TD TE ) +
h
h
h

+ (TE TF ) = q 1 + 4 + 2 + 5 + 3 =
1 4 2 5 3
= q ( R1 + R2 + R4 + R5 + R3 ) ,

(4.34)

h1
h
h

, R2 = 2 , R3 = 3 , R4 = 4 , R5 = 5 , 1
2
3
4
5
1, 2, 3, 4 5 . 4.9.
, R1, R2 , R3 1, 2 -

R1 =

4
R5 = 5
4
5
2 1 3 .
, (4.34) -

3. , R4 =

:
U A U F = I ( R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 ) .
(4.35)
, q (4.34) I (4.35), ( F) (UA UF), Ri -

Ri .
4.4.4.2


(, ) ,
. ,
.

R =

:
();
-
, , - ;
, ;

, , -4,

.
, h
h
h
F (TA TB ) = q 1 , (TC TD ) = q 2 (TE TF ) = q 3
1
2
3
1, 2 3,

(TB TC ) = q 4 ,
4
5
5
, :
1 2;
4 4 ;
2 3;
5 5 .
(TD TE ) = q

- (TA TF ) (TB TC ) + + (TD TE ) , 2


2 (. (4.8), (4.18), (4.28)).
4.4.4.3

, [3]:
() ;
, .
:
1) , , ; ;
2) ,
; :
, -

;

, ;

, ;
, .
= 80670 () -4.
r He,
[3].
. , ,
, [3], .
: , , .


(- ).
- , . ,
- .
.
4.4.4.4


. , ,
, .
[8, 18],
dT
=
,
dn
A
=
, ..

A dT
,
=
dn
.
, 1 ,
B
(T1 T2 ) = T = (t t ) + ,
P
T = T1 T2 1 2 ;
t , t ; ,
q
.

[3, 8, 10 14, 18].
4.4.5 ,
,
(4.8), (4.18) (4.28), , : q ; T1, T2 ; H, A , R1, R2, L
.
. 4.1.5 ,
q, T1 , T2 , H , A
T1, T2 , H , A q, T1, T2, H,

A.

, q, T1, T2, H, A :
, ,
;
,
( ) ;
( ; ,
,
- ),
;
,
; ,
1 2 1 2 , . 4.1.5,
( + ), - (1 2); ,

q ,
.
. 4.4, . , [8]
. , , , 2, . 4.7,
, g ,
-.

5 ,

5.1

5.1.1
. ,
x = 0 (. . 5.1)
1, x = x0 2,
, .
x

H
x = x0
2

3
x0

x=0

H
5

. 5.1

1 ( )

0,1 , 2 0,1 , x0 = 23 1 2,
,
. , 1
2 .
5.1.2
, , .
1 :
x0, 3 . 5.1;
() , 4 5 . 5.1, , H
- 0 3.
2 1 3 5, 2
, 3 4. ,
1 2. , - , .
3 , 3, 4, 5 1
2, a
T0. , Fo = 2
L
Fo 0,5 , a
; L ( L = x0 + 2H); .
, F = 0,5, a = 1,06107 2/, x0 = 3 , H = 50 , L = 103 = 1,03101, L2 = 1,06102 2,
,
L2
1,06 102
Fo
= 0,5
= 0,5 105 c = 50 000 13,9 .
a
1,06 10 7
, F = 0,5, a = 1,06107 2/, x0 = 2 , H = 20 , L = 42 = 4,2102, L2 = 17,64104 2,

0,5

17,64 10 4
1,06 10 7

= 8,32 103 c = 8320 2,36 .

, T0,
, .
4 T0, , , , .
, 1
.

Qn =

P ( ) d P ,
0

P [/ ], ; .
Qn , ,
R , U, , , .. R = const, U = const, = const. P, U2
P =
= = const , Qn = P = const .
R
Qn = const .
( ) U = const, q0 = const 1. Qn = const 0 .

T(x, )
Tmax

x = x0
x = x0' > x0

0,5Tmax

P()

x = x0" > x0'

'

max

"

Qn = P

. 5.2 x = x0
0

5 "" 2.
. 5.2.
> max , > " , max , Tmax ; ' , " (. . 5.2),
0,5Tmax .
6 (x0, Qn, Tmax, max ', ") ,
.
5.1.3
,
, :
T ( x, ) T ( x, )
c
=

+ Qn ( ) ( x ) , > 0 , < x < + ; (5.1)

x
x
T ( x, 0) = T0 = 0 ;
T (, ) = T (+, ) = T0 = 0 ,

(5.2)
(5.3)

T ( x, ) x ; c, , , ; T0 , ( T0 = 0 ); Q [/2] , ; (), ( x) - ,
[16]:

x = 0;

( x) = 0 x 0;
+
() d = 1;

(5.4)

f ( ) ( x ) d =

0 x < a x > b;
1
f ( x + 0) x = a;
2
1
f ( x 0) x = b;
2
f ( x) a < x < b.

(5.4)

, , , -
, [16]:
( x) = lim

( x + 1)

( x) = lim

( x) = lim

2 2

2 2

;
;

sin x
.
x

5.1.3.1

(5.1) (5.3) [1]:


T ( x, ) =

x2
exp
.
4 a
4a
Qn

(5.5)

, (5.5) (5.1) (5.3). (5.5) :


1
x 2 1
T ( x, )
Qn
2
exp
=
=
4a

c 4 a

1 3

x 2 1 1
x 2 1 x 2
2
(1) 2 =
exp
=
+ 2 exp

4a
4a

4a
c 4 a 2

Qn

3
2

x2 x2 1

exp
.
4a 4a 2
c 4 a

Qn

(5.5)

(5.5) :
T ( x, )
2T ( x, )

=
x
x
x 2
=

x 2

2
= Qn a exp 1 x 2 1 2 x =

exp

4 a x
c 4 a x
4 a 4 a
4a
Qn

Qn a 1
1 2
x =

x exp
4 a 2a x
4 a

Qn
1 2
1 2 1
x + x exp
x
=
2 x =
exp
2 4 a
4 a
4 a 4 a

x2 x2 1
x 2 1 x 2 Qn 2


exp
exp
.
=
=

4 a 4 a 2
4a 2 4a
2 4 a
4a

Qn 2

(5.5b)
(5.5) (5.5b) (5.1),
x2 x2 1
x2 x2 1
Qn

. (5.1)

=
exp
exp
4a 4a 2
4a 4a 2
a
4 a
4

, (5.5) (5.1) (5.1),


> 0, Qn () (x) = 0, (5.4), () = 0
0 ( > 0).
Qn

5.1.3.2 ()

,
x0, Qn, Tmax, max.
.
. 5.2 , Tmax max () (, ), . (, )
T ( x, )
=0.

, (5.5),
(5.5)

x2 x2 1
( , )
Qn

=
exp
= 0,
4a 4a 2

4a3

, (5.5) :
= ,

Qn
c 4a3

= 0 = ;

x2
= 0 = 0;
= 0, exp
4a

x2 1
x2

.
= 0 =
4 a 2
2a

x2
,
2a

a=

x02
,
2 max

(5.6)

max , (, ) ; 0 (. . 5.1) 1 2.
.
, = max = 0 (0, max) = Tmax .
x2
C , max = 0 , (5.5)
2a

Tmax

x02
Qn
Qn
1
=
,
=
exp =
exp
2
2
x0 c 2 x0

2 c 2e x0
x0
4
a
c 4 a

2a
2a
Qn

, ,
Tmax 0,
=

Qn
Tmax x0 2e

(5.7)

(5.6) (5.7) :
Qn x0
= ac =
;
(5.8)
2 2 e maxTmax

b=

Qn

c =

4 e max Tmax

(5.9)

b .
(5.6) (5.9) .
, max (. . 5.2) . ,
(. . 5.2) , ( , Tmax/2), ( , Tmax/2), [3]:
x02
;
7,4

(5.6)

x02
,
0,202

(5.6b)

a=

a=

, , T(x0, ) max/2, , T(x0, ) max, T(x0, )


max .
( , max/2) (5.5)
T ( x0 , ) =

x2
Tmax
Qn
=
exp 0
2
c 4 a
4a

c =

x2
Qn
exp 0 .
a Tmax
4a

(5.7)

, ( , max/2) (5.5),
T ( x0 , ) =

x2
Tmax
Qn
=
exp 0
2
c 4a
4a

c =

x2
Qn
exp 0 .
a Tmax
4a

(5.7b)

(5.7) (5.7b) ( (5.6), (5.6b) a) ,



= ac, b = c .

