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EBRD Glossary of Project Finance

Volume 1

English Russian

Compiled by Russian Translation Unit, OSG, EBRD


European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1999
One Exchange Square
London EC2A 2JN
UK
Tel: +44 171 338 6000
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, including photocopying and recording, without the written permission of the copyright
holder. Such written permission must also be obtained before any part of this publication is stored in
a retrieval system of any nature.

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514

589

590

CONTENTS
Page
Key

English-Russian Glossary

Abbreviations and Acronyms

514

Bond Rating

589

Selected Bibliography

590


.
.
.
(v.) .
() .
(.) -
(.) -
(.) -
(.) -
(.)
(/) -
(.) -
(.) -
(.) -
.

KEY
Square brackets indicate source.
Round brackets contain abbreviations or amplifications.
Italicised brackets contain explanations.
(v.) denotes verb.
(inform.) denotes informal usage.
replaces the main word or expression.
Abbreviations and acronyms are explained in section Abbreviations and Acronyms.

A
AAA-rated

; (
Standard & Poors)

AAA rating

; ;
( Standard & Poors)

Aaa rating

; ;
aa ( Moodys Investors Service)

abandon a claim (v.)

; ;

abandoned assets

; ;
(.)

abandonment

; ;
; ;
;

abandonment fee

abandonment of a project

abandonment of goods

abatement

; ; ( )

ability to pay

above par

absent nationality

; ;
( )

absentee ballot form

absentee ballotting

absolute advantage

absolute assignment

; ;
; ;
;

absolute covenant

absolute credit limitation

absolute guarantee

absolute liability

absolute title

; ;

absolute total loss

(.);

absorption capacity

absorption costing

absorption rate

abstract of account

( );
; (.)

abuse of tax havens

accelerate a debt (v.)

;
;
(
)

accelerate a loan (v.)

;
;
(

)

accelerated capital allowance

accelerated cost recovery


system (ACRS)

;
( );
; (
) ;

accelerated depreciation

acceleration clause

acceleration of maturity

;
;
;

Accept

(
, , ;
)

accept a bill for honour (v.)

accept as a pledge (v.)

accept for insurance (v.)

accept supra protest (v.)

acceptability

( )

acceptable security

acceptance

; ; ; ;

acceptance act

acceptance and return

( )

acceptance certificate

acceptance commission

acceptance credit

acceptance delivery act

- ; -

acceptance financing

acceptance house

; []

acceptance in blank

acceptance liability

acceptance of bill of exchange

acceptance of customs security

( )

acceptance receipt

acceptance register

acceptance report

acceptance slip

acceptance supra protest

accepted accounting principles

accepting bank

accepting house

; []

acceptor

access all areas

; ( )

access course

; ;
; ;
,

access information

accession agreement

accession country

( ) ;
, ( );
- ;
-

accession negotiations

accession strategy

;
;

accessority

accessory obligation

;
;

accident at work

accident prevention

; ;
; ;

accident prevention officer

accident waiting to happen (an


)
accommodation acceptance

accommodation bill

accommodation endorsement

accommodation note

accommodation paper

accompanying document

accord deference (v.)

( . .)

account

; ;

account balance

; ; (.)

account bank

account book

account details

account dormancy

account executive

, ;

account (for )

account identification

account of credit (on )

account of payee

account payee

account payee only (a/c payee)

( );
( )

account statement

( );
; (.);

account with institution

accountability

; ;
; ;

accountants opinion

; ;
; ;

accounting

; ;

Accounting and Reporting

Accounting and Reporting


Recommendations (ARR)

;
(
)

accounting authority

accounting code

( )

accounting convention

; ;

accounting cost

accounting entity

accounting equation

accounting firm

; ()

accounting information

; ;
;

accounting law

; ;

accounting manager

accounting officer

accounting period

accounting policies

; ;
;
[]

accounting principles

; ;
;
[]

accounting procedures

accounting profit

accounting rate

( ,
, );
( )

accounting standards

;
[]

accounting treatment

; ;
;
;

accounts

; ; ;
; ;
; ( )

accounts payable
(A/cs. Pay.; a/c pay)

; ; ;
; ();
; ;

accounts receivable
(A/cs. Rec.; a/c rec)

; ;
; ; ;
( );
; ()

accounts receivable financing

accounts uncollectible

( )

accredited bank

accrual

; ;

accrual accounting

, ;

accrual basis of accounting

accrual basis (on an )

accrual of expenditure

accrual of interest

accruals

; ;
; ;
;

accruals and deferred income

accruals method

accrue (v.)

; ;

accrue from day to day (v.)

accrued benefit valuation


method
accrued depreciation



10

accrued expenses

accrued income

( )

accrued interest

( );
;

accrued liabilities

accrued revenue

accruing interest

accruing loan

; ;
;

accumulated compensated
absences

accumulated depreciation

; ;
; ;

accumulated earnings

accumulated interest

accumulated profit

accumulated risk

acid test

acid test ratio (ATR)

acknowledgement

; ;

acknowledgement (against ~)

acquirer

acquis;
acquis communautaire

(-
)

acquisition

acquisition commission

acquisition cost

; ;

acquisition fee

(
)

acquisition of origin

acquittance

act(s) of God

; ; ;
;

act of protest

act(s) of the public enemy

11

act or omission

action

; ; ;

action of detinue

( )

action-oriented recommendation
action plan

active account

; ;
, ;
;

active bank operation

( . .)

active banking operation

( . .)

active bond

; ;
, ;
,

active capacity

active debt

; ;
;

active demand

active file

()

active loan

; ;

active operation

; ;
;

active share

, ;
, ; ;
( )

active ship

active trading

activity network

activity plan

; ;

actual budget

actual cost

actual demand

; ;
;

actual example

actual inventory

; ;
, ; ;
; ;

actual overheads

actual performance

( );

12

actual price

; ; ;
;

actual profit

actual total loss (a.t.l.)

( );
(.)

actual value

actuarial assumption

actuarial expectation

actuarial mathematics

actuarial gains and losses

actuarial present value of


promised retirement benefits

ad valorem duty

;
;

ad valorem tariff

ad valorem tax

adaptive

adaptive expectations

add-on interest

, (
)

add-on loan

, (
)

addendum

additional collateral

additional insurance

additional insured

additional premium for short


period cover

additional security

additionality

[];
[]; ;
( )

address sale

addressed bill

adequate consideration

adequate security

13

adhocracy

;
;

adjudge somebody to be
a bankrupt (v.)

- ;
- ( , )

adjust a claim (v.)

;
;
(.);
(.);
(.)

adjustable peg

adjustable policy

adjustable-rate mortgage

adjustable-rate mortgage cap

;
;

adjustable-rate preferred stock

adjusted for amortisation


on a straight-line basis

adjusted for inflation

; ;

adjusted principal value

adjusted profit

adjusted selling price method

adjusted trial balance

adjuster

; (.);

adjusting entry

adjustment

; ;

adjustment bond

adjustment for inflation

; ;

adjustment of cost for


comparability

adjustment of insurance
premium

adjustment of security

;

14

adjustment on conversion

,
( )

adjustment programme

adjustment table

( )

adjustment transaction

adjustment (without )

administer funds (v.)

administered exchange rate

;
;

administered price

; ;
;

administered rate

();
()

administered trade

administration costs

- ;
(, )

administration department

administration fee

; ;
; ;

administration of a bankrupts
estate

;
;

administration of a special fund

administration of assets

; ;
;

administration of justice

administration overheads

administrative act

administrative agency

administrative assistant

;
-

administrative authority

administrative charge

; ;
; ;

administrative costs

administrative expenses

- ;

administrative law

15

administrative order

[];
( )

administrator

; ;
; ; ;
;

Administrator of Grant Funds

admissible error (AE)

admission

; ;
( )

admission of appeal

admission to listing

(.)

admission to official trading

(.)

admit as evidence (v.)

adoption of the acquis

(-) ( )

adoptive rule

(, )

ADR capital raisings

advance

; ;

advance call

advance contracting

advance corporation tax (ACT)

( );
;
(
, )

advance on goods

, ;

advance payment

; ;
;

advance payment bond

;
( )

advance payment guarantee

advance tax ruling

( ;
)

advances account

advances/declines ratio

advances/declines theory

/ ;

16

adverse audit report

;
;

adverse auditors report

;
;

adverse balance

adverse exchange difference

adverse judgement

adverse opinion

;
;

adverse rating

advertising

; ;

advertising agency

advertising budget

advertising effect

; ;
;

advice

; ; ; ;
; ;

advise (v.)

; ;

adviser

advising bank

; , ;

advisory opinion

; ;

advisory services

; ;

affect or impair any right, power


or remedy (v.)

,
- ;
,

affected property

; ;
;

affidavit (Afft)

; ;
;

affiliate

; ;
;

17

affiliated company

; ;
; ;
;

affinity card

;
( );
; ( , )

affirmative character

; ; (.);
;

affirmative project covenant

affordability

affordable price

African Development Bank


(ADB)
after-market demand

()

after-payment

after-sight bill

; (
)

after-swap cost

after tax(es)

against receipt

age at entry

age limit

ageing analysis

( );

agency

; ; ;
; ;
;

agency agreement

agency bank

agency by estoppel

agency by ratification

agency commission

; ;

agency contract

agency fee

; ;

agency line

; ,

18

agency line cofinancing


agreement

agency line framework


agreement

agency line implementation


agreement

agency of necessity

agency services;
agency staff

( )

agency transaction

;
,

Agenda 21 [UN]

XXI []

agent

agent bank

agent fee

; ;
;

agent for service of process

agent of necessity

aggregate

aggregate amount

; ; ;

aggregate data

aggregate demand

aggregate demand curve

aggregate expenditure

aggregate par value

aggregate supply

aggregate value

aggregation of orders

; ;
()

aggressive effort

; ;
;

aggressive investor

; ;
,

aggressive reduction

; (, )

aggressive selling

; ;

agreed minimum value


19

agreed settlement in court

Agreement between the


Government of the Russian

Federation and the European
Bank for Reconstruction and
(
Development regarding the
)
Resident Office of the European
Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (Resident Office
Agreement)
agreement corporation [US]

,
[]

Agreement Establishing the


European Bank for
Reconstruction and
Development
agreement for the purchase
of receivables


;
;

agreement of a claim

;
;
(
)

agribusiness

agribusiness team

agricultural lien

agricultural service company


(ASC)
air conveyance

()

air emission

air emissions inventory

air pollution

air waybill

(
)

airport tax

alien registration requirement

all-holders rule

( )

all-in cost

;
;
( )

all inclusive profit concept

All or None

all risks

(.)

; ;

20

all risks insurance

all risks policy

all savers certificate

allay concerns (v.)

allied industry

; ;
; -

allkonto

; (
, )

allocate and distribute net


profits (v.)

allocate shares (v.)

allocated account

allocated efficiency

allocated shares

allocation formula

( , )

allocation of costs

allocation of resources

allocation of risk

allocative decision

(, )

allocative efficiency

allotment

(
);
(
);
( ) []

allotment of shares

allotted shares

allow an abatement (v.)

allowance for bad debt

allowance for doubtful accounts

allowance for expenses incurred


alternate

alternate design

alternate director

alternate governor

alternating priorities

alternative course of action

21

alternative dispute resolution


(ADR)

;
;
;

alternative order

alternative project

amalgamation

ambient quality standard

amenability

American depositary receipt


(ADR)

();
()

American Stock Exchange


(AMEX)
American-style option

AMEX Major Market Index

AMEX Market Value Index

amicable settlement

; ;

amicably

; ;
;

amortisation

; ;
; ;
;

amortisation formula

; ;

amortisation loan

amortisation of deferred
expenses

amortisation payment

()

amortisation schedule

; ;

amortised discount on bond


issue
amortised premium/discount

( )

amortising schedule (of a loan)

();
( )

amount covered

amount drawn down

( );
;

amount due

amount invoiced

()

22

amount of balance

amount of business

();

amount of security

amount outstanding

; ;
;

amounts owed to credit


institutions

, ;

amplify rules (v.)

; ;
;

analysis of corporate cash flows


analyst

; ; (.);
; ;

analyst/programmer

analytical review

( )

anchor currency

ancillary product

; ;
; ();
()

annual credit review report


(ACCR)
annual evaluation overview
report (AEOR)

annual financial report

annual general meeting (AGM)

( )

annual leave

Annual Meeting

Annual Meeting Guide

( )

Annual Meeting Handbook

( )

annual monitoring report (AMR)

annual operating permit

annual percentage rate (APR)

;
;

annual percentage yield (APY)

annual report

annual results

annualisation of statement

23

annualised basis (on an )

annuity

; ; ;
;

annuity assurance

anonymous account

answerback

( ); ;
; ;

answerback code

( );

answerback drum

antecedent debt

( );

anti-competition law

; ;

anti-counterfeiting technology

( )

anti-greenmail provision

,
;
()

anti-takeover laws

; ,

anti-takeover tactics

;
;

()

anti-trust legislation

anticipated average maturity

anticipated completion

();
()

anticipated date of
commencement

anticipated demand

; ;

anticipated profit

anticipated revenue

; ;
; ;
;

anticipation payment

; ; ;

anticipatory letter of credit

antitrust legislation

24

Anton Pillar order

apex fund distribution system

apex institution

apex loan

, ;
;

apex unit

apparently

( );

appeal

appeal brief

appearance

( )

applicable legislation

applicant

; ();

applicant for a credit

application fee (mortgage)

application for compensation

application for disbursement

application for listing

application for membership

application form

application of funds

application of proceeds

;
()

application receipt

application service provider


(ASP)
apply (v.)

( )

apply amounts on a liability (v.)

appraisal

; ; ; ;
;

appraisal mission (mission prior


to loan agreement preparation)

();
()

appraisal report

... ()

25

appraisal right

( )

appraised value

; ; ;
; ;

appraisement


( )

appreciation

()

appreciation/depreciation
of investments

/ ;
/

apprehended loss

approach

; ; ;

appropriate jurisdiction

appropriation line

appropriation of profits

appropriation procedure

(, );

approval

; ()

approval deemed given

; ;

approval of the accounts

approval procedures applicable


to subloans and equity
investments

, ;

approved project

approximation of legislation

arbiter

arbitrage

(
; )

arbitral procedure

arbitral proceedings

arbitral tribunal

; ;

arbitrament

; ;

arbitrate disputes (v.)

arbitration

; ;

26

arbitration clause

arbitration management

( )

arbitration manager

( )

arbitration memorandum

Arbitration Rules of UNCITRAL

arbitration tribunal

; ;

arbitrator

area agreement

arms length

;
;
;
;
( ) (.);
( )

arms length basis (on an )

; (.);
; ;
; ;

arms length investor

; ( );
,
;
,

arms length price

( );
; ,
; , ;
, ;
(.)

arms length principle

;
(.);

arms length relationship

arms length transaction

; (.);
; ;
,
;
,
;
(
);

arrange a letter of credit (v.)

arrange payment (v.)

; ; ;
;

27

arranged total loss

(
)

arrangement fee

arranger of a loan

arrears

; ;
; ;

arrears administration

;
;

arrears (debt in

; ;

arrears (in )
arrears (payable in

; ( );

)

;
;
;

Articles of Agreement [IBRD]

[]; []

articles of association

; ;
;

articles of incorporation

articles of partnership

as is

(
, );

as Principal

( ,
)

as they fall due

(, );
;

ascending

ascertain and announce the


sense of the meeting (v.)

( )

ascertained goods

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

()

Asian Finance and Investment


Corporation (AFIC) [ADB]

-
() [ ]

asked price

; ;

asking price

; ;

28

assembly of contributors

assented bonds

,
/ []

assert powers (v.)

assert remedies (v.)

assert rights (v.)

assess the amount of tax (v.)

assessable income

, ;

assessed taxes

; ;

assessment of a claim

;
(;
)

assessment of duties

assessments

; ; ; ();

asset and liability management

asset-asides

asset-backed arrangements

;
;
;

asset-backed bond

asset-backed security issue

asset category

asset depreciation range

asset disposal

; ;
; (
, )

asset disposition [US]

; ;
; (
, )

asset diversion

; ;
; ;
; ;

asset divestiture

asset identification number

asset management

; ;
;

29

asset manager

; ;
;

asset mix

asset monetisation

;
;

asset number

asset pricing

asset recognition

( )

asset redeployment

asset register

; ;

asset registry

; ;

asset renewal

asset renewal allowance

asset replacement

asset sales

; ;
;

asset salvage value

asset-stripped company

; , ;

asset stripping

;
; ;
; ;
; ;

asset switching

; ( );

asset tracing

(
)

asset valuation

asset value

assets

; ; ; ; ;
;

assign

; ;

assign debts (v.)

; ;
;

30

assign debts as security (v.)

;
;
;
;
;

assigned duties

assigned funds

assigned receivables

assignee

; ;

assignment

; ; ; ;
; ; (); ;

assignment by way of security

;
; ;
;

assignment credit

assignment deed

assignment in blank

assignment of accounts

; ;

assignment of contract

; ;

assignment of receivables
as security

;
( )

assignment of right

; ;

assignment of security

;
; ;
; ;

assignor

, ; ; ;
,

assimilation

()

assist restructuring and


privatisation programmes (v.)

assistant accounting officer

associate

; ; ;

associate banker

; -

associate director

31

associated company

; ;
; ;

assorted goods

assumability [US]

[]

assume office (v.)

assumption

; ; ;
[]

assumption fee [US]

[]

assurance

( )

assurance certificate

assured

; (.)

assured cashflow

at a discount

at best

at cost

at law

at market

at par

; ;

at sight

at stated maturity or
upon prematuring

;
;

at the cost of ...

....

at the money

ATM bank fee

;

( ,
, , )

at the cost of ...

....

attached document

attachment

(); ; ;
( );
; ; ( )

attachment of cover

32

attachment of insurance

; ,
;
;
;

attachment of risk

();
( )

attendant document

attended time

attributable profit

auction charge

auction fee

auction fixing

audit

; ; ;
( )

audit and reconciliation

audit certificate

audit committee

audit log

audit opinion

; ;
;
; ;

audit period

, ;

audit qualification

audit report

; ;
; ;
;

audit trail

; ;
;

audited accounts

;
;
,

audited statements

, ;
;
,

auditee

; ;
( )

auditing facility

auditing in an electronic data


processing environment

33

auditing principles

; ;

auditing standards

; ;
;
;

auditor

auditors

( )

auditors report

; ;
; ;
;

Aussie bond

austerity measure

authentic evidence

authentic text

; ;

authentic (texts are equally ~)

authenticated copy

();
;

authenticated signature

authentication

; ; ;

authorisation

; (); ;
[];
; ( , )

authorisation for payment

authorised access

( , );
( )

authorised act

authorised allocation

; ;

authorised by law

authorised capital

authorised capital stock

;
; ;
;
( )

authorised dealer

authorised drawdown period

34

authorised duration guidelines

authorised fluctuation margin

authorised payment order

;
;
;

authorised person

; ; ;
; ,

authorised representative

authorised share capital

;
; ;
;
( )

authorised shares

authorised signatory

, ; ;
, ;

authorised signatures list

authorised stock

authorised to bind the principal

;
;

authorised user

authoritative interpretation

authority

; ; ; ; ;
;

authority to contract

authority to pay (A/P)

authority to purchase (A/P)

authority to sign

automated cashpoint (cp)

automated teller machine (ATM)

automated troubleshooting
system
automatic acceleration

automatic call back

automatic payment deduction

automatic perfection

(
, )

automatic routing

;
()

35

automatic transfer

; ( - );
(
)

automatic transfer service


account (ATS account)

autonomous investment

autonomous tariff

autonomous variable

autoregulation

; (),

auxiliary unit

; ;

avail

availability

;
; (, )

availability date

availability period

( );

available amount

( );
( )

available assets

(.)

available domestic and import


capacity

available funds

available inventories

; ; ( , )

avails

aval

; ( )

average

( : , ,
, )

average adjuster

; (.);

average adjustment

average after-swap cost

average allotment rate [UK]

average bond

average certificate


36

average clause

(.)

average commissioner

(.)

average cost

average down the cost


of borrowing (v.)

average efficiency

; ;

average fixed cost(s) (AFC)

average propensity to consume


(APC)

average propensity to save

average statement

average stater

; (.)

average taker

; (.)

average variable cost(s) (AVC)

avoid a contract (v.)

avoid double taxation (v.)

aviso

; ;

award

award a contract (v.)

; ;
; ( );
( , )

award damages (v.)

37

B
back-end load

back financing

back interest

back letter

back office

; ; ,
( )

back order

back pay

back taxes

back-to-back

back-to-back letter of credit

back-to-back loan

, ,
;
, , ( ; )

back-to-back trades

; (
)

back-to-office report

backdated bill of lading

, , ;
,

backdating

; ;
;

backed bill


38

background information

; ; ;

background level

( . .) (.)

background pollution level

(.);
(.)

backhander (inform.)

( )

backloading of financing

backlog of investment

backout provision

; ;

backstop guarantee

; ;
;

backtracking on reforms

; ; ;

backup line

backup system

backwardation

bad assets

; ;

bad business practice

;
;
;

bad cheque

bad cheque writer

, ;
;

bad debt

; ;
; ;
;

bad debt provisioning

bad debt recovery

bad debts insurance

bad faith

;
(, )

bad in law

bad loan

; ;
; ;
; ;
;
39

bad practice

bad title

baggage examination

( . .)

bailee

; ; ;
;

bailee clause

bailiff

bailment for hire

bailout

( );
( );

balance an account (v.)

balance brought forward

( );
( )

balance brought forward


1 January

, 1 ;
, 1

balance carried forward

( );
( );

balance certificate

balance enquiry

()

balance of account

; (.);

balance of claims and liabilities

balance of international
payments

balance of payments

; ;

balance of payments deficit

balance of payments surplus

balance of trade

balance sheet (B/S)

balance sheet analysis

balance sheet date

; () ;
()

balance sheet equation

balance sheet identity

balance sheet item

balance sheet ratio

40

balance sheet total

balance standing to the credit


of an account

balance standing to the debit


of an account

balanced budget

balanced fund

; ,
,

balances of deposits and current ;


accounts
;

balances with central banks

balloon maturity

;
( ), ;

balloon payment

ballot

( )

Baltic Investment Programme

Baltic Investment Special Fund

Baltic Marine Environment


Protection Commission

Baltic Sea Environment


Programme

Baltic Sea Joint Comprehensive


Programme

Baltic Special Funds

Baltic Technical Assistance


Special Fund

bancassurance

;
,

Bangkok Agreement

( 1991 )

Bangkok Facility

, ( 1991 )

bank accommodation

; ; ;

bank account

bank balance

; ;
(.)

bank bill

; ;
41

bank book

bank cash ratio

bank charge

; ;
;

bank charges

bank cheque

( )

bank clearing

bank commission

; ;

bank currency position

bank deposit inflation

bank discounting

; ;

bank draft

bank exposure

(
);

Bank for International


Settlements (BIS)

() ( ,
, , )

bank fraud

bank guarantee

bank holiday

; ()

bank interest rate

bank investments

bank lending

bank loan

; ;

bank money

bank of issue

-; -

bank operation

bank operations

; ;

bank reference

; ;
( )

bank reserves

; ;

bank review unit (BRU)

()
42

bank run

bank secrecy law

bank statement

( );
; (.);

bank supervision

bank supervisor

;
;
;

bank tariff

; ;

bank tariff for personal


customers

bank teller

( );
,
( )

bank-to-bank loan

bank transfer

bank transfer request

bank trust

bank wire

()

bankability study

()

bankable feasibility study

()

bankable paper

bankable project

; ;
, ;
( ) ;
( );
; ;
; , ;

bankassurance

;
,

banker

; ; ;
;

bankers acceptance

bankers bank

, ( )

bankers blanket bond


(, . .)
43

bankers bond

bankers cheque

( );

bankers draft

bankers duty of secrecy

bankers guarantee

bankers reference

; ;
(
)

banking

; ;
;

banking adviser

;
;

banking book

; ;

banking confidentiality

banking customs

banking day

; ;
; ( , )

banking details

banking facility

; ;
;

banking group

banking industry

banking institution

banking licence

;
;

banking operation

banking operations

; ;
;

banking oversight

;
( )

banking reform

banking regulations

( );
;
;

44

banking supervision

;
( )

banking supervisor

;
;
;

banking syndicate

banking system

banking union

bankruptcy administration

;
(-);
;

bankruptcy commissioner

; ;
; ;
, ( )

bankruptcy creditor

bankruptcy laws

bankruptcy notice

bankruptcy petition

;
;
;

bankruptcy proceedings

;
;

bankruptcy trigger procedure

bankrupts estate

bankwide training programme

;
;

bar chart

-; ; ;
-;

bar-code

-;

bar-type progress chart

();
()

barbell portfolio

bare board (B/B);


bare boat (B/B)

, ;
-

45

barren money

; ;

barter deal

barter terms of trade

barter trade

base case

; ;
;

base currency

( )

base grade

base lending rate

; ;

base period

base rate

base stock method

base year

baseline conditions

; ;

baseline scenario

; ;
;

baseline study

;
;

basic banking

basic data

basic documents

basic earnings per share

basic infrastructure

; ;
;
;
- ;
-

basic public switched telephony

basic rate

basic rate of charge

basic stock

basis point (bp)

(0,01%)

basis risk

basket of currencies

basket unit of account

46

Basle accord capital ratio [BIS]

Basle capital accord [BIS]


[]

Basle Committee on Banking


Supervision [BIS]

[]

Basle Concordat [BIS]

( 10, 1975 . 1983 .) []

batch production

;
()

be on-stream (v.)

; ; ;
( )

bear

, (.)

bear bond

, ( )

bear hug

(
;
,
)

bear market

bearer (to )

bearer bond

bearer cheque

bearer clause

bearer debt

bearer instrument

bearer passbook

bearer security

bearer share

bearish dealer

( )

before hours

; ;
( )

bellwether securities

( ,
)

below-line balance account

below par

belt-and-braces budget

47

Beltway bandit [US]

, []

benchmark

; ; ;
; ; ; ;
; ; ; ;
;

benchmark financing

benchmark investment

; -;
; ;

benchmark method

benchmark portfolio

; ;
;
;
, ( )

benchmark price

; ; ;

benchmark study

;
;

benchmarking

beneficial association

beneficial borrower

beneficial owner

; ;
; ;
; , ;

beneficial ownership

beneficial shareholder

-; ;
;

beneficiary

benefit (for its own )

benefits foregone

benefits plan

Berne Union (International Union (


of Credit and Investment
)
Insurers)

48

bespoke banking product

;
,

best available price

best effort underwriting


( );
;

best efforts

- ;
;
;
;

( )

best efforts clause

- ( )

best evidence

best industry practice

best management practice

best practice

; ;

biased estimate

bid

; ;
; ; , ;
( )

bid bond

; ; , ( )

bid opening date

bid price

; ,

bid validity

( )

bid wanted

bidder

; ; ;
;

bidding and selection process

bidding deadline

;
;
;

bidding documents

; ;

bidding period

; ;

49

bidding rules

; ;

bilateral clearing

bilateral trade

bill (v.)

bill broker

bill counterfoil

, -;
( -)

bill discounting

bill enforcement

( );

bill for collection (B/C)

bill for foreclosure


( )

bill guarantee

bill of exchange

bill of lading (b/l)

Bill of Lading Electronic Registry ;


Organization (BOLERO)

bill of lading issued to order

bill of quantities

bill of sale

bill under protest

billing system

Bills of Exchange Act [UK]

[];

bills payable (B/p)

; ;
(); ;

bills receivable (B/r)

; ;
( );
();

binding force

binding obligation

;
,

binding receipt

( )

binding reciprocally (be ) (v.)

biological diversity (biodiversity) ;


biometric technique

( );

50

biosphere reserve

(.)

black information

( );
( )

Black Sea Trade and


Development Bank (BSTDB)

() [, ]

black spot

;
(.)

blank bill

blank check preferred stock

, ( ) []

blank credit

blank endorsement

blanket bond

, ;

blanket inventory lien

( )

blanket policy

- (.)

blanket rate

blended finance

blended interest rate

(-)

blind brokering

( )

blind carbon copies (bcc)

, ( );
( ,
; )

blind trust

block movement

; ;
;

block of securities

block of shares

block trading

blocked account

; ;
; ; ();
( )

blocked balance

; ;

blocked currency trading

51

blocked funds

; ;

blocked period


(, . .)

blocked security

( ),
;
( ) ,

blocking minority ownership

; ,
( )

blocking minority shareholding

blue-chip borrower

blue-chip company

( );
; (.)

blue-chip issues

;
;
;
;
(.)

blue-chip security

;
;
(.)

blue-sky law

blue-skying

Bluetooth;
Bluetooth chip;
Bluetooth radio chip

(
);
- ( )

board

; ; ();
()

board approval

( ) ;
()

board approval fee

(,
)

board approved operation

, ;
, ;
,

board of directors (BOD)

; ;

board of governors

( )

board package (BP)

;
;
(
)

board secretariat

52

boardroom

; ;
(.); ;

boardroom pay

();
;

body corporate

body of laws

boilerplate

; ;

boilerplate clause

; ;
; ;
( )

boilerplate finance

bona fide holder for value

,
;
; ,

bona fide purchaser

bona fide purchaser for value


and without notice

,
;
,

bona fide selling price

bond

; ; ;
; ;

bond and preferred stock fund

bond anticipation note (BAN)


(
)

bond broker

bond certificate

; ;

bond flotation

bond fund

bond holder

; ;

bond issue

53

bond market

; ;
;

bond member

bond note

; ( )

bond offering

bond placement

bond price

bond quotation

;
( )

bond rating

( )

bond resolution

bond retirement

bond switch

bond trading

; ;

bond yield

bonded goods (B/G)

, ;
, ;
; ;

bonded warehouse (B.W.)

; ;
; ( )

bonding company

bonification share

bonus

( )

bonus in kind

bonus issue

bonus scheme

bonus share

book account

book commitment

book debt

; ;
;

book-entry bond

54

book-entry security

book-entry settlement system

book loss

book price

book profit

book value

; ;

bookbuilding

();
();
; ;

bookkeeping

; ;
; ;
;

bookkeeping entry

; (.)

bookrunner

( );
(
);
( )

border price

; -

borrowed capital

( ) ;

borrowed funds

borrowed money

borrower

borrower of record

; ;
; ;
; ();
()

borrowers authorised
representative

borrowers status

;
( )

borrowing authority

;
;

borrowing base

, ( )

borrowing conditions

55

borrowing costs

; ;
; (.);
()

borrowing entity

; -

borrowing limit

; ;

borrowing line

borrowing plan

;
( )

borrowing policy

borrowing requirement

borrowings

; ;

BOT project (build-operatetransfer project)

; ; ;
( - )

BOT terms

bottom line

; ; ; ; ;
; ; ; ;
; ;

bottom price

(.);

bottom-up planning approach

;
-; ( )

bought book

bought deal

( -
, );
- (
; )

bought issue

;
;
(
)

bought note

(
)

bounced cheque

( - );
(
, );

bracket

; (.)

56

bracket tariff

Brady bond

branch banking


()

branch office

; ; ()

brand awareness

brand name

; ; ;
;

brand recognition

() ;
; ;
()

branded

breach of contract

; ;
;

breach of trust

;
;

breadth-of-the-market theory

/ ;

break bulk

break-even

break-even point

; ;

break-even yield

break of syndicate

( ); ( )

break-up fee

break-up of an enterprise

breaking-in period

bridge bank

-; , ;

bridge financing

bridge loan

; ;
;

bridging finance

57

bridging loan

; ;
;

briefing note

; ; ;
( )

bring a suit (v.)

; ; ;
;

bring an action (v.)

; ; ;
;

bringing forward

(.)

broad interpretation

broad money

broken date

; ; (
: , )

broken period

; (
, . .)

broken-period interest

broker loan rate

brokerage

; ;
; ;

brokerage firm

brokerage house

broking

; ;

brought back

brought down (b/d)

brought forward (B/F)

;
, ;
,

brownfield site

( )
;
;

bucket

(.); (.)

budget

; ; ; ;
; ;

budget (v.)

; ;
( -); (.);

budget appropriation

budget approval

;
58

budget balance

budget classification

budget constraint

; ;
;

budget controls

budget cycle

budget estimate

; ; ;
;

budget financing

() ;

budget headroom

; ;
;

budget line

budget management

budget manual

budget officer

; ; ;
,
;
( )

budget outlay

; ;
;
, ;

budget overrun

budget review

budget surplus

;
;
( , )

budgetary allocation

budgetary allotment control


procedures

budgetary authorisation

budgetary funding

budgetary unit account (BUA)

budgeted cost

; ( );
;

budgeted revenue

budgeted volume

(, )

59

budgeting

; ;
; ;
; ;

budgeting procedure

buffer stock

build-operate-transfer (BOT)

- - () (
)

build-own-operate (BOO)

- - ()

build-own-operate-transfer
(BOOT)

- - -
() ( )

building block

; ;
;

building lease

building project

building society [UK]

bulk cargo

bulk purchase

bulk storage

bull

, (.)

bull market

bulldog bonds; bulldogs

bullet issue

bullet loan

, ( ,
)

bullet repayment

bullet repayment at maturity

(100%)

bullish dealer

( )

bunching of maturities

;
;

bunching of payments

bunching of projects

; ;
( )

bundling of projects

; ;

60

burden of contract

;
;

burden of proof

burden sharing

business

; ; ; ;
; ; ;
; ();

business activity

business advisory centre

business advisory service

business advisory services


( );
-

business analysis

- ;
; ;

business analyst

business behaviour

; ;
; ;

business bunching

; ;
;

business card

; (.)

business case

;
;

business climate

; ;
; ;
; ; ;

business combination

; ;

Business Corporations Act [US]

[]

business correspondence

business credit

; ;

business cycle

business day

; ;

61

business development

; ;
;
;

business development unit


(BDU)

;
;
;
;

business director

business entity

business environment

; ;
; ;
; ; ;

business ethics

business ethics standard

business failure

; ; ;

business file

business format franchising

; ;

business hours

; ; ;
; ()

business incubator

; - (.)

business information

; ;
; ;
;

business information centre


(BIC)
business integrity

- ()
; ;
; ;

business interruption insurance

business judgement rule

()

business law

business mix

; ()

business name

; ;
;

business opportunity

business person

62

business plan (BP)

; - (.);
;

business practice

; ;
; ;

business process re-engineering ;


(BPR)
;
;
;

business processes

; ;
(
)

business registration fee

business secrecy

business secrecy law

business segment

; ;

business stamp

( )

business standard

; ; ;
; ;

business start-up

business start-up expenditure

; ;
;

business support centre

business terms

( )

business training centre (BTC)

- ();
- ()

business transaction

; ;
- ; ;

business trends

; ;
; ;
; ;

business trip

business trust

business user

;
( );

bust-up

buy-back agreement

buy-back arrangement

63

buy-back price

buy-in

buy into a company (v.)

buy on credit (v.)

buy programme

buyer

; ;

buyers option

buyers market

; ,
;
,

buying out a partner

buying price

buying rate

by default

by-effect

by instalments

by-laws

; ;
;

by operation of law

(, - );
;

by-product

; ;
(, );

by tender

; ;
(.)

64

C
cabinet trading

cable transfer

CAD Consultant

Cadbury Code [UK]


[]

calculation

calculation of transportation
charges

call

( );
()

call agreement

; ;

call centre

(,
,
. .)

call centre-based phone banking ,


service


call for bids

;
;

call for payment (v.)

call holder

; ;

call in a loan (v.)

call loan

; ;

65

call money

; ; ;
; ( )

call money rate

; ;

call-off notice

(; )

call option

; ;

call price

()

call rate

call transaction

call writer

callability

callable bond

, ( ) ;

callable capital

;
;
,

callable preferred share

callable share

callback

; ( )

called but not yet due

, (
);
, ()

called-up capital

; ;

caller display [UK]

caller ID scanner [US]

calling in a loan

CAMEL (capital, asset quality,


management, earnings,
liquidity)

( , , , , )

Canadian Export Development


Corporation (EDC) (inform.)

() [];
-

cancel (v.)

(, , ); ;
; ()

cancellation

; ;

66

cancellation fee

( , )

cancellation of securities

( );
(
);

cancellation penalty

cancelled commitment

( );
( )

cancelled share

cap

( ); ;
( )

cap agreement

( )

cap and floor

; ( )

cap fee

(
)

cap rate

capable of

(.)

capacity

; ;
;

capacity addition

capacity to borrow

capacity to contract

( ) ;
( );
( )

capacity utilisation threshold

capital account

( );
; ;
( );
()

capital account transaction

capital adequacy

; ( )

capital adequacy ratio

capital appreciation fund

capital-asset ratio

()
67

capital assets

; ;
;

capital budget

capital capacity

capital consumption

capital consumption allowance

capital contribution

capital cost

capital costs

capital deepening

capital employed

capital expenditure

;
;
;
; ;

capital export

( , )

capital flight

capital flotation costs

;
;

capital formation

capital funding principles

capital gains

; ;

capital gains tax (CGT)

;
;

capital gearing

;
;
( )

capital goods

; ;

capital increase

capital inflow

capital intensity

capital intensive sector


68

capital investment

; ;

capital investment loan

capital lease

; ( );
; ;
( );
;

capital leveraging

;
( )

capital levy

capital loan

capital loss

; ;

capital market

capital mortgage

capital net worth

capital outflow

capital outlay

; ;

capital-output ratio

( )

capital raising

capital redemption reserve

capital reserve

()

capital resources

; ;
( )

capital retirement

capital stock

capital stock in treasury

capital stock output

capital structure

()

capital subscription

capital tax

capital transfer tax (CTT)

capital value

capital widening


69

capitalisation

;
; , ;
(
)

capitalisation issue

( );

capitalisation of interest

( )

capitalisation of leases

capitalise (v.)

capitalised earnings value

capitalised expenditure

capitalised expense

capitalised income value

capitalised value

capitalised yield value

capped floating rate loan

capped floating rate note


(capped FRN)

capping

( );

caps and collars on an outright


basis

captive company

; ;
; ;
( );
, ;
,

captive market

captive product

; , - ()

car tax

card issuer

(, , )

care

career plateau

; , ;

careful

; ;
70

cargo insurance

; ;

cargo inward

cargo outward

cargo payment

cargo payment date

caring for the environment

carload shipment

Carriage and Insurance Paid To


(CIP) (... named place of
destination)

( ...) (
)

Carriage Paid To (CPT) (... named ... ( )


place of destination)
carried interest

; , ;

carried interest agreement

()
;

carryback

carryforward

carrying amount

carrying cost

; ;

carrying gain

carrying value

carryover stocks

carryover transaction

(
)

carve-out

; , (.);
; , (.);
,

carving-out

; ;
;

case-by-case basis (on a )

; ;
;

case law

71

case study

; ;
; ;
(.); (.)

cash

; ;
; ; ;
; (.); ; ;
;

cash accumulation

cash advance

cash and balances with central


banks

cash and cash equivalents

;
;
;
;

cash assets

cash auction

cash available for debt service


(CADS)


()

cash balance

cash basis accounting

cash basis reporting

cash before delivery (c.b.d.)

cash bid for assets

cash call

cash collateral

cash collateral account

(
)

cash cow

, ;
;

cash crop

(/)

cash cycle

( )

cash deal

cash dispenser

cash dividend

; ;
,

72

cash down

; ;

cash element

;
,

cash equivalents

;
; ;
;
, ;
( )

cash flow

; ;
; ;
; ; ;
;

cash flow forecast

;
;

cash flow risk

cash flow statement

;
;

cash flows from financing


activities

cash generation

; ; ;

cash generation covenant

cash holdings

cash in advance

cash in hand

( ); ;
; (.)

cash-in value

; ;

cash income

cash inflow

; ;

cash infusion

cash machine

cash management

cash management system

cash market

cash method

73

cash-on-delivery (COD; cod)

; ;
;

cash-on-delivery consignment
(cod consignment)

cash on reserve

cash outflow

cash outflow from investing


activities

cash outlay

; ,

cash price

cash privatisation

cash processing centre

cash provided by financing


activities

cash ratio

cash receipts

;
;

cash register

cash reserve

cash security

, ;

cash settlement

; ;
;

cash surrender value (CSV)

cash transaction

cash turnover

cash value

cash voucher

cash with order

cashback

();
(;
);
( ;
)

cashiers

();

cashiers cheque

, ; ;
( )

cashiers clerk

cashless transaction

;
74

cashpoint (cp)

cashpoint charge

( );
;
;

( ,
, , )

cashpoint transaction

( ) ;

casting vote

( )

casual help

catalytic impact

[]

catchment area

; ; ;
; ;
;

caution money

; ; , ;
; ,

caveat

caveat emptor

(: !)

caveat venditor

(: !)

ceiling amount

; ; ;

ceiling price

; ;
;

central bank

central banker

Central European Initiative (CEI)

central funding

central mortgage bond


institution

- , ;
- ,

central rate

centrally planned economy (CPE) ; ;



Centre for Cooperation with the
European Economies in
Transition [OECD]

[]

certificate of accounts

certificate of acknowledgement


75

certificate of assurance

certificate of authenticity

certificate of competence

certificate of deposit (CD)

(
)

certificate of full responsibility

(.)

certificate of guarantee

certificate of hygiene

certificate of incorporation

( );

certificate of incumbency
and authority

certificate of indebtedness

certificate of insurance

certificate of origin (C/O)

(, )

certificate of registration

certificate of stock

certification

; ;
;
; ; ;
; ();
()

certified cheque

certified public accountant (CPA) ; ;


-
certified security

certifying officer

CFR (cost and freight) (... named


port of destination)

... ( )

chairman of the board


of governors

challenge (v.)

(, );
( . .)

change

; ;

change order

;
; ( . .)

changeomat

;

76

changes in operation

changing pool of assets

()

changing pool of debt

channels of distribution

character loan

; ;
;

charge

; ; ;
; ; ;

charge (v.)

( ); (); ;
()

charge against general reserves


(v.)
charge an account (v.)

charge as security for debt (v.)

charge card

( ; )

charge giver

, ;

charge holder

, ;

charge manager

charge-off

, ;
,

charge over things or rights

charge terminates

charge to net income (v.)

chargeable to ...

