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2

2003

53(075.5)
:
; . -. , .. .
. 2: / . .. ;
. , 2003. - 193 .
ISBN
,

( ,
, ).
, .
.
. 81. . 56. .: 15 .

-

ISBN

, 2003


...

1. . .
.
.
1.1. 201 (303)
.
1.2. 202 (306)
..
1.3. 203 (307)

7
7
12

2.
..
.
. ...
2.1. 204 (304)

2.2. 205 (315)

2.3. 206 (305)
.

34
34
38
41

3.
.
..

3.1. 207 (309).

3.2. 208 (312).
...
3.3. 209 (310)

3.4. 210 (317)
.

60
60
64
68

4.


...
...
4.1. 211 (311)

3

17
22
29

46
52
54

70
76
81
86
97
98
103
106

4.2. 212 (427).



5. ..
. .
..
..
..
5.1. 213 (409)
..
5.2. 214 (410).
..
5.3. 215 (402).

6. .


6.1. 216 (411).
..
6.1. 217 (421).
..
7.

.

..
7.1. 218 (417) ..
7.2. 219 (419).
..
7.3. 220 (420).
..

110
116
116
117
122
127
133
137
143
148
148
152
157
161
165
165
166
169
173
180
186



, , .
20 2-
: , ,
, . ,
, ,
.
, . ,
, , , , .
() , .
.
, ,
(2) ,
.
, 1
,
,
, .
, ,
. , .
.

201 (303)
202 (306)
203 (307)
204 (304)
205 (315)
206 (305)
207 (309)
208 (312)
209 (310)
210 (317)

. .
. .
. .
. .
. . , . .
.
. .
. .
. .
. ., . .
5

211 (316)
212 (311)
213 (409)
214 (410)
215 (402)
216 (411)
217 (421)
218 (417)
219 (419)
220 (420)


. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
.
. .
. .
. ., . .
. .

, ,
30 , ,
, , .
, -
.

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.
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1. .
.
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.
.
.
,
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( *), , . , .
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, ,
, , , . [].
:
1)
( );
, : ;
2) , ;
3) ,
.
,
.
__________________________________________________________________
*
,
. . ,
.
7

,
,
.
,
, .
, ,
, . ,
, .
F12 q1 q2
r12.
, , ,
, , (.1.1).

. 1.1.


q q
F12 = K 1 2 2 n ,
(1.1)
r12
r
n = 12 .
r12
r ; ( ),
1
, 0
k =
4 0
1
-12
109 / = 8,8510 /) ( , ),
(0 =
36
.
. - ,
F . , ,
. ,
: , , .
, , , . , ,
8

q
.
F
(1.2)
E= .
q
. ,
, . , .
, , 1 ,
1 .
/.
q,
q
E=
r.
(1.3)
3
4 0r
r -, ,
q, , . , ,
, .

. 1.2.

,
, . ()
n

(. 1.2): E = E1 + E2 + E3 + + En = Ei .
i =1


. ,
, 9

(. 1.3) [15].

. 1.3.

. . . 1.4
, . , , .

. 1.4.

. , ,
,
,
. .
q, E , F = qE. q
. ,
q0 q 1 2. q0
1 q0
r .
, E =
4 0 r 3
, ,
[1]
10

r2

qq0
A12 = qEdr =
4 0
r1

r2

r1

rdr
r3

(1.4)

r
dr = dr ,
r
r

qq0 2 dr qq0 1 1

=
.
A12 =
4 0 r 2 4 0 r1 r2
r1

(1.5)

(1.5) , q , q0, , q q0. , , .


, , . 1 2 1
2 , ,
1 2
(1.6)
A12 = q(1 2).

[]. ,

.
, , .
, .
, . ( ) . ,
, .

,
. , , , .
,
.
, ,
, (1.6). , (1.6) , .
11

.
1 2 , Ox, x1 x2 =
dx. 1 2,
(1), Ex dx. , (1.6) 1 2 = d. Oy Oz,
d
d
d
Ey =
Ex =
;
;
.
Ez =
dx
dy
dz

d
d
d
(1.7)
E =
i +
j+
k .
dy
dx
dx
, , grad , . .
E = grad .
(1.8)
(x, y, z) , .
, . (1.8) ,
.

,
. . ,
, , ,
, ,

.
. .
,

, . , .
dt dq, ,

dq
I=
,
(1.9)
dt
.
12


,
q
I= ,
(1.10)
t
q ,
t.
, , , . , .
, . , , ,
: ,
.
,
, , , . .
( , , ).
( ) , .
,
.
1 2 (. 1.5)
[1, 2, 3] .

. 1.5.

( )
(), ; , , 1 2 . , U12 [3]
13

U12 = IR12 = 1 2 + ,
R1,2 , I .
, , , , .
, , , () (.1.6).
.

. 1.6.

(. 1.6)

I=

,
(1.11)
r+R
E ; r0 ; R .
, ( ).
.
E
I . . = .
(1.12)
r
( )
(. 1.7).

. 1.7.

( ),
.
q, A = qE .
(q t ) E;
E2
.
P = IE =
r+R
14

(1.13)

Pa,
E 2R
2
Pa = I R =
.
(1.14)
2
r
+
R
(
)
,
P0 ,
.
E 2r
2
P0 = I r =
.
(1.15)
2
r
+
R
(
)
(1.13) , R = 0 (
)
E2
,
(1.16)
Pmax =
r


. R ,
R.
R Pa, . (R = 0) , , . R, , , (1.14) R ( )

r 2 R2
dPa
= E2
= 0,
(1.17)
4
dR
(r + R)
, , r R , R = r. , , , , . R = r (1.14), , ,
E2
.
(1.18)
Pa max =
4r
, ().
Pa, ( ),
P
P
R
= a =
.
(1.19)
P R+r
15

R = 0 = 0.
, = 1
R, ,

. , R = r, , (1.19), 0,5.
. 1.8 Pa
( 1), P ( 2) ( 3) . , Pa .

. 1.8. ,

1. . . : . . 3- . .
2. .: , 1982.
2. . ., .. : . .
.: . ., 1989.
3. . . : . . .: .
.,1990.
4. . . : . . .: ,
1970.
5. . ., . . : . .
.2. .: , 1974.

16

1.1.

201


1.1.1.

.
1.1.2.

. , , , , .
, , .
.
(1.8) E = gradU .
, divE = 0 , (1.8) ,
divgradU = U , ,
U = 0 .
(1.1.1)

2
2
2
= 2 + 2 + 2.
x
y
z

, [1 3] j = E ,
. , j = E = gradU ,
, , , , , divj = 0 ,
divgradU = U = 0 .
(1.1.2)
, U = 0 ( ), ,
. ,
( )
, .
( )
. o .

17

, [4]. , , ,
. .
1.1.3.

. 1.1.1. A B, , CDNM .

. 1.1.1.

S E.

Z, . , ,
. R1 Z
.
,
( ). R2 . Ox Oy.
. , . ,
, ,
.
18

1.1.4.

, .
. ( , A B ). ,
.
V
, ( ). , O.
, .
. y
, , . , .

.
(1.8).
, (1.8)

,
(1.1.3)
E=


; , (
).
1.1.5.

1. ,
. ,
x O (), , .
. .
x 5 x.
. 19

.
2. . .
S ., . . R
.
3. Y ,
,
- . ,
. .
4. Oy (
). (. . 4).
, .
5. 5-7 ( 2-3 ), .
6. S.
7. -.
8.
Ox Oy . 1 . .
9. S.
10. (5-7 ),
(. . 4, 5, 6 ).
11. S.
1.1.6.

1. , .
2. 4-5
, (1.1.3).
.
3.
. 1.1.1.
.

20

1.1.1

x,
y,

1.1.7.


, /

1. ?
.
2. .
3. ?
4. ?
5. , ?
6. ?

21

1.2.

202


1.2.1.

, .
1.2.2

.
(
) , . ,
.
( 1 2 = const ),
. ,
(. . 1.2.1).

. 1.2.1.

, ( )
N

In = 0 ,

(1.2.1)

n =1

N - . , . 1.2.1,
1 (1.2.1)
(1.2.2)
I1 I 2 + I 3 = 0 ,
2: I1 + I 2 I 3 = 0 .
(. . 1.2.1) :
+ , , -
. ,
1 2
.
22

( , ), ,
.
.
, , . : - (
) . , . , , :

, :

I n Rk = E p ,

(1.2.3)

, , +, (),
.
.
, (,
, ).
. 1.2.1 1 2; ,
, , , , 1 2. (
) (1.21) :
(1.2.2)
1
I1R1 + I 2 R2 + I1R4 = E1 ;
(1.2.2)
2
I 2 R2 I 3 R3 = E2 .
(1.2.2, 1.2.2 1.2.2)
,
Ri, Ik Em
.

. ( )
23

, , .
1.2.3.


, . 1.2.2. , .
, .

. 1.2.2.

1.2.4.

R1, R2, , R7
r1 r2 . .
U1, U2, , U7 R1, R2,
, R7 .
.
E1 E2 ,
.

Ui Ri
Ii . I i
i

.
Ui ( , Ii) ,
. 24

Ui. Ii,
.


. Ui Ii rk (
Ii rk) (
, , [1, 2, 3]).

U i + Ii rk Ek ,

, .
(. 1.2.2)
, . Ii rk Ek . Ii Rk Ek . .