5.1.4
(5.6) (5.9) ,
(5.1) Qn () (x), - . ,
max , max. , ,
( ) T(x0, ).
, ( ) , [17]:
a=


x02
a ;
2 max


2Qn

x0Tmax
max

(5.6)

(5.7)

= ac =

x0Qn
,

Tmax
max

(5.8)




a , c , = a c , [17], , max
max
max
- , . ,
/max max, T(x0, ) (. . 5.2) max.

5.1.5


. 4.1.5 . , (5.6),

x2

a = 0 a (); = ,
2
max
() .

ln a = 2 ln x0 + ln a () ln 2 ln ,

da
dx
d () d 2 d
=2 0 + a

.
a
x0
a ()

da ()
d2
d,
= 0, da =
2
d
da
dx
d
1 da ()
=2 0 +
d .
a
x0 a () d

, :
max

ln = ln ln max ;
d
d
d = max .
max

dx0
x0, dmax max, d , +
d d dmax
=

max

x
1 da () max
a

= 2 0 + +
;
max
a
x0 a () d

(a ) = 2x0 + +

1 da ()
[ + max ] ,
a () d

(5.10)



1 da ()

4(x0 )2 + ( )2 +
( )2 + (max )2 . (5.10b)
a () d

, (5.7)
(), () :

(a) =

(c) = x 0 + Tmax + Q n + +

1 d ()
[ + max ] ;
() d

(5.10)

(c ) =

(x 0 ) 2 + (T max ) 2 + (Q n ) 2 + ( ) 2 +
1 d ()

( ) 2 + ( max ) 2 .
+
() d

(5.10d )


a, c, a, :
max
max , ,
max

1) max =

T (x0 , ) , . 5.2, , max , 10 % max ;


2) x 0 =

x0
x0 (. . 5.1) 1
x0

2;
3) Qn =

Qn
, Qn

2.
T max
.
5.1.6
, , , - max .
, [3] T (x0 , ) .
[3]:
z=

1
;

y=

2
T (x0 , ) ,
Qn

(5.5) (. . 5.3) (ln y, z) :


T (x0 , ) =

x2 1
exp 0 ;
2 c
4a
Qn

x2
1
T (x0 , ) 2
exp 0
=
Qn
c
4a
y=

x2
exp 0
c
4a
1

ln y = ln y0

z ;

z ;

x02
z,
4a

ln y = ln y0 hz,

(5.11)

y0 = (c )0,5 , b = c ;

h=

x02
(5.11), . 5.3.
4a
2 T ( x0 , )
ln y = ln

ln y = ln y0 hz

ln y0

tg =

ln y0
=h
z0

z=

z0

. 5.3 (ln y, z)


1
x2
ln y0 = ln
h = 0 ,
4a
c

x2
(5.6d)
= 0;
4h

c =
= ac =

a y0

(5.7d)

x02
4h a y0

b = =

1
.
y0

(5.8b)
(5.9)

. 5.1.6
, c, b , y0 h (. . 5.3) .
(5.6d), (5.7d), (5.8b) (5.9)

, c, b.
5.2

5.2.1
(. . 5.4, ) . r = 0 1 (,
, ), r = r0 - 2 (, ).
1 ( ) 0,1 , 2 , ,
0,1 , r0 = 23 1 2, , , .

4
1
H

R0

2
r

H
3

)
. 5.4 :
;
T (r, ) r = r0

T(r,)

r = r0
Tmax
r = r'0 > r0

1
Tmax
2

'

max

''

P()

max
)
. 5.4

5.2.2

(. . 5.5) .
1 () ,
3 4 . 5.4. H , -
r0 1 2. r = 3
H = 3060 , r = 2 H = 2040 .
. , ( . 5.1)
: r0 = 23 () H (1020) r0.

Q = P() d P
0


(r0, ), ,

. 5.5 -,

2 1 2 3 4 ,
. 5.4, .
(. . 5.1), 1 2 ( , r0)
r0 = 23 , H (1020) r0.
, 1 2.
3 ,
1 2,
Fo

L2
a

0. :
Fo , Fo = 0,8; L H + r0
; .
, a = 1,2 107 2/,
L = 3 + 60 = 6,3 10 2 L2 = 3,969 10 3 2,

0,8

3,969 10 3
1,2 10 7

= 2,646 10 4 = 26 460 = 7,35 .

4 , 1 . 1

P()d P ,

Q =

, , [/]; .
Q [/], , , , :
R 1 , .. R = const;
U, 1, , .. U =
const;
, , , .. = const.
, ,
P=

U2
= const ,
R

, ,
Q = P ,
.
, U,
Q = const

0 .
5 T (r0 , ) 2.

T (r0 , ) . T (r0 , ) . 5.4, .

> max , , T(r0, ) Tmax / 2 Tmax = T(r0, max).


.
.
-. .
( 2...5 ), 210 , , , , .

6 r0, Q , Tmax, max , ,


, .
5.2.3
,
T(r, ) , :


T (r , )
r r + Q ( ) (r );

T (r , 0) = T0 = 0;

T (0, )

= 0, T (, ) = T0 = 0,
r

T (r , ) 1
=

r r
> 0, 0 < r < ;

(5.12)

T (r , ) r ; , ; T0 , ; Q ,
;
(), (r ) - [1, 16].
(5.12) [1, 3, 7]:
r2
Q
(5.13)
exp
.
4
4a
r0 , Q , Tmax , max , , ,
T ( r , ) =

(5.13). z =

r2
. (5.13)
4a


T ( r , ) =

r2
Q
exp
z exp [ z ] ,
= 2
4
a

r c4a
r
c

Q r 2

(5.14)

, = ac .
. 5.4, , max Tmax
() T (r , ) . (5.14)
z, .

d
[z exp( z )] = exp ( z ) + z exp ( z )(1) = exp ( z ) (1 z ) = 0 .
dz

:
r2
1) z = ( exp (z ) = 0 ) ( z = 0 ) = 0
4
;
r2
2) z = 1 ( 1 z = 0 ) , z = 0 ,
4
; , r = r0 = max ,
z=

r02
=1,
4a max

a=

r02
,
4max

(5.15)

r0 (. . 5.4, ) 1 2;
max (. . 5.4, ), Tmax
T (r , ) = T (r0 , ) .
.
(5.14) z = 1 , (. . 5.4, )
Tmax r = r0 max ,
T (r0 , max ) = Tmax =

Q
cr02

z =1

exp[ z ]

z =1

Q
cr02

e 1 ,


Q
.
er02Tmax

c =

(5.16)

. 5.1.3.2
= ac =

r02
Q
,
4 max er02Tmax

Q
4e maxTmax

(5.17)

,
b = c =

QQ
4 e maxTmax er02Tmax

b=

Q
2er0Tmax max

(5.18)

(5.15) (5.18) a, , c, b r0 , Q , Tmax , max .


max (. . 5.4, ) , T (r0 , ) () = max . Tmax
, max , , , 10 %.
T (r0 , ) , (. . 5.4, ), , max , T (r0 , )
T (r0 , ) = Tmax / 2 .