...

chargeback

;
;
( )

charged property

charged traffic

chargeholder

charges for public utility services


charges register

charges registry

; ;
()

charging

; ;
( )

charging instrument

charging lien

;
77

chargor

charitable contribution

chart analysis

chart of accounts

charter

; ()

charter party

chartered

( ); ;
; () ( )

chartered accountant

; ;

charting

( );

chase

;
( )

chattels

cheap credit

; ;
; ;
( )

cheap loan

( );
; ;

check against delivery

( , )

check card

(
)

check date

check list

; ;

check time

checkable deposit

; ;
;

checking account

; []

checks and balances

cheque book

cheque hold

( ,
)

cheque kiting

, ;

78

cheque safekeeping

(
; )

Chernobyl Shelter Fund (CSF)

()

cherry-picking

( )

chief counsel

();
;
( );
()

chief economist

( )

chief economists office


(CE; OCE; CEO)

;
( )

chief executive officer (CEO)

();
();
(.)

chief financial officer (CFO)

()

chief legal officer

; ;
( );
()

chief of staff

chief operating officer (COO)

( );
,

child benefit

( )

Chinese Wall

( ;
, )

chip card

;
( )

choice of company domicile

;
;
;

choice of law

churning


;
(
);
(
)

CIF (cost, insurance and freight)


(... named port of destination)

(, ...) (
)

CIF Landed

79

CIP (carriage and insurance paid ( ...) (


to) (... named place of
)
destination)
civil action

civil consequences of funds


transfers

civil engineering

civil liability

- ;
;

civil procedure

civil suit

civil works

civil wrong

claim

; ; (.); ;
; ; (.);

claim debtor

claim for damages

claim handling

(.); ;
(.)

claim in return

claimant

claimed damage

claimed goods

claimholder

claims adjustment

(.)

claims and rights are subrogated


claims on external assets

claims settlement

(.);

clash of interests

; ;
(.)

class action

class charge

class defendant

class director

, ( )

class of assets

80

class of insurance

class of investors

class of option

class of shares

class plaintiff

class price

( )

class suit

class vote

(
)

classic security structure

classified board

;
,

classified data

classified loan

; ;
, ;

classified portfolio

; ;
;

classified stock

( , )

clean acceptance

clean audit opinion

clean bill of lading (clean B/L)

( )

clean floating

( )

clean letter of credit

(
)

clean market condition

clean opinion

clean policy

(, )

clean red clause

( )

clean remittance

clean title

;
; ,

81

clean-up of past environmental


damage

cleaner production

cleaner technology

clear diverted goods

clear profit

clearance

; ; ; ;
()

clearance account

clearance inward

clearance outward

cleared balance

cleared funds

;
,

clearing

; ; ;

clearing account

clearing agreement

clearing house

clearing house funds

clerical error

clerical mistake

client base

; ; (.)

client pipeline

clients sensitivity to interest rate movements

clip-on unit

Clipper chip (Escrowed


Encryption Standard)

close a position (v.)

; ();
( ); ()

close margin

close-out

( );
( )

82

close-out netting

(
,
, ,
);
;

closed account

; ;
;

closed bid

; ;
;

closed economy

closed-end credit

closed-end fund

( )

closed-end investment company

closed-end lease

; ;
,

closed position

; ;
( )

closed tender

; ;
;

closely held corporation (CHC)

( );
( );
,
;

closing

closing balance

; ;
;

closing costs

;
[]

closing date

; ( );
; ;
;

closing debt

closing entry

closing exchange rate

closing inventory

closing out

; ;

83

closing price

closing rate

closing stock

closing the books

( ); ;

cloud on title

;
;

club account

club card

; ;
(
);
( ,
)

clustered access

co-arranger of a loan

co-contractor

co-financier

co-financing

co-financing facility

co-financing loan agreement

co-insurance

co-insured

co-insurer

co-lead manager

( );
( );
( )

co-loan

co-maker

, ( )

co-manager

( ); ( );
( )

co-owner

coal-fired boiler

coastal shipping

84

cock date

( );

cod consignment (cash-ondelivery consignment)

code

code of conduct

coercive measure

coherent region

; ;
;

coherent project

; ;
; ;

coinage monopoly;
coinage prerogative

coins

; ;

cold call

cold comfort letter


( )

collar


(
);
;

collared floating rate loan

collateral

; ;

collateral acceptance

collateral account

collateral bill

collateral bond

collateral loan

;
,

collateral rate

,

;

-,

collateral mortgage bond

85

collateral note

collateral security

collateral security for a debt

collateral security margin

collateral trust bond

collateral value

;
;
(,
)

collateral warranty

; ;
;

collaterised mortgage obligation


(CMO)

, ;
,

collect an instrument (v.)

collect call [US]

( );
,

collect without recourse (v.)

collectability

; ;
( )

collectable

collected premium

collecting charge

; ;

collecting commission

; ;

collecting fee

; ;

collecting overdue accounts

collection

; ; ; ;
( );
; ;

collection charge

collection letter

collection of debts

; ;

collection on delivery (COD;


cod)

; ;
;

86

collection order

collection period

collection rate

collection reminder

collection technique

collective custody

collective insurance

collective transport

; ;

colluder

; ;

collusive bidding

; ;

colour

( )

colourable transaction

; ;
;

combination of accounts

( )

combined market interest rate

come on-stream (v.)

; ;
; ( )

comfort letter

;
( );
-; ;

command economy

command over resources

commencement of services

()

commercial arbitration

commercial bank

commercial banking

- ;
;

commercial certainty

commercial co-financing unit

( )

commercial correspondence

commercial credit

commercial data

;
87

commercial domicile

commercial entity

; ;
;

commercial farm

; ( )

commercial farming

commercial integrity

; ;
; ;

commercial invoice

commercial law

; ()

commercial letter of credit (CLC)

commercial life

commercial loan

commercial opportunities

; ;

commercial paper (CP)

( ; );
[]

commercial paper programme

;

(, )

commercial quantity

commercial register

commercial sample

commercial secret

commercial user

; ;
;

commercially viable project

commission

; ; ;

commission a project (v.)

; ;
;

commission agent

commission banking operations

;
;

commission business

; ;

commission expenditure

; ;
( )

88

commission fee

; ; ;

commission house brokers

commission in bankruptcy

; ;

commission income

; ;
( )

commission merchant

commissioning

; -; ;
;

commissions

commitment

; ; ;
;

commitment charge

;
( );
( )

commitment commission

;
( );
( )

commitment fee

;
( );

commitment in each others


success

commitment letter

(, ) ;
- (
)

commitment memorandum

commitment period

( );
;
( )

commitment rate

; ;
( )

commitment to a country

;
;

commitment to calls

committed assets

; ;
;

committed but not yet disbursed

, ();
, ()

committed loan

committed shareholder

, ;
;

89

Commodities Futures Trading


Commission

[]

commodity agreement

[]

commodity classification

commodity device

( )

commodity exchange

commodity fund

,
( ..)

commodity money

commodity paper

common account reinsurance

common area

; ;

common law

common price

common share

common stock

Commonwealth of Independent
States (CIS)

()

communication(s) skills

; ;

communications department

( );
( );

Community [EU]

community

; ;

Community currencies

community tax

commutation of annual leave

Companies Act

[]

company failure rate

(
)

Company Law

[]

company law

( );
, ;
;

90

company limited by shares

; ;
();

company profile

companys officer

comparable price

comparative advantage

comparative financial statements ;



compatibility principle

compensated absence

compensating balance

( - )

compensating differential

compensation

; ; ;
()

compensation agreement

compensation analyst

compensation & benefits

compensation director

(
, ,
)

compensation for release


from obligations

compensation for termination


of contract

( )

compensation lump sum

compensation package

; (
, )

compensation policy

compensation rate

; ; ;
;

Compensatory and Contingency


Financing Facility [IMF]

[]

Compensatory Financing Facility []


[IMF]
compensatory leave

compensatory time off

competence

; ;

91

competence of management

;
;
;

competence of the court

; ;

competent jurisdiction

competent service

competing claimants

( );

competing claims

; ;
; ;

competing requirements

;
;

competitive

competitive bid

competitive bidding

competitive business
environment

;
;

competitive devaluation


()

competitive edge

competitive environment

; ;

competitive equilibrium

competitive market

; ;

competitive pay package

;
,

competitive selection

( )

competitive tendering

; ; ;

competitive trader

competitive wage level

competitively

complainant party

complaint

; ;

complaints procedure

; ;

complementarity

[];
( )

92

complementary goods

;
;

complementary imports

complements

;
;

completed by signature

; ( )

completed contract method

;
;

completed operation

completely knocked down (ckd.)

completion guarantee

; ;
;
;

completion report

[];
[]

completion risk

compliance audit

(
)

compliance department

( );
( , )

compliance examination

compliance officer

( )

compliant offer

;
;
;
,

component industries

; ; ;
;

component parts

; ;

components

; ;

composite demand

; ;

composite insurance company

;
(
)

composite variable

(
)

composition arrangement


93

composition to creditors

composition with creditors

compound (v.)

compound entry

; (.)

compound instrument

compound interest

compound rate

compound tariff

compounded annual growth rate


(CAGR)

; ;
;

compounded (be ) (v.)

compounded (be ) every ...


(named period) (v.)

... (
)

comprehensive income

( )

comprehensive insurance

comprehensive risk management


framework
compromise on quality (v.)

compromised total loss

( - )

compulsory insurance

compulsory intervention margin

( )

compulsory levies

compulsory savings

compulsory third-party
insurance
computation

computer abuse

computer-aided design
consultant (CAD Consultant)

-;
;

computer-linked equipment

computer telephony integration


equipment (CTI equipment)

,
( )

computerised accounting and


financial management system

94

computerised billing system

computerised interbank clearing


system

computerised payroll system

concealment of foreign exchange ;


assets
;

conceding authority

concentration ratio

concept clearance

;
[]

concept clearance memorandum [];


(CCM)
;

concession

; ;

concession agreement

concession fee

concession operator

concessionaire

concessional assistance

concessional financing

concessional loan

; ;

concessional terms

concessionary financing

concessionary interest rate

concessionary loan

; ;

concessions law

conciliation

; ;
;

conclusive determination

condensed financial statements

condition attaching to ...

, ...

condition concurrent

condition in deed

, ;

condition of effectiveness


95

condition precedent

; ;
()

condition precedent
to effectiveness

; ;
, ;

condition subsequent

; ;

condition to the availability of the ()


tranche A commitment
conditional contract

conditional debt

conditional reimbursement
commitment

conditionality

condominium

conduct of business and


operations
conference call

Conference of the Parties to the


UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC)


()

Conference on Security and


Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)


()

Conference on the Economics


of Transition

confidence level

confidence market

confidential information

; ;

confidentiality agreement

; (, )

confidentiality letter

; ,

confidentiality of commercial
transactions

;
;

confidentiality undertaking

( );
, ;
;

confirmation of employment

confirmation value

96

confirmed letter of credit

confirming bank

;
,

confiscation

conflict of interest

; ;
; (.)

conflict of laws

conflict rule

conflicting claims

conformed copy

( );

conforming bid

( );
;
, ;
,
;

conforming document

confusion of titles

congested market

;
; ;

congestion charge

conglomerate

conglomerate merger

conjunctive obligation

;
, ,

connected borrowers

connected company

; ;
; ;

connected lending

connecting factor

connection fee

connection mode

consensual dispute resolution

;
;

consequence in law


97

consequential damages

consequential loss

conservation and preservation


of assets

conservative estimate

conservative gearing ratio

conservative leverage ratio

conservative monetary policy

- ;
-

conservative option

conservatory measure

(.)

consideration

; ;

consideration (in )

consigned goods

consignee

; ; ;

consignment (cons)

; ; ;

consignment goods

consignment note (cons note)

consignment sale

consignment terms

consignor

consistent quality

consistently applied principles

();
;

consolidated accounts

; ;
; ;

consolidated balance sheet

consolidated budget

consolidated debt

consolidated financial report

consolidated financial
statements

consolidated statements

98

consolidated tax return

; ;
;
;

consolidation

; ; ; ;
; ;
; ( )

consolidation of interest

consols

constant price

constant returns to scale

constituency

; ( );

constituency countries

- (
)

constituent country

constituent documents

(, )

constituent meeting

;
()

constitutive effect

; ;

constraining factor

constraint

; ;

constructed value

construction

; ;
; (.)

construction completion date

( );

construction completion risk

( )

construction contract

; ;

construction manager

()

construction project

; ;
(.)

construction risk

( )

construction site

; ;
(.)

constructive

; ;
; ;
99

constructive obligation

constructive total loss (CTL)

( ,
)

constructive trust

consular fee

consultancy contract

;
; ;

consultancy fee

consultancy services

consultant

; ; ( )

consultant contracts unit (CCU)

( )

consultant economist

consulting organisation

consulting services
administrator
consumables

consumer banking

;
;

consumer credit

Consumer Credit Act [UK]

[]

consumer demand

; ;

consumer electronics

consumer finance

consumer goods

consumer incentive scheme

;
;

Consumer Leasing Act [US]

consumer loan

consumer price index (CPI)

()

consumer protection law

consumer services

100

consumer surplus

; ;
;

consumption function

consumption pattern

; ;

contact report

container-on-flat-car (COFC)

( )

contingencies

; ;

contingency clause

contingency fee

( );
; ,
();

(pactum de quota litis)

contingency financing [IMF]

[]

Contingency Financing Facility


[IMF]

[]

contingency plan

; ;

contingency reserve

;
;
()

contingent assets

; ;
(, ,
)

contingent claim

contingent commitment

contingent consideration

; ;
;

contingent facility

contingent fee

( );
; ,
();

(pactum de quota litis)

contingent guarantee

contingent liability

; ;
; ;
;

contingent obligation

101

contingent order

contingent rent

contingent reserve

;
()

contingent value right (CVR)

contingent worker

continuing company

-;

continuing consideration

continuing covenant

continuing damage

contra account

contra entry

(.)

contra reserve

contract

; ; ;

contract a loan (v.)

; ;
;

contract administration

contract arrangements

contract award

contract buyer

; ;
,

contract ceiling amount

contract enforcement

;
;

contract execution

; ;
; ;
; ;

contract financing

; ;
;
;

contract for consultancy


services

;
;

contract for labour and materials

102

contract holder

; ; ;
;

contract of affreightment

contract of agency

; ;

contract of beneficence

contract of carriage

contract of employment

; ;

contract of factorage

contract of hiring

contract of indemnity

contract of pledge

; ;

contract of record

contract of sale

contract of service

; ;
; ;
;

contract out (v.)

;
( ) ;

contract package

; ;

contract seller

, ;
;

contract service

; ;
;

contract size and value

; ;
;

contract tariff

contract tenor

contract under seal

contract value

; ; ;

contract writer

, ;
, ;
,

contracting authority

contracting company

contracting consulting services

contracting party


103

contraction of production

contractual commitment

contractual delinquency

; ;

contractual duty

contractual flexibility

contractual liability

;
;

contractual licence

contractual maturity date

( ) ;

contractual obligation

contractual penalty

contractual price

contractual protection

contractual right

; ;
,

contractual services

contractually

; ;

contractually payable

contrarian

; ;
,

contributed capital

contributions replenishment

contributor

contrived insolvency

control officer

( )

control sheet

; ;
,

control stock

( ,
)

controlled

( ); ;
; ;

controlled market

controlled pace

; ;
;
104

controlled price

; ;

controller

controllers department

controlling group

controlling interest

; ;
; ;

controlling stake

; ;
; ;

convenience credit [US]

[]

Convention on Biological
Diversity
Convention on Environmental
Impact Assessment in a
Transboundary Context

Convention on Laundering,
, ,
Search, Seizure and

Confiscation of the Proceeds of ( )
Crime (Council of Europe
Convention on money
laundering)
Convention on Long-range

Transboundary Air Pollution

Convention on the Recognition
and Enforcement of Foreign
Arbitral Awards (New York, 10
June 1958)
Convention on the Settlement of
Investment Disputes Between
States and Nationals of Other
States


(-,
10 1958 )

conventional factoring

conventional financing

conventional risk

conventional tariff

conversion

; ; ; ;
; (); ();
( );
;
( )

conversion cost

conversion features of a loan

;
;

105

conversion fee

; ;
;

conversion into cash

conversion of a foreign money


debt

conversion of loan notes

; ;
;
;
( )

conversion premium

( )

conversion price

( );
,

conversion privilege

conversion rate

conversion reserve

convertibility

convertible bond (Cb)

( ) ;
; , ( )

convertible capital raising

convertible debenture

( ) (
)

convertible preferred stock

;
( )

convertible security

conveyance

conveyance duty

( )

conveyances

cooling-off period

( ,
);
,

cooperation fund

cooperative advertising

; ;
, ,

cooperative equilibrium


106

cooperative financing facility

[-
]

cooperative oversight

Coordinating Committee of a
RVF (Regional Venture Fund)

(
)

Copenhagen criteria [EU]

(,
;
1993 )

Copenhagen economic criteria


[EU]

(
: ,
, , )

Copenhagen political criteria


[EU]

(
: , ,
)

copyright

copyrighted name

core activities

core business

; ;

core capital

; ;

core commodities

()

core deposits

core lending

;
;

core owner

core shareholder

( 4% )

corner the market (v.)

corporate action

; ;
;

corporate bank

, ; ;
, ; ;
, ;
,

corporate banking services

corporate bond

corporate borrower

corporate borrowing

( );
(
)
107

corporate buyer

- ; -;
-; ( );
( )

Corporate Citizenship
Programme [WB]

[ ]

corporate client

- ; -;
; -

corporate counsel

; ;
;

corporate culture

corporate department

( );
( )

corporate development plan

;
- ;

corporate doctor (inform.)

; , ;
; , ( )

corporate entity

();

corporate evaluation

corporate existence

() ;
;

corporate finance

corporate finance distribution

corporate finance regulation

corporate financing

; ;
;
;

corporate franchise

corporate governance

; ;
;

corporate governance
arrangements

corporate identity

( ) ;
( );
;
;

corporate income tax

; ;

108

corporate killer

; ( ), ;

corporate law

corporate lending

( );

corporate loan

; ;
; ;

corporate note

; ;
;

corporate partner

-;
-

corporate planning unit

( );
( )

corporate powers

corporate recovery

;
()

corporate resolution

( );

corporate security

corporate services contract

corporate shareholder

corporate shell

;
;

corporate social responsibility


(CSR)

,
, ;

corporate strategy

(, );
(, );

corporate structure

(, )

corporate switchboard

( );
; ;
;

corporation tax

; ;

corporatisation

; ;

corrective action

;

109

corrective maintenance

correspondent bank (CB)

corrupt practice

; ;

cost

; ; ; ;

cost accounting

; ;

Cost and Freight (CFR) (... named ... ( )


port of destination)
cost assumptions

; ;
;
,

cost-based price

cost-based pricing

;
;
;

cost behaviour

cost-benefit

cost-benefit analysis

-; ;

cost-benefit principle

cost breakdown

cost centre

cost certification

cost component

cost effectiveness

cost-effectiveness analysis

cost efficiency

cost engineer

cost engineering

cost estimate

cost-free resources

Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF) (, ...) (


(... named port of destination)
)
cost method

cost of an investment

cost of an item of property, plant and equipment or of an



intangible asset
110

cost of borrowing

cost of capital

cost of carrying

; ;
( , , - )

cost of conversion

cost of energy

; ;

cost of funds (COF)

; ;
;

cost of inventories

cost of investment

cost-of-living allowance

(
);
[]

cost of purchase

cost or market, whichever is


lower

cost overrun

cost overrun contingency

cost-plus contract

( );
;

cost-plus-fixed-fee contract

cost-plus method

cost-plus price

cost-plus pricing

;
;
;

cost price

cost principle

cost-push inflation

cost recovery

; ; ;
; ;

111

cost-recovery method

cost schedule

cost sharing

; ;
; ;

costing

; ;

costs of the tribunal

Council of Europe Convention on , ,


Laundering, Search, Seizure

and Confiscation of the
( )
Proceeds of Crime (Council of
Europe Convention on money
laundering)
Council of Europe Development
Bank
Council Regulation [EC]

[]

council tax

[];

counsel

; ; ;

counsellor

counter-claim

counter-guarantee

counter-indemnity

;
; ;
(, )

counter-offer

counter-purchase

counterfeit money

counterfoil

; ( . .)

countermand of a cheque

counterpart

; ( , ); , ( );
(.)

counterpart loan

counterpart staff

counterparty

counterparty risk

;
;

countertrade

; ;

countervailing

; ; ;

112

countervailing duty

country eligible for membership

, []

country exposure

; ( ) - ( )

country exposure lending survey


country implementation review
(CIR)

;
;

country in transition

country limit

country marketing responsibility

- [];
-

country of assignment

country of operations

[]

country of origin certificate

(, )

country of residence

country of source

country officer

... ( )

country portfolio ratio

(
);

[]

country presentation

[]

country rating

country restriction

country review trigger

; ;
( )

country risk

country risk rating

country-specific fund

country strategy

country team

(
)

country team leader (CTL)

( )

113

coupon

, ; ;
,

coupon bond

; ;
-

coupon income

coupon rate

coupon stripping

; ;

coupon swap

court-appointed administrator

court enforcement action

;
;
;
;
(
)

court injunction

court of arbitration

Court of Auditors [EC]

[]

court of competent jurisdiction

court penalty

court proceedings

; ;

court remedy

court trust

covenant

; ;
; ,

covenant control sheet

( )

cover (insurance)

; ;
(.)

cover a short position (v.)

cover letter

; ;

cover note

( );
( );
; ;
;

coverage

; ; ;
( );

114

coverage capital

, (
)

coverage ratio

[]

coverall exposure

covered red clause

( )

covered writer

covering note

; ;
; ;
( )

covering purchase

covering transaction

( )

CPT (carriage paid to) (... named


place of destination)

... ( )

cranage

crash programme

crawling peg

create a security interest (over


something in favour of
somebody) (v.)

(- -
); (- ) (-)

create an equivalent lien on


assets (v.)

creation of a charge

(); ;
;

credentials

; ;

credible bankruptcy threat

; ,

credit

; ; ;
( )

credit accommodation

credit advice

credit against goods

credit an account (v.)

credit analysis

credit and equity analysis

credit and equity review

115

credit application

; ; ;
( );

credit appraisal

credit appraisal procedures

credit balance

; ( );
(.)

credit bearing capacity

credit ceiling

; ;

credit check

credit commission

;
( )

credit committee

credit control

credit costs

( );

credit enhancement

credit entry

credit evaluation procedures

credit exposure

credit facility

; ; ;

credit facility agreement

; ;
;

credit file

; ;
;

credit file supervisor (CFS)

credit for inventories

credit history

; ;
;

credit information

; ;

credit inquiry

; ( )

credit institution

credit interest

116

credit investigation

;
( )

credit limit

; ; ;
; ;

credit line (CL)

credit line operation

credit management

credit margin

credit memorandum

credit norm

credit note (C/N)

credit officer

( );

credit (on )

credit outstandings

; ;
;

credit overdraft

;
(
)

credit procedures

; ;

credit procedures manual

;
;
;

credit process

credit profile

credit proposal

( );

credit quality

credit rating

credit rating agency [US]

; - ;
;

credit rationing

; ;

credit reference agency [UK]

; - ;
;

117

credit-related insurance

credit restriction

; ;
;

credit review

;
;

credit risk

; ;
( ); ( )

credit sale

credit scoring

( )

credit scoring system

credit slip

credit solvency

credit spread

; ;

credit squeeze

credit standing

; ;
;

credit supply

credit to ... (v.)

...

credit tranche

; ;

credit transfer

credit union (CU)

( )[];

creditor

; ; ;

creditor in bankruptcy

creditor in insolvency
proceedings
creditor ranking

creditors committee

( )

creditors equity

creditorsmeeting

( )

creditworthiness

crisis management

;
;
;

critical item

; ;
( )

( )

118

critical path

();
();
( )

critical technology

; ;

crony capitalism

; ;
()

cross-action

cross-border assets

; ;

cross-border investment

cross-border investment project

;
;

cross-cancellation of debts

cross-currency interest rate


swap
cross-currency swap

cross-default

; (.);
; ;
(.)

cross-default clause

;
;
(.)

cross-default provision


(
-
);
(.)

cross-demand

cross-effectiveness clause

cross-elasticity of demand

cross-over account

(
)

cross rate

- ( , );
(
)

cross-sectional data

cross selling

( , . . )

cross-subsidy

119

crossed cheque

( ;
, )

crowding-in effect

crowding-out effect

crown jewels

; ;
;
( )

crystallisation

crystallised floating charge

cul-de-sac technology

cultivate core competence (v.)

( );

cum dividend

cumbersome procedure

cumulative

; ;

cumulative arrears

;
;

cumulative assets

; ;
; ;

cumulative commitments

( );
( )

cumulative demand

cumulative disbursements

( );
( )

cumulative efficiency

cumulative evidence

cumulative percentage

cumulative preferred stock

cumulative turnover

; ;

cumulative voting

;
( )

cumulatives

curb market

; ;
( )

curb price

curb trading

; ;
( )

120

cure period

;
; ,

curing of delinquency

currencies of the basket against


which the local currency is
pegged

currency and interest swap


agreement

currency band

currency board

; ; ( )

currency clause

currency conversion

; ;

currency coupon swap

currency exchange regulation

currency exposure

( , , )

currency futures

currency gains difference

currency index fluctuation range

currency intervention

currency issued

currency management

currency of a contract

currency of disbursements

currency of payment

; ;

currency of transaction

currency option

currency parity

; ;

currency risk

currency swap

currency trading range

currency valuables

currency with restricted


convertibility

()

121

current account (AC; a/c)

; ;

current account balance

; ;
(.); ;

current account convertibility

current account deficit

current account of the balance


of payments

current account overdraft

current account surplus

current account transaction

current annuity

current arrears rate

();

current assets

; ;
; ;

current assets/current liabilities


ratio

current balance

; ;
; ;
; ; (.)

current balance of payments

current business

; ;
;

current capital

current cost

current cost approach

current coupon

current earnings

current expenditure

current external balance

current inventory

; ; ;
; ;
- ;

122

current investment

current legislation

current liabilities

; ;
( )

current market value (CMV)

current operating performance

current operating performance


statement [US]

current price (p/c)

current price GNP

current rate method

current ratio

; ;
;

current service cost

current structure of the tariff

current tax

current terms

current value accounting

current values

, ;

current yield

( );

curriculum vitae (CV)

; ;
(.)

curtailment

()

cushion theory

custodial bank

; -

custodian

( );
( , , . .)

custodian bank

-;

custody account

custody charge

custody price

custody services

custom configuration

123

custom-designed

; ; ;

custom-tailored approach

custom-tailored services

customary margin

; ;
;

customer deposits

customer call centre

(,
,
. .)

customer disloyalty

; ;
;

customer financing

;
( )

customer loyalty

; ;
; ;

customer pledge

; ;

customer service

customisability

;
;
;
(, ) ;

customs assigned number (CAN)


customs bond

customs clearance

customs clearance agent

customs commission

customs debenture

;
;
( )

customs declaration

customs duty

customs endorsement

( )

customs escort

(
);
, ;
()
124

customs escort charge

customs examination

; ;

customs examination list

customs expenses

customs fastening

customs finding

customs fraud

customs inspection

; ;

customs law

customs mark

customs power of attorney

customs receipt

customs receipts

; ( )

customs tariff

; ;

Customs Union [EC]

[EC]

customs valuation method

customs warrant

cut-off

; ( )

cut-through endorsement

(
);

cut-through insurance

(
)

cybersquatter

(, )

cycle

( )

cycle check

cyclical budget

cyclical consumer goods

cyclical unemployment

( )

125

D
DAF (delivered at frontier)

( )

daily cash settlements

damage to property

data administrator

data book

data carrier

data circuit

data collection and evaluation

data corruption

data encryption

()

data gap

data hiding

data link

data medium

data migration

data processing

data rate

data reduction

data room

;
()

data security

;
;

data sink


126

data splitting

data validation

data validity

data warehousing

date of issue

( . .); ();
()

date of record

date payment due

dated date


()

dated loan capital

dated marketable security

dated security

day of acquisition

day of grace

day order

day-to-day loan

( )

day-to-day money

; ; ;
; ( )

daylight overdraft

;
( )

days sales outstanding (DSO)

DDP (delivered duty paid)


(... named place of destination)

... ( )

DDP Exclusive VAT and/or Taxes


, /
DDP Unloaded

DDU (delivered duty unpaid)

( )

DDU (delivered duty unpaid)


(... named place of destination)

... ( )

DDU Cleared

de-mutualisation

dead loss


127

dead money

; ;
, ;

dead time

deal-breaker

, ;

deal process

dealer

dealing securities

death futures [US]

,
( ;
)

debenture

; ; ;
; [];

debenture bond

;
; ;

debenture capital

debenture debt

debenture loan

debenture stock

; ;

debit advice

debit an account (v.)

...; ...;
; ... (.)

debit balance

( );
(.)

debit card

; (.);

debit entry

debit float

debit interest

debit item

debit ledger

debit memorandum

debit note (D/N)

debit operation

debit slip

128

debit to ... (v.)

...; ... (.);


...;

debit transfer

debiting

( ); ( )

debiting limit

debt

; ; ; ; ;

debriefing meeting

( , )

debt acceleration

;
();
;
;

debt administration

; ;

debt burden

debt buyback

; ;

debt cancellation

debt capacity

debt capital

debt capitalisation scheme

;
; ;
;

debt-carrying capacity

;
;

debt ceiling

debt collection

debt collection agency

debt consolidation

; ;
;

debt derivatives market

( )

debt discount

debt enforcement

debt/equity ratio

debt/equity shift

129

debt/equity swap

;
;
;
;
;

debt expense

; ;
;
;

debt financing

; ;
; ;
;

debt for environment swap

debt for equity swap

;
;
;
;

debt for nature swap

debt forgiveness

; ;

debt forgiveness agreement

;
;
()

debt funding

; ;

debt holder

; ; ; ;

debt in arrears

; ;

debt innovation

debt instrument

debt issuance

debt loading

( )

debt market

debt monetisation

debt obligation

debt origination

debt overhang

; ;

130

debt pooling

; ;

debt portfolio

debt provision

debt provisioning

;
;

debt ratio

debt recovery

debt redemption

; ;
; ;

debt reduction operations


(DROPS)

debt re-funding

; ;
;

debt relief

debt remission

debt renegotiation

;
;

debt reorganisation

; ;

debt repackaging

; ;
;

debt repayment

; ;
;

debt repayment schedule

debt rescheduling

;
;
;
;
; ;
;

debt restructuring

;
;

debt retirement

debt schedule

131

debt securities held for


investment purposes

, ; ,

debt security

; ; ;

debt service

; ;
, ;

debt service arrears

;
;

debt service capacity

debt service coverage ratio


(DSCR)

debt service guarantee


agreement
debt service ratio (DSR)

debt service requirements

debt service reserve account


(DSRA)

()

debt servicing

debt strategy

debt swap

debt to equity conversion

;
;

debt to equity ratio

; ;
;

debt trading

debt transaction

debt unification

; ;

debtor

debtor of record

; ;

debtor warrant

( ; )

debts evidenced by certificates

, ;
,

debut Eurobond transaction

( )

decision to allocate funds

decision tree

132

declaration

declaration inwards

declaration of interest in delivery


declaration of trust

declaration outwards

declaration policy

declaratory effect

declare a contract null and void

;
;

declared dividend

declared insolvency

declared reserve

declared shortage

; ;
;

decliners

, ;

declining balance method

decommissioning

decommunisation

decontrol (v.)

; ;
;

decoupling

; ;

decreasing returns of scale

dedicated

; ;

dedicated credit line

; ;

dedicated line

();
();
;

dedicated team

; ;
,

deductibility

deductible

; (.) []

deductible amount

(.); (.) []
133

deductible expenses

deductible temporary difference

deduction

deed

deed of arrangement

deed of assignment

deed of conveyance

-; ;
; ;
;

deed of covenant

( )

deed of protest

; ;

deed of release

;
()

deed of settlement

( - )

deed poll

deem (v.)

deemed withdrawal

deep discount bond

( );
, (
80% )

deep-sea traffic

default

; (.);
; ; ;
();

default (by )

default demand

default in payment (upon )

default interest

default interest period

default interest rate

default notice

;
;
;

default of payment

default on investments

default on obligations

; (.)
134

default procedure

default risk

();
();
(.)

defaulted bond

;
, ;
;
, (.)

defaulted debt

; ;
; ;
, (.);
; ,

defaulter

; , ;
, ;

defaulting debtor

, ;

defaulting loan

; ;
; ;

defaulting party

;
,

defective title

defence

; ; () ;
;
() ; ;
,

defence conversion

; ;
;

defend a decision (v.)

defensive merger

defensive stocks

( ,
)

deferment

deferral

deferred charge

deferred debt

deferred demand

deferred expenditure

deferred expenses

135

deferred income

; ,

deferred liability

deferred payment

; ;
;
,
(90, 120, 180 )

deferred revenue

;
; ,

deferred share

; ;

deferred stock

; ;

deferred tax assets

deferred tax liabilities

deficiency judgement

;
;

deficit spending

defined benefit scheme

( ; );
;
[];

defined contribution scheme

( );
;
[]

definitive note

definitive security

; ;
(
)

deflate (v.)

deflating

deflation

( , , );
;

deflationary feedback

delay in payment

delayed growth

136

delayed payment

; ;

Delegate [EC]

( )

delegate [EBRD]

[]

delegated legislation

Delegation [EC]

( )

delegation of powers

delineation of powers

delinquency

;
; ; (.);

delinquent borrower

delinquent loan

deliverables

Delivered At Frontier (DAF)

()

Delivered Duty Paid (DDP)


(... named place of destination)

... ( )

Delivered Duty Unpaid (DDU)

()

Delivered Duty Unpaid (DDU)


(... named place of destination)

... ( )

Delivered Ex Quay (DEQ)


(... named port of destination)

... ( )

Delivered Ex Quay (DEQ)


(... named port of destination)
(Duties on Buyers Account)

... ( )

Delivered Ex Quay (DEQ)


... ( )
(... named port of destination)
/
(Exclusive of VAT and/or Taxes)
Delivered Ex Ship (DES)
(... named port of destination)

...( )

delivery

; ;

delivery acceptance act

; ;
-;

delivery acceptance certificate

delivery note

delivery of an agreement

( );
; ;
;

delivery of borrowed securities

delivery of judgement

delivery order (D/O)

-;
137

delivery point

delivery to domicile

demand deposit

; ;

demand draft

, ;
, ;
, ;
,

demand for money

demand loan (d/l)

; ;

demand management

; ;

demand (on ) (o/d)

demand profile

; ;

demand-pull inflation

; ;

demand saturation

demand schedule

demand-side energy saving


project

demand-side management (DSM) ; ;



demand-side policies

dematerialised security

;
;

demised property

demonopolise (v.)

demonstrably committed

demonstration effect

; ;

demonstration zone

demortised premium

demurrage

; (, );
( )

denial of service

138

denominate a loan in a currency


(v.)

() ... ( )

denominated in euros

denomination

( ); ( );
;

denomination unit

( );

deposit

; ; ; ;
; ;

deposit (v.)

; ;
; ( , )

deposit account seven days


notice rate

[]

deposit agreement

;
;

deposit banking

deposit base

( )

deposit business

deposit form

; ;

deposit in escrow

deposit insurance system

deposit money

( ); ;
; ; ;

deposit protection scheme

deposit receipt (DR)

; ;
;

deposit-taking institution

depositary

depositary bank

depositary certificate

depositary institution (DI)

depositary receipt

depositor

; ; ()

depositor of goods

Depository Clearing Company


(DCC) [RF]

- () []

deposits subject to reserve


requirements

, ; ,

139

depreciable amount

depreciable assets

depreciable capital assets

depreciable life

depreciated cost

depreciated replacement cost

depreciation

; ;

depreciation and amortisation

depreciation charge

depreciation for wear and tear

depreciation method

depreciation of investments

;
;

depreciation range

depreciation rate

depreciation schedule

depreciation unit

depressed inflation

depression

; ;

deputy director

Deputy Resident Representative

( )

DEQ (delivered ex quay)


(... named port of destination)

... ( )

DEQ (delivered ex quay)


(... named port of destination)
(Duties on Buyers Account)

... ( )

DEQ (delivered ex quay)


... ( )
(... named port of destination)
/
(Exclusive of VAT and/or Taxes)
deregulation

; ;
; ( )

derelict property

; ;
; (.)

dereliction of obligations

derivative financial instrument


140

derivative security

; ;
(.)

derivative suit

;
;

derivative transaction

;
,
( );

derivatives

; ;
; (.);

derived demand

; ;

DES (delivered ex ship)


(... named port of destination)

...( )

descending

descriptor

desequilibrium economy

design a projects financial


structure (v.)

design and implementation


of projects

design-build-finance-operate
(DBFO)

- - ()

design capacity

design concept

; ;
;

design to characteristics (DTC)

design to cost (DTC)

designation of authority

()

desk-top study

destocking

destructive examination

detachable stub

; ( . .)

detailed audit

detailed billing report (DBR)

; - (
);
-

detailed due diligence

;
; ;

141

detailed project report (DPR)

details of charges

; ;

details of payment

determination

(); ;
; ( , )

determination date

;
( );
( )

determined effort

devaluation

( );
( )

developer

; ;

development bank

development capital

, ;

development costs

development credit agreement

development group [IT]

(
. .)

development loan

development of alternative
sources of energy

devolution

dial-up Internet access

differential costs

differential duty

digital communication

digital overlay network (DON)

();
(.)

digital signature

; , ;
; ;
;
;

digital switching network

diluted earning per share

dilution

; (); ;

142

dilutive potential ordinary shares


direct access banking

;
(
)

direct approach

( )

direct bank

,
( ,
)

direct banking

;
(
)

direct charge-off

( )

direct claim

; ()

direct costing

;
;

direct costs

(.); (.);
(.); ;

direct debit

direct debiting (dd)

; (
);
(
)

direct demand

; ;

direct exchange line (DEL)

;
()

direct expenses

direct financing

direct interest

( )

direct investment

direct investment facility (DIF)

;
[];
; ;

143

direct investor

; , ( )

direct loan

direct mail advertising

direct maintenance

;
();
-

direct marketing

direct method of reporting cash


flows from operating activities

direct motive

direct operating cost(s) (DOC)

direct participation

( )

direct payment drawdown

(- );
() (
)

direct placement

( )

direct pricing

()

direct repurchase at market


value
direct sales forces

()

direct tax

direct variable overheads

direct write-off method

directed lending

; ;

directed merger

director

; ; ;

director indemnification

( );
,

director liability

(
)

director of ... (named team)

.... ( )

director of administration

director of communications

director of credit

144

directors and officers liability


insurance (D&O insurance)

;

(, . .);

(, . .)

directors interest

directors percentage of profits

directors report

directorship

; ; ;
;

disability

disabled bond

, ;
;

disabled state

; ( )

disadvantaged population

disaggregated data

; ;
; ;

disagio

( )

disallowed expenses

;
, ;
,

disaster backup

; ; ;
; ();

disaster facilities

; ;

disaster recovery

disbursed equity investments

;
;
( )

disbursement (disbs)

; ; ;
; ;
; ;
; ;

disbursement account (DA)

disbursement application

; ;
( )

disbursement claim

145

disbursement handbook

;
;
;

disbursement period

( );

disbursement planning

disbursement rate

( );
;
;

disbursement request

; ;

disbursement schedule

;
(); ();
( )

discharge

;
(); ();
; ; ;

discharge by novation

discharge by payment

;
;
;

discharge by performance

;
;
;

discharge from liability

()

discharge from responsibility

discharge liabilities (v.)

discharge obligations (v.)

discharge of a contract

discharge of a pledge

; ;
;

discharge of bankruptcy

;
( )

disciplined monetary policy

- ;
-

disclaimer

146

disclaimer of opinion


;
;
();

disclosed reserve

disclosure

(); ();
( );

disclosure document

disclosure order

discount

(); ; ; ();

discount bond

;
,

discount broker

discount house

discount market

discount policy

discount rate

; ;

discountable

discounted cash flow (DCF)

discounted cost

discounted value

discounting

discounting fee

discretionary account

, ( )

discretionary costs

discretionary fiscal policy

- ;

discretionary savings

diseconomies of scale

disequilibrium

disestablishment

( );
; ( )

dishonoured bill

dishonoured note

( ), ;
;
147

disinflation

disintermediation

disinvestment

; ;
;

disjunctive condition

disloyalty charge

disloyalty fee

;

( ,
, , )

dismissal of an action

disowned item

; ;
,

disparagement of competitor

dispersed share ownership

;
,

disposable capital

; ;

disposable income (DI)

( )

disposal

; ; ;

disposal of assets

disposal of equity investment

; ;

disposal of fixed assets

disposal of investment

; ;
; ;
;

disposal value

dispose of premises (v.)

dispute resolution

dispute settlement

dissaving

dissenting opinion

(.)

dissipation of resources

(.);

dissolution

();
( , );
( , )

148

distant position

distrained property

distrainment of goods

distraint

; (
- )

distress

; (
- )

distress price

; ;

distress sale

;
;
;

distressed company

; ;
; ;
,

distributable cash flow

(
, )

distribute net profits (v.)

distributed profit

distributed stocks

; ;

distribution

; ; ;
; ; ;

distribution cost

; ;
; ;

distribution fund

distribution list

; ;
; ()

distribution network

; ; ;
;

distribution of assets

distribution pattern

; ;
;

distribution point

; ;

distribution stock

, ( )

distribution system

; ; ;
;

149

disused interpretation

divergence limit

( )

diversified common stock fund

diversified economy

divestiture

; ; ;

divestiture of public sector


operational activities

divestment

; ; ;
; ;

divided account

dividend

dividend arrears

dividend cover

(
)

dividend limitation

dividend payout ratio

(
)

dividend policy

dividend reinvestment

dividend reinvestment plan


(DRIP)

dividend reserve

dividend warrant

dividend yield

dividends in arrears

dividends payable

dividends right

division of labour

Do Not Reduce and Do Not


Increase
document a debt (v.)

document of title

. ;

documentary bill lodgement

documentary evidence

documentary letter of credit

150

documentary remittance

documentation of claims

(.)

documented shortage

documents against acceptance


(D/A)

documents against payment


(D/P)

; ;
( )

documents control officer

documents control register

domestic capital

; ;

domestic consumer

domestic content

;
;

domestic court

; ;

domestic placement

( )

domestic savings

domestic user

domiciled bill

domiciliation of investee

( )

dominant equilibrium

dominant strategy

donated surplus

donation

; ; ; ;
;

donee

; ; ;

donor

; ;

donor government

donors meeting

dont-run-outs (DROs)

, ;
;

dore gold

; ; (90% + 10% )

dormancy of an account

151

dormant account

, ( );
, ;
; ;

dormant claim

, ;

dormant commitment

dormant company

, ;
, ;
-

dormant partner

, ;
;

dotcom company;
dot-com company

,
;
, (
)

double entry

double-entry bookkeeping

double-entry system

double leverage

double tax

double tax treaty

double taxation

double taxation treaty

double warehouse receipt

doubtful debt

; ;
, ;

doubtful loan

; ;
, ;

Dow Jones composite

Dow Jones 40 bond average

-40

Dow Jones industrial average

Dow Jones municipal bond yield average

Dow Jones transportation


average
Dow Jones utility average

Dow theory

down payment

; ;

down time

152

downgrading a loan

downmarket

; ;
( )

downshifter

, ;
,

downside

downside exposure

(, ); (, )

downside interest rate risk

downside risk

; ();

downsizing

; ;
;

downstream funding

downstream industries

(
: , , ,
)

downstream loan

downstream participation
financing

downstream transaction

downturn

; ; ; ;

downward pressure

draft

draw funds (v.)

; ( );
( )

draw on somebody for the


amount of ... (v.)