U i + Ii rk + k ,
i
Ui i
; I i rk , . . (
); E k
( ).
1.2.5.

1. .
2. ( ).
3. , . . , 1 4
, "+" , 1 , 4.
, 1 4. 4 1 ( 25

-).
.
4. U1, U2, , U7
R1, R2, , R7. ( ), . 1.2.1.
5. E1 E2, , . ( ) . 1.2.2.
6. ,
.
1.2.6.

1. , Ii .
2. I i rk .
3. U i

:
U i = ( 0,5U i + 4 ) 102 .
4.
U i
I i =
, , Ri
,
.
5. . 1, 3, 4 . 1.2.1, . 2 .
1.2.2.
6. . 1.2.1
I i . i

I i

). . 1.2.3.
7. .
8. (. 1.2.4)
. .
1.2.1 . 1.2.2 U i + Ii rk i

Ek, .


U i + Ii rk + Ek .
i

26

9.

U i + Ii rk

Ek

. .
1.2.1
Ui, Ii
.

Ui,

Ri,

Ii,

Ui,

Ii,
1.2.2

Ek ,

rk,

I i rk ,

Ek,

I i rk ,

1.2.3



I i ,



I i ,

1.2.4

U i + Ii rk
i

Ek,

27




U i + I i rk + k ,

1.2.7.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

?
? .
?
? .
?

?

. .
.
. .
.
. .
.
, ,
?
, ?

28

1.3.

203


1.3.1.

, , ,
.
1.3.2.

,
,
, Ri
(. 1.3.1).

. 1.3.1.

: , ,
.

(.1.3.2 ) (.1.3.2 )
.

. 1.3.2. ()
()

1.3.3.

,
. 1.3.3. (Ri), (mA), (Ek),
29

,
1 7
.

.1.3.3. ,
( 1 7 ,
)

1.3.4.

, . 1.3.1,
, ,
(. 1.3.2). R1, R2, R10 . .

. 1 . .
: , , ,
, .
.
1.3.5.

1. Ca, ,
Im = 1 . .1.3.1
( ).
2. Ri
(. 1.3.1) .
3. .
30

4. R1 R10, . . 1.3.2 ,
.
5. . ,
. 4.
6. (.
1.3.2 ) . 4.
, .
7.
(.1.3.2) . 4.
8. ,
( ) P, Pa, .
1.3.6

1.


Im
I =
,
(1.3.1)
100%
(
); Im . I . 1.3.1.
2.

1
R. (1.11)
I

1
1
r
= f ( R) = R + .
(1.3.2)
I
E
E
(1.3.2) ,
. . E r 1.3.2.
, - . E r (1.16) .

Pa max . 1.3.3.
3.
: P
(1.13), E . 1.3.3;
Pa (1.14);
(1.19). . 1.3.2.
4. . 4 I, P Pa, 31

R. , , . , (. . ).
5. I R I (. . 1.3.1). I, ,
I-I I+I.
1.3.1

Im,

I,

Ca, /

-3

110

1.3.2

R, 103

I, 10
1

-5

P,
-3
10

Pa,
-3
10

R1

R10
1.3.3

E ,

r , 10

E1
E2

E1 E2

E1 E2

32

-3

Pa max, 10

1.3.7.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

?
? ?
?
?
?
? .
, , , .
?
? .
, , ? .
?
?
, ,
? I(R)?

33

2.

(, ) ,
, . , , , , ,

,
G
E0 ,
( 2.1).

. 2.1.

, , , , ,
. , , , .
, .. , , , Q ,
(2.1)
Q = C .
,
, (). , ,
.
, , ,
. ,
, . ,
,
.
34

(). 1 , 1 1 .
. ,
R, ,
Q
.
(2.2)
=
4 0 R
(2.1) ,
(2.3)
C = 4 0 R .
, 1
R = C (4 0 ) = 9 109 , 1500
. ,
(1 = 10-3 ), (1 = 10-6 ), (1 =10-9 ), (1 = 10-12 ).
, , , ,

.
.
, , .. , , , . .
, ,
, ( ) (
) , Q . , , ,
Q, .. ,
.
,
, . .
.
,
Q, , (1 2) :
Q
.
(2.4)
C=
1 2
,
, . , d (. 2.2),
+ /2 - /2.
35

. 2.2.


E =

[1,2], 2 0
G
E , ,


( ), E0 =

, 0

, . .
,
, U ( x ) = E0 x , -

U 0 = E0 d ( U 0 = b a , ( a b ) - ). S, q,
U0
q
=
.
, q = S .
d S 0
,
S
C= 0 .
(2.5)
d
,
S
C= 0 .
(2.6)
d
,
Umax,
, . ,
, .
,

36

, .
: (.
2.3) (. 2.4).

. 2.3.

. 2.4.

,(. . 2.3)
,
.
C1, C2,Cn, Q1 = C1U1, Q2 = C2U2, Qn = CnUn,
n

Q = Qi = ( C1 + C2 + " + Cn )U ,
(2.7)
i =1
, ,
, Q U:
n

C = Ci = C1 + C2 + " + Cn .

(2.8)

i =1


, Umax , .
(. . 2.4)
,
. ,
, Q.
, ,

(2.9)
U i = Q Ci .

:
37

U = U i = Q Ci =Q 1 Ci .
i =1

i =1

(2.10)

i =1

Q,
1 n 1
1
1
1
= =
+
+"+ .
(2.11)
C i =1 Ci C1 C2
Cn
, , ,
.
, ,
. , Ui
Umax.

Umax,
(Umax) = NUmax, N , .
, ,
CU 2
W=
.
(2.12)
2

,
(
), , . ,
,
.
( ) ,
,
, .
.

( , , ..).
, , . , ,
.
( ),
, . .
38

, , ,
,
dq
I=
.
(2.13)
dt

,
q
I= ,
(2.14)
t
q ,
t.
.
G
j , dI
, , dS
dI
j=
.
(2.15)
dS
S

(2.16)
I = jdS = jn dS ,
dS ,
dS G
; Jn j dS , G
j .

I = jS.
(2.17)
,
, , . , . , , .
.
, .
j

j = ( E + E*) ,
(2.18)
39

- ; E ; E* .
(2.18)
. , .
(2.18)
IR1,2 = U1,2 = ( j1 - j2 ) + E12 ,
(2.19)
I ;
R12 1 2;
2

U12 = ( E + E*) dl 1-2, , 1


;
2

1 2 = E dl 1 2;
1

E12 = E * dl

(),


1-2.
(2.19) ( ).

, .

(2.20)
U12 = j1 - j2 ,
.

U
2
I = 12 = 1
.
(2.21)
R12
R12
(2.21)
.
R (2.21) .
, , ,
,
.

40

, , 1
1 (1 1/1).
,
, .
, ().
l
R= ,
(2.22)
S
- ,
;
l - ; S - .
().
,
, . , . ,
,

(2.23)
r = r0 (1 + at ),
0 0; ; t .
.

,
. . .
,
. , :
G
G
(2.24)
e = ql .
q , l .
,
.
, . .
41

. .
,
, , , . .
. [1]. ,
. . ( ).

G
P :
N G
Pei
G
P = i =1 ,
(2.25)
V
N G
Pei N i =1

V.
(2.25) V , ,
. , ( )
, , .
(2.25) , , . ,
.
:
G
G
P = e 0 E ,
(2.26)
e -
G , E ;
0 - , .

.
42

.

, e :
(2.27)
= 1 + e ,
. .
, , ,

. . .

p G
P :
G
(2.28)
p = Pn
(2.28) 2
(/ ).
. .
,
.

. ; . .
, . ,
.

,
. , ,
, . ,
.
, .
43

, .
( ) , ,
.
, ()
.
G
E ( 0 1 .2.5).

. 2.5.

, . ,
( 1),

G
P
. 2
,
G , 2 1 3,
E .
( ).
= 0 r, . ,
r, .
r G
P ().
, .
44

() ,
G = 0
, , 2.
2 1 0, S. , .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

. . : . . 3- .
.2. .: , 1982.
. ., . . : . .
.: . ., 1989.
. . : . . 2- ., . . .: . . 1990.
. . : . . .: .
1970.
: 2 . .1 / . .. . .: - , 2001.

45

2.1

204


2.1.1.

.
2.1.2.

, .
2.1.3.

. 2.1.1.

. 2.1.1.

, , G, c .
, , .
() , .
() V .
-, ,
0,025 . 46

. ( ).
2.1.4.

( )
3 4 S3 (. . 2.1.1). S3
1 2 . V R. S3 5 6 ,
G .
S2 .
( )
n ( ).
Q, ,
, ..
Q
= .
(2.1.1)
n
,
Cm :
(2.1.2)
Q = C U .
(2.1.2)
C U
= .
(2.1.3)
n
,
( ) , ,
( )
ni
CX =
.
(2.1.4)
Ui
i .
2.1.5.

1. (. . 2.1.1). 3 4
S3 .
2. , , . .
47

3. S1.
1,2 .
4. , S3 1 2.
5. ,
S3 5 6. .
6. , 1,2 0,8 . . 2.1.1.
7. 3 4 1 ,
. 3 6.
8. 3 4 1 2 , . 3 6. . 7 8 . 2.1.2.
9. 1 2
, ,
3 4 S3 , . 3 6. . 2.1.3.
2.1.6.