(. . 5.4, ) (, Tmax / 2) (, Tmax / 2) ,


[3]:
a=

r02
;
10,7

a=

r02
,
0,925

(5.1)

(5.15b)

, , T (r0 , ) Tmax / 2 , ,
T (r0 , )
Tmax , T (r0 , )
Tmax .
(, Tmax / 2) (5.13),
T (r0 , ) = Tmax / 2 =

r2
Q
exp 0 ,
4
4a

r2
Q
exp 0 .
2 Tmax
4a

, (, Tmax / 2) (5.14)

(5.17)

T (r0 , ) =

r2
Tmax
Q
=
exp 0 ,
2
4
4a

r2
Q
exp 0 .
2 Tmax
4a

(5.17b)

(5.17) (5.17b) ( )
,
c =

; b = c .
a

5.2.4
(5.15) (5.18) , (5.15), (5.15b), (5.17), (5.17b), , (5.12)
- . , (.
. 5.4, ) max , Tmax .
,
1, , T (r0 , ) .
, , [17].
:
a=

c =
=

a (), (), c () =


r02

4
max
Q
r02Tmax

Q
4 Tmax


c ;
max

,
max

(5.15)

(5.16)
(5.17)

()
, [17], , a ()

- , .
, =

, max

max ,
T (r0 , ) Tmax = T (r0 , max ) .
(), () [17]. , () , (5.15), () ,
(5.6) . () c () () c () , , . 5.1.4.
a (), (), () , [17], . 5.1.
5.1 a (), (), () = / max
=

max

0,02
0,04
0,06

()

()

()

0,0674
0,0150
0,0228

0,0202
0,0408
0,0619

0,0025
0,0049
0,0075

max

0,20
0,22
0,24

()

()

()

0,0822
0,0916
0,1013

0,2241
0,2497
0,2762

0,0271
0,0302
0,0334

0,08
0,10
0,12
0,14
0,16
0,18

0,0307
0,0389
0,0471
0,0556
0,0642
0,0732

0,0834
0,1055
0,1280
0,1511
0,1748
0,1991

0,0101
0,0128
0,0155
0,0183
0,0211
0,0241

0,26
0,28
0,30
0,32
0,34
0,36

0,1112
0,1214
0,1319
0,1427
0,1540
0,1655

0,3034
0,3315
0,3605
0,3905
0,4215
0,4537

0,0366
0,0400
0,0435
0,0471
0,0508
0,0546

. 5.1

max

max

()

()

()

0,50

0,2601

0,7213

0,0864

0,0628

0,52

0,2760

0,7675

0,0917

0,5583

0,0671

0,54

0,2927

0,8163

0,0974

0,5962

0,0716

0,56

0,3102

0,8681

0,1035

0,2302

0,6359

0,0763

0,58

0,3290

0,9233

0,1098

0,2449

0,6776

0,0813

0,60

0,3486

0,9822

0,1166

()

()

()

0,38

0,1776

0,4872

0,0586

0,40

0,1900

0,5220

0,42

0,2028

0,44

0,2163

0,46
0,48

. (), ()

; (), () .

5.2.5

. 4.1.5
.
(5.15),

r2
a = 0 (), = ,
4
max
, . 5.1.5,

(a ) = 2r0 + +

(a) =

1 da ()
+ max ,
() d

(5.19)

1 da ()
4(r0 ) 2 + ( ) 2 +
( ) 2 + ( max ) 2 . (5.19b)

)
d

, (5.16) :
(c) = Q + + r0 + T max +

1 dc ()
+ max ; (5.19)
c () d

(c) = (Q ) 2 + ( ) 2 + (r0 ) 2 + (T max ) 2 +

1 dc ()
( ) 2 + ( max ) 2 .

c () d

(5.19d)

, (5.17) () n () ,
:
( ) = Q + T max +

1 d ()
+ max ;
() d
2

1 d ()
( ) 2 + ( max ) 2 .
( ) = (Q ) 2 + (T max ) 2 +

d
(

(5.19)

(5.19f)
, a, c,
a, c :
1) max =

max
max ; ,
max

T (r0 , ) , . 5.4, , ,
max , 10 % max ;
2) r0 =

r0
r0 1
r0

2 (. . 5.4, );
3) Q =

Q
Q ,
Q

2.
=

T
, Tmax = max
Tmax

Tmax
, max .
, ,
, . , :
1) - :
, , Q , ;
, 2, Tmax ;
, , , - , ;
( ) ;
, , r,
; , () - , Tmax ;
2) - ( ) ; , ;
1 % Q = 0 ,
8 % Q = 200 ,
20 % Q = 300 ;
(
) ;
3) - ( ); [8, 18] (. . 4.4.3)
.
5.2.6

(5.13) [3]
4T (r0 , )
1
z= , y=
Q

ln y = ln y0 h z ,

(5.20)

r02

1
.
, h=

4a

1
4iT (r0 , i )
zi = ; ln yi =
Q
i

y0 =

(5.20), . 5.6. ( z, ln y)
( z, ln y) , ,
(ln y ln y) =

ln y ln y
( z z)
z z

(ln y ln y) = h ( z z).

,
ln y ln y r02
,
h=
=
4a
z z

r2
a= 0 .
4h

(5.15d)

4T (r0 , )
ln y = ln

ln y

ln y
ln y0
z=
z

. 5.6 (5.20)
[3]

(. . 5.6) , ln y0, ,
y0 =

1
= eln y0 ;

1
;
y0

(5.17d)

4h
=
;
a y0 r02

(5.16d)

c =

ln y 0

b = c =

4h
2 h
.
=
y0 r0
y02r02

(5.18d)

. 5.1.6, . 5.2.6
[3] , (5.20) (zi, lnyi),
(. . 5.6) , (5.20).
(5.15d), (5.16d), (5.17d), (5.18d)
a, , c b.

6 ,

6.1

,
,
, ( = 0), ( = 1) ( = 2).
, :
T (r , )
1 T (r , )
=a
;
r

r
r r
>0, 0<r < R ;

(6.2)

T (r , 0) = T0 = const ;

(6.3)

T (0, )
= 0;
r

(6.1)

T ( R, )
= [T () T ( R, )] ,
r

(6.4)
(6.5)

T (r , ) r ; , ; T0 ; ( r = R) ,
T () , , , , , 1, 2 3.
= 1 , :
T < 0;
T1 () = 0
(6.6)
Tc 0.
= 2, ,
:
T2 () = T + b ,
(6.7)
b , ;
.
= 3 , :
(6.8)
T3 () = Ty + A cos() ,
y ; A,
.
,
(6.1) (6.5) (6.5) :
T ( R , ) = ( ) ,
(6.5)
() , T ( R, ) . (6.5)
1, 2, 3, :
1) = 1, (. . 6.1, ) T ( R, ) = ()
() 1 () = T0 + [Tc T0 ] h() ,

(6.6)

(6.1) (6.4), (6.5) ;


h( ) [1, 16],
0 < 0;
h() =
1 0;

2) = 2, (. . 6.1, ) T ( R, ) = ()
() 2 () = T + b ,
(6.7)
(6.1) (6.4), (6.5) ;
3) = 3, (. . 6.1, ) T ( R, ) = () -

() 3 () = Ty + A cos() ,

(6.8)

(6.1) (6.4), (6.5)


.
. 6.1 . ,
.
(. . 6.1, ) ( , (6.3) ) .