- ...;
- ...

drawback

; ;
;
,
( )

drawback duty

drawback goods

drawdown

; ; ;
;

drawdown application

drawdown date

drawdown fee

( )

153

drawdown period

();
( );

drawdown rate

drawdown schedule

;
(); ();
( )

drawee

, ; ;
, ;

drawer

, ; ;
, ; ;
, ;

drawing down of notes

drawing on reserves

drawing rights

drawing under a letter of credit

dress-down Friday [US]

( ),
;

drive-in bank

drop cable

drop-dead provision

drop-in business

(,
, , . . )

dry leasing

(
, )

dry receivership

, ;

dry-swimming case

dual class recapitalisation

dual currency bond

, ,

dual listing

()

dual prime rate

( -
, - )

dual purpose fund

dual resident company


154

dubious assets

dud cheque

; ;

due

; ;

due and payable

due bill

; , ;

due but not yet received

due care

due consideration

due course of law

due date (dd)

; ; ;
; ;

due date of coupon

due diligence

; (.);
; ;
; () - ;

due diligence check list

(, ),
;
,
;

due diligence investigation

; (.);
; ;
() - ;

due diligence meeting

due diligence mission

- (
)

due diligence on foreign


partners

due diligence (with )

c ; ;
c ;

due-on-sale clause

due process of law

dull business

; ;
; ; ;
(, )

duly authorised

duly signed

155

dummy account

dummy corporation

, ;
; ,
;
; ;
- ( )

dumping

dumping duty

duopoly

duplicate a project (v.)

duplicate consignment note

duplicate coverage

duplicate taxation

durable goods

duration

; ;
; ; ;
;

duration guidelines

; ;

duration matching

( );
( )

duration of a loan

;
( );
(
)

duration of a mortgage

;
( )

duration of a project

duration of guarantee

duration of pledge

duration of present employment

Dutch auction

(
)

dutiable

dutiable goods

, ;
,

dutiable value

duties of the surety

duty applied

156

duty free

duty free trade

duty of care

;
() ()

duty of disclosure

;
;
( )

157

E
e-business

; ;
(.)

e-commerce

; (.);
;

e-mail address

; ();
;

e-signature

; , ;
; ;
;
;

e-tailing

( )

e-ticket

each month or fraction thereof

early closure of the least safe


plants [NSA]


[]

early extinguishment of debt

( )

early stage equity

early warning memorandum


(EWM)

; ( )

early withdrawal penalty

( );

earmarked

; ;

earmarked funds

; ;

earn-out right



158

earned income

; ;

earned revenues

earned surplus

earnest money

earning assets

(); ;

earning process

earnings

; ; ; (.);
( )

earnings before depreciation, net []; ;


interest and tax

earnings before interest and tax
(EBIT)

earnings per share (EPS)

; ;

earnings (receivables and


payables)

( );

earnings yield

Earth Summit (United Nations


Conference on Environment
and Development)

( ) (-, 1992 )

easement of necessity

easily-realisable assets

easy-money policy

EBRD Articles (inform.)

EBRD Disbursement Handbook

EBRD - Japan Special


Earmarked Fund

EBRD Procurement Policies


and Rules

EBRD Procurement Rules

EBRD Terms and Conditions for


Issuance of Trade Guarantees

EC Delegate

EC Delegation

eco-tourism

ecocide

ecological footprint

; ;


159

econometrics

economic adjustment

economic agent

; ;
;
;

economic analysis

; ;
();
;

Economic and Monetary Union


(EMU) [EU]

[]

economic benefit

; ;

Economic Commission for


Europe (ECE) [UN]

() []

Economic Development Institute []


(EDI) [IBRD]
economic efficiency

economic entity

; ;
;
;

economic environment

; ;

economic exchange rate (EER)

economic gain

economic good

economic growth

economic harassment

; ;
; ;

economic interest (in a


company)
economic jurisdiction

; ;

economic life

economic occupation

economic opportunity loan [US]

[]

economic performance

economic profile of a project

economic rate of return (ERR)

;
;

160

economic regulation

;
;

economic rent

economic security

economic soundness

();
();

economic surplus

economic trends

;
;

economic utilisation

economic value

economically justifiable project

economically justified project

economically sound project

economically viable project

economics of a project

; ;
;

economics of location

;
;

Economics of Transition

( )

economies of scale

;
;

economies of scope

;
;

economies in transition

;
,

effect of off-balance-sheet
instruments

(
)

effective

effective annual rate (EAR)

effective date

effective demand

; ;
;

effective interest rate

161

effective maturity

; ;
;

effective price

; ( ) ;

effective profit

effective rate

() ( )

effective rate of return

effective terms

effective yield

effectiveness

; ()

efficiency

efficient allocation of resources

;
;
;
;

efficient cause

efficient-market theory

efficient portfolio

,
; ;
,

effluents

; ;

elastic demand

elasticity

(, , )

elected official

electronic authorisation

electronic banking

( )

electronic book-entry system

electronic cottage

, ( / )

electronic data interchange (EDI) ()


electronic data processing (EDP) ;

electronic funds transfer (EFT)

();
;
,

162

electronic tolling

(

)

electronic trading

;
(, )

electronic validity check

eligibility

; ;

eligibility criteria for


beneficiaries and subprojects

; ,
;
; ,

eligibility criterion

; ;
; ;

eligible

; ;
;

eligible acceptance

eligible bank bills rate [UK]

[]

eligible bidder

;
,

eligible costs

; ;
;

eligible counterparty

eligible expenses

; ;
; ;

eligible paper

eligible sector

, ();
, ;

eligible security

eligible subproject

, ;
, ;

eligible tenderer

; ;
, ;
,

eligible vote

elimination of undistributed
profits

(
)

email address

; ();
;

emblements

;
163

emergency initiating event

emergency loan

emergency regulatory
instrument
emergency repair

emerging economies

;
;

emerging markets

; ;
; ;
; ;

emerging markets fund

,
;
,

emission charge

(.)

emission limit value

(.)

emissions trading

( ) (.)

emoluments

employee earnings record

( )

employee population

employee profile

employee profit sharing plan

employee stock ownership plan


(ESOP)

(
)

employee turnover

employer

; ; ( )

employers liability insurance

(
)

employment pattern

; ;

enabling environment

enabling legislation

;
;

enactment

encashment

; ; ;
; ;

encashment of capital

subscription
encashment of promissory notes ; ;

encashment policy


164

encryption

( , )

encumber a share (v.)

encumbered assets

; ;
; ;
,

encumbered share

encumbrance

; ; ;

end borrower

end date

end-loaded loan

end note

(
)

end-of-month payment (EMP)

end-to-end servicing

end user

endogenous variable

()

endorsee

endorsement

; ;

endorsement for collection

endorsement in blank

endorsement in full

endorsement without recourse

; ;

endorser

endowment

()

endowment assurance

endowment capital

; -; , ;
,

endowment mortgage

,
( ,

);
, ( ,
)

165

enduring market

; ;

energy conservation

energy efficiency (EE)

; ;

energy-efficient equipment

energy intensity

energy performance contract


(EPC)
energy saving

energy saving company (ESCO)

()

energy service company (ESCO) ()


energy supply risk

energy wastage

enforceability

; ;
;
;

enforceability and arbitration

;
;

enforceability of security
interests
enforceable


; ;
;
( );
,

enforced sale

; ;
;
; -

enforcement

; ;
; ();

enforcement cost

;
;

enforcement notice

enforcement of an arbitration
award

;
;

enforcement of charge

;
;

enforcement of debt

166

enforcement proceedings

engagement letter

;
()

engineered cost

engineering

; ;

engineering manager

engineering services

( );
( );
- ( )

engineering study

( )

engrossment

;
;

enhance security (v.)

enhanced human environment

enhanced issue

Enhanced Structural Adjustment


Facility (ESAF) [IMF]
() []
enhancement line

enhancement of regulatory
regimes

enjoyment

()

enlarged access policy [IMF]

[]

enter as income over the period


(v.)
enter into swaps (v.)

enter items in the books (v.)

enter reservations (v.)

enterprise

; ; ;

enterprise administrator

enterprise charge

Enterprise Fund [EBRD]

[]

enterprise in default

;
, ;
;
;
; -;

167

Enterprise Restructuring Project ()


(ERP) [EBRD]
[]
enterprise value (EV) (debt plus
market capitalisation)

( , )

entertainment allowance

entire contract

entitlement process

entity

; ;

entrance duty

; ;

entrant firm

( ) ; -;

entrepreneurial initiative

entrepreneurship

entry cost

; ;
( )

entry into force

entry-level job

entry over an account

(.)

entry salary

entry visa

environment

; ; ;
; ; ;
; ;

environment abuse

environmental action plan (EAP)

() []

Environmental Action
Programme (EAP) [CPP]

() []

Environmental Advisory Council () []


(ENVAC)
environmental analysis

environmental appraisal

environmental appraisal
procedures

environmental appraisal process


Environmental Appraisal Unit
(EAU)

[]

168

environmental assessment (EA)

environmental audit

environmental baseline study

environmental clean-up

standards
environmental compliance report ;
;
(.)
environmental consultant

environmental consulting firm

environmental cost

;
;

environmental covenant

environmental degradation

environmental depletion

environmental due diligence


(EDD)

();

environmental effect

environmental engineering

environmental enhancement

;
;

environmental evaluation

;
( )

environmental evaluation
memorandum (EEM)

environmental examination

environmental exclusion list

environmental expertise

environmental externality

environmental footprint

; ;

environmental ID

environmental impact

;
;
;
(.)

169

environmental impact and risk


assessment

environmental impact
assessment (EIA)

() ( )

environmental impact
assessment and audit (EIAA)

() ( )

environmental impact statement


(EIS)

()
(- )

environmental implications

environmental information

; ;

environmental investigation

environmental legislation

environmental liability

environmental management

environmental management plan ;



environmental management
system (EMS)

environmental mandate

[]

environmental monitoring

environmental passport

environmental permit

environmental procedure

Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) [US]

() [];
() []

environmental remediation

;
;

environmental requirement

environmental review

[]

environmental review
memorandum (ERM)

[];
[]

environmental risk rating

[]

environmental screening

[]

environmental screening
category (ESC)

() []

170

environmental screening
memorandum (ESM)

[]

environmental setting

; (
)

environmental soundness

environmental specialist

; ;

environmental standard

; ;
;

environmental training

environmentally benign

; ;

environmentally protected
or sensitive area

(.)

environmentally safe plant

environmentally sound and


sustainable development

[];
[];

environmentally sound
technologies and processes

Environments in transition
(The environmental bulletin
of the EBRD)

(
) ( )

equal weighting

equalisation levy

equalisation of dividends

equalising duty

equality of tax treatment

equally ranking creditor

equally weigh the projects


overall debt composition in US
dollars and euros (v.)

equilibrium price

equipment bond

equipment note

; ,

equipment purchase contract

equitable action

equitable claim

171

equities

; ; ;
;

equities market

equity

; ( );
; ( );
; ;
;
( )

equity borrowing

equity capital

;
( );
( )

equity capital ratio

equity derivatives

;
;

equity disinvestment

; ( );

equity divestment

; ( );

equity divestment agreement

equity financing

;
;
; ;

equity financing agreement

;
;
;

equity from bilateral sources

equity fund

; ;
;
,

equity (in )

equity in kind

equity injection

equity instrument

equity investment

equity investment account

equity investment agreement

172

equity investment company

equity investor

; ; ( );
,

equity issue

equity kicker

()
( )

equity market

equity market maker

, ;
,

equity method

equity offering

; ;

equity position

; ( );
; ;

equity product

equity rate of return

equity, reserves and deferred


debts

, (
)

equity stake

; ; ;

equity subscription agreement

equity transaction

( )

equity warehousing

equivalent unit

eradicate tax benefits (v.)

erosion (without )

error of commission

(.);

error of omission

(.)

escalator

escape clause

( );
, ;

escheat


;

173

escrow

escrow account

; ; ;
(
) ;

escrow agent

- ( )

escrow funds

Escrowed Encryption Standard


(Clipper chip)

establish an account (v.)

( )

established client

; ; ;

established firm

( ) ;
; ;
;

established procedure

; ;
;

established track record

; ;

establishment expenses

estate property

estimated completion date of


project

estimated completion time (ECT) ;


;

estimated cost

; ;
;

estimated date of arrival (EDA)

estimated error

; ; ;
;

estimated expenditure

estimated government revenues

;
;
;

estimated liabilities

estimated price

estimated realisable value

;
;

estimated starting date of project ;



174

estimated time of arrival (ETA)

; ;

estimated useful life

estimated value

; ; ;
; ;

ethical investment

, - ;
,
-

euro; Euro ()

Euro Banking Association (EBA)


Euro CD

Euro LIBID fix

Euro Medium Term Note


Programme


[]

Euro non-settlement day

Euro settlement day

Eurobond

Eurobond due 2006

2006

Eurobond market

Eurobond transaction

Eurocommercial paper
(ECP; Euro-CP)

(
)

eurocurrencies

Eurodollars

Euroequities

, ;
,

Euromoney rate

Europe Agreement (EA)

(
)

European Bank for


()
Reconstruction and
Development (EBRD)
European Bank Training Network
European Central Bank (ECB)

()

European Commission (EC)

();
() ()

European Community (EC)

()

175

European Communitys Council


Directive on the Annual
Accounts and Consolidated
Accounts of Banks and Other
Financial Institutions

European Currency Unit (ECU)

()

European Economic Area

European Economic Community ()


(EEC)
European Energy Charter

European Environment Agency


(EEA)

European Environmental Bureau


(EEB)
European Exchange Mechanism
(EEM)

European Free Trade


Association (EFTA)

()

European Investment Bank (EIB) ()


European Investment Fund (EIF)

()

European Monetary System


(EMS) [EU]

[]

European Reserve Fund

European-style option

European Union (EU)

(EC)

European Young Bar


Association (EYBA)

evaluation

evaluation officer

evaluation sheet

even money

event insured against

event of acceleration

, ;
,

event of default

; ;
; ;
, ;
(.)

evergreen credit

( )

every possible precaution

176

evidence of debt

evidence of title

, ;

evidence suggests

ex-dividend

ex-dividend date

(
)

ex-factory (EXW)

; ; -

ex-factory price (EXW price)

; -

ex-gratia payment

ex-mill (EXW)

; ; -

ex post assessment of transition impact

ex-warrants

ex-works (EXW)

; ; -

ex-works price (EXW price)

; -

exaction of tax

examination

; ; ;

examination of goods

( )

examination of seals

( )

examination report

examining operation

excepted peril

(.);
,

exception report

( )

exceptional exchange gain

exceptional gain

exceptional item

(.)

exceptional loss

exceptions report


( )

excess

(.) []

excess capacity

;
;
;

excess cash

177

excess demand

; ;

excess economy

; ;
( )

excess liquidity

; ;
;

excess loan

( ) ;

excess of loss

(.)

excess profit(s) tax

excess reserve

; ;

excess supply

excess wage tax

excessive price

exchange arrangements

exchange broker

exchange clause

exchange commission

exchange controls

; ;

exchange difference

exchange fee

; (.);

exchange gain

exchange loss

exchange market intervention

exchange member

exchange of shares

( -)

exchange price

exchange rate

exchange rate band

exchange rate contract

exchange rate difference

exchange rate movements

; ;
;

exchange rate risk


178

exchange rate system

exchange regulations

; ;
;

exchange reserve

exchange restriction

; ;

exchange risk management

;
; ,
;

exchange stabilisation fund

exchangeable bond

( ) ;
; , ( )

excisable goods

excise duty

excise tax

exclusion list

exclusion principle

exclusion zone

exclusionary privilege

exclusive contract

exclusive development

; ;
(.)

exclusive distribution agreement


exclusive item

; ;
; ;
;

exclusive of disbursement

exclusive product

; ;
; ;
;

exclusive right

exclusive usage mode

exclusivity

exculpation of directors

()

executed consideration

179

executing a transaction

executing agency

execution and delivery

()

execution copy

()

execution of a project

; ;
;

execution of an agreement

; ;
;

execution-only stockbroker

, ( )

execution page

()

executive

()

executive agency

executive assistant

-; ;

executive board

; ; ;
()

executive committee

( , )

Executive Director (ED) [IBRD;


IMF]
executive endorsement

[; ]

executive summary

; ; ;
( )

executor

executory consideration

executory contract

exempt assets

exempt goods

exempt security

, (
)

exemption

; ; ( );

exemption from duties

( )

exercise an option (v.)

; ;

exercise of security

;
;

180

exercise price

exercise security (v.)

; ;

exhibit

; ( )

existing accounting principles

existing and planned generation

existing environment

(.)

existing goods

; , ;
;

existing loan

, ;
;

exit audit

(.);
(.)

exit bond

( );

exit strategy

( , );

exit strategy of investment

;
( )

exit visa

exogenous variable

exorbitant price

expanded annual monitoring


report (XAMR)

expansionary fiscal policy

;
;

expatriate expert

expectational inflation

expected date of arrival (EDA)

; ;

expected profit

; ;

expected project costs

expected reward

; ;
; ;
; ;

expected time of arrival (ETA)

; ;

expected useful life

;
181

expedite re-registration process


(v.)
expedited trial

expendables and consumables

()
(.)

expenditure

( ); ;
; ;

expenditure multiplier

expenditures financed by
accumulation of arrears

, ; , ;
,

expense budget

expense claims form

expense timesheet

expense voucher

expenses

; ; ( )

expensing

experience adjustment

experience to date

expert evidence

expert findings

expert opinion

expertise

; ; ; ; ;
;

expiration

; ()

expired operation

( - )

expiry date

(, )

explanatory variable

explicit costs

export and import clearance

export credit agency (ECA)

- ()

export credit facility

; - ;
;

Export Credit Guarantee


Department (ECGD) [UK]

;
-

export credit lender

, -

182

export credit loan

- ;
; , - ;
; , -

export credit loan agreement

, -

export credit loan arrangement


technique (ECLAT)

-
();
-
();
- ()

export credit loan third party


guarantee

export credit loan third party


guarantee agreement

export credit loan third party


guarantor

export credit support

- ;
;

export credit support amount

export credit terms

Export Development Corporation () [];


(EDC) [Canada]
-
export duty

; ;

export earnings

; ;
;

export guarantee

export income

; ;
;

export marketing activities

; ;
;

export proceeds

; ;
;

export receipts

; ;
;

export receivables

;
; ;
;

export revenues

; ;
;

export risk guarantee

183

export surplus

(
)

export tariff

; ;
;

export version

()

exposure

; ; ;
(, . .); ;
( , , );
( , , );
( )

exposure diversification

exposure hedging

exposure limitations

; ;

exposure of banks

,
;
;
( );
( ); ;

exposure to loss

expression of opinion

expropriation

extend liability (v.)

Extended Fund Facility (EFF)


[IMF]

();
() []

extended services

extended term

( )

extended term arrangement

extension agreement

extension worker

extent of damage

extent of damages

extent of examination

extent of liability

extent of loss

external account

;
()

external actuary

184

external asset manager (EAM)

;
(.)

external assets

external auditor

; ;

external balance

external current account

external debt net of reserves

external debt refinancing

external debt reorganisation

external debt rescheduling

external debt service payment

external debt service ratio

external dimensions

() ()

external diseconomies

external economies

external financing

external holdings

; ;
;

external imbalances

;
;
;

external indebtedness

; ;

external management

( )

external manager

( )

external support

external versus induced


variables
externality

extinguishment of a debt

extra dividend

extra low emission (ELE)

extrabudgetary

; ;
,

185

extraordinary general meeting

;
;
()

extraordinary income

extraordinary items

EXW Loaded On

( ;
-)

186

F
F terms

F [ ]

face interest rate

face value

; ;

facilities

; ; ;
; ; ;
; ;

facility

; ; ;
; ; ;
( ); ; ;
;

facility fee

facility risk rate

( ,
)

fact-finding mission

( );
;

factor (v.)

factor incomes

(, , )

factor markets

factor mobility

factored goods

, ; ;
,

187

factoring

; ; ;
;
;

factory gate price

factsheet

fade-out joint venture

, ;
(
)

failed bank

-;

failing bank

; , ;
;

failing payment

failure of a condition

failure rate

;
;

failure to become effective

failure to exercise rights

failure to pay

failure to present

fair average quality (f.a.q.)

;
( -)

fair competition

fair government

fair market value

; -

fair price

; ;

fair price provision

fair return

( )

fair value

; ;
; ;
; ;
( )

fair view

( )

fair wear and tear excepted

;
( )

fall-away guarantee

, ( );
;

188

false accounting

false cheque

faltering enterprise

, ;
; ;
, ;

fare basis

()

FAS (free alongside ship)


(... named port of shipment)

... ( )

fast-disbursing policy-based
lending

; ;

fast-pay bond

, ;
;
;

fast-payback project

fast-track contracting

;
;
;

fast-track privatisation

fault-based liability

favourable leases

favourable tax regime

favourable terms

favoured contractor

FCA (free carrier) (... named


place)
feasibility

- ... ( )
(); ();
(); ()

feasibility study (FS)

- ()

feasible project

; ;

feasible strategy

; ;

features of a loan

Federal Deposit Insurance


Corporation

[]

federal funds

; ;

[]

189

federal government bond

federal government securities


fund
Federal Reserve System (FRS)

[]

fee

; ; ; ()

fee and commission expenses

fee and commission income

fee-based service

fee schedule

(); ();
()

feedback

feel-good factor

( , )

fees

; ; ;
;

fiat money

; ;
; ;

fictitious assets

fidelity card

; ;
(
- ,
)

fidelity insurance

;
,

fiduciary

fiduciary duty

fiduciary funds

fiduciary issue

; ;

fiduciary loan

fiduciary operations

field conditions

; ;

field facilities

field visit

filing charge

; ;

filing document

() []

190

filing fee

; ;

filings

; ;

Fill or Kill

final destination

final dividend

final good

final proof

(, )

final report

; ;

final review

(
)

final review memorandum (FRM) (


, );

final review package (FRP)

(
)

final salary pension scheme

( )

final salary retirement plan

finalise (v.)

finance

; ; ; ;
()

finance bill

( )

finance charge

[]

finance company

[]

finance house

, []

finance lease

; ;

finance loan

();

financeable

();
();
( );
( )

financial accounting

;
( , )

financial advice

191

financial adviser

;
; ( );
,

financial analysis

financial analyst

;
;
; (.)

financial architecture

();

financial assets

financial backstop

; ;

financial business

; ;

financial buyer

; ;
,

financial close

financial condition

financial consultant

financial counsellor

financial covenant

financial covenants catalogue

(,
; )

financial disclosure
requirements

, ;
, ; , ()

financial engineering

financial estimate

financial expert

; ;
;

financial fraud

financial futures

financial industrial group (FIG)

- ()

financial information

financial innovation of external


debt

;
;

financial institution

; ;

192

financial instrument

financial intermediary (FI)

()

financial intermediary loan (FIL)

financial internal rate of return


(FIRR)

financial investment

; ;

financial investor

; ;

financial lease

; ;
( );
;

financial leasing

( . .)

financial leverage

;
;
;

financial liabilities

financial loan

();
; ;
;
;

financial management

();

financial memorandum

[];

financial modelling

;
;
;
()

financial obligation

financial outlook

financial period

financial policy

financial policy guidelines

financial position

financial projections

; ;
;

financial rate of return (FRR)

;

193

financial ratio

financial ratios of a venture

financial recompense

; ;

financial records

financial rehabilitation

; ;

financial reporting requirements

;
;
,

Financial Reporting Standards


(FRS) [UK]

[];
[]

financial restructuring

(); ();
()

financial results

financial returns

; ;

Financial Risk Management


(FRM)
financial risk management

financial savings

financial self-sufficiency

;
;
;
(.)

financial soundness

; ;
; ;
;

financial stability

();

financial standing

; ;
;

financial statement

financial statements

; ;
( )

financial structure

financial telecommunication
(SWIFT)

;
; SWIFT

financial terms

()

financial transaction

financial turmoil

; ;
;

194

financial vehicle

; ;

financial year

financially strapped company

, ;
, ;

financier

financing

; ;

financing activities

; ;

financing agreement

; ;

financing company

; ;
,

financing contract

financing instrument

financing mechanism

financing package

; ;

financing product

financing structure

financing under a grant

financing vehicle

finders fee

();
;

fine print

(, ); ;

fine tuning

(, )

finished goods

finished project

firewall

(
);
; ( - )

firm commitment

firm commitment underwriting

( )

firm-fixed-price contract (FFPC)

firm market

firm of accountants

; ()

195

firm offer

; ,

firm quote

firm underwriting

(
)

firms confirmation value

;
;

firms liquidation value

;
() ;

first-come, first-served basis


(on a )

; ;
(, . .);

first cost

; ;

first in, first out (FIFO)

first lien

first loss cover

, ;

first loss insurance

first mortgage

first ranking debt

first ranking loss payee

;

;
;

first vice president

- (
)

fiscal adjustment

fiscal charge

fiscal consolidation

fiscal deficit

fiscal fraud

fiscal immunity

; ;

fiscal incentive

- ; ;

fiscal law

196

fiscal/monetary mix

- -

fiscal policy

- ;

fiscal position

fiscal responsibilities

fiscal revenues

; ;
()

fiscal year

; ;

fixed advance

fixed assets

; ; ;
; ;
; ;

fixed basic public switched


telephony

fixed capital

fixed capital depreciation ratio

fixed charge (fxc)

; ;
; ;
;

fixed conversion rate

fixed cost

fixed-date bill

fixed deposit

; ;

fixed exchange rate

;
;

fixed fee

; ;
;

fixed income back office

fixed income debt security

fixed-income fund

fixed income investment

fixed income security

fixed income trading

fixed inputs

; ;

197

fixed interest rate

fixed interest security

fixed investment

fixed investment ratio

fixed margin

; ;

fixed payment mortgage

fixed price (FP)

fixed-price contract

fixed production overheads

fixed property

fixed rate

fixed rate assets

fixed rate loan

fixed rate unwinding charge

( ) ;

fixed redemption value security

flag (v.)

flag of convenience (FOC)

flagged document

; , ( );
,

flat conversion rate

flat fee

; ; ;
;

flat front-end fee

( )

flat market

; ; ;
;

flat position

( );

flat rate

; ;
;

flat-rate fee

; ; ;
; ;
;

flat rate per day

flat yield

198

fleet market

(
);
( . .)

fleet renewal

( );
(, . . )

fleshed-out law

; ;
;

fleshing out a project

flexible drawdown schedule

(
)

flexible exchange rate

; ;

flexible fund

flexible manufacturing system


(FMS)

()

flexible payment mortgage

flexible prices

flexible working arrangements

flexible working hours

flexitime

flight capital

flip-in

float

; ;
;

float shares (v.)

( );
( , )

floating a company

floating assets

floating capital

floating cash reserve

floating charge (flc)

( );

floating debt

; ;
(
)

199

floating exchange rate

; ;

floating interest rate

floating policy

(.)

floating rate

floating rate assets

floating rate loan

floating rate note (FRN)

;
( );

flog shares (v.)

; ;

flood of goods on the market

floor

( );

floor broker

floor planning

;
;

floor price

; ;
( );
( )

floor strike

floor trader

flotation

; ;

flotation costs

; ( );

flow diagram

-;

flow of funds account

flow route

; ;
-;

flowback

(
;
)

fluctuations

fluid market

;
;

fly-in

( ) ;
; , ;
; ,

FOB (free on board) (... named


port of shipment)

( ... ) ( )

200

FOB American

FOB Stowed

fobbing

focused human resource

focused retailer

follow-up letter

-;

footer

- ( , )

foothold

; ,

Footsie

for account

;
;

for application

for collection

For Official Use Only

() ( )

for-profit institution

(
, , . .)

for value

; ;

for value received

for value today

(,)

forbearance

;
( . .)

force majeure

; ;

forced liquidation

forced loan

forced sale

; ;
; ;
;

forced sale of collateral

;
;

forced savings

foreclose on mortgaged
property (v.)

( );

foreclosure

;
; ;
;

201

foreclosure procedure

;
(
)

foreclosure sale

( );
( )

foreign affiliate

foreign assets

; ;

foreign branch

foreign capital

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act


(FCPA) [US]


[]

foreign currency

; ; ; ;

foreign-currency-denominated
account

foreign currency law

foreign currency short position

;
(.)

foreign currency transaction

foreign currency translation

; ;

foreign debt

foreign direct investment (FDI)

();

foreign entity

foreign exchange

; ; ; ;

foreign exchange and interest


rate contract

foreign exchange consents and


permits

; ;

foreign exchange controls

; ;

foreign exchange earner

foreign exchange exposure

;
;

foreign exchange holdings

foreign exchange market

foreign exchange movements

202

foreign exchange outgoings

;
;

foreign exchange position

foreign exchange rate

foreign exchange reserve

; ;

foreign exchange risk

foreign exchange swap

foreign exchange trading

; ;

foreign holdings

; ;

foreign investment

; ;

Foreign Investment Advisory


Council (FIAC) [RF]


() []

foreign market value (FMV)

foreign operations

foreign ownership regulations

; , ;
,

foreign source income

foreign tax credit (FTC)

foreign trade balance

foreign trade financing

forensic accounting

foreseeable future

forest sector

forestry

forex (foreign exchange)

; ; ; ;

forex position report

forex surrender

( )

forfeit

forfeit the percentage (v.)

forfeited pledge

; ; ,

forgivable loan

; -

203

forgiveness of external debt

form

( )

format of annual general


meetings

; ;

formation expenses

forum

; ; ( )

forward budget

forward business

forward cover

forward deal

; ;

forward exchange contract

forward exchange option

forward exchange rate

forward fixed interest rate

forward foreign exchange market


forward margin

forward pricing

forward purchase

forward quotation

forward rate

( ; )

forward rate agreement (FRA)

forwarding

()

forwarding agent

forwarding agent agreed


by customs

forwarding enterprise

-;

forwarding order

founder

();

founder liability

founders share

founding charter

(, )

204

fourth-to-fourth (quarter)

( )

fractional reserve

fractional reserve system

fractional share

framework agreement

; ;
; ;

framework contract

; ; ;
;

Framework Convention on
Climate Change [UN]

[]

franchise

; ;

franchise fee revenues

franchise tax

franchisee

; ; ;
( )

franchiser

( );

franchising

; ;

franked dividend

( )

fraudulent bankruptcy

; ;

fraudulent deal

; , ;
( );

fraudulent practice

Free Alongside Ship (FAS)


(... named port of shipment)

... ( )

free banking

Free Carrier (FCA) (...named


place)
free economic zone (FEZ)

- ... ( )

free flow of capital

free goods

free issue

free limit subloan

free market economy

free market exchange rate

()

205

free-of-control price

; ; ;
,

free of premium

free offer

Free On Board (FOB) (... named


port of shipment)

( ... ) ( )

free on rail

free-rider

,
(- )

free security

free worker

, ;

free-standing project

freehold property

[]

freely floating currency

freight all kinds (FAK)

( )

freight collect


( )

freight forwarder

(); ;

freight prepaid


( )

freight rate

freightage

fresh issue

frictional unemployment

friendly society

; ;
[]

friendly suit

friendly takeover

fringe benefit

;
( )

fringe service

from day to day

from time to time

; ;
(.); ;

front-end commission

; ;
( ;
)

206

front-end fee (FEF)

; ;
(,
; )

front-end load

, ( ,
. .)

front-end loading


;

;

front end of the market

front-loaded loan

front office

; , (
back office);
(); ;

front-owning company

front party

frozen account

; ;

frozen assets

; ;

frozen balance

; ;

fruit of property

frustration of contract

FTSE Index

fugitive debtor

, ;

fulfil commissions for a bank (v.)


full convertibility

full cost

full cost recovery

; () ( )

full disclosure

full employment

full premium if lost (FPIL)


(.)

full recourse

full recourse financing


()

207

full right of use

full-service bank

; ;
,

full time (F/T)

; ( );
;

full trial balance

full value insurance

( )

fully funded pension plan

, ( ,
)

fully paid (FP)

; ;

fully paid-up share capital

function

; ; ();
;

function team

functional currency

functioning market economy

fund manager

; ;
; ,

fund managing company;


fund managment company

;
,

fund viable public and private


sector projects (v.)

fundamental accounting
assumptions (accruals,
consistency, going concern)

(, , )

fundamental accounting
concepts (accruals,
consistency, going concern,
prudence)
fundamental analysis

(, , , )

fundamental error

funded debt

; ;
;

funded loan

( )

208

funded pension

; ;
,

funded property

fundholder

[]

funding arrangements

funding costs

; ;

funding debt

; ;
;

funding gap

( )

funding recipient

; ;
;

funds

; ;

funds advanced against a line


of credit

funds committed

; ;

funds-in-trust

funds statement

fungibility

;
;
; ;
;
( )

fungible

fungible goods

, ;

fungibles

; ;
;
()

funny money

; ( );
; (
) []

furnished office space

furnishing of information

; ;
;

fusion of markets

; ;
; ;

future assets

, ;
,
209

future contamination

( ) ;
(.)

future debt

, ;
, ;
;

future economic benefit

future flow securitisation

;

;
,

future goods

, ;

future instalments of capital


not yet received

, ; , ( )

future value

futures contract

futures exchange

; (.);
(.)

futures market

; ;
(.)

futures option

FX limits

G
gain for tax purposes

gain recognition

( )

gains on disposal of assets

;

210

galloping inflation

gambling policy

gap

;

;
( );
( )

gap management

gapping

gardening leave

(
);

( )

garnishee order

(
)

garnishment

( -
)

gazumping

(
);
(
);
( , )

GDR capital raisings

gearing

;
; ;

gearing ratio

;
;

general acceptance

general administrative expenses ;


(G&A)
;
-
General Agreement on Tariffs
and Trade (GATT)

()

general and administrative


expenses (G&A)

;
;
-

general appearance

( )

general appraiser

( )

211

general arrangements to borrow


(GAB)

general assignment

; ;
;

general average (G/A)

(.)

general average contribution

(.);
(.)

general average loss

(.)

general balance sheet

general business conditions

; ;

general capital increase (GCI)

(, )

general contingency

general contractor

general correspondence

general counsel

();

general creditor

; ,

general damages

, ;
;

general endorsement

general equilibrium

general examination

( )

general exception

(.)

general good

general government balance

general government expenditure ;



general guarantee

general insurance policy (GIP)

general licence

general manager

; (, );
( )

general meeting

general obligation (GO)

(
)
212

general obligation bond


(GO bond)

, ;
(
)

general operating statement

general operations

general overheads

general partner

( );
;

general partnership

general policy

(.)

general power of attorney

general price level change

general procurement notice


(GPN)

;
( );

general property tax

general public

general purchasing power


approach

general reserve

general rule

general staff

- ;

general telephone system (GTS)

()

generalised shortages

Generalized System of
Preferences (GSP)

()

Generally Accepted Accounting


Principles (GAAP)

();

Generally Accepted Auditing


Standards (GAAS)

;
;

generally recognised as having


been codified or ripened into
binding rules

generation and preparation


of operations

;
;

generator permit

Generic Loan Features and


Pricing

( )

213

generic term

genetic engineering

geographical segment

gilt (gilt-edged security)

[];
[];
[]

gilt-edged contract

;
()

gilt-edged market

gilt-edged market maker (GEMM)


[UK]
[]
gilt-edged security (gilt)

[];
[];
[]

gilt prices

[];

giro

giro agreement

giro bank

giro cheque

giro clearing system

giro transfer

;
( )

give time

; ;
; ;

giver of a bill

glass ceiling

; ( , ;
) []

glass escalator

(
)

global assignment

; ;
;

global bond

global debt market

;
;
;
;

214

global depositary receipt (GDR)

Global Environmental Facility


(GEF)

;
[]

global guarantee

; ; ;
;

global integration

global permit

; ;

global power of attorney

global price

globalisation

globalisation of markets

; ;

globally distributed bond issue

GNP gap

GO bond (general obligation


bond)

, ;
(
)

go public (v.)

;
( )

going concern

;
; ;
;
;

going-out-of-business sale

;
;
;
;

going-private transaction

going short

,
(
)

gold-digger

; , ; ;
;

gold standard

;
,

golden farewell

( );

215

golden good-bye

( );

golden handcuffs

, ;
,

golden handshake

golden parachute

(
,

/ )

golden rule of banking

" ";
" " (
)

golden share

; ;
" " (
)

good business practice

; ;
;
;

good consideration

good corporate governance

good excuse

; ;
; ;

good faith

; ;
;
( );

good faith loan

; ;
;

good grounds

; ;
; ;
;

good manufacturing practice


(GMP) [US]

good operating practice

good practice

good reason

; ;
; ;
;
216

good receipt

; ;

good repute

good this month (GTM)

good this week (GTW)

good-till-cancelled order

good title

; ;
; ;

good working order (in ~)

; ;
;

good working practice

;
;

goods and non-factor services


(GNFS)

( )

goods despatched

goods flow

goods in transit insurance

goods on hand

; - ;
;

goods received note (GRN)

goods traffic

goodwill

; ;
; ; ;

governing language

(, );

governing law

government agency issues

;
;

government agency obligation

;
;

government balance (general )


government bond market

government budget

government debt

government funding

;
;

217

government grant

; ;
;

government-guaranteed loan

, (sovereign loan);
,

government liabilities

;
;

government order

; ;
;

government procurement

government sector

government security

governor

grace period

; ;
( );
;

grade

( ); ( );

grade of quality

grading

( , );
()

graduated tax

, ;

graduation

( );
;

graduation from taxation

graduation policy

( );

grand total

; ; ( )

grandfather clause

; ( );
( )

grandfathered activities

, ;
, ,

granny bond

[]

grant

; ;
;
( );

218

grant a charge over things


and rights (v.)

grant a lien over something (v.)

(- )

grant a mortgage over


something (v.)

(- )

grant a security interest in


something to somebody (v.)

(- )

grant a security interest over


something to somebody (v.);

(- )

grant agreement

grant basis (on a ~)

grant element

,
();
; ;
()

grant funding

grant intercept

grantee

, ;
; ;

grantee of licence

grantee of trademark

, ;

granting security for a debt

grantor

gratuitous contract

graveyard market

;
;

green shoots

( );

greenfield finance (for a new


venture as opposed to
extension of an existing
enterprise)
greenfield investment

greenfield project

; ;
, ;

greenfield site

; , ;
,

;
;
;
;

219

greenhouse gas trading


(GHG trading)

;
;
(.)

greenmail

( );
, ((
)

greenmailing

grey economy

; ;
; ,

grey market

gridlock (non-payment )

grievance commission

( . .)

grievance procedure

; ( . .);
; ( )

gross appreciation

(
)

gross average

(.)

gross book value

; ;
()

gross capital formation

gross debt service ratio

gross deposits

gross disbursement

gross domestic expenditure


(GDE)
gross domestic income (GDI)

gross domestic investment (GDI) ;



gross domestic product (GDP)

()

gross figure

gross fixed capital formation


(GFCF)

gross (in )

gross income

gross input

gross interest


220

gross international reserves

gross investment

; ;

gross margin

gross national disposable


income (GNDI)

()

gross national expenditure


(GNE)
gross national income (GNI)

gross national product (GNP)

()

gross negligence

gross operating profit (GOP)

gross operating revenue

gross output

; ;

gross payroll

gross premium

gross proceeds

-;

gross product

gross profit

grossed-up redemption yield

grossing-up

; , ;
; , ( )

grounds (on the )

group of INCOTERM
(International Commercial
Terms)
group policy

(
)

groupage

growth accounting

growth fund

growth rate

guarantee

; ;

guarantee agreement

guarantee commission

()

(.)

221

guarantee credit

; ,

guarantee exposure

guarantee fee

guarantee for payment

guarantee of performance

guarantee term

guaranteed bank deposit

, (
);
,

guaranteed bond

, ;

guaranteed residual value

guarantor

; ;

guarantor bank

guarantor of the debt

guarantors authorised
representative

guideline

guideline life

( );

Guidelines for the Selection and


Contracting of Consulting
Services (GSCCS)

[]

Guidelines on the Treatment of


Foreign Direct Investment

[];

222

H
hand money

hand (on )

hand on the bargain (a

( ;

)

handling (of goods)

(, )

handling fee

handling of public funds

handling rate

()

hands-off financing

( );

hands-off investor

, ;

hands-off policy

( )

hands-on approach

; ;
;

hands-on assistance

; ;

hands-on experience

hands-on financing

hands-on investor

; ,

223

hands-on policy

( )

hard assets (inform.)

; ;

hard budget constraints

hard capital rationing

hard cash

hard copy

( );
( , )

hard currency

; ;
;
; ; ;

hard documents

hard goods

hard loan

, ;

hard selling

; ;

harmless error

harmonisation of standards

; ;
;

haulage contract

hazardous insurance

hazardous waste

head office

(); -

head office charges

(
)

head-on approach

headcount

;
;

header

- ( , )

heading

Headquarters Agreement
-
between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great

Britain and Northern Ireland

and the European Bank for
Reconstruction and
Development

224

headroom

; ;
; ;
; ;

headroom for future


commitments

heads of agreement

; ;

health and safety officer

health club

- ( )

health insurance

; ;

heavily leveraged company

heavy buyer

heavy market

hedge buying

; ;

hedge currency

hedge fund

;
;

hedge funds

, ;

hedge rate

hedged rate

hedger

; , ;

hedging

hedging cost

;
(.)

hedging device

;
;

hedging scheme

hedging strategy

hedging transaction

Hermes Kreditversicherungs-AG []; ;


(HERMES) [Germany]
-
Herstatt risk

hidden assets

( )

225

hidden inflation

hidden reserve

hidden subsidy

hidden tax

high capacity utilisation

high case

; ;
;

high-end product

; ;
; ;
;

high-grade bond

(
Standard & Poors Aaa
Aa Moodys Investors
Service)

high-performance equipment

high-powered money

high quality (AA; Aa)

(
Standard & Poors Moodys Investors Service)

high-risk appetite

; () ( );

high street bank

( ) [];

high technology

high-use vehicle

high-yield security

higher margin article

;
,

highest bidder

, ;
,

highest quality (AAA; Aaa)

(
Standard & Poors Moodys Investors Service)

highest speculation (CC; Ca)

(
Standard & Poors Moodys Investors
Service)

highly concessionary loan

highly-confident letter

(
)

highly confidential information

;
,

226

highly geared capital

highly leveraged company

highly leveraged transaction


(HLT)

;
,

highly-rated member country

- (
)

hindsight option

; (
- - )

hire out (v.)

hire-purchase (HP)

; ;

hire-purchase contract

hire purchase loan

hiring contract

;
; ;

historical cost

; ;
;

historical cost accounting (HCA) ;



historical cost convention

historical value accounting

hit list

; ;
, ;
; ;
;

hit the account (v.)

( );
( )

hit the bid (v.)

, (.)

hive off (v.)

(; );
()

hoarding

; ;
; ( )

hold for investment (v.)

hold harmless against ... (v.)

( );
( );
;

227

hold harmless clause

;
;

hold office (v.)

hold significant positions (v.)

hold time

holdback


(
; )

holder for value

; ,

holder in due course

holder of a bill

holder of a bill of exchange

holder of claims

holder of record

; ;
; ();
()

holders signature

holding company

holding gains and losses

;
;
;
;

holding period

holdings

hole in the wall;


hole-in-the-wall

(.) []; (.) [];


(.) []; (.) []

holiday leave

holiday on interest and capital


repayments

hollowing-out of industry

home banking

;

( );

228

home country

home freight

home leave

home loan

;
;

home port

home position

; ;
;

home worker

honest entrepreneur

honour a bill (v.)

horizontal integration

horticultural market

host country

( );
( );
( )

hostile takeover

; ;

hostless system

hot bills

hot card

hot desking

;
,
;
( )

hot fix

hot issues

( )

hot money

; ;
; , ;
; (
)

hotel business

hotel industry

hourly rate

229

hours (before ~)

; ;
( )

hours of business

; ; ;
;

house bill

( )
[];
,
[]

house brand

(
)

house rules

();
, ;
;

household budget

household expenditures

household goods

household monetary overhang

housekeeping

();
( )

housekeeping data

housekeeping function

housekeeping information

housekeeping overheads

housing allowance

housing development

; ();

housing estate

housing loan

( )

housing stock

hull insurance

( , )

human engineering

human environment

human resources (HR)

; ; ;
; ; ;

human resources director

human resources management

humped yield curve

;
,

hurdle rate

; ( )
230

hurdle rate of return

( );

hybrid security

;
( )

handling rate

()

hyperinflation

( , 50% )

hypothecary action

hypothecary debt

hypothecation

; ; ;
[]

231

I
i-mode


( )

IDD phone (international direct


dial phone)

identification

; ;
-; ,
( )

identification number

identification of investors

; ;

identification of chargor

( );

identification of projects

; ;
;

identification of risks

identify a domicile (v.)