1. (2.1.3) .
2. (2.1.4) 1
2 .
3. 1 2, (2.8) (2.11) .
4. . .
2.1.1

U,

, /

<>, /

2.1.2
1 2

U,

1
2

48

<>,

2.1.3


U,

< >,

1 2

1 2

2.1.7.

1.

?
? .
2. ?
3. .
4. ?
5. ?
6.
?
7.
.
8.
.
9. , .
?
10. , . ?
?

49

205

2.2 .

2.2.1.

,
.
2.2.2.


(67,5% Ni, 15% r, 16% F, 1,5% n) .
2.2.3.

. .
(0-1,5 ), (0-260 ), ( ), W3 , W2 (. 2.2.1).

. 2.2.1.

2. ,
50

3, 4,
.

, 5 (. .2.2.1)
.
2.2.4.


.
( W2 ).
(.2.2.2),
( ) I . U , (
RA = .15 ).

. 2.2.2.

R
U
RaI
(2.2.1)
R = (1
)
I
U
( W2 ).

. 2.2.3.

(. 2.2.3.),
, ( ) U ,
, (51

, ,
Rv = 2500 ).
R
U
U
R = (1 +
).
(2.2.2)
I
Rv I
2.2.5.

1. W3 . .
. W3 ,
4.1.
2. W2
(. .2.2.2) W2 .
3. 4 (. .2.2.1) ,
0, 7 .
4. ( ) , 2/3 .
5. 10 0,3 l0 l0, l0 .
6. . 2.2.1 .
7. W2 (.2.2.3)
.
8. 3 5.
. 2.2.2.
2.2.6.


2.2.1

l,

U, B

I,

R, O

<>

10

2.2.2

l,

U, B

I,

R, O

10

52

<>

1.

. 2.2.1 R (2.2.1).


d2
(2.2.3)
=R
4l
d .
3.
<>.
4.

=<> *
(2.2.4)
- ,
U I
d
l
+
+2
+
=
(2.2.5)
U
I
<d > <l >
. 2.2.1.
l = 0,2 , d = 0,04, U I
.
5. . 2.2.2 R (2.2.2). , 2 4.
6. . 2.2.3.
2.2.3

2.


Ra,

2.2.7.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Rv,

U,

I ,

d,

d,

l,

?
? .
? ?
. .
, , ?
?
.
.
.

53

2.3.

206

2.3.1.

; , .
2.3.2.

S 0
.
2.3.3.

(. 2.3.1)
.

. 2.3.1.

: R1, R2 , 0. V. R1 . Ux , R1.
,
0. 54

0 .
, .
! . , , .
2.3.4.

Ux, U, ,
R1
Ux =
U.
(2.3.1)
R1 + R2
<<0, U, ,
d, :
U
(2.3.2)
E= .
d
, ,
R1d
Ux =
E,
(2.3.3)
R1 + R2
.
, q0
q
UY = U 0 = 0 .
(2.3.4)
C0
, .
q
,
(2.3.5)
UY =
C0
q .
q
S, D,

q = S = DS.
(2.3.6)
,
G
G
D = 0 E ,
(2.3.7)
55

G
P (2.26)
(2.27)
G
G
P = ( 1) 0 E .
(2.3.8)
>>1, (2.3.6) D , (2.3.5), UY
S
UY =
P.
(2.3.9)
C0
, .
U UY , (2.3.3)
(2.3.9)
() .

. 2.3.2.

lY (.
2.3.2) Y , (2.3.9)
C l C
(2.3.10)
PS = Y Y 0 .
2S
(2.3.2), lx (.2.3.2) ,
56

C xl x
.
(2.3.11)
2d
S EC
lx lY
.
EC =

2.3.5.

1. , ,
.
2. . R1
, X ,
X Y, ,
. 3.3.1.
3. lx lY . . . 2.3.1.
!!!
R1, .
4. , , . lx lY .
, ,
, .
5. . 4, .
6.
x. Y Y . R1 !
Lx .

U.
7. Y.
Y . - . , (
1:10 1:100) .
LY, ,
. , ( 1,10,100 , N= 1,10,100).
8. . 6 7 . 2.2.2.
9. , ( ), . 2.3.3.
57

7.2.1.

1. Y

U
Y = K ,
(2.3.12)
LY N
UK .
2. x :
2U 2
x =
.
(2.3.13)
Lx
3. Y x, (2.3.10) (2.3.11)
S .
4. . 1 3 .2.3.1 2.3.2.
5. . 2.3.1 S
.
6.
.
2.3.1

S
,


, .

lY

PS, /2

, /

Lx

2.3.2
X Y

U,

L,

x,

UK,

LY,

Y,

2.3.3

0,



2
S,
58


d,

2.3.7.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

?
.
?
?
?
? ?
?
?
?
, ?

59

3.

.
,
.
[1,2] ,
.
, , . ,
, .

.
[3]: I ,
G dl (. 309.2) , dB I dl
r .

3.1. ,

G G
G
dl r dB :
G G
G 0 I [ dl , r ]
dB =
,
(3.1)
3
4
r
0 = 4 10-7 / ,
G
( 1 ), r - -,
A .
G
G
G
dB dl r , .. , . 60

: dB ,

G
dl .


G
. B . . , [1 3].
, ,
: , , , .
.

G
.
dl (. 3.2)
G
dB
G
. dB
G
. dl -
( sin = 1 ),
R , , (3.1),
0 I
dB =
dl .
(3.2)
2
4 R

. 3.2.

B = dB =
0

0 I
4 R

2 R

dl = 0

I
2R

(3.3)


.
(). 1
,
( ) 1 , , 1.
61

G
,
,
dl
G
, B .
,
, ,

G G
G
(3.4)
dF = I dl B .

dF = I B dl sin .
(3.5)
, ,
( ). G
n (.3.3), , .. , .

. 3.3.

G
pm .
pm = IS ,
(3.6)
I ; S , .
G
G
pm , n . , , ( ), ( ).
.
G
M ( ),
,
:
G
G G
M = [ pm , B] ,
(3.7)
G
B ,
.
G
G
G
G
G
B , , pm ( n ), B M
.
62


(3.7)
G
G
G
G
pm B , pm B :
(3.8)
M = pm B sin .

=
2
M max = pm B . ,
M
B = max .
(3.9)
pm
,
B ,
, ,
G
. B
.
G
pm .
G
( B )
dS ,
, :
G G
(3.10)
d m = BdS = BdS cos = Bn dS = BdS ,
G
G

dS (.3.4); Bn
G B n G
G

BdS -
G
G B ;
G
B dS , dS = dScos . dS ,
dS
G
G
(dS = n dS ) . ,
.
(1 =
=112).
.

dS = dS cos (. . 3.4), dS. ( )
, dS, dS. (3.8) .
S
G G
(3.11)
m = Bn dS = BdS .
S

G
n dS
. ,
G
S , n ,
,
63

. 3.4.

( B )
:
G G
m = v BdS = 0 .
S

G B ,
, .

(3.9) . (), .
G
B0 , ,

. ,
.

,
G
B0 . , , () ,
,
G
B0 .
G

B

G
B0 ,

G G G
(3.12)
B = B0 + B .
64

, .
, .. ,
G

B G
B0 , .


G B B0 , .
:
G 1
G
J=
P
(3.13)
m,
V V
G

Pm -

G
, V ; J ,
..
G
B0 .
G
G
B J
G
G
B = 0 J ,
(3.14)
7
0 = 4 10 ./ . G
B0 G
H , .
G
G
B0 = 0 H .
(3.15)
(3.14) (3.15) (3.12),
G
G G
(3.16)
B = 0 H + J .


G
G
J = H ,
(3.17)
, . (3.17) (1)
(2) . 3.5.
(3.16) (3.17)
:G
G
B = 0 (1 + ) H .
(3.18)

(3.19)
=1 +
.

G
H .
65

. 3.5.

: )

G
G
G
J B H ; ) , .
<
( )
().
, .. G
J = 0.

. 3.6.

, .

G
J .
(. 3.6), .
.
66

G
G
B H (. 3.7).

G G

( )

. 3.7. B H

:
tg = dB / dH ,
(3.20)
dB
+dH.
(. . 3.8), .

. 3.8.

=0 , .. . , < T
.
, . (. .
3.8),
, . 67

( D). D , B=f(H),
.
(. 3.8) .
.
,
( ), SHB
:
w = S HB

w=

HA

BdH .

(3.21)

HD

1831 . . , ,
, , .
.
.
Ei =

d m .
dt

(3.22)

.. 1833.

, .
: ,
, .

. 3.9.
G (B)
( Bi ).

(3.13) G
. , ( B ) 68

, . .9,
d m
(
>0), Ii ,
dt
( ) , .
Ei (Ei < 0).
d m

> 0, Ei > 0.
dt
, , ,
N , , ,
Ei ,
:
dm
d
Ei =
= m .
(3.23)
dt
dt

(3.24)
= m
, ,
(3.25)
= Nm .
(, ) [1 4].
,
[1 4].

(, ..).

1.
2.
3.
4.

. . : . . 3- .
. 2. .: , 1982.
. . : . . .: .
. 1990.
. ., . . : . .
.: . ., 1989. 608.
: 2- . .1 / . . . . .: - , 2001.

69

3.1 207


3.1.1.

-.
3.2.2.

