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Middlesex County College Department of Natural Sciences CHM 122 General Chemistry II Lecture (Section 06) Spring 2013

Chapter Twelve Preliminary Homework Problems Intermolecular Forces and the Physical Properties of Liquids and Solids
Section 12.1: Intermolecular Forces 12.9, 12.11, 12.13, 12.15, 12.17, 12.19, 12.21 Section 12.2: Properties of Liquids 12.33, 12.35, 12.37 Section 12.3: Crystal Structure 12.45, 12.47, 12.49, 12.51, 12.53, 12.55 Section 12.4: Types of Crystals 12.59, 12.61, 12.63 Section 12.5: Amorphous Solids 12.64 Section 12.6: Phase Changes 12.85, 12.87, 12.89, 12.91 Section 12.7: Phase Diagrams 12.95, 12.97 Additional Problems 12.101, 12.103, 12.113, 12.117, 12.119, 12.123, 12.149

Multiple Choice Problems


12.1 Which of the following compounds is expected to have the HIGHEST boiling point? a. CH3OCH3 b. CH3CH2OH c. CH3CH2CH2CH3 d. CH3CH2CH3 e. CH3Cl The vapor pressure of a given liquid will increase if a. the liquid is moved to a container in which its surface is very much larger. b. the volume of the liquid is increased. c. the volume of the vapor phase is increased. d. the temperature is increased. e. a more volatile liquid is added to the given liquid. Which of the following has the lowest boiling point? a. H2O b. HF c. HCl d. HBr e. HI The STRONGEST intermolecular forces between molecules of PH3 are a. ionic bonds. b. hydrogen bonds. c. dipoledipole attractions. d. London forces. e. covalent bonds. Which of the following molecules exhibits hydrogen bonding? a. HNF2 b. H2S c. B2H6 d. HBr e. CaH2 How many atoms are there in a face-centered cubic unit cell of lead? a. 1 b. 2 c. 4 d. 6 e. 8 Carbon disulfide, CS2, has a heat of vaporization of 29,200 J/mol. At 268 K it has a vapor pressure of 100 mmHg. What is the normal boiling point of CS2? a. 313 K b. 317 K c. 321 K d. 325 K e. 329 K

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Middlesex County College Department of Natural Sciences CHM 122 General Chemistry II Lecture (Section 06) Spring 2013 Chapter Thirteen Preliminary Homework Problems Physical Properties of Solutions
Section 13.1: Types of Solutions 13.1 Section 13.2: The Solution Process 13.9, 13.11 Section 13.3: Concentration Units 13.15, 13.17, 13.19, 13.21, 13.23, 13.25 Section 13.4: Factors that Affect Solubility 13.33, 13.35, 13.37, 13.39 Section 13.5: Colligative Properties 13.57, 13.59, 13.61, 13.63, 13.65, 13.67, 13.69, 13.71, 13.73, 13.75, 13.77 Section 13.6: Calculations Using Colligative Properties 13.81, 13.83, 13.85, 13.87, 13.89 Section 13.7: Colloids 13.90 Additional Problems 13.101

Multiple Choice Problems


13.1 Which of the following concentrations cannot change with a change in temperature? 1 Molality 2 Molarity 3 Mole percentage a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 3 only e. 2 and 3 only 13.2 What is the percent Na2CO3 by mass in a 1.50 molal aqueous solution? a. 9.6 b. 10.6 c. 11.6 d. 12.7 e. 13.7 Which of the following INCREASES the solubility of a gas in a given solvent? a. increasing the partial pressure of the gas b. decreasing the temperature of the solvent c. decreasing the partial pressure of the gas d. increasing the temperature of the solvent and decreasing the partial pressure of the gas simultaneously e. both a and b All the following gases have appreciable solubility in water EXCEPT a. CO2. b. SO3. c. N2. d. NH3. e. HCl. Which of the following compounds (each as a liquid) would be expected to be the best solvent for carbon disulfide? a. HBr(l) b. CH3OH(l) c. C6H6(l) d. H2O(l) e. NH3(l) Which of the following solutes in aqueous solution would be expected to exhibit the LARGEST freezing-point lowering (assuming ideal behavior)? a. 0.1 m NaCl b. 0.2 m CH3COOH c. 0.1 m MgCl2 d. 0.05 m Al2(SO4)3 e. 0.25 m NH3 If the dissolution of an ionic solid in water is exothermic, then it can be concluded that a. H for the solution process is positive. b. the solution process takes up heat. c. the lattice energy exceeds the hydration energy. d. the solubility of the ionic solid is independent of temperature. e. the solubility of the ionic solid decreases with increasing temperature.