( )

idle assets

; ;
; ;

idle capacities

idle capital

; ;
;

idle equipment

;
;
;

idle facility expense

, ;

232

idle money

; ;
;

idle period

idle resources

; ;

idle-time cost

illicit activity

illiquid asset

; ;
;

illiquid bond

( )

IMF Institute

imitative trade mark

immaterial issue

; ;
,

immediate cause

immediate container

immediate credit

immediate dependant

Immediate or Cancel

immediately available funds

;
;
, ;
;

immision limit

(.);
(.)

immobilisation

; ;
;

immovable property

immune from legal process

immunisation

immunity

(.);

immunity from jurisdiction

immunity of assets

impact assessment

impact loans [Japan]

233

impair any right, power or


remedy (v.)

, ;
,

impaired assets

; ( )

impaired capital

; ;
; ;

( )

impaired credit

; ;
; ;

impaired equity

(
; )

impairment of capital

; ;

impairment of dignity

(
)

impede the course of justice (v.)

;
;

impediment

impediment to international
investment

imperfect obligation

; ;
, ;

imperfect title

;
; ;

imperfection of market

; ;
;

implementation arrangements

();

implementation plan

implementation support

; ;

implementing agency

-; -

implementing order

implicit cost

; ;

implicit cost elements


234

implicit price subsidy

; ;
;

implicit subsidy

implied agreement

; ;
; -;

implied authority

implied consent

implied guarantee

import charge

; ; ;

import duty

; ; ;

import fee

; ; ;

import finance facility

import levy

; ; ;

import rationing

; ;

import substitution

import surplus

(
)

import tariff

; ; ;
;

impossibility in law

()

impoverishment

; ; ;

imprest

imprest fund

imputation

imputed cost

imputed interest

(
); ,

imputed rate of interest

imputed value

; ;

in arrears

;
( );
( )

in arrears (DD)

(
Standard & Poors)

in-blank endorsement


235

in-bond price

, ;
;
(.)

in consideration

in default (DDD)

(
Standard & Poors)

In-depth Safety Assessment


(IDSA; ISA) [NSA]

() []

in equity

in good working order

; ;
;

in gross

in-house audit

; ;
- ();

in-house counsel

; ;
;

in-house finance company

;
;
;

in-house specialisation

; ;

in kind

; ;
;

in-kind compensation

; ;

in money terms

in multiples of ...

, ...; ...

in the money

(
)

in value terms

in working order

; ;
;

inactive account

, ( );
, ;
; ;

inactive client

inaugural meeting

( )

inbuilt tendency

; ;

236

incapacity to contract

( );
( );
( )

incentive

incentive payment system

( )

incentive pricing

incentive wage

incentivise workforce (v.)

inception date

; ;
;
;

inception of a lease

inception report

[];
[];
; ()

incidence of liability

; ;

incident-prone plant

incidental expenses

incidental profit

incidentals

income account

income and expenditure account


income bond

, ;
; ,

income bracket

; ;
(.)

income distribution

income effect

income elasticity of demand

income from financial operations


income from guarantees
and underwriting

;
,

income from loans and equity


investment

income from operations

;

237

income from sales

income fund

income gearing

income policy

income splitting

(
);
( )

income statement

; ;
;
-

income tax

incoming calls

; ;

incoming traffic

; ;

incomings

; ;
; ;

inconsistent procurement

inconvertible currency

incorporated allowances

increased costs

; ;
;

increased costs certification

increased focus

(, );

increment

increment rate

incremental amount

incremental borrowing rate


of interest

incremental capital-output ratio


(ICOR)

incremental cost of capital

incremental costs

; ;

incremental to something

-; -;
-

incremental working capital

;

238

incur debt (v.)

; ;

incur expenditures (v.)

; ;

incurred costs

incurrence of liability

; ;
()

incurring of debt

; ;

indemnifiable

( );
( )

indemnification

; ( );
;

indemnification in general
average

(.)

indemnification of directors

indemnified person

;
,

indemnity

; ;
; ;

indemnity against loss

indemnity agreement

( -);
;

indemnity bond

indemnity statement

( -);
;
;

indenture

; ;
;

independent accountant

independent contract

independent control

();

independent risk control

; ( )

index fund

index-linking

index-number of purchasing
power

239

index-number of world industrial


production
index put option

indexation

indexing

indexing method

indication

(.);
( ,
)

indication rate

( );

indicative bid

( ; , )

indicative planning

indicative planning figure (IPF)

indicative priorities

indicative programme

indicative target

indicative value

indirect cost

indirect interests


( );

indirect liability

; ;

indirect method of reporting


cash flows

indirect parity

indirect tax

individual

individual age entry method

( )

individual investor

; -

individual or sole proprietorship

individual policy

(.)

individual procurement notice

;

240

individual project (IP)

individual rating

individual services contract

; ( )

individual sub-investment

individual transaction

induce foreign investments (v.)

;
;

induced investment

induced variable

inducement fund

; ;
;

indulgence

; ; ;
;

industrial bank

; ;
, []

industrial design

industrial estate

industrial goods

industrial grievance

industrial hub

; ;

industrial park

industrial property

industrial prototype

industrial relations

industrial revenue bond

;
,

industrial safety

industrial safety officer

industrial sales

;
;
;

industrial sample

241

industrial standard

; ;
; (.)

industrial value added

industrial waste

industry

; ;
; ; ;

industry average

();
;

industry segment

industry team

( , )

inelastic demand

; ;

ineligible paper

inertial inflation

infant industry

; ;

inflation accounting

inflation adjustment

inflation-proof investment

, ;
,

inflation rate

inflationary pace

inflexible price

; ;
; ()

inflow of capital

information memorandum (IM)

;
[];

information note

information overload

; ;

information services

( )

information session

information sharing agreement

information superhighway

;
(.);

information technology (IT)

;
242

information visit

informed decision

infrastructural asset

infrastructure

; ;
-

infrastructure investment

infrastructure project finance

infrastructure requirements

infringement of rules

inherent cost

; ;
-

inherent risk

(, ); ;
, -; ;
, -

inherent value

initial (v.)

( )

initial allocation

( )

initial capital

initial data

initial environmental
examination (IEE)

()

initial inventory

initial investment [ECE]

(
) [ ]

initial margin

( ), ( )

initial placement

( )

initial pricing

(
)

initial public offering (IPO)

;
( );

initial review

( ; )

initial review memorandum (IRM) (


) [];
(
)
243

initial review package (IRP)


( ) [];

( )

initial write-off amount

initial write-off certificate

initialled copy

(, )

initiate bankruptcy procedures


(v.)

initiate proceedings (v.)

; ;
; ;
;

initiating party

(
)

initiation of bankruptcy

injunction

( );

inland transportation

; ;

innocent misrepresentation

innocent purchaser

innovation

();
;

innovative approach

inoperative assets

; ;
; ;
;

inoperative resources

; ;

input costs

inputs

; ;

inquiry letter

-;

inscribed share; inscribed stock


insensible condition

inside director

; , ;

inside information

;
(
)

244

insider

; ;
,

insider information

; ( )

insider trading

;
(
)

insolvency

insolvency order

( )

inspect records (v.)

inspection

; ; ; ;
;

inspection of assets

( )

inspection of cargo

inspection of goods

installation and commissioning

installation grant

installed capacity

; ;

instalment

; ; ;
; ( );
;

instalment credit

instalment due

institute a claim (v.)

institute arbitration proceedings


(v.)

Institute for European


Environmental Policy (IEEP)

institute legal proceedings (v.)

; ;
(.); ;

institute proceedings (v.)

; ;
; ;
;

institution-building programme

institutional and management


structure

(); ;
; ;
-
245

institutional cost

institutional framework

institutional investor

; ;
- ;
;

institutional lender

; ;
- ;

institutional memory

institutional reform

; ;

institutional structure

; ;

institutional system

institutionalisation

instruct a bank (v.)

; ;
;

instructing bank

Instruction To Tenderers (ITT)

;
;
;

instructions to bidders

; ;
;

instrument

; ; ; ;
;

instrument of enforcement

instrument of incorporation

()

instrument of pledge

; ;
( )

instrument of ratification

instrument of ratification,
acceptance or approval

instrument of subscription

( )

instrument with participations

instrumentality

; ; ,

insufficient funds


( )

246

insufficient payment

; ; ;
; ; ;

insurable interest

insurable risk

insurable value

insurance

( )

insurance adjuster

; (.)

insurance against third party


liability

insurance assignment

;
;

insurance business

( );
;

insurance carrier

insurance certificate

insurance claim

; ;
;
;

insurance clause

insurance compensation

insurance consultant

insurance contract

insurance cover

insurance coverage

insurance event

insurance fraud

insurance indemnity

insurance industry

( );
;

insurance on full replacement


value

insurance policy

insurance pool

insurance premium

insurance proceeds

insurance protection

insurance regulations

, ;

247

insurance risk

; (.)

insurance scheme

insurance service charge

insurance slip

();

insurance supervision

insurance valuation

; ( )

insurance with waiting period

insurance year

insured

insured accident

insured account

insured amount

insured letter

insured risk

insured security

insured value

insurer

insurer loss limit

( );
,

intangible assets

; ;

intangible investment

intangible property

integrated approach

; ;

integrated business

; ;
;

integrated programme

integrated resource planning


(IRP)

integrated risk

integrated services

integration

; ; ; ;
; ;
( )
248

integrity

; ; ;

intellectual property

intensity of use

; ;

intensive investment

interactive

interagency committee

Inter-American Development
Bank (IADB)

()

interbank business

; ;

interbank clearing rate

interbank deposit

interbank funds

(
)

interbank interest rate swap


and options market

interbank netting

interbank offered rate (IBOR)

interbank payments

interbank rate

interchange

()

interchange rate

( , ) [];
, ( )
;
, ( )
( )

intercommodity substitution

intercompany balances

intercompany loan

, ;

intercompany transactions

interconnection principles

249

inter-creditor agreement

; (
)

Interdepartmental Commission
for Cooperation with
International Financial and
Economic Organisations and
the G-7 [RF]
intereconomy comparison

- []

interest

; ; ; ;
; ; ;

interest and similar income

interest-bearing asset

, ;
, ;
, ;

interest-bearing note

interest capitalisation period

interest charge

; ;
;
, ;
, (
)

interest conversion period

( )

interest coupon

interest cover

( )

interest date

; (.)

interest days

( )

interest determination date

interest due

interest due date

interest earned

;
;

interest expense

interest expense and similar


charges

interest fine

interest fixing date

interest-free loan

250

interest in secured property

, ;

interest income

; ;

interest margin

;
( )

interest mismatch

interest on arrears

interest on loan

interest on secured debt

interest only (IO)

,
( )

interest-only loan (IOL)

,
( )

interest paid

interest payable and incurred


expenses

interest payment

interest payment date (IPD)

interest payments

interest period

interest rate

interest rate and currency


exposure

interest rate cap

; ;

interest rate collar

interest rate contract

interest rate exposure

, ;

interest rate exposure gap

, ;
, ,
;

interest rate futures


251

interest rate option

interest rate policy

interest rate range

interest rate risk

interest rate sensitivity gap

,
- ;
,
;

interest rate spread

; ;

interest rate swap

interest receivable

interest received

interest reductions bond

interest retiming

(
, )

interest sensitive assets

interest sensitive liabilities

interest warrant

interest yield

interested party

interests

interfacing

; ; ;

interim account

interim administration

interim administrator

interim audit

(
)

interim dividend

( )

interim injunction

;
;
();

interim measure of protection

252

interim relief

; ;
( );
; ;
;

( )

interim report

interim review

(
)

interlocking directorate

interlocking investments

intermarginal intervention [EMS] ;


[]
intermediary

; ;

intermediary financing

intermediate bond

intermediate calculation

; ;

intermediate credit

intermediate goods

intermediate input

intermediate materials

intermediate product

intermediate target

intermediated financing

; ;

intermediation

intermediation charge

intermediation transaction

internal audit

; ();
();

internal audit department

; ;

internal auditor

();

internal debt

();

253

internal effective tax

( )

internal forecasting

, ;
;
()

internal procurement

; ;
[]

internal rate of return (IRR)

();
();

;

internal regulations

international access

International Accounting
Standards (IAS)


();

();
()

International Accounting
Standards Committee (IASC)

();
();

()

international asset

International Auditing Guidelines ; (IAG)



International Auditing Standards ;
(IAS)
;
- ;

International Bank for
Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD) [World
Bank Group]
International Center for
Accounting Reform (ICAR)

()
[ ]

International Centre for


Settlement of Investment
Disputes (ICSID)
[World Bank Group]
International Chamber
of Commerce (ICC)

() [ ]

International Commercial Terms


(INCOTERM)

()

International Company for


Finance and Investments (ICFI)

()

()

254

International Conference of
Banking Supervisors (ICBS)

International Council on
Archives (ICA)

()

International Court of Justice

[]

International Decommissioning
Support Fund [EC-EBRD]

( , )

international depositary receipt


(IDR)

International Development
Association (IDA) [World Bank
Group]

() [
]

International Development Law


Institute (IDLI)

(
)

international dividend and


interest flows

International Environment
Bureau (IEB)

international exit

international expert

International Finance and


Banking School, Moscow

International Finance
() [
Corporation (IFC) [World Bank
]
Group]
international financial institution ();
(IFI)
()
International Investment Bank
(IIB)

International Maritime
Organization (IMO)

()

International Maritime Satellite


Organization (INMARSAT)
(before 1995)


() ( 1995 )

international market index

International Mobile Satellite


Organization (INMARSAT)
(since 1995)


() ( 1995 )

International Monetary Fund


(IMF)
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO)

()

International Organization of
Securities Commissions
(IOSCO)

()

(ISO)

255

international placement

;
; ,

international public offering


(IPO)

International Securities Market


Association (ISMA) [Zurich] (in
London: International
Securities Market Association
Ltd (ISMA))
international settlements


();

()

international standard book


number (ISBN)

International Standard Industrial


Classification of all Economic
Activities (ISIC)


()

International Standards of
Auditing (ISA)

;
;
;

International Standards on
Auditing (ISA)

;
;
;

international tendering

;
;
-,

International Union of Credit


and Investment Insurers
(Berne Union)


- ( )

internationally accepted
accounting standards

internationally competitive

;
;

Internet banking

Internet screenphone

( )

Internet service provider (ISP)

()

inter-office memorandum

interpretation and application

interpretation of balance sheets

interpretive letter

( )

intervention mechanism

()

256

intervention on foreign exchange


markets
intervention purchase

intragroup transaction

intranet

( );

( )

intrapreneur

, (
)

intrinsic tendency

intrinsic value

introduction fee

; ( );

introduction prospectus

invalid transaction

( );

inventoriable costs

, ;

inventories

; - ;
; - ;

inventories on hand

; ; ;
;

inventory

; ; ;
; ;
-

inventory buildup

inventory depreciation

inventory financing

inventory losses

inventory pressure

inventory rate

()

inventory risk

inventory ticket

inventory turnover

inverted market

,
,

257

investee

; ;
;

investible funds

, ;
;
; ;
( )

investing activities

investment adviser

;
( )

investment appraisal

investment bank

investment banking

(, );
- ;
;

investment banking capability

investment book

( ,
)

investment broker (IB)

investment climate

; (.)

investment company

; ,

Investment Company Act

[]

investment considerations

investment consultant

; , ();

investment credit

; ;

investment efficiency

investment environment

; (.)

investment flow data

investment grade

( )

investment-grade bond

investment-grade capital
structure

;
;
;
258

investment-grade rating

investment grant

; ;
;

investment guidelines (IG)

( );
;

investment holdings

investment in kind

investment income

investment insurer

investment lead time

investment letter

( );

investment list


( )

investment loan

; ;

investment management

;
;

investment manager

investment medium

; ;
;

investment operation

; ;
;

investment operation pipeline

( );
( );

investment operation portfolio

( )

investment operations

; ;
;

investment paper

, ()
- ;

investment performance

;
;
;
;

investment plan

( )
259

investment policies

investment portfolio

investment portion of the


premium
investment process

(.)

investment programme

;
;
;

investment project

investment properties

,
( );
, ;
; ;
;
;

investment risk

investment savings account

;
-

investment security

;
;
;

investment share

investment stock

investment tax credit (ITC)

;
;

investment tender

investment trust

investment unit

investment vehicle

; ;
; ;

investments officer

investments with high financial


returns

investor base

; ;
;

investor of last resort

260

investor of record

; ;
; ;
; ;
; ()

investor protection regulations

, ;

investor relations department

investor value

(.);

investors account

investors savings account


( ))

invisibles

( )

invitation for expression of


interest

;
( )

invitation for tenders (IFT)

; ;
; ;
; ;

invitation to tender

; ;
; ;
; ;
(.);

invite tenders (v.)

; ;

invited tendering

; ;
;

invoice

- ( )

invoice cost

invoice discounting

invoice value (i.v.)

invoiced price

involuntary bankruptcy

involuntary creditor

involuntary lien

( ),

involuntary liquidation

involuntary savings

involuntary unemployment


261

inward bill of lading

inward investment

; ;
();

inward investment project

inward trade

inward transit

iron a card (v.)

( )
( , ) (.)

irrecoverable debt

; ;

irredeemable bond

, (
)

irredeemable debenture

irresistible force

; ;

irrevocable claim

irrevocable commitment

irrevocable letter of credit (ILC)

irrevocable payment instruction

irrevocable trust

Islamic Development Bank (IDB)

()

island solution

(.)

ISO code

( ;
, -
)

issuance fee

issuance financing

issue a letter of credit (v.)

issue a licence (v.)

issue at par (v.)

issue debt (v.)

issue of debt evidenced


by certificates

262

issue price

; ;
;
(
)

issue prospectus

issued capital

issued share capital

; ;

issued stock

; ;

issuer

; , ;
,

issuers borrowing power

issuing agent

issuing bank

-; , ;

item

item of value

itemise a bill (v.)

;
;

itemised invoice

- ;
-

itemised list

(); ;

itemised statement

;
;
( )

263

J
jawbone policy

;
(
)

job description

; []

job displacement

;
; ;
;

job evaluation

job family

( )

job lot

job order

job placement

job responsibilities

job retraining

job seniority

; ;

job ticket

job training

jobber

(.)

jobbers turn

(.)

joinder of actions

joinder of claims

joinder of issue

joint account

joint action


264

joint and several guarantee

joint and several liability

joint and several obligation

joint and several promissors

joint and several responsibility

joint arranger

()

joint bidding

;
;

joint contract

joint control

joint covenant

joint creditor

joint custody

; ;

joint debtor

joint financing

( )

joint guarantee

joint implementation (JI)

( )

joint income

joint interest

joint life assurance

( );
;

joint liability

joint obligation

joint ownership

joint partner

joint promissory note

; , ;

joint property

joint stock

joint-stock company (JSC)

; ;
/;

joint tenancy

; ;

265

joint tendering

joint venture (JV)

();

jointly and severally

jointly controlled entity

, ;

journey time

(, )

judgement at law

judgement debt

judgement debtor

judgement lien

, ;

judgement notwithstanding the


verdict (JNOV)

judgemental credit analysis

judging unit

judicial act

judicial examination

judicial hearing

; ;

judicial jurisdiction

judicial opinion

( );

judicial personality

judicial proceedings

; ;

judicial process

; ;

judicial question

judicial remedy

judicially

judicious borrowing

judicious provisioning

; ;
;

junior bond

; ,
;

266

junior creditor

; ;
;

junior issue

;
; ,
-

junior lien

junior mortgage

; ;
; ;
;

junior security

;
; ,

junior stock

junk bond

juridical person

juridical personality

jurisdiction

; ;

jurisprudence

just-in-time system

;
;
; ;

justiciability

justiciable act

justify a decision (v.)

267

K
kaizen

[]

kanban

- ;

Kangaroo bond

karoshi


[]

Kazakhstan Small Business


Fund (KSBF)

()

keep books (v.)

; ;

keep records (v.)

; ;

keepwell

kerb market

; ;
( )

kerb trading

; ;
( )

key currency

( )

key man clause

( -; ,
)

key man insurance

;
( , , . .);

key message

268

key rate

key ratio

key trade

keynote speaker

; ( , )

keynote statement

kick-off meeting

( )

kickback

( ,
. .);
( );
; ; ; ; ;
(
) ( )

kicker (equity )

()
( )

kickstart

killer application

killer bee

( ),

kind (in )

; ;
;

kinebar

UBS ( )

kite

; ;

kite flying

kiting

;
;

Kiwi bond

, ;
,

knock down (v.)

knock-on effect

; ;
;

knockdown price

; ;
;

269

know-how

-; ;

know your client (KYC)

; ;

know your customer (KYC)

; ;

knowledge-based business

knowledge-based industry

270

L
labour contract

labour costs

labour force

; ;

labour intensity

labour supply

;
;
; ;
;

labour theory of value

labour turnover

ladder activities

laddered portfolio

laddering

; ;
;

lag time

; ;

lame-duck industry

; ;
, ;
, ;

land assets

land cadastre

land carrier

land rent

271

land tax

land use planning

landfill

landmark initiative

lapsed option

; ;
;

larceny by finder

large caps

;
;
;
;
(.)

large-scale privatisation

last availability date

; ( );

last in, first out (LIFO)

, , ;
- ;

late payment

late payment charge

late payment fee

;
(.);

late payment interest

late payment interest spread

late payment penalty

latent claim

latent defect

latent inflation

latent partner

; ,

latent reserve

lateral integration

launch spread

( )

launching

; ;
; ;
272

launching cost

law enforcement

; ; ;
; ; ;
;

Law in Transition

( )

law merchant

law of diminishing marginal


utility
law of diminishing returns

law of property

law of succession

law of things

law on bankruptcy

law on concession

lawful discharge

lawful excuse

; ;
; ;
;

lawful rate of exchange

; ;

lax lending standards

;
;

lay days

lay-out key

lay time

layering

( );
(
)

lazy capital

; ;
; ;

lead address

lead bank

,
( );
;
, ;
( )

lead firm

273

lead-in time

; ();
()

lead investor

; ;
(,
,
)

lead manage an issue (v.)

lead manager

(
);
( - );
( -
);
,
( )

lead speaker

lead time

(); ;
();
()

leadership fee

leading insurer

; -

leading rate

leading rate of interest

leading underwriter

; -

leads and lags

( );

league table

; ; ;
; ;

leakage test

leap-frog financing

lease

; ; ; ; ;

lease duration

lease extension

lease obligation

lease-purchase

lease term

274

leaseback

; (
)

leased asset

leasehold

leasehold improvements

leasing

leasing company

least-cost analysis

least-cost investment plan

least-cost option

least developed countries


(LDCs)
ledger

ledger balance

leg man

, ;

leg of a trade

leg of a transaction

legal act

legal action

legal advice

legal adviser

; ;

legal approximation

( -
) ;
;

legal capability

legal capacity to contract

legal capital

legal charges

legal claim

legal counsel

legal due diligence

; ;

legal entity

275

legal environment

legal existence

legal framework

legal gains

legal guarantee

legal harmonisation

legal implication

legal interest

legal intern

legal irregularities

legal lending limit

legal liability

, ;

legal licences to transfer


charged property

legal lien

legal list

( ,

, . . )

legal merger

legal nomenclature

legal obligation

, ;

legal opinion

legal owner

legal person

legal personality

legal practitioner

legal priority of creditors

( )

legal rating

legal reserve

; ;
;

legal reserve requirement

legal review

276

legal successor

legal tender

legal year

legislative decision

legislative design

lend on an unsecured basis (v.)

lend on collateral (v.)

lend on pledge (v.)

lend on security (v.)

lender

; ; ; ;

lender liability

( , )

lender of last resort

lender of record

; ;
; ;
;

lending agency

lending application

; ;
( )

lending business

lending ceiling

;
;

lending institution

lending interest rate

lending limit

;
;
(
)

lending policy

lending portfolio

lending rate

lending terms

less discounts

;
277

less than container load (lcl)

()

less than fair value (ltfv)

lessee

; ;

lessons learned database (LLD)

(
)

lessor

letter of advice (L/A; LA)

; ;

letter of attorney

letter of authority (L/A; LA)

letter of awareness

letter of comfort

; -; ;
( )

letter of commitment (LOC)

-;

letter of credit (LC; L/C; LOC)

letter of deposit

letter of enquiry

letter of guarantee

letter of hypothecation

letter of indemnity

; - /

letter of information (LOI)

letter of instruction

-;

letter of intent (LOI)

letter of invitation

; -

letter of lien

letter of representation (LOR)

letter of transmittal (L/T)

; ;

letter of trust

letter of undertaking

letter security

, ( )

278

letter stock

;
, ( )

letters rogatory

level of detail

; ;

level payment amortisation

()

level playing field

;
()

level premium

(.)

leverage

leverage ratio

()

leveraged buyout (LBO)

;
;

leveraged company

leveraged deal

leveraged financing

leveraged lease

leveraging

levy

; ; ; ;

levy (v.)

(, ); ();
(, )

levy execution (v.)

liabilities

; ; ;

liabilities fund

liability account

liability dividend

liability fund

liability management

liability of members on shares

;
( )

liability on shares


279

liability origination

liable for obligations (be ) (v.)

LIBID (London interbank bid


rate)

; (

)

LIBOR (London interbank


offered rate)

; ;

licence agreement

licence fee

; ;
; ;
(
)

licence provisions

licence trade

; ( )

licensee

licensing

licensing arrangements

; ;
;

licensing function

licensor

lien

; []; ;
- ;
( . .)

lien bond

lien discharge

;
;
;
, ;
,

lien in rem

lienee

; ,

lienor

; ,

life assurance

(
)

life cycle

; ; ;
;

life insurance

(
, ..)

life of a contract

life of a loan

280

life of an instrument

lifespan of goods

lifetime

(); ; ;

lifo (last in - first out)

, , ;
- ;

lifting

; (; )

lifting document

lifting fee

like data

LIMEAN (London Interbank Mean ;


Rate)


limit banks exposure (v.)

limit of cover

(.)

limit of indemnity

(.)

limit order

limit value

; (.);
;

limitation

; ;

limitation of actions

limited interpretation

limited liability

limited liability company (LLC)

();

limited life

limited partner

; -; ;

limited partnership

;
, , ;

limited recourse

;
;

281

limited recourse financing

;
;

limited recourse loan

;
;

limited review

limited service bank

limited trust

limited waiver of the negative


pledge clause


;

;

limiting age

(
, )

limiting factor

line manager

line of credit

; ;

linked industries

; -;
;

liquid asset investment authority ;


;

liquid asset investment authority and guidelines

liquid assets

liquid debt

liquid investments

; ;
;

liquid ratio

liquid yield option note (LYON)

liquidate (v.)

; ; ;
; ();
( ); ()

liquidated damage

liquidated debt

;

282

liquidating dividend

liquidation

; ; ; ;
; ; ;
; (.);

liquidation of transactions

liquidation sale

;
;
;
;

liquidation value

;
; ;

liquidity

liquidity and risk management

liquidity diversification

liquidity investment

; ;

liquidity management service

liquidity overhang

liquidity position

; ;
,

liquidity ratio

liquidity risk

; ;
,

liquidity squeeze

; ;
(.);

liquidity statement

( )

liquidity upside

( )

list of charges

()

list of drawings

, ()

list price

; ;
( );
;

listed building

, ;
- ;

listed company

; ;
,
283

listed equity

listed option

( )

listed securities

listing

; ;
( )

listing agency

; , ( )

listing agreement

( )

listing requirement

( );
,

listing rules

;
,

litigation history

live account

, ;
; ;
;

load fund

, ;
,

loading list

loan

; ; ;

loan acceleration

; (.);

loan administration

loan administration unit

loan administrator

loan against pledge

( , . .);
,

loan against pledged bill

;
, ( )

loan against securities

;
,

loan agreement

loan and guarantee facility

- ;
- (
)

284

loan application

; ;
( )

loan approval

loan assessment

loan assignment agreement

;
;
;
; ;
;

loan capital

loan ceiling

;
;
( )

loan collection

; ;
;

loan committee

loan conversion fee

loan currency

loan details

loan drawdown advice

() ;
( )

loan effectiveness

loan enforcement

;
;

loan enhancement

loan fee

loan grading

loan holder

; ; ; ;

loan in default

; ,
;
, ;
;

loan limit

;
;
(
)

loan lock-in

; ,
;
()
285

loan loss provision

loan management fee

loan negotiations

loan novation

; ;
;

loan novation agreement

loan of goods

loan of money

loan officer

loan on call

loan on debentures

loan on goods

loan on mortgage

; ;

loan on overdraft

loan participation

loan payment schedule

;
(
)

loan portfolio

; ;
( )

loan pricing at a margin over


market benchmarks

loan profile

; ; ;
; ;
;

loan provisioning

;
;

loan recovery

();
; ;

loan repayment

loan repayment date

loan sale

; ( )

loan shark

(.)
286

loan strip

loan stripping

; ;
( )

loan structure

; ;
; ; ;
;

loan subparticipation

(
)

loan swap

loan terms and conditions

loan transaction

loan value

; ; ;

loan with participations

loanable funds

, ;

loanor

; ; ; ;

loans and advances

( )

local area network (LAN)

() (, )

local bill

(
)

local competitive bidding (LCB)

, ; , ;

local competitive tendering

, ; , ;

local counterpart

local revenue bond

, ( )

locally recruited staff

, ;
,

lock-in period

lock-up agreement

( )

lock-up of capital

locked conversion rate

;

287

locked market

, ;
; ( )

locked-up capital

lodge a claim (v.)

; ;
;

lodge a reservation (v.)

logistics

logo

logo image

lombard loan

;
,

lombard rate

,

;

-,

London interbank offered rate


(LIBOR; Libor)

; ;

London International Financial


Futures Exchange (Liffe;
LIFFE)
long a call (be ) (v.)

long a put (be ) (v.)

long bond

long call/short call

/ ;
/

long coupon

, ( );
;

long date forward

long-dated bill

long end of the market

long form report

( , ;
)

long haul

; ;

long list

; ;
( )

long position

; (
, , , )
288

long put/short put

/ ;
/

long run economies of scale

long stock/long put

/ (
)

long stock/short call

/ ( )

long straddle

long-term assets

; ;
, ;
;

long-term bond

long-term borrowing

; ;

long-term borrowings

long-term credit

long-term debt

; ;
; ;

long-term fixed interest debt


obligation

long-term insurance

long-term investment
(LT investment)

; ;
;
( )

long-term liabilities

(
)

long-term liability

long-term loan

long-term money

; ;

long-term prepayment

;
( )

long-term rating

longer-term operating licence


[NSA]

[];
[]

lookback

289

lookback option

(
);

loro account

loro adjuster

; (.)

loss assets

; ;
( )

loss brought forward

loss carried back

loss carried forward

loss carried over

loss during discharge (Ldd)

loss for the period

loss for the previous year

loss for the year

loss loan

; ;

loss-making enterprise

loss-making service

loss-of-employment
compensation
loss of interest

loss of moisture

loss of profit

loss of revenue

loss payee

(.); ;
(.);

loss reserve

losses

losses due to damage

lost profits

low case

; ;
;

low- or no-tax jurisdiction

290

low-risk appetite

( );
( );

low-tax jurisdiction

low value items (LVIs)

()

lower limit (LL)

lowest bidder

, (
-)

lowest evaluated tender

, ;

lowest quality, no interest paid


(C)

, (
Standard & Poors
Moodys Investors Service)

lowest substantially responsive


tender

( );

( )

loyalty card

;
( );
; ( , )

loyalty fee

;

( ,
, , )

loyalty contract

( )

luggage examination

( . .)

lump freight

lump sum

lump-sum award

lump-sum compensation

(.)

lump-sum freight

lump-sum payment

; ;

lump-sum settlement

(.)

lump-sum turnkey (LSTK)

lumping sale

291

M
m-banking

;

;

m-commerce


( ) ;

;
;

machine posting

macroeconomic equilibrium

macroeconomic performance

macroeconomics

macrostabilisation policies

made-in item

mail float

( )

mailing address

mainline factoring

mainline stocks

maintain a loan (v.)

;
();

maintain a register (v.)

maintain an account (with ...) (v.) ( ...); ( ...)

292

maintain in good working order


(v.)

maintain procedures (v.)

;
(, )

maintainability

maintenance

(); ; ;
; ;
- ; ;
; ;
;

maintenance cost

; ;

maintenance down time

;
,
;

maintenance expenditure

maintenance fee

( , );
( ); ;
( );
( )

maintenance obligations

maintenance staff

; ;

major account

; ;
( )

major minority shareholding

( ) ;

major shareholder

; ;

majority holding

majority interest

majority shareholder

make a market (v.)

(
)

make enquiries (v.)

( , )

make out a cheque (v.)

make out a draft on somebody


for the amount of ... (v.)

- ( )

make up the average (v.)

(.)

makeover

; ; ()

293

maker of the note

mala fide purchaser

malfeasance

malinvestment

man-made burden

( );
( )

manage by exception (v.)

manageable growth

managed account

, (
)

managed costs

managed portfolio

, (
)

management

; ; ;
(); ();
; ;
;

management accounts

-
(
)

management agreement

; ( )

management authorisation

( ; )

management board

; ; ;

management buyout (MBO)

management by exception

management by results (MBR)

management company

management consulting

;
;
(
, , )

management fee

; ;
(, )

management information system - ; (MIS)


- ();
();
- ()

294

management letter

( );
(.)

management mandate

( ; )

management of risks

management reporting

managements share of profits

manager

; ; ( )

managing company

managing director

; - []

managing partner

managing underwriter

,
( )

mandate

( );
[ ];
()

mandate form

( ; )

mandate letter

; - ( )

mandatory convertible

; ,

mandatory exchange trading rule (


)
mandatory precaution

mandatory prepayment

mandatory sale

( . .);
( );
( )

mandatory service

mandatory value

manifest error

; ( )

manner of payment

; ; ;
; ; ;
; ;

manpower deployment

manpower redeployment

manpower turnover


295

manual

manufactured goods

manufacturer

manufacturers customer

; ;

manufactures

manufacturing enterprise

manufacturing overheads

Mareva injunction

, ,
( )

margin account

margin buying

margin call

( );
()

margin security

marginal activity

marginal amount

marginal business

; ;

marginal cost

; ;
( )

marginal costing

marginal crop

(/)

marginal goods

; ;
(, )

marginal pricing

marginal principle

marginal product

marginal productivity

marginal propensity to consume


marginal propensity to import

marginal propensity to save

marginal revenue

marginal revenue product

marginal tax rate


296

marginal utility

marine insurance

marine insurance contract

marine underwriter

Maritime Arbitration Commission


maritime lien

maritime peril

(.)

markdown

marked-down goods

mark(ed) to market

mark(ed)-to-market accounting

marked to market portfolio

, ;

market

; ; ;
; ;

market access

market analysis

;
;

market-based sector

, ;
,

market capacity

market capitalisation

( );

market crash

market discount rate

market disruption

; ;

market-driven growth

market economy

; ;
; (.)

market entry

;
;

market environment

; ; ;
; (.)

market equilibrium

297

market exit

;
;
;
(.)

market factor

market failure

market fragmentation

; ;
;

market interest rate

market investigation

market leaders

market letter

market loan

() []

market maker

; ,
( );
- (.); ,
- ( )

Market Not Held

market order

market-oriented economy

; ;
;
,

market out clause

;
;

( )

market participant

; ;
;

market penetration pricing

, ;
,

market performance

; ;
; ; ;
;

market potential

market practice

; ;

market premium

; ;
( );

market price

; ;
298

market pull

; ;

market rate

market rate of interest

;
( )

market report

; ;

market research

; ;
; ;

market risk

; ;
;
;
;

market segmentation

market share

(
-)

market signals

; ;

market size

market skimming

;
(
)

market survey

; ;
;

market sweep

market trends

market value (m.v.)

; ;

market wrap

; ;
;

marketability

marketable bond

; ;

marketable collateral

marketable goods

marketable investments

; ;
;

marketable security

marketeer

; (.);
;

299

marketing

; ;

marketing arrangements

marketing board

marketing channel

marketing communications

; ( );
;

marketing communications
coordinator

( )

marketing cost

marketing letter

( )

marketing margin

( )

marketing mix

marketing strategy

markup

; ;

markup pricing

marzipan layer

mass access device

( )

mass privatisation

; ;
;

massage figures (v.)

; ;
;

master account

master agreement

; ;
;

master assignment

; ; ;
;

master netting arrangement

( -
)

master plan

master policy

; (.)

master roll

matched book

;
,

matched funding

300

matched project [PPC]

[];
, ;
;
;

matching contribution

; ; ;
; ;
;

matching deal

; ( )

matching of costs with revenues


matching of environmental
standards

(
, )

matching of maturities

;
;
;
()

material adverse change

material adverse change


condition (MAC)

material costs

material damage

material error

material inconsistency

; ;

material item

; ;
( );
; ;

material misstatement

( ; )

materiality

matrix organisation

; ;

mature (v.)

; ( );

mature market

; ;

mature value

( , )

matured claim

maturities

( ); ( );
( , ); ;

maturities and dates of payment

301

maturity date

; ; ;
; ;

maturity date falls on ...

... ( )

maturity factoring

maturity imbalance

;
;

maturity ladder

;
;

maturity mismatch

; ( );
;

maturity of an instrument

maturity of bonds

; ;
;

maturity of the principal amount


of a loan

maturity period

; ; ;
;

maturity value

;
; ;

maximisation of profits

;
;

maximum available support

maximum exposure

(, ); (
)

mean value

meaning of transition

means of payment

means of transport

; ;

means test

measurable effect

; ;
;

measurement

; ;

measurements of transition


302

mediation board

medical certificate

; ;
; ;

medical examination

medical, pension, retirement


benefits

;
, ;
,

medium grade (BBB; Baa)

(
Standard & Poors Moodys Investors Service)

medium term note (MTN)

;
;
()

medium term scenario (MTS)

()

meet expenditures (v.)

meet losses (v.)

meet minimum liquidity


requirements (v.)

meeting of creditors

( )

meeting of deadlines

; ;

meltdown

member bank of the syndicate

- ( )

member in good standing

memorandum account

; ;

memorandum item

; ;

memorandum of association

memorandum sale

menu approach

mercantile agency

()

mercantile law

merchant bank

merchant discount rate

merchantable title

;
;

mere enjoyment

;
303

merger

mergers and acquisitions (M&A)


( ,
)

merit pay system

merit point system

message

; ( )

message authentication code


(MAC)

, ; ;
( )

meter charge

( );
(, , . .)

method of operation

; ;

method of payment (MP)

; ; ;
; ; ;
; ;

mezzanine financing

microeconomics

mid-month

15 (
)

mid-term review

; ;

mileage charge

milestone

(); ();

military-industrial complex

- ()

milk assets (v.)

; ( . .)

mill waste

millennium bug (Y2K problem)

2000; 2000 ;
2000 ;
2000 ( )

minimax strategy

minimum balance

minimum cancellation amount

minimum cost

minimum down payment

minimum drawdown amount

minimum lending rate (MLR)

minimum liquidity requirements

;

304

minimum opening balance

minimum prepayment amount

minimum reserve

minimum reserve requirement

minimum tax rate

mining complex

- ();
()

minority interest

, ; ;
; ;
; ;
; ;

minority shareholder

, ;
;

minority shareholding

; ;
; ;
, ; ;
; ;

mint item

minutes of negotiations

( )

miscellaneous provisions

( )

miscellaneous travel expenses

mismatch

;
;

mismatched book

, ;

mission

( );
; (.)

mission statement

(
)

mitigate against environmental


damage (v.)

mitigate fluctuations (v.)

( )

mitigation

305

mitigation measure


( );
(.);

mitigation strategy

mixed action

mixed economy

mixed investment fund

, ,

mixed loan

mobile e-commerce


( ) ;

;
;

mobile phone

; ;
; (.)

mobilisation ratio

()

mobilise capital (v.)

();
()

modal competition

modal split

(, )

mode of billing and payment

mode of payment

; ; ;
; ; ;
; ;

mode of performance

mode of settlement

; ; ;
; ;
; ;
;

model audit report

; ;
;
;

model form

model law

moderate inflation

modest growth rate

momentary run

306

monetary accommodation

monetary aggregate

monetary assets

monetary authority

- ;

monetary base

monetary conditions

monetary contraction

monetary equilibrium

monetary expansion

monetary financial instrument

;
-

monetary financing

monetary institution

monetary item

; ;

monetary overhang

monetary policy

- ;

monetary programming

monetary reform

monetary system

monetary unit (MU)

monetary unit of account

monetary value

; ;

monetisation

; (.)

monetisation of deficits

monetised trade

money crunch

; ;
;
;

money funds

money graduated from taxation

, -

money hypothecation

( . .)

money in cash

; ;
;

307

money in hand

; ;

money incomes of the


population
money laundering

money letter of credit

money management

money market (MM)

; ;

money market back office


(MM back office)

( , )

money market bank

, ;
,

money market fund

, ; ,

money market instrument

money market rate

;
,

money multiplier

money nullification

money obligation

money order

; ()

( )

money purchase retirement plan ;



money quantity (MQ)

money squeeze

; ;
;
;

money stock

money structuring

( )

money supply

money supply effect

money supply multiplier

money terms (in )

;
308

money trading bank

money transfer

; ()

moneyed letter of credit

monies

monitor the progress of a project ;


(v.)

monitoring

; ; ; ;
; ; ;

monitoring adviser (MA)

- ( )

monitoring report

; ( )

monitoring schedule

; ;
; (

)

monopolistic behaviour

monopoly abuse

monopsony

( )

monthly advisory fee

monthly production

Moodys investment grade (MIG) c c ;


Moodys Investors Service
mop up excess liquidity (v.)

moral hazard

moratorium

; ;

mortality rate of projects

mortgage

; ;
; ; ; ;
( , )

mortgage (v.)