. .
,
.
, : C S ,
N (.3.1.1). -
G
B
, .

. 3.1.1.


. : 70

G
G
Br BB (. 3.1.2). . ,
, , .

. 3.1.2.

.

.
G
Br , .
, .
.
.
3.1.3.

, , .
3.1.3, E , S , A , R , -.
-
N .
,
. .
71

. 3.1.3.

R . S . , , A .
3.1.4.

-
. - , .

. 3.1.4.

-.

,
. ,
G : Br ,
G
B1 . 72

G
, B
, (. 3.1.4).
.3.1.4
, , NS -
; NS - .
,
G
G Br B1 ,

(3.1.1)
B1 Br = tg
Br = B1 tg .
(3.3).
N
IN
B1 = 0 .
(3.1.2)
2R
(3.1.1) Br

IN
Br = 0 ,
(3.1.3)
2 Rtg
I , , R .
.
, . ,
= Br Br .
= ( ) , , (3.1.3). :
B
I R 2
= r=
.
(3.1.4)
+
+
Br
I
R sin 2
,
, =45,
, 45.
3.1.5.

1. . 3.1.3, -
, .
2. -,
, .. , . -

73

3.

4.

5.

, 0,
180.
S R ,
I , ,
35. I
. 3.1.1.
, S
. , R
.
R , 8 35 55.

3.1.6. .

1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

,
:
+
.
(3.1.5)
=
2
(3.1.3) Br . .
Br .
3.1.4.
, . I . R 0,2 .
Br = Br Br . Br = (... Br ) .
3.1.1

I,

tg

Br ,

Br ,

Br ,

3.1.7.

1.
2.
6.
7.

?
? ?
G - . B ?
-
?
?
74

8.

?
9. ?
10. -? ?

75

3.2 208

3.2.1.

.
.
3.2.2.

,

, .
3.2.3.

, . 3.2.1.

. 3.2.1.

, , . ( ) U H , (
Y) U B .

76

3.2.4.

,
I1 , R1 (. . 3.2.1):
H = kx U H .
(3.2.1)

B = k yU B ,
(3.2.2)
k x k y , .
, ,

.
, .
.

S HB
X Y
(3.2.3)
S HB = z S XY ,
z .
z , .
X Y
i ( xi , i )
Ai ( H i , Bi ) (. .3.2.2 , b).

. 3.2.2.


z = H i Bi /( xi yi )
.

77

(3.2.4)

(3.21), (3.2.3) (3.2.4)


HB
w = i i S x, y
(3.2.5)
xi yi
, . ,
,
W= w,
(3.2.6)
.
U H U B (3.2.1) (3.2.2)
X Y (
).
C X CY X Y ,
(3.2.1) (3.2.2) :
B = k yCY y .
(3.2.7)
H = k x C X x;
, .
= 01B /(H ) ,
(3.2.8)
B H , . 3.2.3.

. 3.2.3.

3.2.5.

(H)

1. (
).
2. .
3.
. . Y.
4. (. . 3.1.1) .
78

5.

( ) R1
.
6.
1:1. (
) .
7. C X CY X Y . k . 3.2.2.
8. U H U B X Y . .
9. i ( xi , y i ) , R1 .
8-10 , . xi y i .
10. . 3.2.3.
11. .

3.2.6.

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

S XY .
. 3.2.3.
(3.2.5) (3.2.6)
w.
xi yi
C X CY (3.2.7)
H i Bi .
B=f(H).

(. . 3.2.3) (3.2.8) .
. 3.2.3 .
3.2.1

k
Uk ,
lx ,
ly ,
CX ,
CY ,
/
/

79

3.2.2


yi ,

Bi ,

xi ,

Hi ,
/

.
.
.
8 10

3.2.3

kx ,

11

ky ,

S XY ,

()2

S HB ,

W,
3 1

3.2.7.

1. .
2. -, - .
3. ?
4. ?
5. U H U B ?
6.
?

80

3.3 209

1.1.2.

, .
1.1.3.

.
, .
-, .. ( ).
[2,4] .
,
(,
),
. , ,
. , , , max , Q

Q = idt ,

(3.3.1)

Q = max ,
(3.3.2)
. .
, , , .

.
Q
= ,
(3.3.3)
n
,
.

81

, (3.3.3), , , (. .
).
3.3.3.

. 3.3.1.

. 3.3.1.

. L1
E R,
1. L2 y G. 2 .
.
3.3.4.

1 R I1. 1
.
L1, 1
(, , L2), ( )
d 1
E21 = N 2
,
(3.3.4)
dt
N2- L2.
1
I1, 1 E2i,
(3.3.4).
82

, ,

E
I 2 = 2i ,
(3.3.5)
R0
R0 .
(3.3.4) (3.3.5) ,
N d 1
.
(3.3.6)
I2 = 2
R0 dt
, .. , , .
, ,

Q2 = I 2 dt

(3.3.7)

, (3.3.6) (3.3.7),
N
(3.3.8)
Q2 = 2 1 .
R0
1 L1 [1 3]:
N
1 = 0 1 I1S1 ,
(3.3.9)
l1
- ; 0 ; 0 = 4107 /; N1 L1; I1 ; S1 L1.
(3.3.9) (3.3.8),
NN
(3.3.10)
Q2 = 0 1 2 I1S1 .
R0l1
(3.3.3)
, Q = Q2 (3.3.10),
NN
= 0 1 2 I1S1 .
(3.3.11)
R0l1n
: I1
n n I1.
3.3.5.

1. .
2. 2
. . 3.3.1.
3. .
83

4. 1 R
I1 = 1.
5. 1 n.
6. 2 n.
46 45 I1, 1 2 .
7. . 3.3.1,
. 3.3.2.
3.3.2.

1. I1, <n>

n + n
.
(3.3.12)
n =
2
2. (3.2.11) .
3. . . 3.3.1.
3.3.1

I1,
n,
n, <n>, , / , /
56
3.3.2
,
/

3.3.7.

N1,


l,
N2,
R0,
S1,
2

1. ?
.
2. ? , ?
3. , . ?
4. ?
5. . .
6. . .
7. , .
84

8. , .
9. ?
, .
10. ?
?

85

3.4 210

3.4.1.


,
.
3.4.2.

( ) .
.
,
N1 N2 (. 3.4.1).

. 3.4.1.

. , , :
1.
(- ) ( ) .
2.
,
(
).
3. ( ).
86

4. .
, :
; ,
, ;
: 0 , ( ); 1 ; 2
( ) (. 3.4.1). ,
.
. , () r1 r2 1 2 .
N1
U1=U0 os t .
(3.4.1)
, 1 2 (. . 3.4.2.)

1 - 2 = U1
(3.4.2)
N2 RH.
, . 3.4.2.

. 3.4.2.

I1 , I2.
I1 I2. , ,
2 ( I2) ,
1 ( I1).
I
I
1
= 1 2 = 0 N1 1 S 0 N 2 2 S = 0 S ( N1I1 N 2 I 2 ) , (3.4.3)
l
l
l
S , l .
87

..., ,
d
S
dI
dI
= 0
=
( N1 1 N 2 2 ) ,
dt
l
dt
dt
..., ,

1 = N1 ,
2 = N 2 .

(3.4.4)

(3.4.5)
(3.4.6)

I - N1 - 2 (. .3.4.2):
1 2 + 2 = I1 r1 .
(3.4.7)
r1=0 , (3.4.2), (3.4.4),
(3.4.5),
SN1
dI
dI
( N1 1 N 2 2 ) .
U1 = 0
(3.4.8)
l
dt
dt

2 = I 2 R .
(3.4.9)

I 2 R = U 2 ,

(3.4.10)
R ,
. (3.4.9), (3.4.6) (3.4.4),

SN 2
dI
dI
( N 2 2 N1 1 ) .
U2 = 0
(3.4.11)
l
dt
dt
,

U2
,
U1

(3.4.12)

. (3.4.11) (3.4.8)
,
N
= 2.
(3.4.13)
N1
, ,

L1 =
L2 =

0 N12 S

0 N 22 S
l

(3.4.14)
(3.4.15)

(3.4.14), (3.4.10), (3.4.12.), (3.4.13) , (3.4.8) :


88

U1 = L1

dI1
dt

L1

dU1

N
R 1
N2

dt .

(3.4.16)

.
L1 (dI1 / dt ) = U L1 L1,
/2. ,
U 0 L1 = L1 I 01 .
(3.4.17)
(3.4.1), (3.4.16)
L1

U L1 = U 0cos t +
U 0cos( t + ) .
(3.4.18)
N1 2
2
R ( )
N2
(3.4.18)
(. 3.4.3).

. 3.4.3. (3.4.18)

. 3.4.3
2

U 0 L1 = U 0 1 +

L1
2

R ( N1 / N 2 )

(3.4.19)

(3.4.17), (3.4.19),
1
1
I 01 = U 0
+
.
(3.4.20)
2 L12 R2 ( N1 / N 2 ) 4
, R L1 (. 3.4.4).
U1 (3.4.1), L1 . , , , I =U0/R,
I0L1= U0 / L1 , /2 .

89

. 3.4.4.

(. . 3.4.5)
1
1
I 01 = U 0
+ 2 .
2 2
L1 R

(3.4.21)

(3.4.20), R
2

R = R ( N1 / N 2 ) .

(3.4.22)

. 3.4.5.