T ( r , )

T ( r , )

T ( R, ) = 1 () = 0 + ( 0 ) h()

4 > 3
3 > 2

r2 > r1

1 ()

2 > 1

r1 > r0

r0 = 0

1 > 0
0
r1

0
r2

R r

)
. 6.1 :
a , ,
T (r , )
T (r , )

2 ()

r=R

T ( R, ) = 2 () = + b

r2 > r1 , (r2 < R )

r1 > r0
r0 = 0

0
r1

r2

R r

T (r , )

T (r , )
r = R : T ( R, ) 3 () = Ty + A cos()

Ty + A
Ty + A1
Ty

3 ( )
T0

r1

r2

Ty + 2
Ty A2

T 1
T

r = r2 < r1 : T (r2 , ) = Ty + A2 cos( 2 )


r = r1 < R : T (r1 , ) = Ty + A1 cos( 1 )

R r

)
. 6.1

, (. . 6.1, ) ( , (6.3) ) , T (R, ), ,


T (ri , ) = Ty + Ai cos( i ) ,
Ai , i r = ri (i = 0, 1, 2, ).
, F > (0,3 0,5) (6.3) a
. Fo = 2 ,
R
, R2
.
a
R = 10 = 1102 (R2 = 1104) 2 a = 1,00107 2/ ,

. Fo > 0,5 , > 0,5


110 4

= 500 8,3 .
110 7
.. [1] , . [1, 12]
()
> 0,5

m=

d T ( )
= const ,
[T () T ()] d
1

(6.9)


T ( ) =

+1

r T (r , ) dr

(6.10)

. , (6.9)
T () , (6.6), (6.7) (6.8)
( = 1), ( = 2) ( = 3) .

(6.1) (6.4), (6.5), r = R (6.5), (6.9) [1, 12]:
m=

d T ( )
= const ,
[ () T ()] d
1

(6.9)

T () , (6.10); () , (6.6), (6.7),


(6.8) ( = 1), ( = 2) ( = 3) .
, ,

, , . , [12]:
1) ( ), 1 3
;
2) ;
3) , , ( ) ;
4)
;
5)
;
6) , , = ( ) ; , , ;
7) ,
.
, - ,
.
:

T () () ;
, - .
()
.
6.2

6.2.1

:
( = 0) 2R, ;
( = 1) d = 2R;
( = 2) d = 2R.
, ( ) = 0 (6.6),
. (6.1) (6.5), ,
(6.1) (6.5) = 1.
(6.1) (6.5) .
= , (.
(6.6)), , r.

(r , ) = T (r , ) Tc ,

(6.11)

. , T (r , ) = = 35 , = 20
(r , ) = T (r , ) Tc = 35 20 = 15 , = 0 T = T = 20 C.
(6.11) (T0 T), ,
(r , ) T (r , ) Tc
,
(6.11)
(r , ) =
=
T0 Tc
T0 Tc
T0 ; (T0 T) (6.1) (6.5) = 1.

(6.11)
T (r , ) = Tc + (T0 Tc ) (r , ) .

(6.11b)

, T = const, (T0 T) = const, (6.11b)


T (r , )
(r , )
;
= (T0 Tc )

1
r r

1 (r , )
T (r , )
,
= (T0 T )
r

r
r
r
r r

(6.1)

(6.1)

1 (r , )
(r , )
;
=a
r

r
r r

(6.1)

>0, 0<r < R .

(6.2)

a
R2

= const ,

(r , )
r (r , )
1

;
=
r
a r r R

2
R
R R R

(6.1b)

> 0 , 0 < r < R.

(6.2b)

r
, 0 < r < 1 ,
R
Fo = a / R 2 , ( Fo 0 ).
r, r Fo, (6.1b), (6.2b) :

: r =

(r , Fo)
1 (r , Fo)
=
(r )
;
Fo
Fo
(r ) r
Fo 0 , 0 < r < 1 .

(6.11b) (6.3) :
T (r , 0) T0 = Tc + (T0 Tc ) (r , 0) ;
T0 Tc = (T0 Tc ) (r , 0) ;
(r , 0) =

, (6.4) ,

T0 Tc
= 1.
T0 Tc

T (0, )

r
(0, Fo)
=0.
r

(6.1)
(6.2)
(6.3)
(6.3b)
(6.3)

(6.4)

(6.5)

[T (R, ) Tc ]
= {[T () Tc ] [T (R, ) Tc ]}.
r

[T0 Tc ] ,
T ( R, ) Tc

T T
0 c =
r

T () Tc T (R, ) Tc

.
T0 Tc T0 Tc

R = const (6.11), r Fo
(1, Fo )
= Bi [ (Fo ) (1, Fo )] ,
(6.5 b)
r

R2
Fo Tc
T
a
R

Bi =
; (Fo ) =
.

T0 Tc
, ( = 1) (6.6),
T0 0;
T () T1 () =
Tc > 0,

> 0 ( Fo > 0)
R2
Fo Tc
T1
a
T T

= c c = 0,
(Fo) 1 (Fo) =
T0 Tc
T0 Tc

(6.5b)
(1, Fo)
+ Bi (1, Fo) = 0.
r

(6.5)

(6.1) (6.5),
, (6.6), (Fo) 1 (Fo ) = 0 , :
(r , Fo )
1 (r , Fo )
(r )
=
, Fo > 0, 0 < r < 1 ;
Fo
r
(r ) r

(6.12)

(r , 0) = 1 ;

(6.13)

(0, Fo)
=0;
r

(6.14)

(1, Fo )
+ Bi (1, Fo ) = 0.
r

(6.15)

, (6.5) r = R, (6.15)

(1, Fo ) = 0.

(6.15)

( )
T (ri , ) = Ti (), i = 1, 2, ... ,

0 ri < R,

(6.12) (6.15)
r

i , Fo = i (Fo ) , i = 1, 2, ,
R

(6.16)

R2
Fo Tc
Ti
a
T () Tc

= i
,
i (Fo ) =
T0 Tc
T0 Tc

i (Fo ) , 0, , Ti () , i = 1, 2, .
(6.12) (6.16) () ,
. (6.12) (6.16)
, R, T0 , Tc , Ti (), i = 1, 2, ... , .

6.2.2 ,

( )
(6.12) (6.15).
6.2.2.1

(6.12) (6.15)
(r , Fo ) = (r ) t (Fo ).

(6.12)

(r , Fo )
dt (Fo )
= (r )
= (r ) t (Fo );
Fo
dFo
1 (r , Fo )
1 d d (r )
(r )
=

(r ) r t (Fo ).

r
(r ) r
(r ) d r

6 ,

6.1

,
,
, ( = 0), ( = 1) ( = 2).
, :
1 T (r , )
T (r , )
;
=a
r

r
r r
>0, 0<r < R ;

(6.2)

T (r , 0) = T0 = const ;

(6.3)

T (0, )
= 0;
r

(6.1)

T ( R, )
= [T () T ( R, )] ,
r

(6.4)
(6.5)

T (r , ) r ; , ; T0 ; ( r = R) ,
T () , , , , , 1, 2 3.
= 1 , :
T < 0;
T1 () = 0
(6.6)
Tc 0.
= 2, ,
:
T2 () = T + b ,
(6.7)
b , ;
.
= 3 , :

T3 () = Ty + A cos() ,

(6.8)

y ; A,
.
,
(6.1) (6.5) (6.5) :
T ( R , ) = ( ) ,
(6.5)
() , T ( R, ) . (6.5)
1, 2, 3, :
1) = 1, (. . 6.1, ) T ( R, ) = ()
() 1 () = T0 + [Tc T0 ] h() ,

(6.6)

(6.1) (6.4), (6.5) ;


h() [1, 16],
0 < 0;
h() =
1 0;

2) = 2, (. . 6.1, ) T ( R, ) = ()
() 2 () = T + b ,
(6.7)
(6.1) (6.4), (6.5) ;
3) = 3, (. . 6.1, ) T ( R, ) = () -

() 3 () = Ty + A cos() ,

(6.8)

(6.1) (6.4), (6.5)


.
. 6.1 . ,
.
(. . 6.1, ) ( , (6.3) ) .