(- );
( . .)

mortgage agreement

; ;

mortgage-backed bond

mortgage-backed security

mortgage bond

309

mortgage borrowing

mortgage finance

mortgage foreclosure

;
;

mortgage insurance

mortgage lender

; ;
;

mortgage lock-in

, ;
;
;

mortgage redemption

mortgage register

; ; ;

mortgage registry

; ; ;

mortgage-type repayment
schedule

mortgaged property

; ;
;

mortgagee

mortgagor

Moscow Business World Bank;


Moscow Business World
Commercial Bank (MDM-Bank)

(-)

Moscow Narodny Bank (MNB)

()

most favourable tax treatment

most favourable treatment

most recent

; ;
( )

mothballed project

; ;
()

motivated

motor waybill

;
()

mouse potato

movable assets

; ;

310

movable property

movable thing

moving average

multicontract bidding

multicurrency loan

;
;
( )

multidisciplinary

multilateral development bank


(MDB)

multilateral institution

; ;
();
()

Multilateral Investment
Guarantee Agency (MIGA) [US]

() []

multilateral lender

();
();
()

multilateral lending institution


(MLI)

();
();
()

multilateral netting

; ;

multinational bank

;
,

multinational corporation

multinational partnership (MNP)

multi-options facility

multiphone

(
-, c )

multiple establishment

multiple exchange rates

multiple lien

, ;

multiple listing

multiple registration

() ;

multiple tariff system

multiple voting share

;
,
311

multiples of ... (in )

, ...; ...

multiplier effect

multi-project facility (MPF)

();
();
()
()

multisource financing

(
- )

mundane transaction

; ; ;
; ;
;

municipal bond

municipal bond fund

municipal infrastructure

; ;
;

municipal services

; ;
;

municipal transport

; ;

mutual agency

( )

mutual contract

; ,

mutual fund

(); ;
; ;

mutual guarantee association

mutual insurance association

(
- --
. .)

mutual savings bank

mutuality of benefits

, ;

mutuary

312

N
naked contract

naked debenture

naked option

; ;
, ( )

naked position

; ;

naked reserve

name bond

name lending

;
;
;

named policy

(.)

named risk

(.)

nameplate capacity

; ;

narrative

( )

narrow band [EMS]

( )

narrow margin

narrow market

;
; ;
(
)

narrow money

nascent industry

313

NASDAQ Index

( )

national accounting conventions ;



National Association of Security
Dealers (NASD)

[]

National Association of Security


Dealers Automated Quotations
System (NASDAQ)

( ,
, -
)

national currency unit (NCU)

national debt

National Environmental Action


Programme (NEAP) [PPC]

()
[]

national giro

national giro bank

national income

;
()

National Investment Fund (NIF)

National Registry Company


(NRC)
national service obligation

() []
; ;

National Stock Exchange

natural business year

natural law

natural monopoly

natural person

nature-imposed necessity

nature of a charge

near-equity resources

, ( . .)

near money

; ;
, ;
;

near-term technical safety


improvements

necessary and properly incurred


expenses
negative amortisation

negative authorisation

( )
314

negative carry

( ,
)

negative cash flow

negative covenant

;
;

negative equity

negative file

negative gap

;
( )

negative goodwill

negative income tax

( ,
)

negative interest

negative interest rate

; ( );
, (
)

negative investment

negative leverage

;
(
)

negative mortgage clause

;
;
;

negative performance

()

negative pledge

; / ;
;
/

negative pledge clause

;
;
;

negative proof

negative protection


315

negative rating

; (.);
(.)

negative spread

( ,
)

negative value

negative verification

(
)

negative yield curve

neglected assets

; ;
(.)

negligence

negligence clause

negligible error

negotiability

negotiable (be ) (v.)

negotiable certificate of deposit

negotiable instrument

negotiable instrument of title

negotiable lead time

negotiable order of withdrawal


account (NOW account)

negotiable paper

;
, ;
;

negotiable price

negotiable security

; ;

negotiated bidding

negotiation

negotiation commission

nest-egg

; ( ) (.)

net asset value per share (NAV)

net assets

-;

net assets available for benefits

net back value

net balance

net book value (NBV)

net capital gain

-
316

net cash flows

net cash investment outstanding ( )


net cash provided by banking
activities

net cash requirements

net cash used in investment


activities

net cash used in operating


activities

,
;
,

net currency position

net current assets

; ;

net disposable national income


(NDNI)

()

net domestic assets (NDA)

()

net domestic product (NDP)

()

net earnings per share

net factor incomes

( , , -
)

net fee and commission income

net fixed assets

;
;

net income before tax

net income from financial


operations

net income per share

net interest expense

net interest income

net investment

net material product (NMP)

;
()

net monetary long position

net monetary position

net monetary short position

;

317

net national income (NNI)

()

net national product

net non-operating income

;
;

net of

; ;

net of taxes

net operating assets (NOA)

, ;
, ;

net operating income (NOI)

;
;
;

net outflow

net payroll

net premium

net present value (NPV)

net present value method

net price

net proceeds

; ;
;

net profit from financial


operations

net realisable value (NRV)

net retention

(/) (.)

net revenues

; ;
;

net unrealised gain

net worth

;
;

net yield

( )

;
Netherlands Development
Finance Company (Nederlandse
Financierings Maatschappij
()
voor Ontwikkelingslanden
N.V.)(FMO)
netizen
( )

318

netting

;
;
; ;
;

networking

; ;

new building

; ( );
( ) (.)

new business

New Independent States (NIS)

() ( )

New York Convention on the


Recognition and Enforcement
of Foreign Arbitral Awards
(10 June 1958)

(-, 10
1958 )

New York Stock Exchange


-
(NYSE)
New York Stock Exchange Index -
next day funds

niche bank

( );

no charge (nc)

no commercial value (NCV)

no date (nd)

; ;
( )

no-fault insurance

no-fault law

, ;
,

no-load fund

, ;
,

no-objection basis (on a

no-par stock

no-par value stock

no-quibble refund

( )

no-say order

, ;
, ( )
319

no-shop provision

,
( ) ( )

no-tax jurisdiction

; ;
;
(.)

no value declared (n.v.d.)

no-year appropriation

nod through (v.)

( );
;

noise exposure index

noise factor

noise mapping

noise nuisance limit

noise-reducing wall

noise restrictive state

nominal account

nominal capital

nominal consideration

nominal GNP

nominal interest rate

nominal principal amounts

nominal share

nominal tax obligation

nominal value

nominal yield

( );
;

nominated contractor

nominated suppliers list

nominative share

nominee

; (,
, , )

nominee company

(,
);
;

320

nominee holding

, ;
; ;
; ;

nominee shareholder

; ;
; ;

non-accessory mortgage

; ;
;

non-accrual basis

non-accrual credit

non-accrual loan

non-accruing credit

non-accruing loan

non-apportionable annuity

; ;

non-arms length transaction

();
;
;

non-bank bank

;
,
(,
)

non-bank lending institution

non-callable bond

non-cancellable lease

non-cash operating charge

non-cash payment

non-cash transaction

non-circulating funds

non-conforming bid

( );
;
, ;
,

non-consensual lien

; , ;

non-contributory benefit

( )

non-core activities

; ;
;

321

non-core business

; ;
;

non-core service

non-coverage of loans

non-cumulative preferred stock

non-cumulatives

non-current assets

non-current liability

non-current receivables

non-cyclical consumer goods

;
,

non-deliverable forward

non-distributed stocks

( ); ;

non-enforceable

; ;
;

non-excludable costs

non-executive director

non-factor payment

non-factor services (NFS)

non-failure operating time

();
;

non-feasance

non-fixed deposit

non-fulfilment

non-governmental property

(
)

non-inflationary financing

non-infringement quality
of an invention

non-interest-bearing liability

non-interest-bearing note

non-interest-bearing obligation

non-interest-earning assets

non-interest income


322

non-inventory property

; ;

non-legal entity

, ;
,

non-leviable

non-mandatory

non-marketable security

non-material assets

; ;

non-member bank

non-member firm

non-monetary assets

non-monetary financing

non-negotiable cheque

non-negotiable government
obligation

non-negotiable instrument

non-negotiable non-interestbearing obligation

non-negotiable note

non-negotiable obligation

()

non-negotiable security

non-operating company

non-operating gain

;
;

non-operating loss

;
;

non-operating revenues

;
;

non-ordinary item

()

non-owning manager

323

non-paid-up capital

;
; ;
(

)

non-par item

non-participating share

; ,
( );
; ()

non-participatory benefits plan

(, ), (
)

non-payment gridlock

non-performance

non-performing assets

( )

non-performing bank

, ()

non-performing claims

( )

non-performing loan

; ;
; ;

non-performing subloan ratio

non-personal deposit

non-physical right

non-profit institution

non-property right

non-readily-marketable collateral ( ,
. .)
non-recourse debt

;
;
;

non-recourse financing

;
;
;

non-recourse loan

; ;
;

non-recurrent amount

non- recurrent project

; ;

324

non-recurring

; ;

non-recurring expenses

non-recurring income

non-recurring project

; ;

non-redeemable preferred share

, ;

non-refund life annuity

( )

non-refundable fee

non-renewable resources

non-reschedulable debt

, ;

non-resident

( , )

non-resident convertibility

non-responsive tender

; , ;
; ,

non-retroactivity of law

non-settlement day

non-sovereign operation (NSO)

non-systemic risk

; ;

non-tariff barrier

non-tax revenues

non-tiger countries

non-variable expenditure

non-voting share

( , )

non-voting stock

( , )

Nordic Environment Finance


Corporation (NEFCO)

()

Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)

()

normal operating cycle

normal operating time

;
;

normal trading


325

normal wear and tear

;
;

North American Free Trade Area


(NAFTA)

()

Norwich Pharmacal order

. .

nostro account

not-easily-marketable security

( ,
);

not-for-profit institution

(
)

Not Held

not-in-my-backyard syndrome
(NIMBY syndrome)


;
; ;
-
(
: , )

not sufficient funds (NSF)


( )

not to order instrument

(, )

notarial attestation

notarised

( );
( );
( )

note

; ; (.);
(.)

note holder

; ;

note issuance facility

( 1, 2, 3 )

note issue

note issuing bank

, (
)

note issuing power

note issuing privilege

note of hand

notes to financial statements

notice account

; ; ;
,
326

notice deposit

notice in writing

; ;

notice money

notice of assessment

notice of dishonour

;
;

notice of intention to withdraw

( )

notice of invitation to tender

; ;
( );
;
;
;

notice of process

notice of protest

notice of withdrawal

( );

notification

notification of award

(procurement);
; ( )

notional amount

novation

;
( )

novation (discharge by )

NOW account (negotiable-orderof-withdrawal account)

(
)

nuclear debt swap

nuclear facility

nuclear incident

nuclear installation

nuclear insurance

nuclear law

nuclear power

327

nuclear power plant (NPP)

()

Nuclear Safety Account (NSA)

() []

nuclear safety fund

Nuclear Safety Operating


Committee (NUSOC) [NSA]


()

null and void

();
;

nullification of patent

nullity

( )

number of days in period

numbered account

; ;

numbered inventory ticket

numeraire

; ;

numerical transit

nursery financing


( ,
)

328

O
object lesson

object of action

obligate (v.)

; ; ;

obligation

obligation of contract

obligatory insurance

obligatory reinsurance

obligee

obligor

obtain tender documents (v.)

;
(.)

occasional project

; ;
;

occupancy rate

(); ( )

occupational accident

occupational health

occupational health and safety

occupational health and safety


plan


;
()

occupational health hazard

occupational health risk


329

occupational injuries

occupational safety

occupational scheme

;
;

occurrence of an insured
accident
ocean freight

odd date

; (
; )

odd lot

(, ,
100 )

odd-lot theory

(, ,
100 )

odd-lot trading

(, , 100 );

OECD Consensus

off-balance-sheet account

off-balance-sheet financing

off-balance-sheet item

; ;

off-balance-sheet risk

; ;
;

off-balance-sheet transaction

off-exchange

off-prime

off-site pollution

;
;
;

off-the-shelf item

( );
; ;

offence in bankruptcy

offer price

offer wanted

offeree

offerer

offering circular

offering cost

330

offering memorandum (OM)

; ;

offering period

( )

offering price

offering prospectus

offering statement

( );

office computer

; ;
(.)

office equipment

; ;
(.)

office management

- ();

office manager

();
();
()

office of the chief economist


(OCE; CEO; CE)

( , )

office of the general counsel


(OGC)

( , )

Office of the Regional


Representative

( )

office of the secretary general


(SGO; OSG)

( , )

office space

; ;
; ; (.)

office supplies

officer

(); ();

officer with statutory authority

official

official bond

official debt

official discount rate

official entertainment

official entity

; ; ( - )

official exchange rate (OER)


331

Official Journal of the European


Communities

Official Use Only (For )

()

offload (v.)

( );
; (.) ( )

offloading

( )

offset

( ); ; ;
()

offset account

offset transactopn

; ;
;

offsettable loss

offsetting

offsetting entry

offshore area

offshore banking centre

offshore banking unit (OBU)

- (
;
)

offshore company

offshore funds

;
,

offshore market

offshore netting scheme

offshore operations

; ;
; ;
()

offshore zone

offtake agreement

( ) ;

offtaker

( ); ;

oil contract

- ;

oil equivalent

oil spill

(.)

old terms (OT; O/T)

oligopoly

(
)
332

omission to exercise any right

omnibus legislation

omnibus programme

; ;

on a grant basis

on account of credit

on stream (be ) (v.)

; ; ;
( ); ;

on stream (come ) (v.)

; ;
; ( )

on-board bill of lading

on-call deposit

on credit

on demand (o/d)

on hand

on hold operation

on-host bank card authorisation


system


( ) ;
( ) (
)

on-lending

; ;

on-lending activities

;
;
;

on-lending fee

;
; ,

on-line auction

; -;
,

on-line banking

on-line data

on-line diagnostics

On Line Information System


(OLIS)

,
[]

on-line processing

on own account


333

on-site pollution

; ;

on-stream (be ) (v.)

; ; ;
( ); ;

on-stream (come ) (v.)

; ;
; ( )

on-target earnings (OTE)

(
)

on the grounds

on-the-job training

on-track earnings (OTE)

(
)

on-us item

, , ( )

one-company town

one-crop system

(/)

one-off adjustment

one-off expenditure

one-off fee

one-off gain

one-off payment

; ;
;

one-off project

; ;

one-stop financing package

one-stop inspection

( )

one-stop shop

one-stop solution

; ;

one-time charge (OTC)

; ; ;

online auction

; -;
,

online banking

online data

online diagnostics

334

online marketing

;
;
;

online processing

onus of proof

onward payment

open a bid (v.)

; ; ;
;

open a tender (v.)

; ; ;
;

open book

( );

open cheque

open commitment

open competitive tender

open contract

; ;
;

open corporation

;
()

open cover

; (.);
(.)

open economy

open-end credit

open -end fund

( ;
)

open-end investment company

open-end lease

,
(
)

open-ended cost

open foreign exchange position

open interest

; ;

open investment tender

open invitation to tender

;
;
;

335

open issue

; ;

open letter of credit

; ,

open market operation

( )
[]

open-mouth policy

;
( )

open order

(
);
(.);
( ) (.)

open policy (O.P.)

;
(.)

open position

open tendering

opening balance

; ;

opening balance sheet

opening hours

; ; ;

opening price

( ); ;
( );

opening reserve

; ;

opening stock

()

operate a facility (v.)

operate an account (v.)

; ;

operate for the account or


benefit of someone (v.)

operating account

, ;
; ;
;

operating activities

operating agreement

operating assets

; ;
; ;

operating budget

operating cash flow

; ;
;

336

operating contract

operating control

; ;

operating cost

; ;

operating cycle

operating entity

; ;

operating expenses

; ;
;
;

operating gains and losses

operating income

;
;
;

operating lease

; ; ;
;

operating licence

operating life

; ;

operating loss

;
;

operating margin

;
;
;

operating policies

operating procedures

; ();

operating profit

;
;

operating profit before


provisions

;
;

operating profit/loss for the year

/ ;
/

operating ratio (OR)

operating results

operating revenues

;

337

operating statement

; [];
[]

operating team

; ;

operating time

; ;

operating unit

operation

; ; ;

operation administration

( -);
( -);

operation administration officer

operation administration unit


(OAU)

( );

operation budget

, ( );
;
;

operation data sheet (ODS)

; ;

operation ID

operation leader (OL)

( );
; ;
( )

operation life cycle

operation of law (by )

(, - );
;

operation performance
evaluation report (OPER)

;
[]

operation rate of return

( )

operation report (OR)

[];
[];
;

operation structure

[]; ;

operation team

( );
;

operation timeline

; ;

operational capability

; ()

operational climate

; ;

operational covenant

338

operational environment

; ;

operational facility

; ;
;

operational performance

operational permit

operational principle

operational priority

; ;
;

operational result

operational safety improvement

operational structure

operational team

operations

( );
;

Operations Committee
(OpsCom)
Operations Committee
Secretariat (OpsComSec)

[];

operations department

( )

operations file supervisor (OFS)

operations management system


(OMS)

operations manual

( );
;

operations rollback

operations staff

operations support

; ;

operations support unit

( );
( )

operative part of a contract

operator

; ; ;

operator intervention

(

)

operator permit

[];
( )

339

opinion of counsel

opportunity cost

; ;
; ;
; ;

optimum staffing level

option

; ;

optional call

optional clause

; ;
, ( )

optional contribution

optional currency

optional dividend

; ,
( )

optional provision

; ;

optionality risk

optionee

optioner

Options Clearing Corporation


[US]
or better (OB)

[]

order bill of lading

order book

order cheque

order form

order of payment

order of priority

(); ;
;

ordering customer

ordering institution

ordering rule

orderly marketing

ordinary activities

ordinary capital resources

(
)

340

ordinary care

ordinary course of banking


transactions

;
;

ordinary course of business

ordinary general meeting (OGM)

ordinary interest

( 360- , 12 30 )

ordinary operations

ordinary repairs

ordinary share

ordinary shareholder

ordinary stock

organic law

; ;

organic pollution

(.)

organisation

();
()

organisation expenses

Organisation for Economic


Cooperation and Development
(OECD)


()

Organisation for Security and


Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)


()

Organization of the Petroleum


Exporting Countries (OPEC)

()

original bill of lading

original capital stock

original cost

original issue

( )

original issue discount (OID)

original law

original maturity

original message

original placement

( )

original prequalification
documents

; ,

original trial

( )

341

originate (v.)

( );

originating bank

-; -

originating calls

; ;

originating traffic

; ;

origination

; ; ( );

origination fee

;
;
[]

originator

; -;

originators bank

ostensible law

ostensible partner

; ;
; ;
;

other liabilities

other money market placement


and advances

other operating income

;
;

other witholdings

our ref.:

out of court

out-of-court settlement

; ;

out of date with (be ~) (v.)

out-of-pocket expenses

( , ,
, , , , . .);
; ;
,

out of the money

(
)

outage

( );
;

outage cost

()

outflow of capital


342

outgoing advice

outgoing calls

; ;

outgoing inventory

outgoing traffic

; ;

outgoings

(); ;
;

outlay

( );

outlay taxes

outlet

; ; ;

outperform the market (v.)

, ;
( );

outplacement

( , )

output

; ;
;

output bonus

output frontier

output growth

output plan

outputs

;
()

outright forward deal

outright liability

; ;

outright merger

outright ownership

outright transaction

(
)

outside investor

outsider

outsourced item

outsourcing

; ;
; ; ;
- ;
( )

343

outstanding

; ; ;

outstanding account (O/A)

outstanding amount

; ();
; ;
;

outstanding bond issue

outstanding capital
subscriptions
outstanding claim


;
(.)

outstanding commitments

( );
; ;

outstanding contract

; ;
;

outstanding contributions

outstanding credit

; ;
; ;
;

outstanding debt

; ;
; ;
;

outstanding disbursements

( );
;

outstanding expenses

outstanding interest

; ;
;

outstanding item

outstanding loan

; ;
; ;
; ;
;

outstanding position

; ;

outstanding shares

outstanding stock

outstandings

; ;
; ;

outward bill of lading

344

outward investment

; ;
; ;
;

outward trade

outward transit

over-the-counter bulletin board


(OTCBB)

over-the-counter market
(OTC market)

; ,

over-the-counter option
(OTC option)

over-the-counter trading
(OTC trading)

; ;

over the period

over the period to maturity

overall balance

overall cost

overall minimum tax exposure


for all parties

overarching strategy

; ;

overassessment

overbooked issue


();
()

overcapacity

overcapitalisation

overcharging

-;

overcollaterisation

overdraft

; ;

overdraft limit

(
)

overdraw (v.)

,
( )

overdue amount

overdue bill

overdue debt

345

overextension

, ;
,

overhang

(); ;
; ;

overhaul

overhead absorption rate (OAR)

overhead costs

overheads

overinvoicing

overland transport

overlapping debt

overlying mortgage

; ;

overnight deposit

overnight funds

overnight money

; ; ,

overnight rate

overpay

overpayment

overreporting

; ;
( . .); ;

overrun financing

Overseas Development
Administration (ODA)

[]

Overseas Economic Cooperation []


Fund (OECF)
Overseas Private Investment
Corporation (OPIC)

()
[]

overseas transport

overshooting in FX market

overshooting of prices

oversight

()

overstate (v.)

; ( )

overstatement of assets

( )

overstating

; ; ;
;
346

overstocking

overstocks

; ; ;

oversubscribed issue

();

oversupply

; ;
;

overtax (v.)

overtime

; ;
;

overvaluation

(, )

owing

; ;
,

own-account construction

;
;
;

own account (on )

own account transport

();

own funds

own shares

;
(- )

owned (be ) (v.)

owner bond

; ;

owner of record

; ;
; ;

ownerless property

; (.)

owners equity

ownership

ownership in common

ownership interest

ownership transfer

347

P
pac-man defence

( )

pace of commitments

pace of economic development

package approach

; ;

package deal

package loan

package of services

package procurement

package transaction

packing letter of credit

paid cash (PC)

; ;

paid-in capital

;
;
;

paid-in capital instalment

paid-in capital receivable

paid-in share

paid-in subscribed capital called, , but not yet due


( )
paid-in subscribed capital due,
but not yet received

, ( )

paid leave


348

paid-up capital

;
; ;

paired accounts

paired deals

paired line

()

paired shares

paired transactions

paired values

paper

; ;
;

paper-based signature

( ,
)

paper corporation

; ;
- ; ;
( ); ;
; -;
(, )

paper currency

paper exchanges

paper gain

; ;
;

paper issue

paper loss

; ;
; ;
; ;
,

paper profit

; ;
; ,
;

paperless payment

paperless security

;
;

paperwork

; ; ;
()

par

; ;
;

par bond

349

par value

; ;
;

parallel financing

( )

parallel loan

, ,

parameter reporting

(, ) ( );

parent company

; ;

parent organisation

parental borrowing

parental guarantee

parental surety

pari passu

; ;

parking (stock )

part owner

part payment

; ; ;

part time (P/T)

; ( );
;

part time job

; ;

partial acceptance

partial average

(.)

partial convertibility

partial environmental analysis

partial payment

; ; ;

partial tender

participant loan

participating bank (PB)

()

participating bond

();
, (-)

participating interest

( 20%, 50%)

350

participating policy

participating preferred stock

participation

( ); ;

participation agreement

participation certificate

( ,
,
)

participation fee

; (
);

participation loan

participations

; ;

particular average (P.A.; P/A)

(.)

particular average loss

(.)

particular circumstances

; ;

particular cost

particular covenant

particular custom

particular discount rate

particulars of an account

particulars of an item

partly knocked down

( )

partner

; ; ( )

partnership

; ;
( ,
)

partnership agreement

; ;
;

partnership and cooperation


agreement (PCA)

(
;
)

partnership limited by shares

party line

()

party responsible

party to an agreement

pass a dividend (v.)

;
351

pass an entry to the credit


of an account (v.)

pass loan

; ;
; ;
,

pass-through formula

;
( )

pass-through security

passbook

(
)

passbook account

(
);

passenger service

( );

passenger traffic

passive banking operation

passive bond

passive debt

passive investor

; ;
; ,

past contamination

(.); (
),

past due accounts

past due interest

past performance on contracts

past service cost

patentability

path breaker

; ;

pathfinder prospectus

(
)

patient capital

( . . );
( 30, 50 )

patrimonial bond

; (.)

pattern of current account


positions

pattern of economic
development
pawn


; ( )
352

pawn (v.)

; ;

pawnee

pawner

pay-as-you-earn system (PAYE)

pay-as-you-go pension plan


(PAYG pension plan)

, ,
( )

pay book

pay-in envelope

pay-in facility

pay-in slip

pay insurance indemnity (v.)

pay on account (v.)

pay scale

pay slip

( );

pay-to-bearer bond

payable

; ; ; ;
;

payable forthwith upon demand

payable in advance

;
; ;
;

payable in arrears

;
;
;

payable upfront

payables

; ; ;
; ;
(, )

payback

; ;
; ; ;

payback period (PBP)

;
;

paydown

; ( );
,

353

payee

; ; (.);
(.); ;

payer

paying agent

paying bank

paying-in slip

paying-in slot

payment arrears

; ;

payment by instalments

; ; ;
; ;

payment date

; ; ;
( );

payment demand order

payment details

payment in advance

; ; ;

payment in arrears

; ;

payment in cash

; ;
( );

payment in kind

; ;

payment instrument

payment note

payment obligation

payment of claims

payment of compensation

payment of paid-in capital

payment of principal

payment of subscriptions

payment order

payment reference

payment request

payment risk

payment schedule

; ; ;
;

354

payment slip

; ;
;

payment terms and procedures

payment upfront

; ;

payments agreement

payments centre

payments system

payoff

; ; ; ; ;
( ); (); ;

payoff statement

payout policy

payroll and benefits officer

, ;

payroll bill

payroll liabilities

payroll register

payroll tax

PC banking

peak-load pricing

(.);
;
;
( . .)

peak-period tariff

(
);
(
)

pecuniary advantage

; ;

pecuniary benefit

pecuniary damages

pecuniary profit

peg (v.)

(, ;
);
( )

pegging of interest rates

pegging tariffs to hard currency

; ;

penalty

; ;

penalty clause

355

penalty for delay

penalty interest

penalty rate

pending disbursements

pending document

pending loss

(.)

pension benefits

, ;

pension fund

pension plan

; ;

pension scheme

; ;

pent-up consumer demand

pent-up demand

; ;

pent-up inflation

per capita income

perceived risk

; ;

percentage

( );
;

percentage-of-completion
method

; ;

peremptory closure of bank


accounts

;
;

perfect chain of title

(
)

perfect obligation

, ;

perfect title

;
;
;
;

perfected lien

, [];
[];
,
[];
, (
)

356

perfected pledge

, ;
, ;
;
, ( )

perfection of a pledge


( );
( )

performance

; ;

performance appraisal system

performance benchmark

performance bond

; ;

performance criteria

();

performance guarantee

[];

performance indicator

; ;
()

performance management

performance monitoring

performance security

();

performance share

; ,

performance standard

performance test

performing loan

; ;

perfunctory measure

; ;

peril

(.); (.)

period contract

period of credit

period of grace

; ;
( );
;

period of indemnification

period of insurance

period of maturity

; ;
; ;

period of redemption

( )

357

period to maturity

period under review

( )

perks (perquisites)

( )

permanent financing

( )

permanent holdings

(
. .)

permissive standard

; ;

perpetual bond

perpetual credit for inventories

perpetual insurance

perpetual loan

perquisites (perks)

( )

persistent demand

; ;

person exercising public


authority

, ;
, -

person giving a charge

, ;

person receiving a charge

, ;

personal account

; ;

personal banker

,
( )

personal banking services

;
;

personal cheque

personal communicator (PC)

() ( ; )

personal digital assistant

personal effects

personal exemption

personal identification number


(PIN)

personal income tax

personal injury

, ;

personal insurance


358

personal interview

personal investment holdings

;
( );

personal loan

( );
( )

personal number

( . .)

personal property

personal remedy

personal right

personal savings rate

personal security

; ;

personnel administration

personnel & administration


(P&A)

- ( , )

personnel costs

personnel department

personnel officer

; (.)

personnel rating

()

petition for dissolution

petition in bankruptcy

petrocredits

petty cash fund

Phare Programme [EU]

[]; Phare []

phased investments

; , ( )

phasing

phasing out

; ;
;

phasing out of subsidies

phone banking

;
;
( , )

phone-based financial services


company

359

phone-based transaction

, ( );
,

phone-in banking

;
;
( )

physical

( ,
. .)

physical assets

; ;

physical capital

; ;
;

physical depreciation

physical infrastructure

; ;
- ; ;
(.)

physical needs

physical progress

; ()

physical stocktaking

; ;
-

physical verification

( )

pickup and delivery (PD)

piecemeal financing

piecework payment system

pig-on-pork bill

, (
)

piggyback product

piggybacking

;
,
;
; ;
()

pilot area

;
;

pilot project

; ;
;

PIN code

PIN pad

( , )

360

PIN phone

,
( )

pink slip

pioneer product

; ; ;

pioneering project

; (.)

pipeline of projects

; ;

pipeline operation

pirating

()

place an order (v.)

place holder

; ( )

place in escrow (v.)


( )

place irrevocably cash in trust


(v.)

place of business

place of destination

placeholder

; ( )

placement

; ;
; ;
( )

placement on commission


( )

placement with and advances


to credit institutions

( )

placements and debt securities

(
)

placing consortium

plain vanilla bond

(
)

plain vanilla swap

plan of redemption

; ();

planned depreciation

planned economy

planning and budgeting

- ;
-

planning of land use

planning permission


361

planning regulation

plant and equipment

; ( );
( );

plant and machinery

; ( );
( )

plant hiring

plant leasing

; ;

plant manager

plastic

;
(.)

pledge

; ( )

pledge (v.)

(- );
( )

pledge a share (v.)

pledge agreement

pledge certificate

pledge collateral to ... (v.)

(-)

pledge credit (v.)

;
;

pledge giver

pledge of the full faith


and credit of ...

pledge registry

; ;
;

pledge renewal

pledged collateral

pledged property

pledgee

pledgeholder

pledgor

ploughed-back profit

point of contact

(.)

point of purchase (POP)

point of sale (POS)

; ;
-

point-of-sale banking


( )

362

point-of-sale terminal

( ), (

)

poison pill


( - )

policing financial markets

policy-based lending

policy document

(
)

policy instrument

policy limit

(.);
(.)

policy-making agency

policy mix

policy of assurance

; ()

policy period

;
;

policy statement

(
)

policy task force

policy term

;
;

policy to bearer

political currency

( . .)

political risk

poll tax

polluter pays principle

, ;

pollution abatement programme

pollution charge

(.);
(.)

pollution control standard

;
(.)

Pollution Prevention and


Abatement Handbook of the
World Bank Group


(.)
363

pool

; ( );
( )

pool of containers

pool of debt

pool of funding

pooled cost of funds

pooled option

(
)

pooling of interest

( )

poor quality (CCC; Caa)

(
Standard & Poors Moodys Investors Service)

port charge

port dues

port of destination (POD)

port of entry

port of shipment

portage equity

, ;
,
;

portfolio diversification

portfolio income

, ;

portfolio insurance

portfolio investment

portfolio investor

portfolio lender

; ,

portfolio management

portfolio mandate

; ;
;

portfolio of securities

portfolio operation

portfolio outstanding

portfolio ratio

portfolio return

portfolio revolving

; ;

364

portfolio risk management

portfolio rotation

; ;

portfolio turnover

position

; ;
; ;

position squaring

positive authorisation

( ) ( )

positive carry

( ,
, )

positive cash flow

positive covenant

positive environment

positive factors in earning

positive gap

positive investment environment ;



positive spread

( ,
, )

positive yield curve

possession

possessory charge

( );

possessory lien

possessory pledge

( );

possible loss

post a bond (v.)

post-completion security

post-dated cheque

post-dating

post-evaluation

[]; ;
()

post-qualification

;
365

post-sharing financing

postal float

( )

posted price

; ;

posting

( );

postponement

(); (, )

potential event of default

; , ;
(.); ,
;
();
()

potential gain

potential ordinary shares

power dressing

( )

power lunch

( );
( );

power of attorney

power of attorney and


substitution
power of substitution

power to contract

power user

; ;
,
;
, (
)

powerhouse

; ; ( ..);
; ( );

powers expressly assigned

practise a profession (v.)

( )

pre-accession country

- ;
( ) ;
, ( );
-

pre-accession instrument

366

pre-approved credit

; ;
( )

pre-authorised payment

; ,

pre-award relief

; ;
( );
; ;
;

( )

pre-clearance

pre-emption right

( )

pre-emptive bid

pre-emptive right

(
)

pre-export financing facility

;
;

pre-feasibility study

- ;

pre-investment assessment

( )

pre-investment feasibility study

- ;
- ;
-

pre-privatisation investment

pre-qualification

; ;
; ;

pre-qualification criteria

;
;

pre-qualification list

(), ;
, ;
, ;
, ; ,

pre-qualify (v.)

; ,
;
;
;
;

367

pre-selling

(
, )

pre-shipment finance

pre-sold issue

;
(,
)

pre-tax profit

precarious loan

; ;

precarious possession

precarious right

precaution

precautionary attachment

( )

precautionary balance

;
; ;

precedence

; ;

preclearance

predetermined overhead rate

predominantly speculative
(BB; Ba)

( Standard & Poors Moodys


Investors Service)

preference

;
;

preference avoidance period

(,
, )

preference share

preference shareholder

preference stock

preference stockholder

preferential arrangements

preferential claim

preferential duty

preferential rate

preferential tariff

; ;

368

preferential tax treatment

; ;
; ;
(.)

preferred bidder

; (.)

preferred claim

preferred credit

preferred creditor

c (
);

preferred creditor debt service to foreign currency earnings ratio



preferred creditor status

(
)

preferred debt

preferred dividend

preferred ordinary share

preferred share

preferred shareholder

preferred stock

preferred stockholder

preferred technology

prejudice (without ~)

; ; (
, )

preliminary environmental
investigation

preliminary point of law

, (.);
(
)

preliminary prospectus

prematuring (upon )

premises of a bank

premium

; ; ; ( );
; (
)

369

premium service

( . .);
;
;

prepaid (PPD)

; ; ;

prepaid expenses

prepayment

; ();
( . .)

prepayment administrative fee

prepayment fee

prepayment penalty

()

prepayment risk

;
(
)

prepayments

prepayments and accrued


income

( )

prequalification documents

; ,

prequalification of tenderers

;
;
( )

prescription

presence

- ;

present (v.)

( . .);
( . .)

present value (PV)

; ;

presentation

; ; ;

presentation of claim

(.);
;

presentation of financial
information

( )

presenteeism

;
( )

presentment

(, );

370

President of the EBRD

; ;
; ;

President of the International


Court of Justice [UN]

[]

prestige advertising

presumptive damages

; ;
,

presumptive total loss

(.);
(.)

prevailing law

prevailing rate of exchange

preventive measure

previously rescheduled debt


(PRD)

; ;

price a loan (v.)

price contingency

price decontrol

; ;
;

price demand elasticity

price deregulation

; ;
;

price dispersion

; ;

price distortion

price/earnings ratio (P/E ratio)

price elasticity of demand

price elasticity of supply

price for cash

; ( )

price for the account

;
( )

price index

price-level accounting

price-level adjusted mortgage

price liberalisation

; ;
;

price list

; (); - (.)

371

price maker

( );
, ( );
,

price nursing

;
( )

price of money

; ;

price on demand (POD)

(
)

price on request (POR)

(
)

price quotation

; ;

price range

; ;

price risk

price/sales ratio (PSR)

(
)

price setter

, ( )

price taker

, (
- );
, ( )

priced publication

; ( , )

priced tender

( );
( )

pricing

; ; ;
( , , )

pricing of debt

; ;
; ;

pricing policy

; ;
; ;
;

prima facie evidence

prima facie; ,

primary capital ratio

[]

primary commodity

primary dealer

primary debtor

primary demand

primary distribution

( )

primary energy


372

primary financial instrument

primary market

; ( )

primary obligor

primary offering

( )

primary trend

prime bank

; ; ;
,

prime borrower

prime contract

prime contractor

prime corporate name

prime cost method

prime lending rate

;
;
; ;

prime name

prime producer

prime-quality borrower

prime rate

principal

; ; ;
; , ;
;

principal activities

; ;
;

principal amount of a loan

; ;

principal amount then


outstanding

principal banker

( )

principal contract

; ;

principal creditor

principal debtor

principal engineer

principal environmental
specialist

;
;
( )

principal holder

;
373

principal obligation

principal obligor

principal office

- ( , );
(, )

principal payment

principal policies

principal redemption

principal repayment date

principal terms and conditions


of subloans

;
;

prior charge

prior claimant

prior creditor

prior encumbrance

; ;
,

prior lien

; ;
; , ;
;

prior lien bond

prior pledgee

prior right

; ;

prior year adjustment

priorities

; ;
;

prioritised investment
programme

; ;

priority

; ; ;
; ;

priority claim

priority of creditors

priority of lien

(
)

priority right

priority share

374

priority share allocation

()
- ;

privacy wording

private activity

private and entrepreneurial


initiative

[];

private bank

( )

private banking

private company

();
();
; ;
( )

private enterprise

; ;
;
;

private equity finance

private equity plan (PEP)

()

private exchange

; ;

private goods

private information

; ;
; ;
,

private label credit

, ;
;
;

private liquidation

private network

()

private offering

( );
;

private pension scheme

; ;
()

private placement

( );
;

private sector borrower


375

private sector equity

privilege

; ; ; ;
( ); ;
( - );

privileged communication

(
)

privileged information

; ;
;
, ;
;
, (, . .)

pro-active

; ( , , )

pro-active approach

; ;
;

pro-active investor

; ,

pro forma balance sheet

pro forma basis (on a )

pro forma invoice

( ); -

pro rata freight

pro rata proportion

pro rata to something

pro rate (v.)

( , , )

probity

; ( );

problem bank

, ;
;
;

problem loan

; ;

procedure for awarding a


contract

;
;

procedure for damages

procedure for termination

;
;

procedures to be followed

proceedings

(.); (.);
( )

376

proceeds

; ; ; ; ;
( )

proceeds depositary

proceeds from the sale


of investments

, ;

proceeds of a disbursement

proceeds of a loan

; ;

proceeds of disposition

; ;
,

process agent

;
,

process flow sheet

process losses

process sheet

process trades (v.)

procuration endorsement

( )

procuration (signature by )

procurement

, ;

procurement adviser

procurement arrangements

; ;

procurement notice

; ;
;

procurement of goods and


services
procurement officer

Procurement Opportunities

Procurement Opportunities ( )

procurement plan

; ( )

Procurement Policies and Rules


of the EBRD

procurement procedures

procurement rules

procurement through shopping

( , ,
)

procurement unit

( )

(
)

377

producer price

; ; ;
-

producer price index (PPI)

();

product (banking)

product & service

( )

product costs

product costing

product innovation strategy

;
()

product life cycle

; ;
;

product market

(, );

product mix

; ()

product payback period

product pruning

; ;

product range

; ()

product ruling

( - )

product slate

product unit cost

production capacity

production cost

production sharing

production sharing agreement


(PSA)

()

production spectrum

productive capacity

productive facilities

productive investment

; ;
;
;
;

productivity

products

; ;

professional conclusion

; ;

378

professional expertise

; ;

professional fee

;
;

professional ineptitude

professional liability insurance

professional liability insurance


limit

;
;

professional misconduct

professional negligence
insurance
professional service

professionals

; - ();
( )

profit

profit and loss account

profit and loss statement

; ;
;
-

profit appropriation

profit appropriation account

, ;
, ;

profit centre

; ( )

profit commission

( . .)

profit/loss for the year

profit margin

profit participation right

() ()

profit repatriation

( );

profit sharing

profit-sharing agreement

profit-sharing bond

profit-sharing certificate

profit taking

;
(.)

379

profit-to-sales ratio

profit/volume ratio (PV ratio)

;
;

profitability of project

profits available to shareholders

, ;

profits repatriation

( );

Programme Examination and


Review Technique (PERT)

programme manager

programme selling

;
;
(
)

programme trading

(.); ;
( )

programmed expenditure

programming

programming officer

progress payment

progress report

; ;
();
();
( )

progressive tax

prohibitive cost

( )

prohibitive duty

project account

project account bank

project administration

project administrator

project adviser

project agreement

project analyst

project appraisal

project approval

project assessment

380

project brief

project bureau

project completion

project completion agreement

project completion date

project completion report (PCR)

project costs

project covenant

;
;

project cycle

; ;
;

project definition

project definition phase

project description

; ;

project design

; ;
;

project developer

project development

; ;

project development and


operational experience

project development cost

project director

( )

project duplication

; ;
;

project economics

;
;
;
;
;

project engineering

project enquiry unit

; ( )

project entity

project evaluation

; ;

381

project evaluation and cost


optimisation system (PECOS)

( )

project evaluation department


(PED)

(
)

project evaluation report

project evaluation synthesis


report

;
();

project facility

project feasibility

project finance

;
;

project finance sourcing

project financeability

;
;
;
;

project financing

;
;

project financing review sheet

project funds agreement

project generation

; ;

project identification

project implementation
agreement

project implementation schedule ; ;



project implementation unit (PIU) ();
();
();
()
project implementation review
(PIR)

project information centre (PIC)

; ;

project lending

; ;

project management system


(PMS)


382

project management unit (PMU)

();
();
()

project manager

();

project milestone

; ;
( )

project monitor

project monitoring

; ;

project monitoring unit (PMU)

();
();
;
-

project mortality

; ;
, ;

project office

project officer

; ; ;
;

project packaging

; ;
; ;

project pipeline

; ;
; ;
; ;

project pipeline report

project planning and steering


system (PPS)

Project Preparation Committee


(PPC)

()

project proposal brief (PPB)

project rationale

project records and reports

project report

; ; ;
;

project site

; ;

project-specific risk

project sponsor

project structure

; ; ;
;

project study

383

project summary document


(PSD)
project support

project support agreement

project terms and conditions

project-tied lending

projected cash flow

projected cash generation

projects financial structure

; ;
;

projects sensitivity to interest


rate movements

promissor

promissory note (P/N)

promoters profit

promoters share

promotion

; ;
; ()

promotion activities

promotion of a company

promotion of investment

;
;

promotional discount

promotional literature

prompt delivery

prompt payer

; ;

prompt payment

; ; ;
;

promulgation of law

proof-of-concept project (POCP)

; ;

propensity to consume

propensity to invest

;
;

propensity to save

; ;

property

; ; ;

384

property and facilities


management

( );

property developer

( );
;

property development

; ;
; ;
;
()

property insurance

property investment

property lending

property management

property, plant and equipment

, ;
( );

property qualification

property rights

property tax

; ;

proportional allotment

( )

proportional tax

proportionate consolidation

proportionate integration

;
;

proprietary card

; , ;
;
;

proprietary firm

, ( ) ( )

proprietary interest

proprietary item

, ;

proprietary lease

proprietary nature

proprietary network

,
()

proprietary right

; (, , )

385

proprietary security

; ; ;
, (
, , )

proprietary security regime

;
;

proprietary security rights

; ;
;

prospective application

( )

prospective client

prospective member

; ( )

prospectus

; ;

prospectus liability

( )

protected expenditure

()

protection from creditors


( )

protective clause

protective duty

protective enforcement measure


protest fee

protested bill

protester

( )

protocol of intent

( )

prototype development

proven reserves

provide for liabilities (v.)

provided always

provident fund

provision for depreciation

provision for general portfolio


risks

( )

provision for losses on


contractual commitments

provision for losses on share


investments

provision for outstanding claims (.);


(.)
386

provision for reserves

; ;
;

provision for taxation

( )

provisional environmental permit (


- )
provisioning

; ;
;
;
;
;
(.)

provisioning costs

; ;

provisioning for debts

; ;
;

provisioning for loans

;
;
;

provisions

; ;
; ; ;
;

provisions against losses

; ;
;

provisions for losses

; ;
;

provisions for losses on loans


and advances

provisions for securities

proviso (with a )

proxy

; ;

proxy contest

(
)

proxy fight

( )

proxy giver

proxy voting right

prudence

; ; ;

387

prudent credit risk management

prudent estimate

prudential provisioning

prudential ratios

prudential regulation

prudential requirement

prudential standard

prudential supervision

Public Access and Disclosure


of Information Policy


[]

public agency

; ;
;

public and private placements

public assets

; ;
- []

public auction

public bond

public catering

public company

();

public consultation meeting

( )

public data network

public debt

( )

public domain

public enterprise

; , ;
-

public entity

public funding

public (go ) (v.)

public good

388

public information programme

;
;

public interest

public interest immunity


certificate


( )

public limited company (Plc)

;

;
();

(.) []

public limited liability company


;
()

public market

public network

public non-sovereign project

public offer

( );
( )

public offering

( );
( );
( );
( )

public opening of tenders

;
( );
( )

public participation meeting

( )

public procurement

public project

public purpose bond

(
)

public register

; (, )

public registry

, ; ;
(, )

public relations (PR)

; ;
;

public relations department

389

public revenues

public sale

; ; ;
;

public sector

public sector borrowing


requirements (PSBR)

public sector debt


reimbursement

;
( )

public switched telephone


network (PSTN)

public transport

; ;

public utility

public utility services

; ;

publicity

; ( . .)

publicly held corporation

publicly owned joint-stock


company

();
()

publicly traded company

; , ;
, ;
();
()

published reserve

published tariff

()

pump-priming

;
( - )

punitive damages

(, ; ,
)

punitive tax system

purchase

purchase for future


contingencies
purchase money

; ;

purchase money mortgage

, []

purchase of shares

( );
( )

; ;

390

purchase order

;
(.)

purchase price

; ; ;

purchase price of money

purchase requirement

purchase requisition

purchase value

purchaser motivation

purchasing director

- ; ()

purchasing power parity (PPP)

()

pure insurance

( ; )

pure obligation

purpose

; ()

purpose loan

pursue a debt (v.)