, (. 3.4.2) (. 3.4.4).
. L1 L2, r1 r2
(3.4.6),
, . 3.4.6.

. 3.4.6.

90


( L1 << R )
( L1 >> R ) . , . 3.4.7.

. 3.4.7.

. 3.4.8,

2

I 01 = U 0 /( L1 1 + ( r1 / L1 ) ) .
L1
U 0 L1 = I 01 L1 =

. 3.4.8.

U0
1 + ( r1 / L1 )

(3.4.23)

, , ,
U
U
1
E = 0 L1 = 0
.
(3.4.24)
N1
N1 1 + ( r / L ) 2
1 1
(3.4.6 )
U0
N
(3.4.25)
E02 = 2
N1 1 + (r / L )2
1

(. 3.4.7) , ,
N
1
1
I 02 = 2 U 0
;
(3.4.26)
2 (r + R )
N1
2

1 + ( r1 / L1 )
91

U 0 = I 02 R = U 0

N2
1
1
.
N1 (1 + r2 / R ) 1 + (r / L ) 2
1 1

(3.4.27)

= r1 / L1
I/ 2
.
( )
.
L1 L2, . . 3.4.9
.

. 3.4.9.

. 3.4.10.

. 3.4.10.

U 0 R =

U0
(1 + r1 / R )

1 + L p1 / ( r1 + R )

(3.4.28)

. 3.4.11 .

U 0 =

02

(1 + r2 / R ) 1 + ( L / r + R )) 2
p1 2

92

(3.4.29)

. 3.4.11.

,
N
1
1
U = U o 2

N1 (1 + r1 / R ) (1 + r2 / R )
(3.4.30)
.
1
1

1 + L p1 / ( r1 + R )

1 + L p 2 / ( r2 + R )

(3.4.30),
, R R.
,
. (..
R ) -
.
3.4.3. .

. 3.4.12.

. 3.4.12.

N1 .
93

N1/4 N1/2. N2 .
R .
3.4.4.

, F G, , F (. .
3.4.12).
D (, , )
, D.
, , ,

( ,,) .
,
.
:
1. F G.
2. , F.
3. , . 3.4.1. .
4. ,
0,25 .
5. , .
6. , ,
G.
7. D.
( ) .
8. ( . ) ( , ),
( )
. . 3.4.2.
:
,
.
9.
,
.
94

10.
, .
11. 8 0,5 (
1,2,4 ).
3.4.6.

1.
(3.4.13) .
2.
0,7 .
3. .
3.4.1

R(max),
0,5R(max),
0,25R(max),

3.4.2

R = .., U1 = ..

,
U2,
k
3.4.7

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

?
?
, .
.
?

.
7. ?
?
8.
?
9. , .
10.
?
95

4.



( ,
) . :

( ) ,
(
, ( )),
, ( ),
.. , ,
( )
. "
", , , .
.
( )
[1]:
G
dp G
=F,
(4.1)
dt
, ,
G
G
m0 v
p=
,
(4.2)
2
v
1
c
G
m0 , v ;
G
G
GG
F = qE + q[vB ]
(4.3)
.
G
(4.3.) E G
( E0 ) ,
(
),
G
E .
G
G
, v c . p = mv . ,

, m0 = m, , m0 = mi.

97

, q m0, v 0 , E0 .
G
G
v0 E0 , , [0,0,0], 0x ,
(.2.1):
G
G G
G
(4.4)
E0 = iE0 x + jE0 y + kE0 z .

. 4.1.

(4.1) :
G
G
G
G
dv
(4.5)
m0
= q iE0 x + jE0 y + kE0 z ,
dt
B = 0 E = 0 ( ). -

, >0 E0x, E0y, E0z .


(4.5)
m0 
x = qE0 x ; m0 
y = qE0 y ; m0 
z = qE0 z
(4.6)
(

d2
dt 2

),

q
t2
=
E0 + A t + B , A B 2
m0
dx
dy
dz
= v0 ,
= 0,
= 0.
/t=0 = 0,
dt
dt
dt
B = Ay = Az = 0 , Ax = v0 ,

98

qE0 x t 2
x = v0t +

2
qE0 y t
(4.7)
y=
.
2
qE0 z t 2
z=

, E0z = 0, .. x0y. (4.7)


, t:
E
2m0 y
x = 0 x y + v0
.
(4.8)
E0 y
qE0 y

x0y
(.4.2.), m0 q ( q > 0
"", .. y (4.8).

. 4.2. (q > 0)
.

. 4.3.

G
, E0 , E0 y
(.4.3.),
"", - (y < 0).
. , E0y = 0.
(4.7) , y = z= 0, .. 0x,
q>0, q<0.
() .
E0x = 0, (4.8)
2

q E0 y x
y=
(4.9)
2m v 0 2
x0y.
99

,
. .
() ()
, ,
(), d (. 4.4),
, ( 4.7), , , .

. 4.4.

Ia.

U.
.
(. . 4.4.) . ,
0y 0z, , y z,
d 2U

.
(4.10)
=

0
dx 2
; 0 ( ).
, , =0,
dU
= 0,
(Uk = 0),
dx x =0
( x = d) U = Ua. , v ,
, J = - v,
U

100

e
U.
m
(4.4)
v= 2

d 2U

(4.11)
1

1 m 2
U
=
.
(4.12)
2
e

2
dx
0
. ,
J

1 dU
1 dU d 2U 1 d dU
(4.12)
,
,
=

2 dx
2 dx dx 2 4 dx dx
1
1
1 dU 2 d 2
U =
U . , (4.12)

dx
2 dx

2
1
d dU
J 1 m d 2
U ,

=4

0 2 e dx
dx dx

(4.13)

4J 1 m
dU
2

, = AU + C , A =
0 2 e
dx
. , , dU
= 0 , , U = 0
dx z =0

, = 0.
1

dU
= A 2U 4 :

dx
3

4 4
U = A 2 x + C1 .
(4.14)
3
= 0, , 1=0.
(4.14) x U xa = d
U = Ua, ,
,
3

4
e Ua 2
J= 0 2
.
(4.15)
9
m d2
, . I = ISa (Sa ), (4.15)
:

e 81I a2 d 4
=
.
m 32U a3 02 Sa2
101

(4.16)

,
, ( ).

r,, z.
U

= U = 0 ,
z

(4.17)
r
= .
r r r
0
, ,

,
1

J 1 e 2
U
r
=
r
U .
(4.18)

0 2 m
r r
J I = 2rJ, , ,
. , (316.9) , :
1

2U

U
I
1 e 2
r 2 +
=
U .
(4.19)
r 2 0l 2 m
r
, , U ,
3

I
U 2
=A 2 ,
l
r

A=

8 0
e
,
2
m
9

r = ln(r/rk), (4.19)
2

d 2

d
d
2
3
+
+
4
+
= 1.

(4.20)

d
d 2 d

,

2
5

= 2 +

11 3 47 4

.... .
120
3300

(4.21)

, ,
3
8 0
e
2 U a 2
9
m
Ia
=
,
(4.22)
l
ra 2 ( ra )
102


r
(ra ) = f k
ra

r = ra.

. 4.5.

. 4.5.

= f ln

ra

rk

(4.22) :
2

e 9 I a ra 2 1
.
=

m 8 l 0 2U a3

(4.23)

, ,
.
G
G G
F = e v, B ,
(4.24)

G
G
e ; v ; B
.

G G
,
v B . G
, F -

103

G JK
v, B (. 4.6).

G
G G
F v, B .

. 4.6.


F = evB sin ,
(4.25)
G
G
v B .
(4.25) ,
G
G
v

B
.



G G
(v || B) , .. = 0 , .
:
F = evB .
(4.26)

, , . .
,
mv 2
evB =
,
(4.27)
R
m - ; R - .
(4.27)
m v
R= ,
(4.28)
e B
, ,
e / m B.

G
G
B (.4.7), v , , v = vsin , v|| = vcos .
104

:
F = eBv .

(4.29)

. 4.7.

, JK
JK
B . B
, v& . v , (4.28) (4.29) :
m v
R=

.
(4.30)
e B
, :
v R G
B
,

,
G
B v& .
G ,
B . ( ) :
2R
T=
.
(4.31)
v
(4.30) (4.31)
2 m
T=
,
(4.32)
B e
, .

,
2 m
h = v&T =
v cos .
(4.33)
B e
105

, cos 1 , (4.33) :
2 m
h=
(4.34)
v.
B e
, h
( ). ,
, , ,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

. . : . . 3- ..2. .: , 1982. - . 209 226.


. ., . . : . .
.: . .. 1989. . 247-258.
. . : . 2 . .:
. ., 1990. . 167 169.
. .: , 1977. . 329 332.
. . : .
2- . . 1. : , 1999.

106

4.1

211



4.1.1.

(
3/2), , .
4.1.2.

e m , . . - ,
.
e
, ,
m
.
. .
( 3/2 (4.15) (4.22)
), ,
,
e
( (4.16) (4.23)).
m
4.1.3.

. 4.1.1.


, (),
107


=15 ( 300 )
U 6,3 ,
(. 4.1.1), , V2, 0 15 .
4.1.4.

( V2)
3 4. R0, , . , 3 5 UR 4
5, :
U
Ia = R
(4.1.1)
R

(4.1.2)
U a = Ea U R
, ,
I a = f (U a ) . (4.16) (4.23), , . 4.5, .
4.1.5.