T ( r , )

T ( r , )

T ( R, ) = 1 () = 0 + ( 0 ) h()

4 > 3
3 > 2

r2 > r1

1 ()

2 > 1

r1 > r0

r0 = 0

1 > 0
0
r1

0
r2

R r

)
. 6.1 :
a , ,

T (r , )

T (r , )

2 ()

r=R

T ( R, ) = 2 () = + b

r2 > r1 , ( r2 < R )

r1 > r0
r0 = 0

0
r1

r2

R r

)
T (r , )

T (r , )
r = R : T ( R, ) 3 () = Ty + A cos()

Ty + A
Ty + A1
Ty

3 ( )
T0

r1

r2

Ty + 2
Ty A2

T 1
T

r = r2 < r1 : T (r2 , ) = Ty + A2 cos( 2 )


r = r1 < R : T (r1 , ) = Ty + A1 cos( 1 )

R r

)
. 6.1

, (. . 6.1, ) ( , (6.3) ) , T (R, ), ,


T (ri , ) = Ty + Ai cos( i ) ,
Ai , i r = ri (i = 0, 1, 2, ).
, F > (0,3 0,5) (6.3) a
. Fo = 2 ,
R
, R2
.
a
R = 10 = 1102 (R2 = 1104) 2 a = 1,00107 2/ ,

. Fo > 0,5 , > 0,5


110 4

= 500 8,3 .
110 7
.. [1] , . [1, 12]
()
> 0,5

m=

d T ( )
= const ,
[T () T ()] d
1

(6.9)

T ( ) =

R +1 0

r T (r , ) dr

(6.10)

. , (6.9)
T () , (6.6), (6.7) (6.8)
( = 1), ( = 2) ( = 3) .

(6.1) (6.4), (6.5), r = R (6.5), (6.9) [1, 12]:
m=

1
d T ( )
= const ,
[ () T ()] d

(6.9)

T () , (6.10); () , (6.6), (6.7),


(6.8) ( = 1), ( = 2) ( = 3) .
, ,
, , . , [12]:
1) ( ), 1 3
;
2) ;
3) , , ( ) ;
4)
;
5)
;
6) , , = ( ) ; , , ;
7) ,
.
, - ,
.
:

T () () ;
, - .
()
.
6.2

6.2.1

:
( = 0) 2R, ;
( = 1) d = 2R;
( = 2) d = 2R.
, ( ) = 0 (6.6),
. (6.1) (6.5), ,

(6.1) (6.5) = 1.
(6.1) (6.5) .
= , (.
(6.6)), , r.

(r , ) = T (r , ) Tc ,

(6.11)

. , T (r , ) = = 35 , = 20
(r , ) = T (r , ) Tc = 35 20 = 15 , = 0 T = T = 20 C.
(6.11) (T0 T), ,
(r , ) T (r , ) Tc
,
(6.11)
(r , ) =
=
T0 Tc
T0 Tc
T0 ; (T0 T) (6.1) (6.5) = 1.
(6.11)
T (r , ) = Tc + (T0 Tc ) (r , ) .

(6.11b)

, T = const, (T0 T) = const, (6.11b)


T (r , )
(r , )
= (T0 Tc )
;

1
r r

1 (r , )
T (r , )
,
= (T0 T )
r

r
r
r
r r

(6.1)

(6.1)

1 (r , )
(r , )
;
=a
r

r
r r

(6.1)

>0, 0<r < R .

(6.2)

a
R2

= const ,

(r , )
1

a
r
2 r
R R R

r (r , )

;
r
R

> 0 , 0 < r < R.

(6.1b)

(6.2b)

r
, 0 < r < 1 ,
R
Fo = a / R 2 , ( Fo 0 ).
r, r Fo, (6.1b), (6.2b) :

: r =

(r , Fo)
1 (r , Fo)
(r )
=
;
Fo
Fo
(r ) r
Fo 0 , 0 < r < 1 .

(6.11b) (6.3) :
T (r , 0) T0 = Tc + (T0 Tc ) (r , 0) ;
T0 Tc = (T0 Tc ) (r , 0) ;
(r , 0) =

, (6.4) ,

T0 Tc
= 1.
T0 Tc

T (0, )

r

(6.1)
(6.2)
(6.3)
(6.3b)
(6.3)

(0, Fo)
=0.
r

(6.4)

(6.5)

[T (R, ) Tc ]
= {[T () Tc ] [T (R, ) Tc ]}.
r

[T0 Tc ] ,
T ( R, ) Tc

T0 Tc

T () Tc T (R, ) Tc

.
T0 Tc T0 Tc

R = const (6.11), r Fo
(1, Fo )
= Bi [ (Fo ) (1, Fo )] ,
(6.5 b)
r
R2
T
Fo Tc
a
R

; (Fo ) =
.
Bi =

T0 Tc
, ( = 1) (6.6),
T0 0;
T () T1 () =
Tc > 0,

> 0 ( Fo > 0)
R2
T1
Fo Tc
a
T T

(Fo) 1 (Fo) =
= c c = 0,
T0 Tc
T0 Tc

(6.5b)
(1, Fo )
+ Bi (1, Fo ) = 0.
r

(6.5)

(6.1) (6.5),
, (6.6), (Fo) 1 (Fo ) = 0 , :
1 (r , Fo )
(r , Fo )
(r )
=
, Fo > 0, 0 < r < 1 ;
Fo
r
(r ) r

(6.12)

(r , 0) = 1 ;

(6.13)

(0, Fo )
=0;
r

(6.14)

(1, Fo )
+ Bi (1, Fo) = 0.
r

(6.15)

, (6.5) r = R, (6.15)

(1, Fo ) = 0.

( )
T (ri , ) = Ti (), i = 1, 2, ... ,

0 ri < R,

(6.15)

(6.12) (6.15)
r

i , Fo = i (Fo) , i = 1, 2, ,
R

(6.16)

R2
Ti
Fo Tc
a
T () Tc

i (Fo ) =
,
= i
T0 Tc
T0 Tc

i (Fo ) , 0, , Ti () , i = 1, 2, .
(6.12) (6.16) () ,
. (6.12) (6.16)
, R, T0 , Tc , Ti (), i = 1, 2, ... , .
6.2.2 ,

( )
(6.12) (6.15).
6.2.2.1

(6.12) (6.15)
(r , Fo ) = (r ) t (Fo ).

(6.12)

(r , Fo )
dt (Fo )
= (r )
= (r ) t (Fo );
Fo
dFo
1 (r , Fo )
1 d d (r )
(r )
=
(r ) r t (Fo ).

r
(r )
(r ) d r

a=

qRKR KR 2
.
=
2Tq 2T

(6.39)

(6.37) (6.39) .
6.3.1.4
T(R, ) = T0 + K

(, ) 1 1 (. . 6.6) (. . 6.3.1.2) , T(R, ) = T0 + K, :


T (x, )
2T (x, )
=a
, > 0, 0 < x < R ;

x 2

(6.32)

T (x, 0) = T0 = const ;

(6.33)

T (0, )
=0;
x

(6.34)

T (R, ) = T0 + K .

(6.35)

, (6.32) (6.35), . 6.3.1.3. K, (6.35), . K . 6.3.1.3.


(6.32) (6.35) [1]:

T (x, ) T0 =

KR 2
a

a 1 x 2
2 1 +
2 R
R

An

2
n =1 n

2a
x

cos n exp n 2 ,
R
R

(6.40)

n = (2n 1) -,
2
4
(6.32) (6.35); An = ( 1)n +1

(2n 1)
(6.40).
> *,
(6.40) ,
KR 2
T (x, ) T0 K
2a

x 2
1 .
R

(6.40)


T T (R, ) T (0, ) ,
(6.40) .
(6.40)
T T (R, ) T (0, ) = [T (R, ) T0 ] [T (0, ) T0 ] =
KR 2
= K
2a

2
R 2
KR 2 0 KR 2
1 K +
,
1 =
2a R
2a
R


a=

KR 2
KR 2
,
=
2T 2 [T (R, ) T (0, )]

(6.39)

(6.39).
, (6.35)
.
. 1 (6.35) , q
(6.35), . 6.3.1.3. .
, (6.36)
(6.40), , (6.36)

a
exp 12 21 = 1 = ,
R

(6.40)

exp 12 22 = 1 = .
2
R

:
(6.36)
2

a1
R2

= ln ;

(6.40)
2

a 2

= ln .
2
2 R

, =
0,010,05, 100 % = = (15) %,
2

a 2
2 a1

=

R2
2 R2

2 =

()2

1 = 41 .