; ;
; ;

purveyor

put agreement

put and call deal

put date


( )

put holder

; ;

put option

put writer

putability

putable bond

putative borrower

; ;
;

391

Q
qualification

; ;
;

qualification criteria

qualification requirements

qualification shares

,
;
, (
)

qualifications

; ; ;
; ;

qualified acceptance

; ;
;

qualified audit

;
;
()

qualified audit certificate

;
;

qualified audit report

;
;

qualified certificate

;
;

qualified endorsement

, ;
, ;
;
;

qualified institutional buyer (QIB)


392

qualified instrument

qualified opinion

;
;

qualified report

;
;

qualifying certificate

qualifying fees and commissions


qualifying instrument

(,
)

qualifying requirement

; ;
;

qualifying shares

, (
)

quality assurance (QA)

quality assurance procedure

quality auditing system

; ;

quality circle

( , )

quality control (QC)

quality seal

quantification procedure

; ;

quantitative control

; ; ;

quantity received

quarterly status report (QSR)

quasi-contract

quasi-equity [IFC]

[]

quasi-market rate

quasi-money

quasi-reorganisation

query

( )

questionable value (D)

(
Standard & Poors)

393

questions and answers


(Qs and As; Q&A)

,
;
; ,

quick assets

; ,
-

quick disbursing loan

;
;

quick ratio


( ) ;
;
;
;

quitclaim deed

quittance

; ;
; ()

quorum

( ,

)

quota

quota system

; ;

quotable

( );
;

quotation

; ; ; ; ;
; ;

quotation ex-mill

; ; -

quotation for a foreign currency

quotation list

quotation of the day

quote

; ;

quote (v.)

quoted company

quoted price

quoted security

;
;

394

R
raider

( )

railway sector

Railways Adjustment, Integration ,


and Restructuring Initiative
- [ - ]
[EBRD - World Bank]
raise a loan (v.)

; ;
;

raise capital (v.)

raise funds (v.)

raised cheque

; () ( );

rallying rate

rampant tax evasion

random sample

random sampling

random-walk theory (of stock


market prices)

(.);
,

range of products

; ;
/

ranking

; ; ; ;
()

ranking of claims

; ;

ranking of creditors


395

Rapid Joint-Venture Task Force

rate basis

rate for short-term open market


operations

rate of compensation

; ; ;
;

rate of duty

rate of exchange

rate of insurance

rate of international reserves


to imports

rate of price inflation (RPI)

rate of recovery

()

rate of reimbursement

rate of remuneration

; ; ;
;

rate of return

; ;
;

rate of return on capital

rate of turnover

; ;

rate risk

;
, ;
;

rate ruling at ... (date)

, ( );
... ( )

rate-sensitive industry

, ;
( ); ,
;

rate-sensitive investments

, ;
,

rateable property

rateable value

rateably

rated AA or its equivalent

rated bond

, ; ;
, ( )

rated capacity

; ;

396

rated load

rates

; ; ; ;
( )

ratification

rating

; ; ;

rating agency

rating investment grade bond

rating qualification

ratio

; ;

ratio analysis

- (
)

ratio of equity to outstanding


loans

ratio of equity to risk weighted


assets

, ;
,

ratio of gold reserves to imports

ratio of international reserves


to imports

ratio of liquid assets to customer accounts on demand

rational expectation

rationalisation

; ; ;

rationing system

; ; ;
;

raw data

re-analysis

( )

re-discounting

re-fixing of a rate

re-issue of a credit card

re-offer price

()

re-offer spread

()

re-present (v.)

( . .);
;
( , )

re-registration

re-registration process

; ;

397

re-skilling

;
;

re-tender

re-tooling

;
()

ready money

; ; ;

real account

; ; ;
, ;
;

real assets

; ;

real balances

real capital

real chattels

real estate

; ;

real estate fund

real estate tax

; ;

real exchange rate

real GNP

real interest rate

;
( )

real obligation

real property

; ;

real rate of interest

;
( )

real revenues

; ;

real right

real sector

real sectors (of the economy)

realignment of exchange rates

realisable assets

realisable revenues

;
;

realisable value

; ;
,

realisation concept


398

realisation price

( );
;

realisation value

; ;
;

realisations

; ;
( )

realised gain

realised loss

realised price

; ; ;
,

realised profit

realised profits and losses

realised revenues

; ;
; ;
;

reallocation

(, )

reanalysis

( )

reasonable costs

reasonable excuse

; ;
; ;

reasonable remuneration

reasonable value

rebasing

; ()

rebate

( );
( ;
);
(;
)

recapitalisation

; (
. .)

recapitalise (v.)

recapture clause

; ( );
-

receipt (against ~)

399

receipted invoice

;
- ;
-

receipts and expenditures

receipts book

receipts in kind

receipts tax

receivable

receivable accruals

receivables

; ;
( );
();

receivables turnover

received cash book

()

receiver

; ;
; , ( );

receiver of cargo

receivership

;
(-);
;

receivership law

receivership proceedings

receiving bank

receiving report

recession

()

recipient

; ; -

recipient country

-; -

recipient of a loan

; ; ;

reciprocal claim

reciprocity clause

recital

( )

recitals

( )

reckless disregard

; ( -);

recognise losses (v.)

( )

recognised monopoly

;
400

recognition

; ;

recognition in accounts

recognizance not to leave

recompense

reconcile (v.)

( ); ;

reconciled accounts

reconciliation

reconciliation account

reconditioning

; ;
( , )

record date

record (of )

; ; ;
;

record services and archives

; ()

recorded on an accrual basis

recorded unemployment

records and reports

records manager

recoup (v.)

; ;
;

recourse

; ;
;
;

recourse action

recourse factoring

;
;
( )

recourse loan

recourse (without )

recover a debt (v.)

; ;

recover damages (v.)

; ;
; ;

recoverability

; ;
( )

recoverability of outstanding
loans


401

recoverability rate

()

recoverable amount

recoverable cost

recoverable debt

recoverable expenses

, ( );

recoverable reserves

; ;

recoveries from third parties

recovery

; ; (.);
; ();
;

recovery in kind

recovery of advance

recovery of debts

recovery probability

recovery value

recruitment adviser

recurring payment

; ;

recyclable packaging

recycling

( ); ;
( )

recycling account

( )

recycling of funds

( )

red clause

( );
( )

red herring issue

redeem bonds (v.)

; ;

redeem shares (v.)

redeemable bond

, ;
;
,

redeemable preferred share

; , ( 25 )

402

redeemed debenture

; ;

redemption

; ;

redemption fee

(
)

redemption fund

redemption penalty

( );
()

redemption period

( )

redemption plan

; ();

redemption premium

redemption price

( )

redemption schedule

redemption yield

;
;
;
( )

redenomination

( )

redeployment of funds

; ;
;

reduced tariff

reduction in value of the charged ;


property

redundancy

redundancy payment

( );
(
)

ref.: (our ~)

ref.: (your ~)

referee

;
( );
; ;
; ;
, ( )

reference currency

, ;
( )

reference data

reference index of securities


403

reference settlement rate

( )

reference zone

( )

refinance risk


( );
(
);

refinanced debt

refinancing

; ;
;

refinancing rate

refinancing risk

reform country

, ;
,

reform-mindedness

refuge from justice

refund outstanding amounts (v.)

refundable interest

; ,

re-funded debt

re-funding

re-funding bond

( )

Regional Bank Training Centre


(RBTC)

regional development fund

Regional Environmental
Advisory Office

regional fund

, ;

Regional Representative

Regional Venture Fund (RVF)

()

register

; ; ;

register of members

404

registered address

registered bond

registered capital

;
;

registered certificate

registered charge

, ;

registered cheque

, ( ;
)

registered lien

(
)

registered market maker

, ( )

registered mortgage

registered office

;
()

registered representative

registered security

registered share

registered shareholder

; ;
; ;

registered stock

registered trademark

registered trader

registrar

; ;

registration

registration charges

; ;
;

registration desk

( );

registration dues

; ;

registration fee

; ;

registration form

registration statement

; ;
;

regressive tax

regular amortisation schedule

;

405

regular budget

regular business hours

regular completion

();
()

regular staff

; ;
;
, ;

regulation

; ; ; ; ;
; ;

regulations

; ; ; ;

regulatory activity

; ; ;

regulatory and legal framework

regulatory authority

; ;

regulatory compliance

;
; ;

regulatory environment

- ;
-

regulatory framework

regulatory impact

regulatory information

regulatory regime

regulatory requirement

; ;

regulatory risk

regulatory risk management

regulatory trend

rehabilitation

; ; ; ;
;
();

rehabilitation credit

reimbursable expenses

reimbursable loan

reimbursables

reimburse expenses (v.)

; ()

reimbursement

reimbursement commitment
(RC)

();
406

reimbursement commitment
bank (RC bank)

( )
,

reimbursement credit

reinstatement costs


( , )

reinstatement value

reinsurance

reinsurance commission

reinsurance premium

reinvestment disount

reinvestment risk

( )

reject allowance

( )

reject item

, ( );
;

rejected operation

(, -
;
)

rejection of a bid

; (.);
;
( )

related business

related company

; ;
; ;

related party

related party transaction

;
;
(.)

related reference

relative price

relative value

;
( )

relaxation of covenants

release

; ;
; ( )

release date (R/D)

407

release from provisions for


losses

, , ;

release labour (v.)

; ;

release of provisions

( );
( )

relending

; ;

relevant experience

relevant market interest rate

reliability of data

reliable information

relief from duties

( )

relief from rates

;
(
)

relief fund

relief on a group basis

relinquish duties (v.)

;
( )

relocation allowance

remainder

remedial measure

;
(.);
(.)

remedial programme

(.); ( . .)(.)

remediation

;
()

remedy

; ;

remedy (v.)

(, ); (
, );
()

remedy a grievance (v.)

; ;
()

remedy defects (v.)

remission of a debt

remit

; ; ; ;

408

remit (v.)

remittance

remitting bank

-; -

re-mortgage

;
;

remote Internet access

;
( );

remote service unit (RSU)

( );

remunerated service

remuneration

; ;
()

remuneration rate

; ; ;
;

remunerative capital export

render unenforceable (v.)

rendering of accounts

renegotiated loan

; ;

renewable bill

renewable resources

renewal

renewal coupon

( ;
)

renewal of fixed capital

rent

rent accrual

rental

rental price of money

renvoi

(.)

reorganisation

; ();
()

repackaged debt

; ;
;

repackaging

( );
( );
( )
409

repair a loss (v.)

repatriation facilities

( )

repatriation of profits

( );

repayable credit

repayment

; ; ;
( )

repayment capacity

( )

repayment date

repayment financing

;
;

repayment of loans

; ;

repayment profile

repayment risk

; ; ;
;
;
(
);

repeat delivery

repeat project

; ;

repeat violation

repeater

repeater loan

repeater project

; ;

replacement bond

, ;

replacement capacity

replacement cost (RECO)

; ;

replacement cost at market rates


replacement cost of borrowing

replacement cost risk

(
)

replacement investment

replacement loan

410

replacement of a credit card

replacement risk


( )

replacement value

;
; ;

replacement value accounting

replacing less safe plants by the


development of alternative
energy sources [NSA]

[];

[]

replant (v.)

replenishment of stock

; (.)

replicability of a project

; ;

replicable behaviour

replicate a project (v.)

; ;
;

replication of projects

; ;
;

repo (repurchase agreement)

(,
);
; ;
-

repo-based finance

repo instrument

report of survey

report on an ad hoc basis (v.)

reportable segment

reported profit

reporting currency

reporting date

, ;
;

reporting enterprise

reporting frequency

reporting period

reporting requirements

; ;
; ;

411

reporting unit

reporting year

reports

repositioning

;
;
;
();
( )

repossession

;
;

represent (v.)

( . .);
;
( , )

represent and confirm (v.)

( )

representational faithfulness

representations and warranties

( )

representative money

(
)

repricing interval

reproduction item

; ;

repudiation

;
( )

repurchase agreement (RP)

(,
);
; ;
-

repurchase of shares

repurchase price

; (

)

reputable bank

; ; ;
,

reputable businessman

reputable company

; ;
;
;
;

reputable insurer

; ;

412

reputation manager


( , . .)

reputed owner

request for payment

request for proposals (RFP)

( , );
;

request letter

; , ;
-

required reserves

; ;
;

requirements

requirements and regulations


in corporate law

requisition

; ( , )

requisition (v.)

( )

requited payment

resale value

reschedule debt payments (v.)

;
;

rescheduled loan

; ;
;

rescheduling

; ();
()

rescue

; ;

rescue plan

research and development (R&D) - -


()
research and development
expenditure

- -

research assistant

research credentials

; ;

researcher

reservation agreement

( , ; )
413

reserve

( )

reserve account

reserve asset

; ;
;

reserve currency

reserve for deferred taxes

reserve for depreciation

reserve for doubtful debts

reserve for inventory losses

reserve for losses on


investments

reserve positions in the IMF

reserve price

( ); ;
( ;
)

reserve ratio

; ;

reserve requirement

; ;
; ;

reserve stock

; ;

reserved price

( ); ;
( ;
)

reserves

; ( );

reserves and surpluses

resettlement benefits

residence permit

resident

( , )

resident alien

, ;
;
-

resident entity

;
()

resident of an economy


414

Resident Office (RO)

( )

Resident Office Agreement


((Agreement between the

Government of the Russian
Federation and the European
Bank for Reconstruction and
)
Development regarding the
Resident Office of the European
Bank for Reconstruction and
Development)
Resident Representative

; - []

residential properties

residential sector

residential user

; ;

residual currency position

residual equity

; ()
;

residual profit

, ( )

residual value

; ;
( );

resilience of resources

reskilling

;
;

resolution of disputes

resolution of the board


of governors

(
)

resource allocation

resource allocation technique


and multi-project scheduling
(RAMPS)


- (
- )

resource-based industry

resource recovery and recycling

resource recycling

( , , );
(.);
(.)

resources and facilities (of a


bank)
respondent bank

()
- (, )

415

respondent party

response time

(
)

responsible entrepreneurship

responsive tender

, ;
, ;
;
( )

responsiveness

restacking

()

restatement

()

restating

( )

restating financial statements


according to Generally
Acceptable Accounting
Principles

restitution of property rights

;
;
;

restocking

restore a member to good


standing (v.)

( )

restricted area

restricted asset

restricted attendance

( )

restricted invitation to tender

;
;
;
;
;

restricted market

restricted meeting

restricted practice

;
, ;
,

restricted security

[]

restricted tendering

; ;
;

restricting condition

restrictions on borrowing

; ;

416

restrictions on retained earnings ;



restrictive business practice
(RBP)

;
;

restrictive endorsement

restrictive fiscal and monetary


policy

restrictive injunction

restrictive state

(.)

restrictive tendering [EU] [WB]

(
);
;

restructure assets (v.)

restructured loan

; ;
;

restructuring

(, );
(); ;
;

restructuring fund

()

retail banking

;
;

retail customer

(.);

retail outlet

retail price index (RPI)

()

retained correspondence

, ,
( )

retained earnings

; ;

retained loss transferred


to general reserve

, ( )

retained profits

retainer contract

; ;

retainer fee

; ; ;
;
;

retaining fee

; ; ;
;
;

retention

;
417

retention agreement

()

retention money

,
- ( )
(
)

retention of shares

retention of staff

retention of title

;
;
(
- );
( )

retirement benefit plan

retirement benefits

, ;

retirement from service

();
()

retirement of bonds

(); ;

retirement of debts

; ;

retirement of fixed assets

retirement of securities

;
( );
;

retraining

retroactive application

retroactive financing

; , ;
( )

retroactively

retrocession

,
( . .)

return

; ; ; ;

return draft

return item

;
; , ;
, ;
,

return of growth


418

return on assets (ROA)

; ;
; ;

return on capital

; ;
; ;
;

return on capital employed


(ROCE)

; ;
;
;
( )

return on equity (ROE)

; ;
; ;
;
( )

return on invested capital

return on investment (ROI)

; ;
; ;
; ;
; ;
( ,
)

return on shareholders capital

; ;
; ;
;
( )

returns inwards

( )

returns outwards

(, )

returns to bank

()

returns to scale

Reuter Monitor Money Rates


Service

revaluation

revaluation coefficient

revaluation fund

( )

revaluation tax

revalued amount of an asset

revenue

; ;

revenue anticipation note (RAN)

( , )

revenue assets

419

revenue-based financing

; ;
;

revenue bond

; ,
;
,
( )

revenue duty

revenue-enhancement measure

revenue expenditure

revenue-intensive customer

, ;
;

revenue measure

revenue recognition

revenue recognition on accrual


basis

revenue recognition on the basis ( of cash realisation


);

revenue sharing bond

revenue unit of service

reversal

; ; ( ) (.);
( )

reversal of reforms

; ;

reverse acquisition

( )

reverse charge call [UK]

( );
,

reverse preferences

reverse repurchase agreement


(reverse repo)

reverse split

reverse swap

reverse takeover

reversion

review body

review procedures

revocable commitment

revocable credit

revocable letter of credit

420

revocable trust

,
( )

revocation of licence

; ; ;

revocation of offer

revoke letter of credit (v.)

revoke licence (v.)

; ;

revolve funds (v.)

revolver (inform.)

revolving credit (R/C)

revolving credit facility (RCF)

; ;
,

revolving letter of credit

revolving loan

; ;
,

revolving underwriting facility


(RUF)

( )

reward

; ; ;
( )

reward card

; ( );
; (
, )

reward expectations

( );
; ;
;

rider

; ( , )

right in rem

right of cancellation

right of coinage

right of enjoyment

right of establishment

( )

right of first refusal

right of foreclosure

;
;
( )

421

right of lien

right of offset

(
)

right of pre-emption

right of redemption

;
;

right of retention

(, , , , )

right of set-off

right of way

right to call

;
;

right to inspect

; ;

right to inspection

; ;

right to put

right to retire

(
)

rights in liquidation or
dissolution
rights issue

rights offering

( );
( )

rigidities of an economy

ring bank

, ( )

ringfence (v.)

(); ;
; ( )

ringfenced assets

(); , ( )

ringfenced funds

ringfenced proceeds

; ;

ringfencing

; ;
;

422

ripened into binding rules

ripple effect

; ;

risk

(.);

risk appetite

; ;
; ;
;
( )

risk assets

risk-averse investor

; , ;
; ,
( )

risk averse way (in a ~)

; () ;

risk-based capital

( )

Risk Control

( )

risk control

; ;
;

risk controller


( )

risk-free rate

Risk Management

( )

risk management

; ;
;

risk management enhancement

risk margin

risk measurement framework

risk mitigation

risk of loss

(); ;

risk of non-placement

( );
();
( )

risk participation

risk premium

(
)

risk profile

; ; ;
; ;

risk rate

(, ,
)

risk rating

423

risk remedy

; ;
;

risk sharing

; ; ;
( )

risk sharing portion

risk spreading

risk taker

risk tolerance

; ; ;

risk trading

risk weightings

road capacity

road maintenance

- ; ;
;

road reconstruction

road rehabilitation

road tax

road traffic accident (RTA)

- ()

road upgrading

RoadRailer

,
( )

roadshow

roaming (telecommunications)

( )

rogue bankrupt

rogue firm

; ;
; ;
-; (.)

roll-back

roll-out

; ; ;
( - );
;

roll over (v.)

( );
;

roll over claims on insolvent


debtors (v.)

roll up interest (v.)

424

roller-coaster market

; ;
;

rolling contract

rolling news

(
, );

rolling programme

; ;

rollover announcement

rollover credit

( -
,
3, 6 12 )

rollover risk


( )

round lot

( )

rounding

(, )

routine asset replacement

;
;

routine maintenance

- ; ;
;

routing

routing number

[]

royalty

; ;
; ;

rubber cheque (inform.)

; , -
;
, ;
()

rule of command

rule of law

; ;

Rules and Regulations of the


Russia Small Business
Investment Special Fund

rules of competition

rules of order

()

rules of procedure

rules of procedure for arbitration ;


proceedings
;
;

425

Rules of Procedure of the Board


of Directors of the European
Bank for Reconstruction and
Development

Rules of Procedure of the Board


of Governors of the European
Bank for Reconstruction and
Development

rules of professional conduct

Rules of the Chernobyl Shelter


Fund

Rules of the Nuclear Safety


Account

ruling letter

run

run a business (v.)

run on a bank

runaway inflation

running costs

running days

( )

running project

; ;

running repayment

running yield

runoff

(
, , );
;
(
)

Russia Small Business Fund


(RSBF)
Russia Small Business
Investment Special Fund

()

Russia Small Business


Technical Cooperation Special
Fund
Russian Federal Service on
Insolvency and Financial
Rehabilitation (RSIFR)

Russian Project Finance Bank


(RPFB)

()

Russian Trade Facilitation


Programme

()

426

S
safe custody

safe deposit box

( )

safeguard income (v.)

; ;
( , )

safeguard of assets

; ;

safekeeping

[];

safekeeping account

safekeeping charge

safety

; ;

safety officer

safety problems posed by the


design and operation of a
reactor [NSA]

, []

Safety Review Group (SRG)


[NSA]


[]

safety standards

sag

salaries and emoluments

; ;
; ;

salary

; ()

sale and leaseback

(
)

sale as is

; ( )

sale from portfolio


427

sale of investments

; ;

sale on credit

sale proceeds

( )

saleable goods

saleable investments

; ;
;

sales

; ; ; ;
; ; (.)

sales account

sales bonus

sales contract

sales invoice

sales literature

sales manager

; ;
( )

sales on account

sales outlet

; ;

sales receipt

sales tax

salvage value

same-day funds

;
;
, ;
;

sample survey

sampling by attributes

sampling by variables

samurai bond

,
;
,

sanitary engineering

; -

satellite account

satellite proceedings

, (.)

satisfaction of debt

; ;

satisfaction of mortgage

428

satisfactory loan

; ;

satisfy a payment obligation (v.)

; ;
;

saturation of the market

save-as-you-earn scheme

;

-
-

saver

saving clause

; ,

savings account

()

savings and loan association


[]
(S&L)
savings and loan company (S&L) -
savings bank

savings bond

( )

savings certificate

savings deposit

( )

savings share

scale buying

()

scaling back production

scarce goods

scarce resources

scarcity of credit

scarcity of funds

; ;

scare buying

(, )

schedule

( ); ();

schedule of amortisation

; ;

schedule of creditors

( )

schedule overrun

; ;
( );
;

scheduled creditor

; (
)

scheduled investments

429

scheduled maintenance

- ; ;
; ;

scheduled maintenance period

scheduled property

scheduling

schmoozing of customers

(.)

scholarly integrity

science park

scope

( ); ;

scope buying

;

( )

scope paragraph

( )

scoping

(, );
( )

scoring

();
(, - )

screening

screening procedures

scrip

;
; ;
;

scrip certificate

scrip dividend

scrip issue

script book

;
(, )

seaborne transport

()

sealed bid

; ;
;

sealed instrument

sealed tender

; ;
;

seamless operation

; ;

430

seamless transition

( );
( );

search

;
( ; -)

search charges register (v.)

;
;

seasonal adjustment

seasonal fluctuation

seasonal loan

( )

seasonal pre-financing

seasonal variation

seasoned loan

; ;

seasoned security

;
, ;

seat

( )

second-preferred stock

;
;

second-tier bank

secondary comfort

; (
)

secondary credit

secondary liability

; ;
;

secondary market

( )

secondary obligation

secondary production

( )

secondary reaction

;
;

secondary reserves

()
( )

secondary trading

; ;

secondment

()

431

secrecy in banking

; ;

secretarial support

secretary general

(
)

secretary generals office (SGO)

(
)

sector average

;
()

sector fund

sector-specific fund

sector team

( )

sector team leader (STL)

( )

Sectoral Adjustment Loan


(SECAL) [IMF]

[];

sectoral reform

sectoral strategy

;
( )

secure communication

( )

secured asset

, ; ;
;

secured bill

; ,

secured bond

secured borrowing

secured claim

()

secured credit

secured credit card

, ;
,

secured creditor

, ;
;

secured debt

; ;

secured lender

;
,

secured loan

; ;
;
432

secured obligation

secured property

; ;
, ()

secured red clause

( );

( )

secured transaction

securing claim

securities

Securities Act (1933)

[]

securities administration

Securities and Exchange


Commission (SEC) [US]

[]

securities business

securities clearing

securities dealer

; (.)

securities investment fund

securities issue

securities lending

; ;
;

securities loan

; ; ;

securities market

securities pledged as collateral

; ;
;

securities portfolio

securities trader

; (.)

securities trading statement

( )

securitisation

; ()
;

securitisation of debt

security

; ; ;
; ; ()

security agent

433

security agreement

; ;

security assignment

;
; ;
; ;

security bill

security deposit

security document

security for a claim

security for a debt

security for a loan

security for payment

security held for investment

security interest

; ; ;
;

security policy

security right

security sharing

;
;
; ;

security sharing agreement

;
;
;
;
;

security to bearer

security trustee

seed capital

seed money

seedcorn capital

seek recourse under a guarantee


(v.)
seesaw market

; ;
,

segment assets

segment expense

segment result

434

segment revenue

segregated account

seizure

; ;

seizure of property

; ; ;

selected economic indicators

selected technology

selection requirement

; ; ;

selective tendering

; ;
(
);
;

self-employment

self-financing holding company

self-generated goodwill

self-help enforcement

self-insurance

;
(
)

self-liquidating loan

(
- )

self-liquidating project

, ;

self-managed budget

self-regulation

; (),

self-regulatory organisation

self-retention

(/) (.)

self-sustainability

self-sustaining

; ;

self-sustaining system

self-tender

sell at a premium (v.)

sell programme

; ;

sell property free of charge (v.)

, ;

435

sell short (v.)

( ,
)

selldown

;
, ( )

sellers market

, ;
; ,
;

selling expenses

selling fee

selling group

selling price

selling rate

selling syndicate

semi-annual update (SAU)

semi-manufactured goods

semi-manufactures

sender to receiver informartion

( )

sending bank

-; -

senior and unsubordinated


creditor

;
; ;

senior business analyst

senior credit adviser

senior creditor

; ;
;

senior debt

;
;
;

senior lender

;
;
;

senior loan

;
;
;

senior mortgage

; ; ;
;

436

senior security

senior vice-president (SVP)

seniorage

sensitive goods

sensitive information

; ;

sensitive issue

; ;
;

sensitivity analysis

;
;

sensitivity (of a client or project)


to interest rate movements

( )

separability clause

separate transfer

()

separation grant

sequence number

sequestrator

; ;
;

serial bond issue

service charge

( ); ;
( );
( )

service contract

; ;

service industry

service lease

; ; ;

service level agreement (SLA)

( )
-

service life

; ; ;
;

service media

service network

( . .)

service of notice

;
;

437

service of process

service provider

; -;
, ; ;
();

service receiver

; ; ()

service sector

service till [UK]

[]

service water

service wear

; ;

serviceability

( )

servitude

set-aside funds

set-aside grant [EU]

[];
[]

set aside to the special reserve


from previous year


( )

set of documents

set-off

; ; ;
; ;
(, )

set-off clause

set up a separate corporate


entity (v.)

;
;

set-up costs

; ;
; ;

setting to work and


commissioning of a project

settle a claim (v.)

(.)

settle a payment obligation (v.)

; ;
;
;

settle amicably (v.)

;
;
;
;

settle by draft (v.)

438

settle obligations (v.)

; ;
;

settle trades (v.)

;
;

settlement

; ; ;

settlement and depository centre - ()


(SDC)
settlement and suspense
accounts
settlement bank
settlement basis (on a

settlement costs [US]

[]

settlement date

settlement day

settlement in cash

; ; ;
;
;
(.)

settlement in kind

settlement interval

settlement of disputes

settlement of obligations

; ;
; ;

settlement price

settlement procedure

; ;

settlement rate

( )

settlement services

settlement value

settlor

severability clause

;

- ;
;

severable contract

several creditors

439

several liability

several obligation

severally

( ); ( )

severance agreement

severance pay

shadow economy

shadow price

shadow tolling

( : ,
)

shake hands on it (v.);


shake on it (v.)

(
;

)

shakedown run

; ;

sham transaction

; ;

shape of the yield curve

; ()

shaping of demand

share

; ;

share capital

share certificate

; ;
()

share depositary receipt

();

share dilution

share in the income or the


expenses (of a bank) (v.)

()

share income

share instrument

, ( , )

share investment

; ;
;

share premium

; ;

share purchase tax credit

share retention agreement

share to bearer


440

shared access line

()

shared facility

shared fee

shared financing

shared funding

shared network

(, );
(, );

shared obligation

shared party line

()

shared resource

;
;
;

shared responsibility

; ;
; ;

shared security

;
;
; ;

shareholder

( ); ;
( )

shareholder equity

shareholder investment

shareholder loan

shareholder oversight

shareholder pre-emption right

shareholders agreement

shareholders equity

-; ;

shareholding

shareholding structure

shares carrying voting rights

shares of total employment

shares outstanding

; ;
,

441

sharing

; ;
;

sharing clause

sharing of losses

;
;

shelf company

, ;
; ;
, ;

shelf life

;
;

shelf registration

( ,
)

shell branch

( , ;
)

shell company

, ;
; ;
(, );
; (,
)

Shelter Implementation Plan


(SIP)
shifting trust

() []

ship list

; ()

ship mortgage

shipment in bulk

(, )

shipped bill of lading

shipper

shippers risk and expense (at


~)
shipping document

shipping quality

Shogun bond

, ;
,

shopping (in procurement)

; ;
(
)

short a call (be ) (v.)

short a put (be ) (v.)

442

short coupon

;

( )

short delivery

; ; ;

short end of the market

short exchange

; ( )

short form audit report

short form report

(
,
; )

short-interest position

short-interest ratio

short-interest theory

short list

, ;
; ;
;

short loan

short messaging system (SMS);


short message services (SMS)

( )

short payment

; ; ; ;

short position

; ;
( , ,
, )

short sale

; ;
;
,
(
)

short seller

, ()

short shipment

; ; ;

short stock/long call

short straddle

short-term bond

short-term financing

( )

443

short-term investment
(ST investment)

;
;

short-term monetary support


(STMS)

short-term money

; ;

short-term money market

short-term note

short-term rating

shortfall

; ; ; ;
; ;

shunting

shuttle trade

; ,
()

side-by-side trading

side collateral

side letter

( )

sight deposit

sight bill

; ;
, ;
,

sight draft

; ;
, ;
,

sight quotation

signal controlled intersection

signatory

; ;
, ;

signatory document

signatory power

;
;

signatory to an agreement

; , ;

signature by procuration

signature card

( )

signature loan

signature page

(, )

signature verification

;

444

significant accounting policies

signing authority

signing memorandum

[]

silent copies

, ( );
( ,
; )

silent partner

; ; ,

silent run

( )

silver parachute

(
, /
);

( )

similar project

; ;
;

simple average

(.)

simple bond

simple-contract credit

; ;

simple interest

simple obligation

simplified tax return

single anchor legs mooring


(SALM)
single creditor

()

single-currency loan

;
[ ]

single customs territory

single-entry bookkeeping

single market

single-member constituency

[; ; ];
;

single-party exposure

single-purpose company

single responsibility project

445

single sourcing

; ;
;

single tendering

; ;

single-use goods

sink a debt (v.)

sinking fund

; ;

sinking fund payment

; ;

site

; (, );
()

site visit

; ; ;
; ;

skill premium

(
. .; )

skilled labour

skip account

; ;
, ;
()

skip tracer

, ()

skylock clause

slack demand

; ;

slack operation

slaughter

;
(.)

sleeping company

, ;
;
,

sleeping partner

, ;
;

sliding peg

slow loan

; ;
, ;
,

sluggish demand

; ;

slumpflation

446

small and medium-sized


enterprises (SME)

();
()

small and medium-sized


industries (SMI)

();
();
()

small business credit bank

small business fund

;
;

small business loan

small caps

(
)

small change

; ;

small enterprise equity fund


(SEEF)
small privatisation scheme

small-scale privatisation

smart card

; - (.)

smart highway

, (, ,

)

smart money

smart phone

,
( ,
, ,
. .)

smart road

, (, ,

)

smash

( );
( )

SME Equity Fund

[]

smurf;
smurfer

; ,

smurfing

( );
( )

social accounting

social assets

social benefit

social costs

447

social dividend

;
;

social expenditure

social impact

social insurance

social overhead capital (SOC)

social overhead costs (SOC)

()

social performance

;
;

social report

social safety net

social security

social security benefit

Society for Worldwide Interbank


Financial Telecommunication
(SWIFT)

( )

soft bank lending

soft budget constraints

;
;
;

soft currency

soft lending rate

;
;
;

soft loan

soft standard

; ;

soft terms

soft-window facility

soil and ground water pollution

(.)

sole and exclusive agency

;
;

sole manager

sole proprietor

sole proprietorship

; ( )
448

solid bank

; ; ;
,

solid waste

solvency

solvency ratio

( )

sort code

()

sorting code

()

sound and sustainable


development

sound bank

; ; ;
,

sound banking principles

( , , , , )

sound business practice

; ;
;
;
;

sound business standards

;
;

sound financial management

sound financial policy

;
;
;
;

sound investment climate

;
;
;

sound principles of corporate


governance

sound project

; ;

sound reason

; ;
;

source document

source language

sourcing

(, );
(, )

sourcing expert


449

sovereign-backed regional
guarantee

;
,

sovereign credit

sovereign debt

sovereign guarantee

; (.)

sovereign loan

sovereign operation (SO)

;
;
;
;

sovereign resources

sovereign risk

; ;
(.)

special acceptance

special account (SA)

special account maximum


balance
special account minimum
drawdown amount

special advance rate

special assessment

special capital increase (SCI)

[]

special custom

special drawing rights (SDR)

(; )

special endorsement

special evaluation study (SES)

special free economic zone

special fund

(
; )

Special Funds resources

[]

special mention loan

;
;

special operation

; (
)

special purpose company (SPC)

( )

special purpose entity

( );
( )

450

special purpose joint venture


(SPJV)

( )

special purpose vehicle (SPV)

( );
( )

special reserve

Special Restructuring
Programme (SRP)

() ()

special tax bond

, ;

specialised fund

specialist

; (.)

specialty contract

specialty debt

specialty fund

( )

specific capital

specific charge

; ;

specific consideration

; ;
; ;

specific cost

specific or general identification


of charged property

specific performance

specific provisioning

;
;

specific tax

specifications

specified consideration

; ;
; ;

specified event carve-out

;
;
;
; ;
; ;
( )

specified event risk

(.)

specimen signature


451

speculative bond

speculative building

; ;
(
; )

speculative damages

speculative demand

speculative grade

( )

speculative investment

speculative, low grade (B)

(
Standard & Poors Moodys Investors Service)

speculative office development

; ( ;
)

speculative security

;
;

spending limit

spillover

spin doctor

;
;
(.); (.)

spin-off project

split

split down

split-rate fixing

split up

; ;

sponsor

; ( );
( )

sponsored depositary receipt

spot

; ; ;
;

spot business

; ;
;

spot check

spot contract

spot exchange rate

; ;
(.)

spot market

; ; ;

452

spot next (SN)

spot price

spot rate

; ;
; ;
; ;
- ( )

spot test

spot trading

; ;
;

spot transaction

; ;
; ;

spread

; ; (
);
; ;
;
/ , /

spread of spreads

spread risk

(
)

spreading risk

spreadsheet

square a position (v.)

; ();
( ); ();
(
)

squeeze-out merger

(
)

stabilisation clause

; ( );
( )

stabilising an issue

stable currency

stable demand

staff

; ; ; ; ;
; ;

staff (v.)

; ;

staff appointments

453

staff compensation and benefits


policy

;
() ;
;

staff relations

staff retirement plan

staff study

, ;
,
()

staff turnover

staffing level

;
;

stag

,
()

stage of transition

; ;

staged approach

( );

staged completion

()

stagflation

staggered board of directors

;
;

staggered drawdown of a credit

;
;
;

stagging

stake

; ; ; ;
( )

stakeholder

; ;
; ;

stakeholder economy

; ,

stale cheque

; ;
, ( )

stale claim

; ,

stale-dated cheque

; ;
, ( )

454

stamp duty

; ()

stamp taxes

(
)

stampede

();

stand-alone basis (on a )

; ;

stand-alone corporate entity

stand-alone credit

stand-alone technical
cooperation

( )

Standard & Poors

Standard & Poors ( McGraw Hill)

standard charge

; ;

standard cost

( )

standard cost system

standard costing

standard document

Standard International Trade


Classification (SITC)


()

standard language

; ( );
; ;
( )

standard of environmental
management

standard of living

standard practice

; ;
;

standard risk

; ;

standard specification goods

standard-term contract

Standard Terms and Conditions


(STCs)

( )

standard text

; ( );
; ;
( )

standards and practices

standards of auditing

; ;
;
;

455

standby

; (
)

standby arrangements

standby credit

; ;

standby letter of credit

standby purchase commitment

standby underwriting


(
-
)

standing expenses

standing mortgage

,
,
( )

standing order

standstill agreement

; ;
;

start date

start-up capital

; ;

start-up costs

; ;

start-up expenses

; ;
;

start-up financing

start-up institution

; ;

start-up period

starting price

; ; ;
( )

state at cost (v.)

;
;

state at market value (v.)

State Committee of the Russian


Federation for Environmental
Protection

state-of-the-art technology

456

state of the economy

(); ;

state of the market

state operation

state-owned enterprise (SOE)

;
,

state-owned enterprise operating ;


competitively
,
;
,
state ownership fund

state property fund

state regulation

state sector

stated capacity

stated capital

stated maturity

;
;

stated power

stated value

; ;
( ,
)

statement line

statement number

statement of appropriation
of profit/loss

statement of account

( );
; (.)

statement of approval of
consultancy services

statement of assets and


liabilities
statement of cash flows

; ;
;
;

statement of claim

statement of earned surplus

statement of earnings

457

statement of income

statement of loss

(.)

statement of movements in fund


balance

( )

statement of operations

statement of profit and loss

statement of recommended
practice

; ;

statement of shortage

; ;

statement of sources and uses


of funds

stater

; (.)

stationary demand

; ;
;

statistical reporting
arrangements

statistical unit [SNA - System


of National Accounts]

(
)

status of borrower

; ;
( )

status of the EBRDs activity

( )

status report

; ;

statute of limitations

statutory auditor

statutory dividend

, ()

statutory instrument

statutory liability

statutory notice

;
;

statutory reserve

; ;
;

stay on creditors

( )

steady demand

; ;
;

steady inflation

steady market

; ;
;
;
458

steady trend

; ;
;

steering committee

step-down amortisation
schedule

( )

step-down interest rate

step-in right

stepped-up

stepwise implementation

sterilisation

(
)

sterilisation rescription

-
( )

stet

, ( )

stick to knitting (v.)

( );

stipulated damages

; ;

stipulated price

; ;

stock

; ;
-

stock appreciation right (SAR)


, ,

stock basket

stock buyout

() ;
() ;

stock certificate

; ;
()

stock dividend

stock exchange

stock exchange list

stock exchange price

stock exchange quotation

stock in trade

; ;
; ; ;
, ; ;

stock index futures


459

stock index futures option

stock index option

stock indices

stock market

stock market crash

stock on hand

; ;
; ; ;
, ; ;

stock option

stock option plan

( )

stock parking

stock redemption right

stock register

stock splits

; ;

stock-swap merger

stock tag

stock warrant

; ;
;

stockbroker

, ;

stockbroking

stockholder of record

;
, ;
; ;

stockholders derivative action

stockholders equity

stockholders ledger

stocking

stocks

; ; ;
; ;

stop-limit order

( )

stop-loss order

( )

460

stop note

stop order

- (.)

stop payment

; ;

stop price

stopped account

; ;

stopped cheque

; ;
() ;
(.)

stopping list

;
( )

storage facility

; ; ;

storage facilities

storage quality

store accounting

store card

story paper

(
)

straddle

; ; ;

straight bankruptcy

straight bill of lading

straight bond

, (
)

straight letter of credit

straight-line basis (on a )

straight-line method

straight liquidation

,
-

straight loan

straight warehouse receipt

461

strangle

;

(
)

strategic buyer

,
( )

strategic environmental
assessment (SEA)

strategic funding

;
;
;

strategic orientation

strategic partner

, ;
;

strategic stake

strategy

( );

straw bid

( , );
,

straw bond

; ;
; , ;

straw party

; ;
; ;

streamline procedures (v.)

;
;
;
;

streamlining

; ;

street loan

; ;

street name

; (, , );
; ;
;

street sweep


;
()

stress test

462

stress testing

strict foreclosure

strike of a cap/floor

strike price

stringent terms

()

strip

stripped bond

(
, . .);
;
, (
;
)

stripped company

; ;

stripping

; ;
; ;
;
; ;

strong bank

; ; ;

strong bank secrecy law

strong doubt

( )

strong price

strong revenue stream

Structural Adjustment Credit


(SAC) [IMF]

[];

Structural Adjustment Facility


(SAF) [IMF]

; () []

Structural Adjustment Loan


(SAL) [IMF]

[];

structural budget

structural excess capacities

;
-

structural industry

structural reform

structure a loan profile (v.)

;
;
;

463

structured finance

( )

structuring a transaction

;
;

structuring money

sub-delegation

(, );

sub-prime lender

, ;
,

subaccount

subborrower

subcommitment

; ;

subcontractor

subfund

( )

subject always to

subject offer

, ;
;
, ;
; ,

subject quote

subject to change

( )

subject to contract

subject to right of return

( )

subject to seasonal adjustment

;
;

subject to status (of the


prospective borrower)

();
( );
( ; )

subloan

subloan agreement

subloan repayment account

submission bond

submit as evidence (v.)

submit bids (v.)