1. ,
+15 .
2. 3 5 .
3. .
3
5. .
4. 4 5 R. .
5. (
3 5 - U35) + 2 , 9
( 3 5 - U35)
UR 4 5 (U45).
. 4.1.1.
4.1.6.

1. (4.1.2) .
2. , ( (4.1.1)),
108

3.

4.
5.
6.

R.
- Ia = f(Ua). ,
(R, d = ra rk , Sa = ra l , ra/rk) .
. 4.1.1.
.
, (4.16) (4.23), .
4.1.1


,

UR,

U,

,
m

I, A


(4.23)
(4.16)


(4.16)

(4.23)

4.1.7.

1. ?
2. .
3.
?
4.
?
5. ? .
6. , , ?
7.
( ,
r)?
8. .
9. .
?

109

4. 2

212



4.2.1.

.
4.2.2.


, . , .
,
, .
e / m .
(4.34)
:
e 2v
=
.
(4.2.1)
m
Bh
U
mv 2
= eU .
(4.2.2)
2
(4.2.1) (4.2.2)
e 82U
=
.
(4.2.3)
m B 2h2
4.2.3.

, - . .4.2.1.
, - () L1,
. L1 ,
~. L1 ()
0 20 .
110

.4.2.1.

() (). , ,
. () ( ),
V1, ,
S1, 7 , . .
L1 L2,
N2 .
,
*, G.
() S2, S3, S4 .
. V2 .
4.2.4

. ,

.
111

I L1 . , S L2,
= BS .
(4.2.4)
S2
I , . L2
... ,

E1 = N 2

d
dt

(4.2.5)

L2, ,
I2 =

E1
R

(4.2.6)

R .
(4.2.5) (4.2.6)
I2 =

N 2 d
R dt

(4.2.7)

, I 2 dt = dq , dt,
N
dq = 2 d .
(4.2.8)
R
( 0 q, 0 ),

N
q = 2 .
(4.2.9)
R
(4.2.9) (4.2.4),

N
q = BS 2 ,
(4.2.10)
R
, :
qR
B=
.
(4.2.11)
N2S
q , C
n G,

(4.2.12)
q = C n .
q (4.2.12) (4.2.11),

C nR
(4.2.13)
B=
,
N2S
112

(4.2.3)

e

2 2

8 UN 2 S

(4.2.14)
2
2 2 .
h C n R

.
U'.
q ' = CU ' .
(4.2.15)
, n' , . ,
, . .:
q ' CU '
C = =
.
(4.2.16)
n'
n'
h, (4.34), , .
m

4.2.5.

1.
2.

.
.
!!! 1000 .
3. S2 , S3 S4 .
4.
V2 U 10 .
U . 4.2.1.
5. S3 . . 4.2.1
n.
6. 4 5 U 15 .
7.
, S2 , S4 .
8. .
V1 (
) . 4.2.2.
9. , S1 , 7
4 - 5 .
10.
113

,
.
11. . S2
, n
.
12. S2 n . n n .
4.2.2.
13. , , . 4.2.3.
4.2.6.

1.

n =

n + n

.
2
2. (4.2.16).
3. (4.2.14).
. 4.3.1 4.2.2.
4.2.1.

U,

n, .

, /

<C>, /

10
15
4.2..2.

U,

n, .

n,

<n>, .

e/m, /

4.2.3

h,

N2, .

R,

S, 2

4.2.7.

1.
2.
3.

e/m ?
, ,
?

, ?
114

4.
5.
6.
7.

?

?
, ?
?

115

5.

, [1].
: , , . .
, (, , )
,

d 2x
dx

2
x
f
t
x

,
,
+
=
(5.1)

,
2
dt

dt
- .
(5.1) ,
dx
dx

. f t , x, = 2
dt
dt

,
.
,
dx
dx

f t , x, = 2
+ U sin 1t ,
(5.2)
dt
dt

1 , (5.1) , , .

dx
f t , x, dt

.
(5.1)

x ( t ) = x0cos ( 0t + 0 ) .
(5.3)

: 0 = ()
, 0 , 0 . , .
dx(t )
dx(0)
(t) = (0)
=

dt
dt
t = 0.
, ,
dx ( 0 )
= x0 sin 0 , 0 0 :
x (0) = x0 cos 0 ,
dt
116

dx(0)

dt

tg 0 =

dx(0)
x0 = x 2 (0) +
.
(5.4)
;
x(0)
dt
, (
),
d 2x
dx
2
+
2

+ 0 x = 0 ,
(5.5)
2
dt
dt

x(t ) = x0e t cos ( t + 0 ) .
(5.6)
, , 0 0 -
, :

= 02 2 .

(5.7)
, sint
ei t , i = 1 ( ),
eix e ix
eix + eix
: sin x =
; cos x =
; eix = cos x + i sin x .
2i
2

,
, . , , . , , .
,
L C ( ) R (.5.1).

. 5.1. :
, -

, , , , q, ,
. , (R=0), 117

,
. (, , )
.
(R0) - () .
, , .
q , ,
:
dq
I=
.
(5.8)
dt
, , . ,
L C , ,

( ) [1] . ,
.
, Uc , . (U C + IR)
Ei :
(5.9)
U C + IR = Ei .
dq
q 1
dI
[1 4], I =
, . . q = Idt , U c = = Idt , Ei = L ,
dt
C C
dt
(5.9)
dI
1
L + RI +
Idt = 0 .
(5.10)
dt
C
(5.10) ,

d 2 I R dI
I
+
+
= 0,
(5.11)
dt 2 L dt LC
R
= 2 ( )
,
L
1
= 02 ( 0 - ),
LC
(5.11)

118

d 2I

dI
+
2

+ 02 I = 0 ,
2
dt
dt
(5.5), I.
( 2 < 02 )

(5.12)

I = I 0e t cos ( t + 0 ) ,
(5.13)
I 0 - , (t= 0), 0 - -

, = 02 2 - .
(5.13) 5.2. ( ) .

5.2.

.
, , ,
.
, 2 < 02 ( ),
( , ).

2
2
T=
=
.
(5.14)
2

1
R
2
LC 4 L
, .
2 < 02 .
, . . , ( , ) , 2,71 .
I (t )
I0 e t
=
= e,
(5.15)
I ( t + ) I 0 e (t + )
119

= 1 = 1/ .

(5.16)
, ,
, ( ,
) .

.

( ,
) ,

= ln

I (t )

I0

= ln
= T .
(5.17)
I (t + T )
I 0 e (t + T )

t
I = I 0e T . , ,

Ne =
. ,
T
, N e , , ( , ) .
(. .
0 0 )

.
(5.18)
0L
L
,
Q. N, :
(5.19)
Q = Ne = /
, (5.18),
1 L
.
(5.20)
Q=
R C
(5.18) ,
. , . , LI 2
, W =
2
1 2
RI 2
W =
T0 , T0 =
=
. 0 0
2
120


W
L 1 L
Q = 2 = 0 =
.
W
R
R C
1
, , = .
Q
Q0 0 L
=
, .

Q=

.
R
, , Q R, , L . R (. (5.14))

R2
1
(5.21)
=
4 L2 LC
. ,
. R
(.
5.3). R,
, .
L
.
(5.22)
R = 2

(5.20)

. 5.3.

,
( R, L (.5.4) - .
, E(t) , [1,2],
121

:
U C (t ) + U L (t ) + E (t ) = i (t ) R .
dU C (t )
1
dq
, . .
U = i (t )dt ,
i (t ) =
= C
dt
C
dt

(5.23)

U L = L

di(t )
.
dt

. 5.4 .

(5.23),
di(t )
1
L
+ Ri + i(t )dt = E (t ) .
(5.24)
dt
C
, E(t) ,
(5.24) :
dI * 1 *
E * = RI * + L
+
I dt ,
(5.25)
dt C
E (t ) = Ee j t = E * , i (t ) = Ie j t = I * - () . ,
1
dI
I ,
(5.26)
= j I , I dt =
j
dt
(5.25)

E = I R + j LI

j
I = R +
C

j L +
I .
C

(5.27)

I(t),
1
1
E

Z ( ) = = R + j L
.
(5.28)
= R + jX , X = L
C
C

I
.

1
j E
Z= Z e = ;
Y ( ) = e j , Z = R 2 + X 2 ,
(5.29)
Z
I
Z () , Y ( ) , ,
E I * .
122

1
C .

X
, tg =
(5.30)
R
R
(5.27) (5.30) ,
L
1
Q= 0
- 0 =
- R
LC
,

0
0
;
Z ( ) = R 1 + j
(5.31)

, X ( ) = QR

0
0

= arctg

1
0
;

Z ( ) = R 1 + Q
; Y ( ) =
Z ( )
0

= arctg

(5.32)

0
,

(5.33)

Y ( ) =

1
=
Z ( )

0
. (5.34)
= Y ( ) exp j arctg Q

R 1 + j

, ,
UR ( ), UC ( ) UL (

E
.
). , , I =
Z
,
I


U R = RI ; U C =
= I R 0 Q ;
C

U L = LI = I R

Q . ,
0


,
:

U R
E

= R Y ( ) =

R
1

R2 + L
C

123

1
0
1 Q2

(5.35)


U C

Y ( )
1
= TC ( ) =
C
C

1
1

R2 + L
C

1 Q2

U L
E

= LY ( ) = TL ( ) =

L
1

R2 + L
C

0
2

; (5.36)

. (5.37)

1 Q2

0
- (), (5.34), (5.35), (5.36), . 5.5.
, . . .