, , 2 ,
(6.40),
1 , (6.36) , . 6.3.1.3.
2 , 1 1 (6.35), 1 1 > 2 q = const, (6.30) U2 U1 R0 (c
S R0).

q, . 6.3.1.3 (6.37) (6.38)


.
6.3.1.5

(6.37) (6.39)
.

q
,
c =
KR
q, K = [ T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 )] ( 2 1 ) R ,

(c) = q + K + R = q + K + R ;

(6.41)

(c)c = (q )2 + (K )2 + (R )2 .

(6.41)

(6.36) (6.36g),

(q ) = U 2 + U1 + R0 + S
U2

U1

R0

= U 2 + U1 + R0 + S ;

(q ) = (U 2 )2 + (U1 )2 + (R0 )2 + (S )2 ;

(6.42)
(6.43)

(K ) = T (R, 2 ) + T (R, 1 ) + 2 = ,
2 1
T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 )
=

(K ) =

2T
2
;
+
T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 ) 2 1
2

(6.44)
2

2
2T

T (R , ) T ( R , ) + .
2
1

2 1

(6.45)

(6.42) (6.45) (6.41) (6.41),


() () : T (R, 2 ), T (R, 1 )
T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 ) 2 1 ( T = T (R, 2 ) = T (R, 1 ) ); 2 1 ; U 2 , U1, R0 , S U 2 , U1 , R0 S ; U 2 =

U 2
U 1
R0
, U1 =
, R0 =
,
U2
U1
R0

U 2 , U1 , R0 S .

S =

S

S

, (6.44) (6.45)

(K ) = T + ;

(K ) = (T )2 + ()2 ,
T =

2T
T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 )
T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 )

2 1 ; =

2
(2 1 )
2 1

2 1 .
(6.38)
=

qR
2 [T (R, ) T (0, )]

() ()

( ) = q + R +
q

( )c =

2T

[T (R, ) T (0, )]
[T (R, ) T (0, )]

2T

[T (R, ) T (0, )]

= q + R + T ;

(6.46)

q R

2T

+
=
+
q
R
[
T
(
R
,
)
T
(
0
,
)
]

(q )2 + (R )2 + (T )2

T =

(6.46)

x = R x = 0. (6.42) (6.43) (6.46)


(6.46), () ()

U 2 , U1, R0 , S U 2 , U1 , R0 , S .
, (6.39)
a=

KR 2
KR 2
=
2T 2 [T (R, ) T (0, )]

, :

(a ) = K + 2 R +
K

2 T
= K + 2 R + T ;
T (R, ) T (0, )

(a ) = (K )2 + 4 (R )2 + (T )2 .

(6.47)

(6.47)

(6.44), (6.45) (6.47) (6.47),


, (a ) (a )
T =

2 T
;
T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 )

2
2 1

[T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 )]

2 , 1 (2 1 ) .
6.3.2
6.3.2.1

[3], 1 R 2, (R1 R ) ,
. 6.8.
T (x, )

T (x, )
T (0, ) = TH0 + K

q0
q0

T ( x, 2 )

q0

T (x, 1)

2
0

x
R

R1

T (R, ) = THR + K

TH 0
THR

. 6.8 [3]:
;

1 R () 2, (R1 R ) .
1 ( x = 0 ) q0 = const.
2 ( q = 0 ), ( )
R < x < R1 2 (. . 6.8).
6.3.2.2


[3].
1. R
S = l l , ( . 6.8, 3), 1.
2. 1 ( ) 3 2.
T0 T (x, 0 ) T0 1, 2.
3. 3 ,
q0 = const.
. 1 2,
3.

, , ( 3), T (0, ) 1 T (0, ) = TH 0 + K.


4.
:
1) T (0, ) T (R, ) (x = 0) (x = R ) ;
2) , :

q =

1P

2S

P , 3, S ;

q = c m K = c m

K =

dT (R, )
T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 )
c m
d
2 1

dT (R, ) T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 )


( 2)
=
d
2 1

c m .

C = c m 2.

5 , T (0, ) 1 ,
.
6
.
6.3.2.3

1 q0 ,
2 ( q = 0 ), (. . 6.8, ) :
T (x, )
2T (x, )
,
=a

x 2

> 0, 0 < x < R ;

(6.48)

T (x, )
2T (x, )
,
= a

x 2

> 0, R < x < R1 ;

(6.49)

T (x, 0) = T (x,0 ) = T0 = const ;

T (0, )
= q0 = const ;
x

(6.51)

T (R, ) = T (R, ) ;

(6.52)

T (R, )
T (R, )
;
=
x
x

(6.53)

(6.50)

T (R1 , )
T (R1, )
= q = 0
= 0,
(6.54)
x
x
T (x, ), T (x, ) 1 2

x ; R, (R1 R ) 1
2; T0 1 2; q0 ,
1 x = 0; a, a , , ( a ) ( a ), 2.
( ,
)

)
(6.48) (6.54). , ( 380
( )


< 0,4
, T (x, ) 2
(

( R < x R1 ). (, ) [3]:
T (x, ) = T (0, )

q0
K 2
x+
x ;

2a

(6.55)

K=

T (R, )
=

q0

[cR + c (R1 R )]

(6.56)

K 2, q0 , R, (R1 R ) c
c .
, ,
- 2
T (x, ) T (R, ) T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 )
,
(6.57)
K=
=

2 1
(6.56)
cR + c (R1 R ) =

q0
q0 (2 1 )
,
=
K T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 )

c
c =

1 q0

c (R1 R ) =

RK

q0 ( 2 1 )
1
c (R1 R )

R T (R, 2 ) T (R, 1 )

(6.58)

q K
R, (R1 R ) ,
c .
T 1,
(6.55) .
. x = 0 x = R (6.55),
T (0, ) = T (0, ) ;
T (R, ) = T (0, )

q0 R KR 2
+
.

2a

T 1 R
T T (0, ) T (R, ) =

q0 R KR 2 q0 R KR 2c

,
2a
2

[q0 R] 1 KR 2c
2
=
[T (0, ) T (R, )]

(6.59)

q0 [ T (0, ) T (R, ) ]
(6.57) K R c ( (6.58) ).
(6.58), (6.59) ( () , () () , () ) c .
6.3.3
. 6.3.1 6.3.2

(6.32) (6.35) (6.48)


(6.54). (6.36) (6.55).
( > ) (6.36) (6.55)
T ( x, ) T0

qR a 1 x

1
=

R 2 6 R

1 qR x
q
+
3 1 ;
6 R
cR

T ( x, ) T0 = K

q0
K 2
x+
x ,
2a

(6.36h)

(6.55)

, x .
, (6.36h) (6.55), :
(6.36h)
q
;
cR
(6.55)
q0
,
K =
cR + c ( R1 R )

, (
> * ) T ( x, ) . 6.7, . 6.8, . ,
(6.36h) (6.55) , T ( x, ) ,
. 6.7, , ( ) > * :
(6.36h)
T1 ( x) =

1 qR x
3 1 ;
6 R

(6.55)
T2 ( x) =

q0
K 2
x+
x .

2a

T1 ( x ) T2 ( x )
, T , . 6.7,
. 6.8, .
,
T1 ( x) T2 ( x) ("")
.
. 2 5 6.2 , 6.3
= (T ), c = c(T ), a = a(T ) . .