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Middlesex County College Department of Natural Sciences CHM 122 General Chemistry II Lecture (Section 06) Spring 2013 Chapter Fourteen Preliminary Homework Problems Chemical Kinetics
Section 14.1: Reaction Rates 14.5, 14.7 Section 14.2: Dependence of Reaction Rate on Reactant Concentration 14.15, 14.17, 14.19, 14.21 Section 14.3: Dependence of Reactant Concentration on Time 14.27, 14.29, 14.31, 14.33 Section 14.4: Dependence of Reaction Rate on Temperature 14.41, 14.43, 14.45, 14.47, 14.49 Section 14.5: Reaction Mechanisms 14.59, 14.61 Section 14.6: Catalysis 14.71 Additional Problems 14.85, 14.99

Multiple Choice Problems


14.1 For a second order reaction, what are the possible units of the rate constant? a. s b. 1/s c. 1/L s d. L/mol s e. mol/L s A chemical reaction that is first order in x is observed to have a rate constant of 1.2 10 /s. If the initial concentration of x is 2.0 M, what is the concentration of x after 200 s? a. 1.0 M b. 0.50 M c. 0.25 M d. 0.18 M e. 0.12 M For a certain second-order decomposition reaction, the rate is 0.30 mol/(L s) when the concentration of the reactant is 0.20 M. What is the rate constant [in units L/(mol s)] for this reaction? a. 0.67 b. 1.5 c. 2.2 d. 3.0 e. 7.5 The rate constants for the decomposition of a compound are 6.2 10 s at 45 C and 2.1 s at 55 C. What is the value of the activation energy for this reaction in kilojoules per mole? a. 46 b. 1.1 10 c. 2.5 10 e. 1.1 10 14.5 d. 2.5 10
2 3 4 1 4 1 3 2

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Which of the following statements is always TRUE? a. Exothermic reactions have lower activation energies than endothermic reactions. b. The rate for a reaction depends on the concentrations of all the reactants. c. The rate of a catalyzed reaction is independent of the concentration of the catalyst. d. The rate constant is independent of the concentrations of the reacting species. e. The rate law can be determined from the stoichiometric equation. Which of the following is (are) TRUE concerning the order of a reaction? 1 can be deduced from the stoichiometry of the reaction 2 gives the reaction mechanism 3 is determined experimentally a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 3 only e. 2 and 3 only

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Middlesex County College Department of Natural Sciences CHM 122 General Chemistry II Lecture (Section 06) Spring 2013 Chapter Fifteen Preliminary Homework Problems Chemical Equilibrium
Section 15.1: The Concept of Equilibrium 15.1 Section 15.2: The Equilibrium Constant 15.9, 15.11 Section 15.3: Equilibrium Expressions 15.21, 15.23, 15.25, 15.27, 15.29, 15.31, 15.33, 15.35, 15.37 Section 15.4: Using Equilibrium Expressions to Solve Problems 15.39, 15.41, 15.43, 15.45, 15.47, 15.49 Section 15.5: Factors That Affect Chemical Equilibrium 15.55, 15.57, 15.59, 15.61, 15.63, 15.65 Additional Problems 15.67, 15.85, 15.87