. 5.5. -

,
I(), UC() UL() .
.
, ( ) . , ,
. , , :
Im {Z ( P )} = 0,
arqZ ( P ) = 0
.
(5.38)
m {Y ( P )} = 0,
arqY ( P ) = 0
124

, , (5.38),
1
= 0 =
.
(5.39)
LC
1
= ( Y ( P ) = ), R
Q (.(5.36), (5.37)):
, L ( P ) = Q ;

U C = U L = QE .

, , I
. TC ()
TL () , ,

TC ( ) = TC ( ) exp j + arctg Q
;

0



0

TL ( ) = TL ( ) exp j arctg Q
,
2



= 0 , TC ( ) = TL ( ) , ,
, .
.
. 5.6 .
:
i (t ) + iC (t ) iR (t ) + iL (t ) = 0 .

iC = C

1
U
dU
, iL Udt , iR = .
dt
L
R

. 5.6.

, :
125

(5.40)
(5.41)

0
1


j C
,

I
U
G
1
jQ
(5.42)
=
+

1
R
C
G=
Q = 0CR =
;
=R
.
(5.43)
0 L
R
L
. , , , , .
, U2
1
W =
= 0 RC ,
2 0 L 2

1
I =U +
R

W
R
U2
U2
- W = T0
, Q = 2 = 0R =
,
=
W
0 L
2R
0 R
(5.43).

0
1
Z =
= Z exp jQ

G + j

R
Z =
.
(5.44)
2
0

1 + Q2

0
, , ,
2

0
U
I = 0 1 + Q2

R
0

,
,
IC
=
I

IL
=
I

(5.45)

0
0

1 + Q 2

1 + Q2

= 0 , ,
, , (. 5.7).
,
, .
126

. 5.7.

. 5.8.

, , I =0.707 I ( U=0.707U), I = I / 2 .
2

2
2
0
2 ( 0 ) ( + 0 )
.
Q
1
Q

=
=

(
)
0

0
, +020, -0=,

(5.46)
Q= 0
2
Q (. . 5.8).
2


, . (, )
() ,
, , , . .
.
: 1) (.
5.9) ( ) , ,

x=A cos(t+),
(5.47)
127

; 2) -
.

. 5.9.


(, , ):
x1 = A1 cos( t + 1),
(5.48)

x
=
A
cos(
t
+
),
2
2
2
, , G
G
A1 A2 .
G
G
A1 A2 , 21 ,
G
A G
G
A1 A2 . , G G G
. A = A1 + A2 .
. 5.10, , x(t)=x1(t)+x2(t) :
A2 = A12 + A22 + 2 A1 A2 cos ( 2 1 )
(5.49)
( ,
G G
G
A, A1 A2 );
tg =

A1 sin 1 + A2 sin 2
A1 cos1 + A2 cos 2

(5.50)

( ).
. 5.10 (5.49) :
A1 A2 A A1 + A2 .

128

(5.51)

. 5.10.

, G
G
A1 A2 , ,
G
A , . , .
, :

2 1 = << 1, 2 .

(5.52)

1 = 1 , 2 = + 1 ; , 2
2
, ,
.

x(t ) = x1(t ) + x2 (t ) = A cos( 1 ) t + cos( + 1 ) t =


2
2
= 2 A cos( t )cos( t ).

(5.53)

(5.52) () , .
,
.
. .5. 11 , ( ). (5.52) , 2
2
T =
>> T =
(. . 5.11).


, (
!).

129

. 5.11.


:
x = A cos( 1t ),
(5.54)

=
+
y
B
cos(

),

2
: 1/2 = m/n,
m, n ( , 1 2 ),
,
(
) .
( ) , .
: . , . 5.12
1 /2 = 3/1, 1 /2 = 1/2. , , ( .5.12 ), 1/2.

. 5.12.

130


.
: , /
, ( )
.
, .
x = A cos t ;
(5.55)

y = B cos( t + ).

x
A = cos t;
(5.56)

y
= cos( t + ) = cos t cos sin t sin .
B
. ,
(5.56) , .

x2
xy
y2

2
cos

+
= sin 2
(5.57)
2
2
AB
A
B
, 22
(. 5.13).

. 5.13. ,

(5.57)
:
) =k (k=0, 1, 2 ..) ;
) =(2k+1)/2 (k=0, 1, 2 ..) .
, 22.
131

, ,
, .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

. . : . . 3- .
. 2. .: , 1982.
. ., .. : . .
.: . ., 1989.
. . : . . .: .
.,1990.
. . : . . .: ,
1970.
. ., . . : . .
2- . .2. .: . 1974.

132

5.1.

213


5.1.1.

,
.
5.1.2.

: , , R , Q, L, C R.
5.1.3.

. 5.1.1.

. 5.1.1.

S1 : ( 1)
3 ( 2). ( 2) .
, L R 133

S2, S3, S4, . R, "".


S1 1 .
, .
5.1.4.


S1 1.

Uc=f(t), 5 10 .
U
. , ,
, 5 . (5.17)

1
U
ln n
=
(5.1.1)
m n Um
m n , Un Um
n m , ,
(m - n) 5.
R, L C, , , (5.14) .
R R ,
(. 5.3), , "" "" (. 5.1.1), R.
5.1.5.

1.
. S1 1, S2, S3 S4 (. 5.1.1).
, L R . 5.1.1.
2. . ,
, .
3. , 5 10
. , 40 , .
134

4.
.
5. S4 R. R
,
,
, (. 5.3).
6. "", ""

R .
7. S4 .
, .
8. L S4, , . 4 7.
9. .
S2 , . 4 7.
10. . 5.1.1.
5.1.6.

1.
(5.14)
L, R .
2. (5.18) (5.20)
Q.
5.1.1

R , .
T,


m-n
Um
Un

L1 =
C1 =
R1 =
L2 =
C2 =
R2 =
L3 =
C3 =
R3 =

135

c.

3. (5.1.1) (5.19)
Q.
4. (5.22)
R. . 5.1.1.
5. , , , Q
R. .
5.1.7.

1. . ?
2. ,
(, , , .) .
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
?
6. ?
7. ?
.

136

5.2.

214



5.2.1.


( ) .
5.2.2.

, ( ),
.

, - . I, ,
.
, ,
. , , .
5.2.3.

, , (. 5.2.1).
S2, S3, S4 S5 R1 R3 R4 R6
, L1 L3 1 3, S1
( ) (
S1). , ,
( 2) ( 3).
137

. 5.2..

. 5.2.2 .

. 5.2.2.

5.2.4

S1 ".", Y 2. S2, S3, S4 S5 , .


. . 138


.
"" . ,
, ,
1/3 UCmax.
, I(). , , 1/3 UCmax, .
S1
"", S2, S3, S4
S5. Y 2. , . I().
, ,
1 (t)=U1cost. Y , 2, y(t)=U2ccos(t+).
, . . ,
(t) y(t)
x 2 (t ) y 2 (t )
x(t ) y (t )
2
2
cos
sin
+

=
.
(5.2.1)
U1U 2
U12
U 22
, y(t) = 0 sin=x/U1, (. .5.2.3) = U=aa.

. 5.2.3.

Y,
,
(5.33). ,
(L<1/C), ,
/2 . = 0. ,

(5.2.2)
= arcsin .

139

5.2.5.

1. ,
R, L .
2. . S1
" .", 1 ,
-, Y- 2. S2, S3,
S4 S5 , (L,R.C), .
3. , . , .
4. ,
. 60
.
5. , UC(v). v (=2v),
.
, , 1,5
, UC =1/3UCmax.
UC(v). 16 . I(v). . 5.2.1.
6. , , UC=1/3UCmax Y- 3.
, , U, . 4 5, UIm(x)
, UC =1/3U,
, .
. 5.2.1.
7. Y- 2 1.
, UC =1/3UCmax.
8. Y
.
9. , .5, 6,
2() 2(). . 5.2.1.
10. 1 S1 "."
11. . 5 6 , I(v).
5.2.6.

1. ( 2() 2()),
(5.2.2) , (5.46)
Q.
140

2. (5.32) (5.33) Y() ()


, (5.44), (5.33) Z()
() . . 5.2.2.
3. UC (v) .
4. R, L, C ( (5.20) (5.43)) ,.
5. Z() Y().
5.2.1
- ()

2UC

2UL

I(v)

2a
(aa)

2
()

2UC I(v)

2a
2
(aa) ()

5.2.2
- ()


Q=
Q=
Y()
()
Z()
()

5.2.7.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

?

?
.
?
?
?
?
? ?

,
?

141

5.3

215


5.3.1.

.
5.3.2.

, . ,
, , , . , .
, . . x1 (t ) = x01cos (1t + 1 ) x2 (t ) = x02 cos ( 2t + 2 ) ,
,
( + 2 ) 1 + 2
(1 2 ) 1 2
x(t ) = 2 x0 sin 1
t+
cos
t+

.
2
2
2
2

1 = 2 , , 1 2.
.
, , (1 2 ) . ,
2
.
, , , , [1,2],
.
.
5.3.3.