; ( )
464

submit to arbitration (v.)

submortgage

subordinated bond

subordinated debt

; ;
;
;

subordinated debt contribution

( )

subordinated loan

; ;

subordination agreement

subordination to new money

( )

subparticipation

( )

subproject

subquality loan

; ;
;

subrental

subrogate (v.)

subrogation

( );
, ( )

subrogation right

subrogee

, ;

subscribed capacity

subscribed capital

;
; (
)

subscribed capital called


but not yet due

, ;
,

subscribed capital stock

subscribed power

subscriber fee

subscription

( , );

subscription agreement

( );
;

465

subscription capital

;
; (
)

subscription certificate

subscription form

; ;

subscription of shares

subscription offer

subscription request

( )

subscription warrant

; ( )

subsequent addition

subsequent condition

subsequent endorser

subsequent pledgee

subsidiary

; ;
, ;
; ;

subsidiary body

subsidiary equity subscription


agreement

subsidiary loan

subsidiary loan agreement

;
;

subsidy

; ;

subsistence farming

( )

substance over form

substandard loan

; ;
;

substandard risk

(.)

substandard work

; ; ;
;

substantial damages

substantial performance

substantially responsive tender


(in procurement)

;
;
;

substantive discussion

; ;
; ;

466

substantive law

substantive meeting

substantive rights

substitute

; ; ;

substitute goods

substituted agreement

substituted policy

, (.);
(.)

substitution

( );
; ;
; (, );

substitution effect

substitution in collateral

substitution of parties
to the contract

substitutional goods

success fee

; ;
;
()

successful tenderer

successor arrangements [UNDP] [];



successor company

-; -

successor liability

suer

sufficient consideration

suggested retail price (SRP)

;
, (
)

sum insured

summary account

summary record

( )

summary report

; ( );

summary sheet

;
;

summary table

summer associate

sumptuary tax


467

sundries (SDS)

sundries account (SDS account)

; ;

sundry accruals

sundry debtors

sunk costs

; ;

sunrise industry

, ; ;
; ;

sunset clause

sunset industry

; , ;
; ;
,

superintendence

superior liquidity

superior quality

supermajority provision

supermajority requirement

( )

supernumeraries

superpriority reorganisation loan ;


;

supervening negligence

supervising engineer

- (
)

supervision

( );

Supervision Concordat (Basle


Concordat)

(
)

supervisors

supervisory authority

; ;

supervisory board

supervisory responsibility

supplementary budget

;
468

supplementary current cost


account

supplementary financing facility


[IMF]

[]

supplementary registration
statement

supplier credit

; ;

supplies

; ;

supply contract

supply function of money

supply industries

; ; ;
;

supply shock

supply-side economics

supply-side policies

support buying

() ;
( )

support industries

; ; ;
;

support letter

support purchase

support services

;
;
;

support staff

; ;
; ;
-

support unit

; ;
; ;

supporting document

; ;

supporting material

; ;

supporting purchase

( )

supporting records

;
;

supranational


469

surcharge

; ;

surcharge to tariff

surety

; ; ; ;

surety bond

( )

surety credit

; ,

surety deposit

surety for a bill

surety insurance

surety on a bill

suretyship

surge of inflation

surplus

; ;

surplus disposal

surplus for the year

surplus inventories

surplus share

surplus society

; ;
( )

surplus stock

surpluses

; ; ;

surrender requirements

surrender value

; (
)

surrendered currency

, ;

surtax

surveillance of banks

survey

survey fee

;
;

survey report

( )

survey report act

470

survival of company

survival proceedings

-;
( , ,
)

survivors pension

suspend a member (v.)

( )

suspend or modify access


to resources (v.)

[ ]

suspense account

suspension

suspension of banking licence

suspension of licence

suspension of membership

suspension of operations

sustainable development

; ;

sustainable growth

sustainable level of investments


(SLI)

()

sustainable level of lending


(SLL)
sustainable mobility

()

sustainable use of natural


resources

sustainable yield

swap

; ;

;

swap maturity

swap-related issues

, ;
, -

swapping

; ;

swaption

471

sweat equity

( )

sweep account

, ;
(

)

sweetener

;
,

swift witness

swing

swing loan

(
)

swipe

switch

switch agreement

;
;

switching system

sworn evidence

sworn statement

; ; ;

syndicate

syndicate contract

syndicate operation

( ) ( )

syndicated contract

( )

syndicated loan

; ;

syndicated loan market

;
;

syndication

; ;

syndication fee

syndications

synoptic table

synthesis report

; ;

472

synthetic product

();
;

synthetic security

System of National Accounts


(SNA)
systemic change

()

systemic company

systemic crisis

systemic risk

; ; ;

Systemic Transformation Facility ; (STF) [IMF]


() []
systems designer

473

T
Tacis Programme [EU]

[]; Tacis []

tacit mortgage

tailoring the use of facilities

;
;

take a position (v.)

take delivery (v.)

( );

take down a credit line (v.)

take-off agreement

( )

take-or-pay contract

, (
)

take plastic (v.)

( ) ;
( ) ;
( ) ;
( )

take possession of property (v.)

take risk (v.)

( ) ; ;
();

take the offer (v.)

(.)

take to an account (v.)

take to income over the period


(v.)

474

takedown

; ;
( );
( );
( )

takeout financing

;
;
;

takeout lender

takeout loan

(
)

takeover

takeover bid

takeover bidder

takeover financing

taker

()

taking

taking inventory

; - ;

taking or foreclosure

(
);

taking out of service

taking physical inventory

taking profit

(.);

takings

; ;

tandem companies

, ;
, ;
(.)

tandem loan

()
[]

tangible assets

target audience

; ;
, ;
;

target company

target date

; ; ;

target financing

target language

target market

; ;
475

target price

; ;

target range

( );

target rate

();
();
( );

target zone

( );
; ()

targeted social safety net

targeting a sector (financing)

tariff adjustment

tariff barrier

tariff cross-subsidy

;
;

tariff price

( )

tariffs

; ;

task force

; ;

tax abatement

tax accounting

tax adjustment

tax administration

; ;
;

tax allowance

tax arrears

tax assessment

; ;
; ; ;

tax assets

tax at source

tax avoidance

( );
;

tax base

tax benefit

tax clause

476

tax clawback

; ,

tax collection

tax collector

; ; ()

tax compliance

;
;
;

tax considerations

tax credit

tax credit system

tax creditable item

, ;
, - ; ,

tax declaration

tax deductible interest

( ) []

tax deductible item

; ,
;
, -

tax deduction

;
( ,
. .)

tax deferment

tax dodging

tax enforcement

tax evader

tax evasion

tax exempt

tax exempt savings account


(TESSA)
tax exempt status

, []

tax exemption

tax expense

tax exposure

; ;

tax-filling date

;
;

tax fraud

tax-free allowance

477

tax-free territory

tax gross-up

( );
, ;
( ) , ;

tax harmonisation

;
;
;

tax haven

;
;

tax haven qualities

, ;
;

tax holiday

tax imposition

tax imputation

; ;

tax incentive

tax incidents

tax income

tax law

tax liabilities

; ;
; ;

tax lien

( ),

tax loss

tax mitigation

( )

tax neutral holding company

tax neutral territory

tax rate

; ;
;

tax rebate

( );
; ;

tax reclaim

tax refund

() ;
;

tax relief against group profits

478

tax return

tax revenues

tax roll

tax rule

tax shelter

;
;

tax treatment

; ;

tax treaty

tax value

tax voucher (attached to


dividend)

( )

tax yield

taxable

taxable base

taxable estate

, ;

taxable event

, ;

taxable gift

; ;
,

taxable income

; ;
,

taxable profit

, ;

taxable temporary difference

taxation

; ;

taxation climate

taxpayer

taxpayer identification number


(TIN) [US]

(
;
)
[]

tear and wear

; ;

teaser rate

; ( );
( );
-;
( )
479

team leader (TL)

( )

teamwork

technical analysis

( )

technical assistance (TA)

Technical Assistance Centre


(TAC)
technical backstopping

technical cooperation (TC)

Technical Cooperation Funds

(
)

Technical Cooperation
Handbook


( );

( )

technical cooperation project

;
(
)

Technical Cooperation Special


Fund (TCSF)


() []

technical feasibility

();

technical input

technical insolvency

;
;
()

technical specifications

(); ();

technical standards

; ;
()

technical value

; ;
;

technobabble

technological change

technological innovation

technological park

; ;

technology transfer

( )

telebanking (telephone banking)

;
;
( )

480

telecommuter

; ,
( 2-4
)

telecommuting

( )

teleconference (telephone
conference)

telecottage

( -)

teledensity

1000

telemarketing

; ;
; ;
;

telematics

(
. . )

telephone banking (telebanking)

;
;
( )

telephone conference
(teleconference)

telephone penetration

telephone terminal equipment

telephone transfer

teleshopping

( ) ( ) ;

teleworker

; ,
( 2-4
)

teleworking

( )

teller

temporary account

temporary administration

temporary administrator

temporary admission

temporary alternate

.. ; ( )

temporary investment

;

481

temporary loan

; ( )

temporary suspension

tenancy in common

( ) ( );

tenant

( )

tenant-operated facility

;
,

tender

; ; ; ;
; (.)

tender (v.)

; () ;
; ;

tender appraisal

tender (by )

tender committee

; ;
(.)

tender date

; ;
; (.);

tender documents

; (.);
; (.)

tender evaluation

; ;
; ;
(.)

tender evaluation report (ER)

;
( );
(.);

tender guarantee

;
;
;

tender offer

tender opening

; (.);
;

tender packaging

tender price

; , ( );
, ( )

tender rigging

;
;

tender security

; ;
; ;

482

tender validity

( )

tenderer

; ; ;
; , ( )

tendering costs

tendering ring

; ;
( );

tenor

; ;

tenor of a bill of exchange

tentative

; ; ;

term bond

term insurance

(
;
)

term lending

; ;
-

term loan

(2-10 ) ( );
;

term of contract

term of loan

term of payment

term repurchase agreement


(term repo)

term sheet

; ; ;
;

terminal contract

terminal value

terminal wage

termination

(, );

termination allowance

termination benefits

termination condition

termination fee

;
; ; ( , . .)

termination for failure to become ;


effective
( )

483

termination of an account

termination of business

termination of charge

; ;
;

termination of loan

termination of operations

termination of pledge

; ;
;

termination on performance

termination payment

termination statement

terms and conditions

(, );

terms of agency

terms of issue

( )

terms of payment

; ;

terms of reference (TOR)

; (); ;
; ; ();

terms of trade

tertiary industry

test

; ; ;

test factor

(.)

test for destruction

test-key arrangements

;
( )

test number

; ( );

testamentary trust

testator

tested telex

( )

texts are equally authentic

484

thin client;
thin client device


;
;
,

thin company

thin market

; ; ;
;

thin trading

; ; ;
;

thing in action

;
,

things of general description

things or rights

things real

third market

( )

third party

third-party claim

third-party effect

third-party financing

third-party insurance

third-party liability

third window [IBRD]

[]

three-D jobs (dirty, difficult and


dangerous jobs)

, ;
,

three-D policy (dishonesty,


disappearance, destruction)

threshold

threshold price

; ;

through bill of lading

through grant

through rate

through service

( )

through transit

throughput

; ;
;

throughput time

ticket together (v.)

tie-in sale

;

485

tied aid

; ;
,

tied apartment

tied funds

tied loan

tiered rate account

(
)

tight-money policy

tight resources

; ;

tight schedule

tightly held shares

( )

till cash

(); ;
(.);

till cash ratio

time-charter (T/C)

time deal

time deposit

time draft

;
, ;
,

time in lieu

time instrument

time limit

time limit for operation

time loan

( 30, 60, 90 120 )

time-phased implementation

();
()

time policy

time to time (from )

; ;
;

time transaction

time value of money (TVM)

time zone

timeframe

timeline

; ; ;

486

timescale

title

; ;

title certificate

, ;

title company

title conveyance

title defect

title document

, ;
; ;
,

title examination

;
; ;
;
; ( )

title finance transaction

,
;

title history

(
)

title search

()

title transfer

titling of land

token payment

; ;

tolerance

toll enterprise

toll motorway

tolling

( );
( , )

tombstone

tomorrow next (tom next)

( ) , ,

tone dialling

()

tone of market

top-echelon parachute

, /

487

top-grade rating

top management

; ;

top up (v.)

; ; ;

top-up cover

topic study

topping up a loan

;
;

topping-up clause

tort

tort claim

; ;
, ;

tort claimant

;
, ,

tortfeasor

( )

total

(grand total); ;
(in a balance sheet)

total assets

; ; ;

total bank credit

total capital

total collection rate

()

total cost

; ;

total debt

; ;
;

total debt service coverage ratio


(TDSCR)

()

total duty

total equity capital (in capital


adequacy regulations)

total factor productivity

total loss

( . .)

total output

total product (output)

; ;

488

total quality

; ;

total quality management


programme

total revenue

; ;

total risk-weighted assets

total utility

total voting power of the


members

, []

total with accruing interest


added
towards the cost of a loan

toxic waste

tracer

;
(
)

track record

; ;

tradability

tradable

( ); ;
; ; ;

tradable emission permit (TEP)

tradable goods

tradable investments

; ;
;

tradable voucher

tradables

, ;
;

trade advances

trade balance

trade barrier

trade bill

trade credit

trade date

(.);
(.)

trade debt

;
(
)

trade diversion

trade dress protection

(, )

trade facilitation

489

trade flow

trade-in

trade-in value

trade law

trade liberalisation

trade markup

; ;

trade paper

trade preference

trade sale

trade system reform

trademark

; ;

trading

; ;
( . . );
; ;
; ( )

trading account

trading and risk analytics

trading book

; (
, );
; ;
()

trading capital

trading day

trading floor

(.)

trading hours

; ; ;
;

trading house

()

trading income

; ;
; ;

trading profit

; ;

trading range

trading unit

traffic density

trail commission

,
490

trailer-on-flat-car (TOFC)

( )

training session

tranche

tranche A commitment

Trans-European automated
realtime gross settlement
express transfer system
(TARGET)


(
;
)
(TARGET)

Trans-European Networks
(TENs)

;
;

Trans-European North-South
Motorway (TEM)

Trans-European Railway (TER)

()

transact business on-line (v.)

() ( );
()

transaction

transaction account

; ;

transaction analysis

transaction balance

transaction charge

transaction costs

; ;
; ;

transaction processing

transaction reference number

transaction report

;
( );
( ) (.)

transaction review

; ( );

transaction risk

();

transaction value

transactions officer

transactor

; ;

transfer and automated


registration of uncertified stock ()
(TAURUS)

491

transfer as security (v.)

(
)

transfer by delivery

( )

transfer cost

;
()

transfer fee

transfer from the budget

; ;

transfer of available amount


between tranches

;
()

transfer of currency

; ;

transfer of debentures

; ;
;

transfer of ownership

transfer of receivables

; ;
;

transfer of title

transfer order

transfer payment

transfer price

;
(-) ;

transfer pricing

;
;

transfer risk

transfer risk (v.)

- ( );

transfer settlement

transfer shares (v.)

transfer to an account (v.)

- ;
-

transferable letter of credit

492

transferee

, - ; ;
, ; ;

transferor

, -; ; ;
( );
, ;

transit account (TA)

transit duty

; ()

transit item

, ;
,

transition

; ;
;

transition economy

;
;

transition measurements

Transition Report

( )

Transition to Market Investment


Programme (TMIP)

transition to private ownership


and control

transitional arrangements

transitional liability

transitive covenant

translation

(); ()

translation exposure

; ;
;

translation risk

transmission fee

(.)

transmittal letter

; ;

transparency

( , , );
( , , );
; ; ;

transparency and accountability

( )

transport costs

; ;
( )

transportation and delivery


agreement

transportation in

transportation out

493

trappings of an established
company

travel and entertainment card


(T&E card)

travel authorisation (TA)

travel costs

; ;

travel document

travel expenses

travel privilege

; ;

travellers cheque

treasury

; ; ;
[]; ;
;

Treasury bill (T-bill) [US]

(
13, 26 52 ) []

Treasury bond (T-bond) [US]

(
) []

treasury issues

Treasury long bond

30 []

Treasury note (T-note) [US]

(
) []

treasury operations

[];
; , ;
; ,

Treasury Quote Sheet

( )

treasury share

; ;

treasury stock

-;
; ,
-

Treasury stocks [UK]

[]

treatment of loan arrears

;
;
;

treaty shopping

trial balance

, ;

494

triangular merger

tribunal

; ; ;

tried and tested procedure

; ;
;

trigger event

trigger price

triggering contract

triple-A-rated borrower

troubled bank

; ;
;

troubled loan

; ;
; ;

true and fair view

( );
( )

true interest cost (TIC)

;
( , , )

true value

truncated bankruptcy
proceedings

;
;

truncated sampling

truncation

( ,
, )

truncation of a cheque

; ( -)

trust

trust and mortgage loan


company
trust banking operations

trust company

, ;
;

trust department

trust indenture

( )

trust manager

;
;

495

trust receipt

trustee

; ;
; ,

trustee for a bank

trustee savings bank

trustor

; ;
;

turkey

(.)

turn around (v.)

; ; ;
(); ();
;

turnaround

; ;
; ; ();
; ;
( );
; ;
;

turnaround company

, ;
; ,

TurnAround Management
Programme (TAM Programme)

( );

turnaround manager

; , ;
; , ( )

turnaround programme

; ;
;

turnaround time

; ;

turnkey project

;
;
,

turnover (T/O)

; ; ;

turnover excluding taxes

turnover rate of personnel

turnover ratio

;
(, , );
, (, . .);

turnover tax

496

twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) ( , ; - = 610 )


twin shares

,
( )

twinning arrangements

(); ;
; ; ()

twinning bank

-; ( )

two-party loan

, , ( ; );
, ,

two-sided market

two-tier banking system

two-tier market

tying arrangements

tying clause

tying contract

typical condition

(, );
;

497

U
ultimate borrower

ultimate parent company

umbrella contract

; ;
;

umbrella fund

UN 1992 Conference on
Environment and Development
(UNCED)


1992 ()

unaccounted

unalienable property

, ;

unallocated share

; [];
, ;
-

unamortised discount

unappropriated earned surplus

()

unappropriated payment

unappropriated profit

unascertained goods

unassailable title

;
; ();

unauthorised access

( );

unauthorised goods

; , ;
,

498

unauthorised transfer

( );
( )

unauthorised use

( );
; ( )

unauthorised user

( )

unbalanced currency position

unbudgeted expenditure

; ;

unbudgeted item

;
, ;
, ;
, ;

unbundling

;
(, )

uncallable for life

( )

uncalled callable capital

;
; ,

uncalled capital

uncertified stock

UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules

unclaimed dividend

unclaimed goods

( );

uncleared balance

;
( -
);
( )

uncollectable account

; ;
;

uncollectable accounts

( )

uncollectable debt

uncollectable loan

uncollectable outstandings

uncollectable receivables

uncollected funds

uncollected item


499

uncommitted balance

uncommitted funds

; ;
; ;

uncommitted resources

; ;

uncompetitive enterprise

unconditional acceptance

unconditional reimbursement
commitment

unconditional reimbursement
commitment application

unconditional reimbursement
commitment claim

unconditional reimbursement
commitment fee

unconfirmed letter of credit

unconventional approach

; ;
;

uncovered advance

uncovered bear

, ()

uncovered budget expenditure

, ;
,

uncovered cheque

uncovered option

; ;
, ( )

uncovered position

; ;
;

uncrossed cheque

under usual reserves (u.u.r.)

underabsorbed overhead

undercapitalisation

undercutting

underdepreciation

underemployment

;
, ()

underground economy

; ;
;

underinsurance


500

underinvestment

underinvoicing

underlying agreement

; ;
;

underlying asset

underlying contract

; ;

underlying inflation excluding


mortgage payments

underlying inflation rate

;
;

underlying instrument

;
( );
;

underlying lien

; ;
; ;

underlying mortgage

underlying obligation

underlying rate of inflation

underlying security

; ;
; ( )

underlying stock

underlying transaction

( )

underperforming loan

underreporting

underresearched market

understandability

( )

understating

( );

undervaluation

(, );
()

underwater loan

; ,

underwrite (v.)

(, );
;

underwrite an issue (v.)

;
(, )

underwrite equity issue by


enterprises (v.)

501

underwrite issue of securities


by enterprises (v.)

underwriter

; ;
;

underwriters syndicate

underwriting

;
;
;

underwriting agreement

( )

underwriting bank

-;

underwriting consortium

underwriting fee

underwriting limit

(.)

underwriting policy

underwriting purchase
agreement
underwritten facility

undesirable risk

undisbursed balance of a loan

undisbursed investments

;
;
;

undisbursed loan

; ;

undischarged bankrupt

, ;

undischarged debt

undisclosed assignment

undisclosed individual

undisclosed principal

undisclosed reserve

;
,

undistributed earnings

undistributed profit

undivided account

undivided earnings

; ;

502

undivided interest

undivided profit

undrawn balance

()

undrawn commitment

;
;

undrawn formal loan


commitment

undue debt

unearned finance income

( )

unearned income

; ; ;
; ; ;
,

unemployed capacities

; ;
;

unemployed capital

; ;
, ;
;

unemployed funds

( );
; ;

unemployment benefit

unencumbered assets

unencumbered balance
of appropriations

unencumbered title

();
;

unenforceability

unenforceable contract

; ;
,

unenforceable obligation

unexpired costs

unexpired term

( )

unfair business practices

unfair competition

unfair trade practices

unfavourable leases

;

503

unfilled order

unfriendly takeover

unfunded benefit plan

unfunded item

, ;
, ;
, ;

unfunded pension

,
;
,

unguaranteed residual value

unhedged foreign debt

unhedged item

unification of exchange rates

Unified Collection Rules

unified debt

Uniform Customs and Practices


(UCP 500) [ICC]

( )

uniform customs tariff

uniform quality

uniform rate

unimpaired access

unimpaired capital

unimpaired paid-up capital

unimpeachable title

unincorporated company

unintended investment

uninvited person

unionised workers

;
-

unissued stock

; ; ,

unit costs

; ;

unit fund

unit investment fund


504

unit of account

unit of charge

unit-of-delivery method

unit price

unit sample

( - )

unit trust

United Nations Commission


on International Trade Law
(UNCITRAL)


()

United Nations Conference on


Environment and Development
(Earth Summit)

( ) (--, 1992 )

United Nations Development


Programme (UNDP)


()

uniting of interests

universal bank

; ,
,

universal banking

; ,
, ;
; ,

universal life insurance

( , )

university qualifying exams

unlawful loan

, ;

unless the bank agrees


otherwise
unleveraged purchase

unlimited power of attorney

unliquidated damages

unliquidated obligation

;
;
;

unlisted security

( );
;
,

unloading

;
;

505

unmarketable goods

; ;

unobligated amount

unostentatious assets

; ,

unpaid balance

unpaid capital

unpaid dividend

unpaid paid-in shares

unpaid tax

unpaid vendor

unpaid vendors charge

unperfected security interest

;

[];
,

unproductive capital

; ;
;

unqualified acceptance

unqualified audit

unqualified audit report

unqualified guarantee

unqualified IAS statements

,
;
,
;
,

unqualified opinion

unrated

( )

unrealisable assets

unrealised gain

unrealised loss

unreasonably

unrecoverable debt

; ;
; ;
;

unrecoverable loan

; ;
; ;
; ;

506

unregistered bond

unregistered stock

;
, ( )

unreliable information

; ;
; ;

unremedied (continues

( )

unrequited

unrequited capital export

( )

unrequited payment

unrequited transfer

unsafe practices

unsaleable goods

; ;

unscrupulous debtor

unscrupulous pledgee

unseasoned issue

( );

unsecured basis (lend on an )


(v.)

unsecured bond

unsecured borrowing

unsecured credit

; ;
;

unsecured creditor

, ;

unsecured debenture

unsecured lender

, ;

unsecured loan

; ;

unsettled claim

;
;

unsold output

unsolicited bid

; ; ;
, ; ( )

unspent purchasing power of


households (savings deposits)

(
)

507

unsponsored depositary receipt

, -
;
, -

unsubordinated creditor

unsubordinated debt

unsupervised assets

; ;
(.)

untested procedure

; ;

untied funds

; ;
; ;
( ),
( )

untradables

; ;

unused balance

unused supplies

- ;

unusual exchange gain

unutilised resources

; ;
;

unvalued

( )

unvendibles

; ;

unviable project

; ;

unwind funding of a specific


loan structure (v.)

;
;

unwinding

; ;

unwinding charge

unwinding costs

; ( );
( ,
, )

up-to-date

(.)

up-to-date information

; ;
;

508

update

( ); ;
; ;

Update of the Market Interest


Rates

( )

updated information

; ; ;

updated programme

; ;

upfront

; ;

upfront fee

( );
( )

upfront payment

; ;

upfront provision

upmarket label

; ; ( );
;

upmarket product

; ;
; ;
;

upon prematuring

upper medium grade (A)

(
Standard & Poors Moodys Investors
Service)

upside

; ;
;

upside interest rate risk

upside participation

upside potential

; ;
;
; ;
()

upstage (v.)

( );

upstream funding

upstream guarantee

upstream industries

(, ,
)

upstream integration

; ( ,
)
509

upstream loan

upstream operation

upstreaming

upward pressure

urban and municipal


development
urban transport


; ;

US Agency for International


Development (USAID)

( )

US dollar/Swiss franc swap rate

usable funds

;
;

usage costs

;
( . .)

usance

;
, ( )

use of funds

( )

use of land

used assets

; /;

useful life

; ; ;
; ;

user class

user fee

user link

user system

user tax

usual business practice

usual reserves (under ~) (u.u.r.) ;


usual terms (u.t.)

usucapion;
usucaption

usury

utilisation fee

( )

utilities

; ;
;

510

utility

(, , , , . .);

utility revenue bond

(
; )

utmost care

utterance

; ;

511

V
vacant possession

; ;
;
(.)

valid charge

; ;
;

valid claim

;
;

valid title

;
;

validate decision (v.)

validated accounts

; ;
, ;
,

validation

; ; ;

validation of conclusions

; ;
() ();

validity check

( . .)

validity period

; ;

valorisation

valuable consideration

;
;

valuable interest

valuation

; ;

valuation account

512

valuation loss

valuation of currencies

valuation of fixed assets

value

; ; ; ;
;

value accounting

value added

value added tax (VAT)

()

value-adding investment

;
;

value adjustment

( )

value at risk (VaR)

; , ;
; , ;
,

value-based accounting

value date

value for duty

value for money (VFM)

; ;

value given clause

(
)

value impaired

( )

value in (... named currency) (v.)

... ( )

value in collection

; , ;
; ;

value in pledge

value in security

value line composite index

;
value line

value of a business

; ;

value of compensation

value received

value received in cash

value terms (in ~)

value today (for ~)

(,)
513

valued policy

(.)

variable capital costs

variable costing

variable costs

variable interest rate

variable levies

variable premium

(.)

variable production overheads

variable rate

variable rate loan

variable rate mortgage

variable risk

(.)

variant solution

; ;

variation of contract

variety in the provision of


services

();

variety of products

(, );
()

vary (v.)

; ; ( )

vault operation

vehicle

vehicle operating costs (voc)

- ;
( )

vehicle ownership charge

velocity of money

velocity of money circulation

vendee

(.)

vendibles

vendors lien

( )

venture capital

venture capital company

; ,

venture capital fund

venture capital partnership

514

venture capitalist

; ,

venturer

verification

; ;

verified copy

; ;

vertical integration

; ( ,
)

vertically integrated company

vested employee benefits

vested interests

; ;
; ;
; ;

vestibule training

;
;
()

viable project

; ;
; ;
;

vibrant private sector

vicarious liability

vicarious responsibility

vice chairman of the board


of governors

vice president (VP)

videoconferencing (VC)

-; (
)

Vienna Convention on Civil


Liability for Nuclear Damage
dated 21 May 1963


21 1963

vintage approach

( )

visual impact

(.)

voice authorisation

voice mail

;
( );
; (.)

voice recognition

;
( );

voice validity check

; ( )

515

voicemail

;
( );
; (.)

voiceprint

(

)

void transaction

( );
( , )

voidable contract

voidable preference

; ;
(
, )

voidable transaction

; ;

voiding

; ;

volatility

; ;

volatility risk

volume of sales

(); (.);

volume-of-trading theory

voluntary dissolution

voluntary liquidation

voluntary reserve

( )

voluntary standard

; ;
, ( )

voluntary termination

voluntary winding up

vostro account

voting bond

voting non-equity share

, ;

voting power

voting power of

, ;
( )

voting right

( ; )

voting right proxy

( )
( )
516

voting right share

, ,

voting share

voting stock

voucher

; ;

voucher investment fund

()

voucher scheme

, ;
(.)

517

W
wage and pension arrears

wage bill

wager policy

waiting period

waive immunity (v.)

waiver

( , , ); ;

waiver of terms and conditions

; ;
; ;

walkaway

; ;
;

walkthrough

(, , )

war risks only (wro)

(.)

warehouse certificate

warehouse check

warehouse club

,
;
,

warehouse financing

(
)

warehouse receipt (WR)

warehouse storage

warehouse warrant (WW; ww)

;
518

warehousing

( )

warm card

(
)

warning bulletin

;
,

warrant

; ; ;
;

warrant (v.)

warrant of distress

warranty

; ;
( ); ( )

warranty claim

();
;
; ;

warranty of authority

warranty provision

warranty responsibility

wartime contingency capacity

wash sale

( )

wash trading

( );
-

wastage

; ;

wastage allowance

; ;

waste disposal

waste management

;
; ;

waste recycling

waste treatment facility

; ;

waste-water treatment capacity

; ;

waste-water treatment plant

; ;

wasted production

(, . .)

wasting assets

() ;

519

wasting trust

,
(
)

watch list

, (
);
;
, ;

watch loan

;
,

watering down effect

; (); ;

way port

waybill

(
);
( );

wayleave

weak bank

weak market

; ;
;

wealth tax

wear

wear and tear

; ;

weighted average cost method

weighted average cost of capital


(WACC)

()

weighted average number of


ordinary shares outstanding
during the period

weighted index

welcoming business climate

welfare payment

wet leasing (ACMI - aircraft,


crew, maintenance, insurance)

(
, )

when, as and if issued

( )

when due

white goods

[];
[]

520

white information

( )

white knight tactics

(
)

wholesale approach

; ;
;

wholesale bank

, ;
, ;

wholesale banking


;

;

wholesale funds

wholesale price index (WPI)

()

wholesale privatisation

wholesale rate

wholesale trade

wholly owned subsidiary

; ,

wide area network (WAN)

()

wilful default

;
;
(.); (.)

wilful misconduct

;
;
;

win-win project

, ;
;

wind farm

; ,

windfall profits

windfall tax

; ;

winding-up

;
(); ()

winding-up by court

(, );
()

window-dressing

( );
(.);

521

wiping-out

(); ;

wire transfer

()

wireless application protocol


(WAP; Wap)

( )

wise use

( ) []

with-profits bond

withdraw licence (v.)

; ;

withdraw from mandate (v.)

( )

withdrawal application

withdrawal from mandate

( )

withdrawal of claim

withdrawal of credit

withdrawal of licence

; ;

withdrawal of mandate

withdrawal of offer

withdrawal penalty

( )

withdrawal right

( )

withdrawal slip

withhold amounts due (v.)

withhold tax (v.)

( );
( ;
, . .)

withholding

withholding tax

;
, (
, . .)

withholding tax rate

within viewing

without adjustment

without erosion

without prejudice

; ; (
, )
522

without recourse

;
;

witnessed signature

work in progress (WIP)

work permit

( )

work-related accidents

work-related injuries

work to rule

; -;
( )

worker health and safety

worker health and safety plan

;

;

working account

, ;
; ;
;

working balance

working capital (WC)

working capital credit

working capital ratio

working capital schedule

working environment

working hours

; ; ;
;

working order (in )

; ;
;

working position

workmens compensation
insurance

workout

(
- );
;
;
;

workout agreement

(
)

workout quote

, ;
;

523

workout team

( )

workstation

; ;
( )

World Bank (WB)

()

World Bank Group (WB, IFC,


MIGA, ICSID)

( , ,
)

World Commission on
Environment and Development

World Development Report


(WDR) [IBRD]

[]

world goods market

World Intellectual Property


Organization (WIPO)


()

World Trade Organization (WTO) ()


worldwide circular letter of credit ,
worst case scenario

; ;

would-be customer

; ;

wrap-up meeting

; ;

writ of attachment

writ of execution against


property

write-down

; ;
; ( )

write-off

; ;

write-off act

write-off certificate

write-up

written-down value (WDV)

;
;

written-down-value method

written instrument

written-off value

wrongful arrest

wrongful dismissal


524

wrongful enforcement

wrongful trading

525

Y
Yankee bond

,
;
,

yardstick rate

; ;

year-end exchange rate

year-end inventory

year of assessment (Y/A)

year on year (yoy; y/y)

year over year (yoy; y/y)

yearly settlement

years to maturity

yettie

yield

; ;
; ;
; ;
, (
- )

yield curve

yield curve risk

yield differential

yield expectation

; ;

yield gap


526

yield spread

yield to call (YTC)

yield to maturity (YTM)

; ;

;
;

yield to redemption (YTR)

;
;
;
( );

yield variance

yielder

yielding

( );
( )

yielding no interest

yielding up

(
)

your ref.:

Y2K compliant software

,
2000 ( 2000 )

527

Z
zaitech

zero-based budget (ZBB)

()

zero budgeting

; ,

zero-cost collar

;
(
- )

zero-coupon bond

;
, (
,
)

zero-coupon mortgage

( )

zero-coupon note

zero-coupon security

;
(
- , )

zero-emission vehicle

zero-price cash auction

zero-price collar

;

;
( )

zero-rated goods

zero rating


528

zero-real-growth budget

zone-to-zone tariff

zoned area

zoning

zoning regulation

zoning restriction

; ;

zoning standard

; ;

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS


A
Upper medium grade
AA
High quality
Aa
High quality
AAA
Highest quality
Aaa
Highest quality

(
Standard & Poors Moodys Investors
Service)
( Standard & Poors)
( Moodys Investors Service)
( Standard & Poors)
( Moodys Investors Service)

a.a.r.
against all risks

abbr
abbreviation

529

AC; a/c
current account

/
;

a.c.
anni currentis

..

a/c payee
account payee only

( );
( )

ACCR
annual credit review report

accr. int.
accrued interest

acctg
accounting

acg
according

ACMI
aircraft, crew, maintenance,
insurance (wet leasing)
ACRS
accelerated cost recovery
system
A/cs. Pay.; a/c pay
accounts payable
A/cs. Rec.; a/c rec
accounts receivable
ACT
advance corporation tax
acq.
acquisition
acv
actual cash value

(
, )
;

; ; ;
();

; ;
( );
();
( );

a/d
after date

AD procedures
anti-dumping procedures

ADB
African Development Bank

ADB
Asian Development Bank

ADF
African Development Fund


530

ADF
Asian Development Fund
ADG
auxiliary diesel generator
ADR
alternative dispute resolution

ADR
American depositary receipt


; ;

;
;
;

a.d.s
autograph document signed

AE
admissible error

AEOR
annual evaluation overview
report
a.f.
as follows


; ; .

AFB
air freight bill

AFC
average fixed cost(s)

AfDB
African Development Bank

AfDF
African Development Fund

Afft
affidavit

; ;

AFIC
Asian Finance and Investment
Corporation

-
[ ]

agd
agreed

AGM
annual general meeting

AID
Agency for International
Development [US]
AIJ
activities implemented jointly

[]
, ;
, (
)

531

a.k.a
also known as

ALCO
asset and liability committee

ALL
Albanian lek

a.m.
above mentioned

AMA
asset management account

AMD
Armenian dram

AMEX
American Express

( )

AMEX
American Stock Exchange

AMPS-800
Advanced Mobile Phone Service

AMR
annual monitoring report

ao; a/o
account of

-; -

a/o
among other things

a.o.c.b.
any other competent business

( )

A/P
authority to pay
A/P
authority to purchase
APC
average propensity to consume
APR
annual percentage rate
APY
annual percentage yield

;
;

;
;

;

;

;

AQL
acceptable quality level

AR
annual report


532

AR
auditors report;
audit report

; ;
;

ARI
accounting rate of interest

ARP
Agricultural Restructuring
Project
ARR
Accounting and Reporting
Recommendations


;
(
)

ARR
accounting rate of return

ARS
Argentinian peso

AS; a/s
after sight

asap; a.s.a.p.
as soon as possible

; ;
;

ASC
agricultural service company

AsDB
Asian Development Bank

AsDF
Asian Development Fund

asf
and so forth

. .

ASP
application service provider

( )

AT
appropriate technology

ATC
air traffic control

a.t.l.
actual total loss

( );
(.)

ATM
air traffic management

ATM
automated teller machine

ATR
acid test ratio
ATS
Austrian schilling

;

. .

533

ATS account
automatic transfer service
account
AUD
Australian dollar

. .

a/v
according to value

av.
average

.
;

AVC
average variable cost(s)

AW
actual weight

AZM
Azerbaijan manat

B
Speculative, low grade
Ba
Predominantly speculative
Baa
Medium grade

(
Standard & Poors Moodys Investors Service)
( Moodys Investors Service)
( Moodys Investors Service)

BAAC
Budget and Administrative
Affairs Committee


[]

BAC
Business Advisory Council

[]

BAD
Dinar

BAMSAGA Team
Bulgaria/Albania/FYR Macedonia , , , ,
, []
/Slovenia/Azerbaijan/Georgia/
Armenia Team
BAN
bond anticipation note
BAT
best available technology
BB
Predominantly speculative

(
)
;

( Standard & Poors)

B/B
back-to-back letter of credit

B/B
bare board; bare boat

534

BBB
Medium grade
B/C
bills for collection
bcc
blind carbon copies

( Standard & Poors)



, ( );
( ,
; )

bcf
billion cubic feet

BCR
budget commitment and cost
recovery system


[]

BD
bank draft

BD
Banking Department

[]

b/d
barrels a day

b.d.i.
both dates inclusive

BDS
Board of Directors Series

[]

BDU
business development unit
BE
Bank of England

; ;

; (.) (
)

B/E point
break-even point

BEF
Belgian franc

. .

BF
Banque de France

( )

B/F; BF
brought forward

BFP
bona fide purchaser

BG
board of governors

B/G; BG
bonded goods

, ;
, ;

535

BGL
Bulgarian lev

BIC
Business Information Centre

- []

BiH
Bosnia and Herzegovina

BIS
Bank for International
Settlements
BISF
Baltic Investment Special Fund

BITS
Swedish agency for international
( 1995 )
technical economic
cooperation
bkge
brokerage

b/l
bill of lading

BLASCO
Black Sea Shipping Company

B/O
buyers option

BOD
board of directors

BoE
Bank of England
BOG
board of governors
BOLD
Board On Line Documents

; (.) (
)

,
[];

[]

BOLERO
Bill of Lading Electronic Registry ;
Organization

BOM
beginning of month

BONY
Bank of New York

BOO
build-own-operate

- -

BOOT
build-own-operate-transfer

- - -

BoP; BOP
balance of payments

536

BoT
balance of trade

BOT
build-operate-transfer

- -

BOT project

( )

BOT terms

BP
balance of payments

bp
basis point

B/p
bills payable
BP
Board package
BP
business plan

; ; ;
();

[];
[]

; - (.);
;

BPR
business process re-engineering ;
;
;
;

bps
basis points
B/r
bills receivable


; ;
( );
();

BRSF
Balkan Region Special Fund

BRU
bank review unit

BS; B/S
balance sheet

b/s
bill of sale

BSTDB
Black Sea Trade and
Development Bank

[,
]

BTC
business training centre

537

BUA
budgetary unit account
BV
book value
BW; Bw
bid wanted
BYB
Belorussian rouble;
Belarus rouble
C
Lowest quality, no interest paid
Ca
Highest speculation
Caa
Poor quality
CAD
Canadian dollar
CAD
cash against documents
CAD
computer-aided design
CAD Consultant
computer-aided design
consultant
CADS
cash available for debt service


();
()
;

. .

, (
Standard & Poors
Moodys Investors Service)
( Moodys Investors Service)
(
Moodys Investors Service)
. .

;

;

;

CAGR
compounded annual growth rate ; ;
;

CAM
computer-aided manufacture

CAMEL
capital, asset quality,
management, earnings,
liquidity

( , , , , )

CAN
customs assigned number

C&F
cost and freight


538

C&I
commercial and industrial

C&I
cost and insurance

CAP
chargeable accounting period

CAPEX; CapEx
capital expenditure
CAR
Central Asian Republics
CAT
Central Asia Team
CAT
customer activated terminal

; ;
;
;

[]
; ;
,
( )

Cb
convertible bond

( )

CB
correspondent bank

c.b.d.; CBD
cash before delivery

cbe
cant be everywhere
CBR
Central Bank of the Russian
Federation (Bank of Russia)
CBSS
Council of the Baltic Sea States
CC
Highest speculation
cc
carbon copies;
copies

( )

( Standard & Poors)
( ); ;
( , )

CC
country code

CC; cc
credit card

CC
current cost

CCA
contract change authorisation

539

CCA
current cost accounting
CCC
Poor quality

;

(
Standard & Poors)

CCEs
countries of Central and Eastern
Europe;
countries of central and eastern
Europe
CCF
consumption conversion factor

CCFF
compensatory and contingency
financing facility

CCGT
combined cycle gas turbine
power plant

CCITT
International Telegraph and
Telephone Consultative
Committee

CCL
critical consumption level

CCM
concept clearance memorandum [];
;

cct
correct

CCU
Consultant Contracts Unit

CCY
currency

CD
certificate of deposit

cd.
cum dividend

CE
Office of the Chief Economist;
Chief Economists Office

CEAL
Central European Agency Line

CEEC
Central and East European
countries;
central and eastern European
countries

540

CEFTA
Central European Free Trade
Agreement
CEI
Central European Initiative
CEO
Office of the Chief Economist;
Chief Economists Office
CEO
chief executive officer
CEPR
Centre for Economic Policy
Research [London]


( , 21.12.1992 ,
01.03.1993 )


();
;
(.)
[]

CESCE
Compaa Espaola de Seguros
de Crdito a la Exportacin,
S.A.


;
-

CF
carried forward

( )

cfmd
confirmed

CFO
chief financial officer

()

CFP
Cooperation Funds Programme

CFR
Cost and Freight (... named port
of destination)
CFS
credit file supervisor
CGT
capital gains tax
Ch.
chapter
CHC
closely held corporation

CHF
Swiss franc;
Franken

... ( )

;

;
( );
( );
,
;

. .