(6.32) (6.35) (6.48) (6.54), ,
(.. a, ).
.
T ( R, ) T (0, ) , . 6.7, . 6.8, ,
, . 6.9, .

T ( x, )

T ( x, )

T (0, )

q0
q0

T ( x, 2 )

q0

T ( R, )

T ( x, 1 )

R1

. 6.9 ,
:
;

, . 6.3.1 . 6.3.2 "" , , , , , :


= (T ), c = c(T ), a = a (T ) .

,
= (T ), c = c(T ), a = a(T ) ,
.
, --400, 3.2.
, -400, .
6.3.3.1

[22] -,
[3, 23].
--400, --400,

, . 6.10.

10

15

6
5

12

13
Q0 ()

3
9

Q ()

14
11

Q( )

RK
1

. 6.10 --400

[22] 1, 8,
Q () - 2,
3, 4 5. 5 3 ,
, . 6 9 . ( 12, 15) 5
6.
, 3 5, 14 13 (
) 4, 13 14,
E13 14 = A(T ) 0 ,

0 4; A(T ) ,
.
11 2,
3. 11
E11 = A(T )

- 2.
11 15 7. 11 15, 7 RK , . RK --400
( 11 15),
.
10, 11 15
8, 9, K - , . .
6.3.3.2

() Q () , 2, 3, 4 5.
, , 4 2,
5 10 , 5.
4 2 (), () , Q0 () Q ()
:

Q0 () =

0 S 1

= C0 + Cc b ;
p
2

Q () = K * = C + C + C0 + Cc b ,
2

(6.60)

(6.61)

Q0 () , 4 5, ;
0 4, , 13 14; ,
2/, 3 5; C , C , C0 , Cc , /, 2, 3, 4 5; S - 4, 2;
, , - 2, 11;
K * , -

2, /; b , /.
. . 6.3.1 6.3.2 K.
K = const. , .
,
K b.

3 5
= 0 + ,

(6.62)

0 4, 2/; , 4 3 5, 13 14, 2/.


0
p0 =

h
,

(6.63)

h , ; , /().
(6.60) (6.63) [3, 22, 23] :
p0 =

0 S (1 + )
p ;
K

(6.64)

h
,
p0

(6.65)

0 ( 4), 13 14; (
- 2), 11; S C
4; K = K *
-
1

C + C + C
2

C0
, C0 ;
2; =
2 (C0 + C )
C , C, C0 , C , /, - 2, 3, 4
5,
C0 = c0 (T ) m0 ;
C = c (T ) m ,
c (T ), c0 (T ) ,
/(), T, ; m0 , m 4 5, .
K = K(T) = (T), (6.64), (6.65), --400.
K = K(T) = (T) ,
--400.
K = K(T) =

(T), (6.64), (6.65)


Ti (i = 1, 2, , n) :

i = (Ti ) ;

0i = 0 (Ti ) .
Ti Ki = K(Ti), i = (Ti),
i = (Ti ) , 0i = 0 (Ti ) (6.64) (6.65), i , Ti (i = 1, 2, , n). = ()
(i , Ti), i = 1, 2, 3,, n,
, :
= 0 + 1T ;
= 0 + 1T + 2T 2 .
6.3.3.3
--400

--400 = ().
10 () (. . 6.10)
b 0,1 /
5 6. , 8, . 8 , . , 10 (), .
6.10 .
12 15, 5 6. 12 15 , , 6 5. 12, 15 ( ), ( )
9, 6.
5 6 0,3 .
- 11 15
0,2 .
1 .
.
--400 2 3 1. 2 12189. . 1, 2 3
- ( ). 1 2, 3 ( . 6.10
).
125 --400 .

.
1 () 15 0,3
h h = 0,55 .
h
. 6.1.
6.1
, /()
3

h10 ,

0,1...0,3

0,3...0,5

0,5...1,0

1,0...2

0,5...1,0

1...2

2...3

3...5


0,63

, Rz
.
.
2 4 3
5 ( . 6.10) .
6 ( ) (
2, 3, 4 5) .
3 .
()
b 0,1 /.
11 15 3 5, 0
. . 6.11.

T
T14

T13

. 6.11 :
3 5, 14 13;
0

4 .
5 (6.64) (6.65).
6.4

, .
6.4.1

[3].
(, ), [3].
( , ) [3] , , , , , .
[3] , .
- [3].

, .
,
. , [3].
, [3]. [3]. , . - -

,
[3] .
( ) ,
, [3].
, [3], , .
6.4.2

(.
. 6.12). = 0 ,

T (0, ) = T + max cos() ,

(6.66)

T ,
, (
= 0; max = T (0, ) T
max

) (0, ) 2
T ; =
, /; 0 0
, ; , .
( x, )
max

m ( x)

= exp
x
max
a 0

1,0
0,8
0,6

=0

0,4
0,2

-0,2
-0,4

x
0

0
4

0
2

-0,6
-0,8
-1,0

. 6.12

( x, ) = T ( x, ) T , T ( x, ) T , (6.66)
2
(0, ) = max cos
.
0

, Fo =

(6.66)
a

0,5 ,
x2
[12, 24, 25].
( > 0) ( )
T = const ( = 0 ) ,
m = m (x) (. . 6.13).

( x, )
max (0)

(0, )

( x, )

max ( x)

- max ( x)
- max (0)
(x)

0
0

. 6.13 (, )
= 0

= 2
( x) ,

( x)
, 0

m ( x)
:
max

( (6.66) )
, ;
2
=
;
0
.
, ( x)
. m
max
.

[3, 8, 12, 14, 24, 25].
6.4.3


T ( x, ) ( )
:
T ( x, )
2T ( x, )
=a
, > 0, 0 < x < ;

x 2

(6.67)

T ( x, 0) = T = const ;

(6.68)

T (0, ) = T + max cos () ;

(6.69)

T (, ) = T = const ,

(6.70)

; T ,
2
; max = 0; 0 .
=
0
T , T ( x, )

( x , ) = T ( x , ) T ,

T ( x, ) T .
(6.67) (6.70) :

( x, )
2 ( x, )
=a
, > 0, 0 < x < ;

x 2

(6.67)

( x,0) = T T = const ;

(6.68)

(0, ) = max cos () ;

(6.69)

( , ) = 0 .

(6.70)

(F > 0,5),
(6.68) . (6.68)

( x, 0) = 0 .

(6.68b)

(6.67), (6.68b), (6.69), (6.70)


[24].


( x, ) = m ( x) cos
x =

a 0

= max exp
a
0


x cos
x ,

a 0

(6.71)


m ( x) = max exp
x , m (x) a 0

; max = m (0) ()
= 0.

x
x =
a 0

= 0, = 0/4 = 0/2, (6.71), . 6.12.


(6.71) [24]:
, () (. 6.12);

m ( x) = max exp
a 0

x ,

(6.71)

, m (x) (. . 6.12);

, (. . 6.12) ;
( = 0) .
0 .
, , (6.71) = 0 = 0.
, (6.71), (6.71), , (6.71)


x =1.
cos

a 0

, =

(6.71b)

2
,
0

2
x =0.

a 0
0

(6.71)

, = 0 (6.71) = 0,
2
= 2 a 0 .
= 0 x =

a 0
,
= 2 a 0 .

(6.72)


0 , ..
=


a
=2
.
0
0

(6.73)

, (6.71), (6.71),
, .
(6.71), , (6.71b). (6.71b) (6.71) (6.71),

m ( x)

= exp
a 0
max

x .

(6.71d)

,
m () = 0,01 max = 0.
(6.71d)

exp
x = 0,01 ,
a 0

x = ln 0,01 ;
a 0

x = ln 100 ;
a 0

x =

ln 100

a 0

ln 100

a 0

x 2,6 a 0 .