(. 5.3.1) (1), (2), (3) (4).

142

. 5.3.1.

,
.
(4)
20 200 . . (1)
0 2.
(0, /2, , 3/2) : ( ), ( ) , (
), ( ).
50 .
5.3.4.

1. . Y ,
,
.
. ,
.
()
. , , .
2. .
. ,
.
143

. X Y ,
.

. Y ,
.
5.3.5.

1. .
2. , .
3.
.
4. .
5. 30. 1:100.
,
.
6. , .
7. 0 ( ).
8. Y .
9. ,
. .
10. , /2 , . .
,
11. .
12. . , 50 .
13. . , ,
.
144

14. ,
50 ,
. . .
15. 100 .
.
16.
.
17.
.
18. ;
/2; , .
.
19. .
20. 50 . , .
21. , ( )
: / = 1:2; 2:1; 3:1; 3:1.
.
22. , .
5.3.6.

,
, .
5.3.7.

1. . , , .
2. , .
3. , ?
4. ,
?
5. , (5.53),
? (
. 5.11).
6. , . ,
?
145

7. ? .
8.
?
9. , . 5.12 .
10. (5.56) , ( ).

146

6.

,
.

=
( ) .


GG
G
(6.1)
( t , r ) = A0 sin t kr ,
G
2
k = =
, k - ,
c
G
, r , ,
. , ,
,
G
( t , r ) = A0 sin ( t kx ) .
(6.2)

,

G
G 1 E
;
(6.3)
rotB = 2
c t G
G
1 B
;
(6.4)
rotE = 2

t
G c G
(6.5)
divE = divB = 0 ;
G
G
E - ; B - 1
.
, c 2 =

0 0

(6.3) (6.4)
K
G
G
i
j
k
G
G
G

G
= 0
rotB =
iEx + jE y + kEz ;
x y z
t
G
G
G
Bx B y Bz
K
G
G
i
j
k
G
G
G

G
= 0
rotE =
iBx + jBy + kBz .
x y z
t
G
G
G
Ex E y Ez

G G G
i
, j , k 0x,0y,0z .
148

(6.6)

(6.7)

, , 0x, . ,

= = 0.
y z

.
E x
Bx
= 0,
= 0,
t
t
B y E z
E y
B
(6.8)
=
0
0
,
= z,
t
x
t
x
E y
B y
B
E
0 z =
0 z =
,
.
t
x
t
x
(6.8) , = const, Bx = const,
, , = Bx =0.
:
E y
B y
B
E
= z,
0
0 z =
,
t
x
t
t
(6.9)
E y
B y
Bz
E z
= 0
,
.
= 0
x
t
x
t
t

(
),
t
x
2 By 1 2 By
2 B z 1 2 Bz

= 0.

= 0;
(6.10)
x 2 c 2 t 2
x 2 c 2 t 2
0x y z; z y. , z=y = 0.

y+ = B0+ cos( t kx );
(6.11)

z+ = 0+ cos( t kx) .
(6.12)
.
(6.11) (6.12) , ,
, . .
= t G kx G
(6.13)

(. . (6.1)). E B
.
( )
149

. , ,
,
.

. 6.1.

, ,
.
,
,
,
( )
(. 6.2).

. 6.2.

0x I(t) U(t), , 0x.


,

a
1 a
(6.14)
I (t ) =
B (t )dy ;
U (t ) = E (t )dy .
0 a
a
, (6.11) (6.12),
0x .
, , 0x

150

y = B0 cos( t kx + 1);
z = 0 cos( t kx + 2 ),

(6.15)

1 2 .
, , . .
. ,
a

: U (t ) =

Ez dy = 0 , . . Ez (t , l0 ) = 0 ,

.

:
z ( x, t ) = 0+ cos( t kx) + 0 cos( t + kx + 2 ).
x = l0

z = 0+ cos( t kl0 ) + 0 cos( t + kl0 + 2 ) = 0.

, E0+ = E0 .

, cos t + 2 cos kl0 + 2 = 0, . .


2
2


(6.16)
2 = 2kl0 + .
,
.
, . .
I (t ) =

2a

4a

B(t , l0 )dy = 0 B(t , l0 ) = 0 B0 cos t ,

0 a

B (t , l0 ) = B0+ cos ( t kl0 ) + cos ( t + kl + 1 ) = 2 B0+ cos t cos kl0 + 1 .


2

, cos kl0 + 1 = 1 , . . 1 = 2kl0 ,


(6.17)
2

.
(6.16) (6.17),
:
( t , x ) = 2 E0+ sin ( t kl0 ) sin k ( x l0 )
(6.18)
+
B ( t , x ) = 2 B0 cos ( t kl0 ) cos k ( x l0 )
, 0x: / 2 (.
. 6.3). xi xi +1 , (. .
151

), :
k ( xi l0 ) k ( xi +1 l0 ) =

kxi kxi +1 = , k =

2( xi xi +1) = .

(6.19)

. 6.3.

, , , /2.
, , ,
( ) : , (x,t) , (x,t) .

. (x=l) , - .

, , .
, , .
700 500
((7-5)10-8), ,
. .
( , ..) .
[1,2].

, ,
. ,
152

, .

. , d, , , . , d2
. , d2 >> .,
.

, , S,
, ( ), .

, . .
[1 3].
. ,
, ,
. , ,
( ).
, , , , . ,
,
. ,
(, ) .

. , . . ,
.
,
.
(. 6.4) [1,4].
153

. 6.4.

d (. 6.4 ).
, >> d.
. ( ) .
, , ( ) .
.
( ) , ( = . 6.4.)
/2. ,
( = 90) = /2. d
/2
,
d =
sin
N ,
d
2 d sin
N =
=
.
d
/2
, . ,
, - (, ), , , /2.
. , ,
154

, .
, , ,

d sin

= 2m ,
(m = 1,2,3...) .
(6.20)
min
2

,
, .
d sin

= (2m + 1) ,
(m = 1,2,3...) .
(6.21)
max
2
= 0 , , (. 6.5).
. , , , . ,
1 : 0,047 : 0,017 : 0,008 , .. .
d, (6.20) (6.21) ,
( ), , . . ( ) . , , .
d = /2 ,
(6.21) m = 0 sin = 1, . . = 90,
. , d >> , . . ,
.

. 6.5.
155

, , , . , . . ,
,
.
:
, ,
, = 0.
, d ,
d ,
(6.20) (6.21).

1.
2.
3.
4.

. . : . . 3- .
. 2..: , 1982.
. . : . . .: .
. 1990.
. ., . . : . .
.: . ., 1989.
: 2- . .1 / . . . . .: - , 2001.

156

6.1 216


6.1.1.

.
6.1.2.


( ) ( ) . / 2,
, , ,

v
v
(6.1.1)
= ,
.
6.1.3.


,
, (.6.1.1).

. 6.1.1.

l = (2m + 1) / 4 , . .
, . 150 .
6.1.4.

,
, , 157

. , -
()
(, ) xi ,1 xi,2 , (. .6.1.2).
,
. - , , ,
, . , .

. 6.1.2.

R () ,
.
, ,
, / 4 .
6.1.5.

1. .
2. (
) , , , - . xi ,1 xi ,2 . 6.1.1.
7-8 xi ( ).
3. . , , xi ,1 xi,2 ,
. . 6.1.1
( ) ( ) .
7-8 , .

158

6.1.6.

1.

xi =

= 2 ( xi +1 xi )

xi ,1 + xi ,2


2
- - -

.
2. B

E + B

. . 6.1.1.
2
3. (6.1.1)
.
4.
.
411.1

-
i

xi1

xi2

iE

xi1

xi2

iB

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

6.1.7. .

1.
2.
3.

.
? .
.
159

4.
5.
6.
7.

k?
.
?
?
8. ?
9. ?
10. .
.

160

6.2

217


6.2.1.

( ) ; - .
6.2.2.


. ,
.
6.2.3.

,
. 6.1.1.

. 6.2.1.

1 2 3 4,
5 . 4 5 .
4 6.
3 1, 7. 1 -
8, 9. 10, .
= 632,8 .
161

6.2.4.

( ) . , , (. 6.2.2). l
( ) , am -
m - , :
a
(6.2.1)
tg = m .
l
tg sin , (6.21)

( 2m + 1) = am

.
(6.2.2)
2d
l
d ( d)
( m + 1 2) l
d=
.
(6.2.3)
am

. 6.2.2.

6.2.5.

! , , , .
1. 9 .
2. "c" . 10 .
3. 6 4 5
.
4. 7 3 ,
1, 10 (
162

- ,
().
5. 7 2 l . . 6.2.1.
6. ,
. , - , .
7. 10 am
() m- (m = 3,4,5,6). .
6.2.1
8. , 3 7,
5, 4. . 6.2.2.
6.2.6.

1. (6.2.3) d.
2. <d>.
3. d ( )

n

d =

( dm

m =0

n ( n 1)

)2
,

(6.2.4)

n .
4. d = (<d> d ).
5. 1 4
.
6) . 6.2.1 6.2. 2.
6.2.1

l,

m
3
4
5
6

m ,

163

dm ,

< d >,

d ,

6.2.2

6.2.7.

l,

m
3
4
5
6
3
4
5
6

m ,

dm ,

< d >,

d ,

1. . , .
2.
, .
3.
.
4.

?
5. ?
6. ?
7. , .

164

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