541

cgo
cargo

chgs
charges

CHP
combined heat and power plant

cia; CIA
cash in advance

; ;

CIC
captive insurance company

CIF
Cost, Insurance and Freight
(... named port of destination)

, ... ( )

CIF Landed

CIP
Carriage and Insurance Paid To
(... named place of destination)

... (
)

CIPC
cash items in process of
collection
CIR
country implementation review
CIS
Commonwealth of Independent
States


;
;

ckd.
completely knocked down

CL
credit line

CLC
commercial letter of credit

CMEA
Council for Mutual Economic
Assistance

CMO
collaterised mortgage obligation ,
cm.pf.
cumulative preference share

CMV
current market value

()

C/N
credit note

cnfd
confirmed

542

c/o
care of

C/O
certificate of origin

(, )

c.o.b.
close of business

COD
cash on delivery;
collection on delivery
cod consignment
cash-on-delivery consignment
COF
cost of funds

;
;

;

COFACE
Compagnie franaise
dassurance pour le commerce
extrieur


;
-

COFC
container-on-flat-car

( )

cons
consignment

; ;

cons note
consignment note

COO
chief operating officer

,
;
( )

copr
copyright

cp
cashpoint

CP
commercial paper
CPA
certified public accountant
c.p.d.
charterer pays dues
CPE
centrally planned economy
CPI
consumer price index

(
; )
; ;


; ;

543

CPM
critical path method

(
. .)

CPP
[]
Country Presentation
Programme
CPT
Carriage Paid To (... named place ... ( )
of destination)
C/R
companys risk

cr
credit

CRA
capital reserve account

CRF
capital recovery factor

;
;

CSCE
Conference on Security and
Cooperation in Europe

CSF
Chernobyl Shelter Fund

CSFB
Credit Suisse First Boston

;
/

CSR
corporate social responsibility

, ;
, ;

CSV
cash surrender value

ct
carats

ctee
committee

CTI equipment
computer telephony integration
equipment
CTL
constructive total loss

CTL
Country Team Leader

,
( )
( ,
);

( )

544

ct/m2
carats per square metre

CTT
capital transfer tax

CU
Credit Union
CV
curriculum vitae
CVR
contingent value right

( ) [];

;

cvt.
convertible

CYP
Cyprus pound

. .

CZK
Czech koruna

. .

D
Questionable value

(
Standard & Poors)

/d
/day

D/A
deposit account

D/A
disbursement account

D/A
documents against acceptance

DAF
delivered at frontier

D&O insurance
directors and officers liability
insurance

D&P
Design & Print
DBFO
design-build-finance-operate
DBR
detailed billing report

- []

- -
- ;
-;
- (
)

D/C
documents against cash

DCC
Depository Clearing Company

-
545

DCF
discounted cash flow
DCM
dividend capitalisation model
DD
In arrears
dd
direct debiting
dd
due date
DDD
In default
DDP
Delivered Duty Paid (... named
place of destination)

;


(
Standard & Poors)
; (
)

(
Standard & Poors)
... ( )

DDP Exclusive VAT and/or Taxes


, /
DDP Unloaded

DDU
Delivered Duty Unpaid

DDU
Delivered Duty Unpaid (... named ... ( )

place of destination)
DDU Cleared

def
deferred

del
delayed

; ;

del
delivery

DEL
direct exchange line

DEM
Deutsche mark

DEQ
Delivered Ex Quay (... named
port of destination)

... ( )

546

DEQ
Delivered Ex Quay
(... named port of destination)
(Duties on Buyers Account)

... ( )

DEQ
... ( )
Delivered Ex Quay
/
(... named port of destination)
(Exclusive of VAT and/or Taxes)
DES
Delivered Ex Ship (... named port ... ( )
of destination)
DFC
development finance company
DFI
development finance institution

DFRP
draft final review package

DI
depositary institution

DI
disposable income

dia
diameter

DIF
Direct Investment Facility
dis
discount
disbs
disbursement

;

; ;
; ; ;
; ;
; ;
; ;

DK
dont know

DKK
Danish krone

d/l
demand loan

DLD
domestic long-distance calls

( )

dlt
delete

; ( )

DM
Deutsche mark

.

547

D/N
debit note

D/O
delivery order

DOB; dob
date of birth

DOC
direct operating cost(s)

DON
digital overlay network

DOT
date of travel

D/P
documents against payment

; ;
( )

DPR
detailed project report

DR
deposit receipt

DRIP
dividend reinvestment plan
DROPS
debt reduction operations
DROs
dont-run-outs
DSA
debt service account
DSCR
debt service coverage ratio
DSCR
discounted service cover ratio
DSM
demand-side management

;

;

, ;
;


;


; ;

DSO
days sales outstanding

DSR
debt service ratio

DSRA
debt service reserve account

548

dtd
dated

( )

DTC
design to characteristics

DTC
design to cost

DVP
Deputy Vice President

DZ
demonstration zone

euro; Euro

EA
environmental assessment

[]

EA
Europe Agreements

(
)

EAC
Environmental Advisory Council
EAG
Environmental Appraisal Group
(inform.)
EAM
external asset manager
E&OE
errors and omissions excepted
EAON; E.A.O.N.
except as otherwise noted

[]
;

;

, ;
;
,

EAP
Environmental Action Plan

EAP
Environmental Action
Programme
EAR
effective annual rate

EAU
Environmental Assessment Unit

[]

EBA
Euro Banking Association

EBDIT
earnings before depreciation, net ;
;
interest and tax
549

EBIT
earnings before interest and tax

EBITDA
earnings before interest, tax,
depreciation and amortisation

,
[]

EBRD
European Bank for
Reconstruction and
Development
EBRD Articles (inform.)

EBRD Disbursement Handbook

EBRD Procurement Rules

EC
European Commission

;
( 1993 )

EC
European Community

ECA
export credit agency

ECB
European Central Bank

ECDC
economic cooperation among
developing countries

ECE
Economic Commission for
Europe [UN]

[]

ECGD
Export Credit Guarantee
Department [UK]
ECLAT
export credit loan arrangement
technique
ECO
Economic Cooperation
Organisation
ECO-system
expanded cofinancing system
[IBRD]
ECP; Euro-CP
Eurocommercial paper
ECT
estimated completion time


[];
-

;
- ;
-
(, , , , , , , )
[]
;
(
)
;
;

550

ECU
European currency unit

ED
Executive Director [IBRD] [IMF]

[] []

EDA
estimated date of arrival;
expected date of arrival

EDC
Export Development Corporation [];
-
[Canada]
EDD
environmental due diligence

EDD
estimated delivery date

EDI
Economic Development Institute []
[IBRD]
EDI
electronic data interchange
EDM
electronic data management
EDP
electronic data processing

;


;

EE
energy efficiency

EE
errors excepted

EEA
European Environment Agency

EEB
European Environmental Bureau
EEC

European Economic Community


EEK
Estonian kroon

. .

EEM
environmental evaluation
memorandum

( )

EER
economic exchange rate

EET
Energy Efficiency Team

[]

EFF
Extended Fund Facility [IMF]

[];
[]

551

EFT
electronic funds transfer

EFTA
European Free Trade
Association
EGAP
Exportno Garann a Poistovac
Spolenost [Czech Republic]


[ ];
-

EGM
extraordinary general meeting

EGP
Egyptian pound

. .

EIA
environmental impact
assessment

EIAA
environmental impact
assessment and audit

( )

EIB
European Investment Bank

EIF
European Investment Fund

EIRR
economic internal rate of return

EIS
environmental impact statement

(
);

EKN
Exportkreditnmnden [Sweden]
(Swedish Export Credits
Guarantee Board)


[];
-

ELE
extra low emission

EMP
end-of-month payment

EMS
environmental management
system

EMS
European Monetary System

EMTN
Euro medium-term note

EMU
Economic and Monetary Union

enc
enclosure; enclosures

; ( )

552

ENPV
economic net present value

ENVAC

Environmental Advisory Council []


EOD
entry on duty
EoD
event of default

; ;

; (.);
; ;
, ;

EOD
every other day

EOE
errors and omissions excepted

EOM
end of month

EPA
Environmental Protection
Agency [US]

[];
[]

EPOS
electronic point of sale
EPS
earnings per share

,
( . .);

; ;

EPZ
export processing zone

eqpt
equipment

e-quality
employment quality
ER
tender evaluation report

ERM
environmental review
memorandum

; ;

;
(.);
, ;

;

ERP

Enterprise Restructuring Project []

553

ERR
economic rate of return

;
;

ESAF
Enhanced Structural Adjustment

Facility
ESC
environmental screening
category
ESCO
energy saving company

ESCO
energy service company

ESI
energy supply industry

- ;

ESM
environmental screening
memorandum

ESOP
employee stock ownership plan

(
)

ESP
Enterprise Support Project

ESP
Spanish peseta

. .

estd
established

; ( )

et seq

. .

ETA
estimated time of arrival;
expected time of arrival

; ;

EU
European Union

EUA
European unit of account

EUR
euro

(
1 1999 )

Euro-CP; ECP
Eurocommercial paper

;
(
)

Euro LIBID fix

EV
enterprise value (debt plus
market capitalisation)

( , )

554

EWM
early warning memorandum

(
);

ExCom
Executive Committee

Exs; Exps
expenses

EXW
ex-works

; ; -

EXW Loaded On
EYBA
European Young Bar
Association
FAK
freight all kinds

( ;
-)

( )

F&F
furniture and fittings

()

FAO
for attention of ...

f.a.q.
fair average quality
FAQ
frequently asked questions
FAS
Free Alongside Ship (... named
port of shipment)

;

- (
)
... ( )

FCA
Free Carrier (... named place)

- ... ( )

FCPA
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
[US]


[]

FDI
foreign direct investment
FE
foreign exchange
FEF
front-end fee

;

; ; ;
;
( ; )

FEU
forty-foot equivalent unit

( )

FEZ
free economic zone


555

FFE
fixtures, fittings and equipment
FFPC
firm-fixed-price contract

( ,
. .)
;

fgn
foreign

FI
Financial Institutions

[]

FI
financial intermediary

FIA
foreign investment agency

FIAC
Foreign Investment Advisory
Council

FIBOR; Fibor
Frankfurt interbank offered rate

;
;

FIDIC
Fdration internationale des
ingnieurs-conseils
(International Federation of
Consulting Engineers)

-
(
)

FIDP
Financial Institutions
Development Programme

[]

FIFO
first in, first out
FIG
financial industrial group
FIL
financial intermediary loan
FILO
first in, last out
FIM
Finnish markka
FIO
first in and out
FIO
free in and out

-
;

;

. .; .

;

-

556

FIRR
financial internal rate of return

FIT
Financial Institutions Team

[]

f.i.t.
free of income tax

flc
floating charge

( )

FM
force majeure
FM
fund manager

FMIS
financial management
information system
FMO
Nederlandse Financierings
Maatschappij voor
Ontwikkelingslanden N.V.
(Netherlands Development
Finance Company)

; ;

;
; ;
, (
, )
-

FMS
financial management system

FMS
flexible manufacturing system

FMV
foreign market value

FO
front office

();
( ) [];
(-)

FOB
Free On Board (... named port of
shipment)

... ( )

FOB American

FOB Stowed

FOC
flag of convenience

FOC
free of charge

FOPC
Financial and Operations
Policies Committee

[]

557

forex
foreign exchange

; ; ; ;

FOX
futures and options

FP
fixed price

FP
fully paid

FPC
fixed price contract

(, )

FPIL
full premium if lost


(.)

FRA
forward rate agreement

FRF
French franc

. .; .

FRM
final review memorandum
FRM
Financial Risk Management
FRN
floating rate note
FRP
final review package
FRR
financial rate of return

;

[]
;
;
( )

FRS
Financial Reporting Standards
[UK]

[]

FRS
Federal Reserve System [US]

[]

frt
freight

FS
feasibility study

FS
final settlement

FSU
Former Soviet Union

.
;

558

F/T
full time
FTC
foreign tax credit

; ;
; ( )
,

FTSE Index
Financial Times Stock Exchange ;

Index
FUPDOL
foreign unit price in dollars

(-)

FV
fair value

FVO
for valuation only
fwd
forward
FX
foreign exchange
fxc
fixed charge

( ,
)
; ;

; ;
; ;
; ;
;

FY
financial year; fiscal year

fy
for you

FYA
for your attention

FYI
for your information

; ;
;

G-7
Group of Seven

7
; ;

G/A
general average

(.)

G&A
general and administrative
expenses
GAAP
Generally Accepted Accounting
Principles;
Generally Accepted Accounting
Practice
GAAS
Generally Accepted Auditing
Standards

;
;
-

559

GAB
general agreements to borrow;
general arrangements to borrow
GAI
guaranteed annual income

;
;

GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs
and Trade

GBP
Pound sterling

. .

GC
general contractor

GCI
general capital increase

[]

GDE
gross domestic expenditure

GDI
gross domestic income

GDI
gross domestic investment

GDP
gross domestic product

GDPS
global data processing system

GDR
global depositary receipt
GE
gilt edged

;

[];
[];
[]

GEF
Global Environmental Facility
[WB]

[];

GEL
Georgian lari

. ; . ; .

GEMM
gilt-edged market maker


[]

genco
generating company

GFCF
gross fixed capital formation

GHG
greenhouse gases

560

GHG trading
greenhouse gas trading

;
;

GIP
general insurance policy

GM
general manager

(.);

GMP
good manufacturing practice
GMT
Greenwich Mean Time
GNDI
gross national disposable
income
GNE
gross national expenditure
GNFS
goods and non-factor services

;
;


;

(
)

GNI
gross national income

GNP
gross national product

GO
general obligation

GO bond
general obligation bond

GOP
gross operating profit

govt
government

; ;

GP
general public

GP
general purpose

GPN
general procurement notice

;
;
( )

GRD
Greek drachma

. .; .

GRN
goods received note

;
561

GSCCS
Guidelines for the Selection and
Contracting Consulting
Services
GSM
Global System for Mobile
Communications
GSP
Generalized System of
Preferences
GSP
gross social product


GSM;
(
)

GTM
good this month

GTR
guarantor

GTS
general telephone system

GTW
good this week

GTZ; GtZ
Gesellschaft fr technische
Zusammenarbeit [Germany]

[];

HCA
historical cost accounting

HERMES
Hermes Kreditversicherungs-AG [];
-
[Germany]
HGS
hydroelectric generating station

HIBOR; Hibor
Hong Kong interbank offered
rate

;
;

HKD
Hong Kong dollar

. .

HLT
highly leveraged transaction
HP
hire-purchase

;
,

; ;

H.O.
head office

()

HQ
headquarters

-;

HR
human resources

; ; ; ;
; ;
562

HRK
Croatian kuna

HUF
Hungarian forint

HWS
hot water supply

IA
Internal Audit
IADB
Inter-American Development
Bank
IAEA
International Atomic Energy
Agency

(); ;
[];

IAG
International Auditing Guidelines ;
IAIC
Inter-American Investment
Corporation
IAS
International Accounting
Standards

IAS
International Auditing Standards ;
;
- ;

IASC
International Accounting
Standards Committee

IB
investment banking

IB
investment broker

IBF
international banking facility
IBOR
interbank offered rate
IBRD
International Bank for
Reconstruction and
Development

563

ICA
International Council on
Archives
ICAR
International Center for
Accounting Reform
ICAS
international commodity
agreements

ICB

international competitive bidding


ICBS
International Conference
of Banking Supervisors

ICC
International Chamber
of Commerce

ICFI
International Company for
Finance and Investments

ICOR
incremental capital-output ratio
ICSID
International Centre for
Settlement of Investment
Disputes
IDA
International Development
Association
IDB
Inter-American Development
Bank
IDB
Islamic Development Bank
IDC
interest during construction
IDD phone
international direct dial phone


,
;

IDLI
International Development Law
Institute

(
)

IDR
Indonesian rupia

IDR
international depositary receipt
IDSA
in-depth safety assessment

564

IEA
International Energy Agency

IEB
International Environment
Bureau
IEE
initial environmental
examination
IEEP
Institute for European
Environmental Policy

IEP
Irish punt;
Irish pound

. .; .

IFC
International Finance
Corporation
IFI
International Financial Institution

IFR
International Financial Review

( )

IFT
invitation for tenders

IFTRIC
Israel Foreign Trade Risks
Insurance Corporation Ltd
IG
investment guidelines
IIB
International Investment Bank


;
-
; ;

IIF

Institute of International Finance ()


IL; I/L
import licence
ILC
irrevocable letter of credit
ILD
international long-distance calls
ILS
Israeli shekel;
New shekel

; ;


;

. .; . ;

565

IM
information memorandum

;
[];

IMB
International Moscow Bank

IMF
International Monetary Fund

IMI
international multilateral
institution

IMO
International Maritime
Organization

INAS
Interbank National Authorization (
, System
)
INCOTERM
International Commercial Terms

INET
Interbank Network for Electronic (
, Transfer
)
INFEN
infrastructure, energy and
environment

info
information

; ;

INMARSAT
International Mobile Satellite
Organization (since 1995);
International Maritime Satellite
Organization (before 1995)


( 1995 );

( 1995 )

ins
insurance

insce
insurance

int
interest

IO
interest only
IOL
interest-only loan

,

,
(
)

566

IOSCO
International Organization
of Securities Commissions

IOU
I owe you

IP
individual project

; ;

IPD
interest payment date

IPD
interest, profits and dividends

IPF
indicative planning figure
IPF
investment privatisation fund

;

( ; )

IPI
initial price index

IPMA
International Primary Market
Association

IPO
initial public offering

( )

IPO
international public offering
IPP
independent power project
IPR
intellectual property right
IRM
initial review memorandum
IRP
initial review package

IRP
integrated resource planning
IRR
internal rate of return

,

;

();


( );
( )
;

();
();

567

ISA
In-depth Safety Assessment
ISA
International Standards
of Auditing


;

;
;

ISBN
international standard book
number

ISBN
;

ISDA
International Swap Dealers
Association

ISDA
International Swaps and
Derivatives Association

ISIC
International Standard Industrial
Classification of all Economic
Activities

ISK
Icelandic krona

. .; .

ISMA
International Securities Market
Association [Zurich];
International Securities Market
Association Ltd [London]

ISO
International Organization for
Standardization

ISO

ISP
Ignalina Safety Panel

[]

ISP
Internet service provider

()

ISU
Implementation Support Unit

IT
information technology

IT
Information Technology
Department
ITC
investment tax credit
ITL
Italian lira


;

.

568

ITT
Instruction To Tenderers

ITU
International Telecommunication
Union
i.v.
invoice value

JAIDO
Japan International Development
Organisation
JCB
J.C.Bamford

(
)

JEXIM
Export Import Bank of Japan

JGB
Japanese government bond

JI
joint implementation
JIT
just-in-time production

( )
;

JNOV
judgement notwithstanding the
verdict

JPY
Japanese yen

. ;

JSC
joint-stock company

/;
;

JV
joint venture

JVI
Joint Vienna Institute

K
thousand

kbd
thousand barrels a day

KGS
Kyrgyzstan som

KHF
Know-How Fund

- []

KM
Konvertibilna marka
KSBF
Kazakhstan Small Business
Fund

( )

569

KRW
South Korean won

KWe
kilowatt electrical

()
()

KYC
know your client;
know your customer

KZT
Kazakhstan tenge

L/A; LA
letter of advice

; ;

L/A; LA
letter of authority

LAIA
Liquid Asset Investment
Authority
LAN
local area network
LBO
leveraged buyout
LC; L/C
letter of credit
LCB
local competitive bidding

[];
;

, ;
; ,

lcl
less than container load

()

Ldd
loss during discharge

LDCs
least developed countries

LGS
loan guarantee scheme [UK]


[]

L/I
letter of intent

LIB
limited international bidding

LIBID; Libid
London interbank bid rate

( )

570

LIBOR; Libor
London interbank offered rate

;
;

Liffe; LIFFE
London International Financial
Futures Exchange

LIFO
last in, first out

LIMEAN
London Interbank Mean Rate

;
, , ;
-
;

LLC
limited liability company

LLD
Lessons Learned Database

[]

LME
London Metal Exchange

LNG
liquefied natural gas

LOC
letter of commitment

LOC
letter of credit

LOI
letter of information

LOI
letter of intent

LOR
letter of representation

LPG
liquefied petroleum gas

LSE
London Stock Exchange

LSTK
lump-sum turnkey

L/T
letter of transmittal

ltfv
less than fair value

571

LT investments
long-term investments

LTL
Lithuanian litas

LTPR
long-term prime rate
LTT
Legal Transition Team
L/U
leading underwriter

[]
;

LUF
Luxembourg franc

. .; .

LVIs
low value items

LVL
Latvian lats

LYON
liquid yield option note
M
million
MA
monitoring adviser
MAC
material adverse change
condition
MAC
message authentication code

- ( )


; , ;

MACRO
management, asset quality,
capital adequacy, risk
management, operating results

(, , , , )

MAD
Moroccan dirham

. ;

M&A
merger s and acquisitions

mbd
million barrels a day
MBO
management buyout

; ;

( ,
)

;

572

MBR
management by results

MC
marginal cost

Mcm
thousand cubic metres

. .

MD
managing director

m.d.
... months after date

...

MDB
multilateral development bank

MDL
Moldovan leu

MDM-Bank
Moscow Business World Bank
(Moscow Business World
Commercial Bank)

MEBO
management and employee
buyout

MECU
million ECU

MEIT
Municipal and Environmental
Infrastructure Team


[]

MFN
most-favoured nation treatment

MGT
message

MI
moratorium interest

MIG
Moodys investment grade
MIGA
Multilateral Investment
Guarantee Agency [WBG]

,
;
, ( )
c ;
Moodys Investors Service

[ ]

MIS

management information system - ;

;
-

573

MITI
Ministry of Trade and Industry
[Japan]

MKD
Macedonian denar

MLI
multilateral lending institution

( )

MLR
minimum lending rate
MLST
Model Law on Secured
Transactions
MM
money market


; ;

mm; MM
million

m/m
month on month;
month over month

MM back office
money market back office

MMcm
million cubic metres

. .

MNB
Moscow Narodny Bank

MNE
multinational enterprise

MNP
multinational partnership

MO; M.O.
money order

();

MO
month

MOF
Ministry of Finance

MOU; MoU
memorandum of understanding

MP
method of payment

; ;

MPF
multi-project facility
MPP
mass privatisation programme

[];
;
()

574

MQ
money quantity
MRCF
multicurrency revolving credit
facility

MSAs
most seriously affected
countries
m/s
... months after sight

...

MSE
micro- and small enterprises

MT
metric tonne

MTA
million tonnes per annum;
million tonnes a year

. /

MTG
meeting

MTL
Maltese lira

. .

MTN
medium-term note

;
;
()

MTN
multilateral trade negotiations

mtpa
million tonnes per annum;
million tonnes a year

. /

MTS
medium-term scenario

MU
monetary unit

m.v.; MV
market value

; ;

MWe
megawatt electrical

()
()

MXN
Mexican nuevo peso

MYR
Malaysian ringgit

MYRA
multi-year rescheduling
arrangement
NA
national accounts

()

;

575

NA; n/a
not applicable

n.a.
not available

NAFTA; Nafta
North American Free Trade Area

NAM
Nonaligned Movement

NASD
National Association of Security
Dealers

NASDAQ
National Association of Security
Dealers Automated Quotations
System

NASDAQ Index

( )

NAV
net asset value per share

NBV
net book value

; ;

nc
no change

nc
no charge

NCU
national currency unit
NCV
no commercial value
nd
no date

;

;

; ; ; ;
;

NDA
net domestic assets

NDNI
net disposable national income

NDP
net domestic product

NEAP
National Environmental Action
Programme

NEFCO
Nordic Environment Finance
Corporation

576

N/F
no funds

( ); ;
;

NFA
no further action

( )

NFS
non-factor services

NFS
not for sale

; ; ;
; ;

ng
not good

NGO
non-governmental organisation

NIB
Nordic Investment Bank

NICs
newly industrialised countries;
newly industrialising countries

NIE
newly industrialised economies

;
; ,

n.i.e.
not included elsewhere

NIF
National Investment Fund

NIEO
New International Economic
Order
NIF
note issuance facility
NIMBY syndrome
not-in-my-backyard syndrome

NIP
normal investment practice




;
;
;
-
(
: , )
;

NIS
New Independent States

(
)

NLG
Netherlands guilder;
Dutch guilder

. .; .

577

NM
not meaningful

;
(
)

NMP
net material product

NNI
net national income

NNP
net national product

NOA
net operating assets
NOI
net operating income

, ;
, ;

;
;

NOK
Norwegian kroner

. .; .

NOL
net operating loss

nop
not otherwise provided for
NOW account
negotiable order of withdrawal
account

N.P.
notary public

N/P
net proceeds

NPBIT
net profit before interest and tax

npf
not provided for

NPP
nuclear power plant

NPV
net present value

NPW
net present worth

()

NRA
non-resident alien

NRC
National Registry Company

578

NRG
Natural Resources Group
(inform.)
Natural Resources Team
NRV
net realisable value
NS
not in stock

;
-
; ;
;

N/S
not sufficient

()

NSA
Nuclear Safety Account

NSE
National Stock Exchange

NSF
not sufficient funds
NSO
non-sovereign operation


( );

;

nt wt
net weight

NTB
non-tariff barrier

NUSAC
nuclear safety assistance
coordination [G-24]

[ 24]

NUSOC
Nuclear Safety Operating
Committee [NSA]


[]

n.v.d.
no value declared

NYSE
New York Stock Exchange

NZD
New Zealand dollar

. .

O/A
on account

O/A
on account of

; -

O/A
outstanding account

O&M
organisation and methods

579

O&M costs
operating and maintenance
costs
OAR
overhead absorption rate
OAU
Operation Administration Unit
OB
or better
OBU
offshore banking unit



[]
(
)
; - ( ; );
;

OC
Operations Committee

[];

OC
outward cargo

OCE
Office of the Chief Economist;
Chief Economists Office

( , )

o/d; O/D
on demand

O/D
origin/destination

o.d.
overdraft

; ;

ODA
official development assistance

ODA
Overseas Development
Administration [UK]

[]

ODIHR
Office for Democratic
Institutions and Human Rights


[]

ODS
operation data sheet
OECD
Organisation for Economic
Cooperation and Development

[];
[];

OECF
Overseas Economic Cooperation []
Fund [Japan]

580

OEEC
Organisation for European
Economic Cooperation

OER
official exchange rate

OFS
Operations File Supervisor

OGC
Office of the General Counsel

[]

OGM
ordinary general meeting

o/h; O/H
overhead; overheads

OID
original issue discount
OIN
other items (net)
OL
Operation Leader
o/l
our letter
OLIS
On Line Information System
OM
offering memorandum
OM
Operations Manual
OMS
operations management system
O/N rate
overnight rate
ono
or nearest offer

()
; ;
;

( ); .
, []
; ;

[];

;


( ; )

o/o
order of

...; ...

OOF
other official flows

O.P.
open policy

;

581

OPEC
Organization of the Petroleum
Exporting Countries

OPER
operation performance
evaluation report

OPEX
operating expenditure
OPIC
Overseas Private Investment
Corporation [US]
OpsCom
Operations Committee
OpsComSec
Operations Committee
Secretariat
OR
operating ratio
OR
operation report
o.r.; OR
owners risk
OSCE
Organisation for Security and
Cooperation in Europe


; OPIC
[]
( ) []
[]
;

; ;
;

; ;
;

OT; O/T
old terms

O/T
overtime

OTC
one-time charge

; ; ;

OTC
over-the-counter trading

OTC market
over-the-counter market

OTCBB
over-the-counter bulletin board

OTE
on-target earnings;
on-track earnings

(
)

OTE
other things being equal

P.A.; P/A
particular average

(.)
582

p/a; p.a.
per annum

; ;

PA
personal assistant

PA
power of attorney

P&A
Personnel and Administration

- []

P&L; P+L
profit and loss
PAR
project appraisal report
PAYE
pay-as-you-earn
PAYG pension plan
pay-as-you-go pension plan

PBP
payback period

; ;


, ,
( )
;
;

PBSE
post balance sheet events

p/c
current price

PC
paid cash

PC
personal communicator

(
; )

PC
personal computer

PC banking
PCA
partnership and cooperation
agreement
pcm; p.c.m.
per calendar month
PCR
project completion report


(
;
)

;

583

PCS
preferred creditor status

PCT
per cent

pd
paid

pd
per day

PD
pickup and delivery

PDS
project data sheet
P/E ratio
price/earnings ratio

; ;

;

PECOS
project evaluation and cost
optimisation system

( )

PED
Project Evaluation Department

[]

PEoD
potential event of default

PEP
private equity plan
PER
price/earnings ratio
PERT
programme evaluation and
review technique
PESN
Evaluation & Operational and
Environmental Support

; , ;
(.); ;
; ,


;



[]

PEU
Power and Energy Utilities Team
PFI
participating financial institution
Phare Programme
Poland and Hungary: Aid for
Economic Restructuring
PHP
Philippine peso

[]; Phare []

584

PIC
project information centre

PIK
payment in kind

; ;

PIN
personal identification number
PIN phone
PIR
project implementation review

;

;

;

PITI
principal, interest, tax, insurance ( ,
, , )
PIU
project implementation unit

PKP
Pakistan rupee

PLC; Plc
public limited company

;
;

.

[]

PLN
Polish zloty;
New Polish zloty

. .

pls
please
pls fwd
please forward

;
; ; ;

PMS
project management system

pmnt
payment

; ;

PMT
project management team


585

PMU
project management unit

PMU
project monitoring unit

;
-

P/N
promissory note
PO
principal only
POA; PoA
power of attorney
POA
price on application
POCP
proof-of-concept project
POD
port of destination
POD
price on demand

;
,

;
(
)
; ;


(
)

POF
private ownership fund

[]

POL
petrol, oil, lubricants

POO
port of origin

POP
point of purchase

POR
price on request
POS
point of sale
PP
power plant

(
)
; ;
-

586

p.p.
per proculationem

/
; (
);
( )

P/P
prepayment

; ;

PPB
project proposal brief

PPBS
planning, programming,
budgeting system

PPC
Project Preparation Committee

PPD
prepaid

; ; ;
; ;

PPF
post-privatisation fund

( )

PPI
producer price index

PPP
Public-Private Partnership

PPP
purchasing power parity

PPS
project planning and steering
system

PPT
prompt
PPU
Project Preparation Unit
PR
public relations
PRD
previously rescheduled debt

; ; ( );
( )
[]
; ;
;

; ;

PRO
public relations officer

PSA
production sharing agreement

PSBR
public sector borrowing
requirements

587

PSD
Project Summary Document
PSO
public service obligation

PSR
price-sales ratio
PSTN
public switched telephone
network
P/T
part time
ptb
pass the buck

[];

;
;
;
()
(
)

; ;
; ( )
- (
)

PTE
Portuguese escudo

. .; .

PTS
Procurement and Technical
Services Unit

[]

PTS
Property, Tourism and Shipping
Team
PV
present value
PV ratio
profit/volume ratio

, []

;
;

PVBV
present value of a basis point

pw
per week

PW
Price Waterhouse

PWC
PriceWaterhouseCoopers

QA
quality assurance

Q&A
questions and answers

; ,
;
,

588

QC
quality control

QIB
qualified institutional buyer

Qs and As
questions and answers

; ,
;
,

QSR
quarterly status report

( )

qty
quantity

-; -

RAMPS
resource allocation technique
and multi-project scheduling

RAN
revenue anticipation note
R&D
research and development

( ,
)

- -

R&M
repair and maintenance

RAP
restructuring action plan

RBP
restrictive business practice

;
;

RBTC
Regional Bank Training Centre

[]

RC
reimbursement commitment

R/C
revolving credit

RC bank
reimbursement commitment
bank


;
,

RCF
revolving credit facility

R/D
refer to drawer

(
);
( )

589

R/D
release date
rd
running days
Re.:
R/E
rate of exchange
RECO
replacement cost

;
; ( );

.:
;
;
; ;

red.
redeemable

ResRep
Resident Representative

; - []

RFE
Russian Far East

RFP
request for proposals

;
;

rgds
regards

RO
Resident Office

ROA
return on assets

ROC
return on capital
ROCE
return on capital employed

ROE
return on equity
ROI
return on investment

; ;
; ;

; ;
;
;
( )
( )
(
,
);
; ;
; ;
;

590

ROL
Romanian leu

ro-ro
roll-on/roll-off

ROS
return on sales

ROW
rest of the world

( )

RP
repurchase agreement

(,
);
; ;
-

RPFB
Russian Project Finance Bank

RPI
rate of price inflation

RPI
retail price index

RRP
recommended retail price

, ;

RSBF
Russia Small Business Fund

RSIFR
Russian Federal Service on
Insolvency and Financial
Rehabilitation

RSU
remote service unit
RTA
reimbursable technical
assistance
RTA
road traffic accident

( );

rtn
return

( )

RUB
Russian rouble

RUF
revolving underwriting facility

( )

RUR
Russian rouble

RVF
regional venture fund

[]

591

RYM
referring to your message

(s)
(signed)

() ( )

SA
special account

s.a.
subject to approval
SAC
Structural Adjustment Credit
[IMF]
SACE
Sezione Speciale per
lAssicurazione del Credito
allExportazione [Italy]
SAE
stamped addressed envelope;
self-addressed envelope

; ;

[];

[];
-
;
;

SAF
Structural Adjustment Facility
[IMF]

; []

SAL
Structural Adjustment Loan
[IMF]

[];

S&L
savings and loan company

S&P
sale and purchase

SAPARD
support for agriculture and rural
development

SAR
stock appreciation right
SASCO
Sakhalin Shipping Company
SAU
semi-annual update


, ,

;

SBA
Small Business Administration
[US]
SBA
stand-by agreement

SBF
Small Business Fund

[]

592

SC
share capital

SCA
Special Contingency Account
[IMF]
SCF
standard conversion factor

SCI
special capital increase

[]

sd
sine die

SCA
[]

; ; ; ;
;

SDC

settlement and depository centre -


SDR
special drawing rights
SDS account
sundries account

;

; ;

SE
shareholders equity

SE
stock exchange

SEA
strategic environmental
assessment

S.E.& O.
salve errore et omissione

SEC
Securities and Exchange
Commission [US]
SECAL
Sectoral Adjustment Loan [IMF]

[]
[];

SEEF
small enterprise equity fund

SEK
Swedish krona

. .; .

SES
special evaluation study

SFR
Special Funds resources

( )

SG
Secretary General

SGD
Singapore dollar

. .

593

SGO
Office of the Secretary General;
Secretary Generals Office

S/H
shareholder

SIA
Senior Industrial Adviser

SIDA
Swedish International
Development Cooperation
Agency
SIP
Shelter Implementation Plan
[CSF]
SIT
Slovenian tolar

[]

SITC
Standard International Trade
Classification

SKK
Slovak koruna

. .; .

sl
sine loco

SLA
service level agreement

( )
-

SLI
sustainable level of investments

SLL
sustainable level of lending

SME
small and medium-sized
enterprises

SME Equity Fund

SMI
small and medium-sized
industries

SMS
short messaging system;
short message services

( )

SN
spot next

SNA
System of National Accounts

S/O
shipping order


594

SO
sovereign operation

;
;
;
;

SOC
social overhead capital

SOC
social overhead costs

SOE
state-owned enterprise

SOF
state ownership fund

[]

SOHO; SoHo; Soho


small office, small house

- ( )

SP
sale proceeds

SP
selling price

SPC
special purpose company

( )

SPJV
special purpose joint venture

SPV
special purpose vehicle

( );
( )

sqm
square metre

. ; 2

SRG
Safety Review Group

SRP
Special Restructuring
Programme

() []

SRP
suggested retail price

;
, (
)

SSE
small scale enterprise

ST investments
short-term investments

STCs
Standard Terms and Conditions

( )

stet

, ( )

595


STF
Systemic Transformation Facility [];
; [IMF]
[]
STL
Sector Team Leader
STMS
short-term monetary support

( )
;

SVP
senior vice-president

SWIFT
Society for Worldwide Interbank
Financial Telecommunication

; SWIFT

SWOT
strengths/weaknesses/
opportunities/trends;
strengths/weaknesses/
opportunities/threats

, , ;
, ,

TA
technical assistance

TA
transit account

TA
travel authorisation

TAC
Technical Assistance Centre

Tacis Programme [EU]

[C]; Tacis []

TAM Programme
TurnAround Management
Programme


;

(.)

T&E card
travel and entertainment card
TARGET
Trans-European automated
realtime gross settlement
express transfer system

;

TARGET

(
;
)

TAURUS
transfer and automated
registration of uncertified stock
tba
to be advised
tbc
to be confirmed

; ;

; ; ;
;
596

tbd
to be decided

tbd
to be determined

tbd
to be discussed
tbd
to be drafted

; ;

;
; ;
;

T-bill
Treasury bill [US]

[]

T-bond
Treasury bond [US]

[]

TC
technical cooperation

T/C
time charter

T/c
telephone call;
telephone conference

; ;
( )

TCDC
technical cooperation among
developing countries

t.c.f.
till called for

TCSF
EBRD Technical Cooperation
Special Fund

TD
time and date

TDSCR
total debt service coverage ratio

telco
telephone company

TEM
Trans-European North-South
Motorway
TENs
Trans-European Networks
TEP
tradable emission permit

-
;
;

;

597

TER
Trans-European Railway

TESSA
tax exempt savings account

, []

TEU
twenty-foot equivalent unit

( )

TFGL
trade facilitation guarantee line

TFP
trade facilitation project

TFP
Trade Facilitation Programme

THB
Thai baht

three-D jobs; 3-Ds


(dirty, difficult and dangerous
jobs)

, ;
,

three-D policy
(dishonesty, disappearance,
destruction)
TI
transition impact
TIC
true interest cost
TIN
taxpayer identification number

TINA
there is no alternative


( )
;
( , , . .)
(
;
) []
( ) [];
( )

TJR
Tajik rouble

. .

tks
thanks

TL
Team Leader

( )

T.L.
time loan

( - )

TLO
total loss only

TMG
TAM Management Group

[]

598

TMIP
Transition to Market Investment
Programme

TMM
Turkmenistan manat

TMS
time management system;
time monitoring system

TN
telephone number

.; .

TNC
transnational corporation

T-note
Treasury note [US]

[]

toe
tonne of oil equivalent

TOFC
trailer-on-flat-car

( )

tom next
tomorrow next
TOR
terms of reference

( ) , ,

; ; ();
; ; ;

TOT
terms of trade

tpd
tonnes per day

tph
tonnes per hour

TPU
Transaction Processing Unit

[]

tpy
tonnes per year

TRL
Turkish lira

TRN
transaction reference number

TSE
Tokyo Stock Exchange

TVM
time value of money
TWD
Taiwan dollar

599

UA
unit of account

UAH
Ukrainian hryvna

u.c.e.
unforeseen circumstances
excluded

UCP 500
Uniform Customs and Practices
[ICC]
UFN
until further notice
UK GAAP
Generally Accepted Accounting
Practice in the UK

( )

;

UN ECE
United Nations Economic
Commission for Europe

UNCED
UN 1992 Conference on
Environment and Development


1992

UNCITRAL
United Nations Commission on
International Trade Law

UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules

unck
unchecked

; ; ;

UNCTAD
United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development

UNDP
United Nations Development
Programme

UNEP
United Nations Environment
Programme

UNFCCC
Conference of the Parties to the
UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change

Unidroit; UNIDROIT
Institut international pour
lunification du droit priv
UNIX


( )
UNIX
UNIX
600

UPS System
uninterrupted power supply
system
urlet
your letter

USAID
US Agency for International
Development

USD
US dollar

.

. .

USEXIM
U.S. Export-Import Bank
USTDA
United States Trade and
Development Association

u.t.
usual terms

UTC
Coordinated Universal Time

u.u.r.
under usual reserves

U.W.
underwriter

UZS
Uzbekistan sum

VaR
value at risk

; , ;
; , ;
,

VAT
value added tax

VC
valuable cargo

VC
venture capital

VC
videoconferencing
VDU
video display unit
VFM
value for money
viz.
videlicet; namely

-;
( )
;
; ;

601

VLCC
very large cargo carrier
voc
vehicle operating costs


- ;
( )

VP
Vice President

vpd
vehicles per day

VSTF
very short-term financing

WACC
weighted average cost of capital

()

WAN
wide area network

WAP; Wap
wireless application protocol

W/B
waybill

; ;

WB
World Bank

WBG
World Bank Group (WB, IFC,
IDA, MIGA; ICSID is not a full
member)
w/c ...
week commencing ...

( , ,
; )
, ... ()

WC
working capital

WDR
World Development Report

[]

WDV
written-down value

w/e ...
week ending ...

, ... ()

w/e
weekend

; -;

wef
with effect from ...

...

WG
working group

wh; whs
warehouse

WIP
work in progress

;

602

WIPO
World Intellectual Property
Organization

wks
weeks

w/o
without

WP
word processing

WPI
wholesale price index

W/R
war risk

(.)

WR
warehouse receipt

wro
war risk only

(.)

w.r.t.
with respect to

; ; , ;
;

WTO
World Trade Organization

WW; ww
warehouse warrant

WWTP
waste water treatment plant

XAMR
expanded annual monitoring
report

X
exclusive; except

XAU
Gold

XEU
European currency unit

XMT
transmit; transmission

; ( )

Japanese yen

Y/A
year of assessment

YCP
your comments, please

? ;
? ?
?

603

y/e
year end; year ending

; ; ,

yoy
year on year; year over year

yp
your problem

yr
your

yrlet
your letter

YTC
yield to call
Ytd; ytd
year to date
YTM
yield to maturity

YTR
yield to redemption

;


;
;
;
;


;
;
;
( );

YUM
New dinar

y/y
year on year; year over year

Y2K
Year 2000

2000

Y2K problem
millennium bug

2000 ; 2000
( )

ZAR
South African rand

ZBB
zero-based budget

604

BOND RATING
Corporate and municipal bonds

Moodys
Investors Service

Standard &
Poors

Aaa

AAA

Aa

AA

Baa

BBB

Ba

BB

Caa

CCC

Ca

CC

C
DDD
DD
D

Highest quality

High quality

Upper medium grade

Medium grade

Predominantly speculative

Speculative, low grade

Poor quality

Highest speculation

Lowest quality, no interest paid
,
In default

In arrears

Questionable value

(Standard & Poors)


(Moodys Investors Service) (investment grade);
- (speculative grade).

605


SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

- . . ..,
.. . , 1993. New English Russian Dictionary by E.Mednikova and Y.Apresian (three volumes). Moscow
1993.

2.

- - .
... , 1992.

3.

The Big English - Russian and Russian - English Business Dictionary


by A.Zagorskaya et al. Moscow 1993.

4.

English - Russian Comprehensive Law Dictionary by A.Mamulyan


and S.Kashkin. Moscow 1993.

5.

English - German Glossary of Financial and Economic Terms


by Hans E. Zahn. Frankfurt am Main 1989.

6.

Dictionary of Banking Terms by Thomas P. Fitch. Second Edition.


New York 1993.

7.

,
International Accounting StandardsTM, 1998. London 1997.

8.

- .
... , 1991.

9.

- -.
... , 1992.

10. - . . ...
, , 1977.
11. - .
. ... , 1997.

606

12. Blacks Law Dictionary by Henry Campbell Black, M.A. Sixth edition. St. Paul,
Minn., West Publishing Co., 1990.
13. . . .., ..,
... . -, 1998.
14.
. .
, 1994.
15. - .
. ... , , 1998.
16. . .
---. , 1997.
17. . .
.. , 1997. Dictionary of International Trade,
Prof. Jerry M.Rosenberg. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994.
18. Dictionary of Banking, Gerald Klein. Pitman Publishing, 1992.
19. - . .., ...
, , 1997.
20. - . .. .
, 1993.
21. - . . .,
- . ... , 1993.
22. - ( ).
.., .. . , 1991.

607