(6.74)

, -

:
0 ;
=

2

0

x ;
x ,
.


.
6.4.3.1
,

max m (x)
( x = 0 ) x1 , (6.71d)

m ( x1 )
;
exp
x1 =
a 0
max

(x )

x1 = ln m 1 ;
max
a 0

x1 = ln max ;
a 0
m ( x1 )
2

x12 max
= ln
;
a 0 m ( x1 )
a=

x12

0 ln max
m ( x1 )

(6.75)

(6.75),
:
max = m (0) m ( x1 ) x = 0 = 1;
0 ;
x1 , , m (0)
x = 0 m ( x1 ) x = x1 .
m ( x1 ) m ( x2 ) x1 x2
, (6.71d)


exp
x1
a 0
m ( x1 )

=
.
m ( x2 )

x2
exp
a 0

x2 > x1 ,


m ( x1 )
= exp
( x2 x1 ) ,
m ( x2 )

a 0


a=

( x2 x1 ) 2
(x )
0 ln m 1
m ( x2 )

(6.75)

(6.75) (6.75).

x1 x2 , . (6.75) , (6.75).
(6.75) (6.75).
(. .
6.14) ,
( ) 1
, max (6.75).

(0, )

)
(0, )

. 6.14 :
;

= 0 > 0
= 1 = 2,
, ,
2
2
, 3 =
..,
( ), 2 =
02
03
x 2 = 2,6 a 02 , x3 = 2,6 a 03 ,
x = 2,6 a 0 .
= 1 x = x2 ,
= 1 x = x2 , .. , , .
, (6.75) ,
= 1 x = x2 , .
6.4.3.2


(0, ) = max cos ( )

x = 0 (6.71)


x1 cos
x1 ,
( x1 , ) = max exp

a 0
a 0

= 1 ,
(. . 6.13)
= 2

( x1 )
,
0

(6.76)

0 ; ( x) = 1 x = 0 .
(6.71) ,


x1 ,
a 0


a=

x12
.
0 2

(6.77)

(6.77) (6.75)

2 = ln max
m ( x1 )


= ln max ,
m ( x1 )

.. x = 0 = 1 , .
, (6.76) (6.77)
a=

(x )
0 2 1
0

x12 =

x12 0

4 [ ( x1 )]2

(6.77)

, x1 , 0 . , . (6.77),
(6.77), x1 , 0 . , = 1

( x1 , ) = max exp
x1 cos
x1 ,

a 0
a 0

x = x2 , ,

( x2 , ) = max exp
x2 cos
x2 .

a 0
a 0

, ,
= 1 = 2
=

x1
x2 =

a 0
a 0

( x2 x1 ) ,
a 0


a=

(x2 x1 )2
02

(6.77b)

(6.76), , = 1
x = 0

x = x1

= 2

( x1 )
,
0

x = x2

= 2

( x2 )
.
0

, , x = x2

= 1 = 2

2 , 1 =

( x2 ) ( x1 )
(x , x )
= 2 2 1 ,
0
0

( x2 , x1 ) = ( x2 ) ( x1 ) = 2
= 1.
(6.77b),
a=

( x2 x1 ) 2 0

4 [ ( x2 , x1 )]2

(6.77)

,
( x2 x1 ) , 0 ( x2 , x1 ) = = ( x2 ) ( x1 ) .
6.4.4

:
1. (. . 6.15) ,
x , (6.74)
1,5 2 , .. (1,5 2) x .
(6.74) , H (1,5 ... 2) 2,6 a 0 .
x = x1 x = x2 x = 0 , , .
, , 1 2,
, .
2 () ( x = 0 )
3 , ,
. () ( x = H )
4 .
T

4
1

3
0

2
x

x1
x2

. 6.15

3 , . ( x = 0 ) T ( x1 , )
T ( x2 , ) x = x1 x = x2 .
.
4 T

T =

[T ( x2 , )] max [T ( x2 , )] min
2

[T ( x2 , )] max ,

[T (x2 , )] min

x = x2 .

T ( x1 , ) T ( x2 , ) ( x1 , ) = = T ( x1 , ) T

( x2 , ) = T ( x2 , ) T .
5 m ( x1 ) m ( x2 )
= 1 = 2 () ( x2 , x1 ) = 2 = 1,
(6.75) (6.77).
6.4.5

(a ) (a ) (
m ( x1 ) m ( x2 ) x = x1 x = x2 )
(6.75)
a=

( x2 x1 ) 2
(x )
0 ln m 1
m ( x2 )


(x )
ln a = ln + 2 ln( x2 x1 ) ln 0 2 ln ln m 1 .
m ( x2 )


d ( x2 x1 ) d 0
da
=2

a
( x2 x1 )
0

d ln m ( x1 )

d ln m ( x2 )
d m ( x1 )
d m ( x2 ) ,

( x ) d m ( x1 )

d m ( x 2 )
ln m 1
m ( x 2 )
2

,
(x )
d
= 0 ln m 1 = ln m (x1 ) ln m (x2 ).

m (x2 )

+
:

da a, d (x2 x1 ) (x2 x1 ) 2x, d 0 0 ;

d m (x1 ) m (x1 ) = m , d m (x2 ) m (x2 ) = m ,

2x 0
a

= 2
+
a


(x2 x1 ) 0
+

d ln m (x1 )
d ln m (x2 )
2
m +
m

[ln m (x1 ) ln m (x2 )] dm (x1 )


d m (x2 )

(a ) = 2 (x2 x1 ) + 0 +
,

m
m
+
, (6.78)

(x ) (x ) m (x2 )
ln m 1 m 1
m (x2 )
2

d ln m (x1 )
1
=
,
m (x1 )
d m (x1 )

(x2 x1 ) =

d ln m (x2 )
1
=
m (x2 )
d m ( x 2 )

2x
(x2 x1 ) .
x2 x1

(a ) (6.78)

(a )

2 2
m
m
4
+

m ( x2 ) m ( x1 )

2
2
.

= 4 [(x2 x1 )] + ( 0 ) +
2
m (x1 )
ln

m (x2 )

(6.78)

(6.78) (6.78) ,
m -

m (x2 ) m (x1 ) x = x2 x = x1 . -

x 0 , , (x2 x1 )

0 ,
.
(a ) (a ) , (x2 , x1 )
x2 x1 .

(6.77),
a=

(x2 x1 )2 0 ,
4 [ (x2 , x1 )]2


ln a = 2 ln (x2 x1 ) + ln 0 ln (4) 2 ln (x2 , x1 )


d (x , x )
d (x2 x1 ) d 0 d (4)
da
=2
+

2 2 1 ,
(x2 x1 ) 0
a
4
(x2 , x1 )

, d (4) = 0 , +

d (x2 x1 ) 2x, d (x2 , x1 ) 2, d 0 ,

2 x

2
a
+
+2

=2
(x2 x1 ) 0 (x2 , x1 )
a

(a ) = 2 (x2 x1 ) + 0 + 2 .

(6.79)

(6.79)

(a ) =

4 ( (x2 x1 ))2 + ( 0 )2 + 4( )2 .

(6.79)

(6.79) (6.78), (6.79) (6.78), , ( (x2 , x1 ) x2 x1 )

(a )

(a ) , -

m (x1 ) m (x2 ) x2 x1 .
,
, , , ,
b = .

(
, . 6.4.3). [1, 3, 7, 8, 12 14, 17, 24 26].

1.1

1.2 ..

1.3 . 10
1.4 ... 14
1.5 ... 14
1.6
19
2

.

23

2.1 ...

23

2.2 ..

24

3 ... 30

3.1 . 30
3.2 .
34
3.3 . 38
4

43

4.1 43
4.2 ...

58

4.3
.. 68
4.4
. 73
88
5 ,


...

5.1 .. 88
5.2 102
6
, ...

118

6.1
118
6.2 124
6.3 ,
150
6.4
... 181

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