Multiple Choice Problems


15.1 Which of the following can we predict from an equilibrium constant for a reaction? 1 The extent of a reaction 2 Whether the reaction is fast or slow 3 Whether a reaction is exothermic or endothermic a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 2 only e. 1 and 3 only 15.2 For which of the following equilibria would Kc = Kp? 1 CO(g) + 3H2(g) CH4(g) + H2O(g) 2 CO(g) + H2O(g) CO2(g) + H2(g) 3 HBr(g) H2(g) + Br2(g) a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 2 only e. 2 and 3 only 15.3 Exactly 1.0 mol N2O4 is placed in an empty 1.0-L container and is allowed to reach equilibrium described by the equation N2O4(g) 2NO2(g). If at equilibrium the N2O4 is 40.% dissociated, what is the value of the equilibrium constant (in units of moles per liter) for the reaction under these conditions? a. 0.20 b. 0.84 c. 1.1 d. 1.5 e. 2.0 15.4 Hydrogen iodide undergoes decomposition according to the equation 2HI(g) H2(g) + I2(g) The equilibrium constant at 425 C for this system is 0.018. If 1.0 mol each of H2, I2, and HI were placed together in a 1-L container at 425 C, then a. the concentration of HI would decrease. b. the value of K would increase to 1.0. c. because of reaction, the total number of molecules would decrease. d. because of reaction, the total number of molecules would increase. e. the concentration of H2 would decrease. At a given temperature, for the reaction SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO(g) Kf = 25. If 0.100 mol each of SO3 and NO are placed in a 1.00-L container, what is the concentration of SO3 at equilibrium? a. 0.017 M b. 0.025 M c. 0.065 M d. 0.075 M e. 0.083 M

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Middlesex County College Department of Natural Sciences CHM 122 General Chemistry II Lecture (Section 06) Spring 2013 Chapter Sixteen Preliminary Homework Problems Acids and Bases
Section 16.1: Brnsted Acids and Bases 16.3, 16.5, 16.7, Section 16.2: The Acid-Base Properties of Water 16.15, 16.17 Section 16.3: The pH Scale 16.21, 16.23, 16.25, 16.27, 16.29, 16.31 Section 16.4: Strong Acids and Bases 16.37, 16.39, 16.41, 16.43 Section 16.5: Weak Acids and Acid Ionization Constants 16.51, 16.53, 16.55, 16.57, 16.61, 16.63, 16.65 Section 16.6: Weak Bases and Base Ionization Constants 16.69, 16.71, 16.73 Section 16.7: Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs 16.77 Section 16.8: Diprotic and Polyprotic Acids 19.79, 16.81, 16.83, 16.85 Section 16.9: Molecular Structure and Acid Strength 16.89, 16.91 Section 16.10: Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions 16.97, 16.99, 16.101, 16.103, 16.105 Section 16.11: Acid-Base Properties of Oxides and Hydroxides 16.109, 16.111 Section 16.12: Lewis Acids and Bases 16.115, 16.119, 16.119 Additional Problems 16.121, 16.127

Multiple Choice Problems


16.1 Which of the following is a weak acid in aqueous solution? a. HNO3 b. HCl c. H2SO4 d. H2SO3 e. HClO4 All the following are characteristics of acids in aqueous solution EXCEPT a. they are electrolytes. b. they turn red litmus blue. c. they taste sour. d. they react with a base to yield a salt. e. they react with CaCO3 to produce CO2. All the following salts can be obtained from a strong acid and a strong base EXCEPT a. NaCl. b. Na2SO4. c. NH4Br. d. LiNO3. e. Ba(ClO4)2. All the following species would be expected to be able to function as Lewis bases EXCEPT a. Be . b. O . c. OH . d. H2O. e. H2O2. 16.5 Hydrochloric acid and perchloric acid appear to be equally strong acids in water, mainly because both a. react completely with water. b. form soluble salts with strong bases. c. are monoprotic acids. d. are very soluble in water. e. can participate in oxidation-reduction reactions. The pH of 0.1 M NH3 is approximately a. 1. b. 3. c. 7. d. 11 e. 13. Which of the following acids has the WEAKEST conjugate base? a. HF b. HI c. CH3COOH d. HNO2 e. HOCl
2 2+

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Middlesex County College Department of Natural Sciences CHM 122 General Chemistry II Lecture (Section 06) Spring 2013 Chapter Seventeen Preliminary Homework Problems Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria
Section 17.1: The Common Ion Effect 17.5 Section 17.2: Buffer Solutions 17.9, 17.11, 17.13, 17.15, 17.17, 17.19, 17.21 Section 17.3: Acid-Base Titrations 17.27, 17.29, 17.31, 17.33, 17.35, 17.37, 17.39, 17.41 Section 17.4: Solubility Equilibria 17.49, 17.51, 17.53, 17.55, 17.57 Section 17.5: Factors Effecting Solubility 17.63, 17.65, 17.67, 17.69, 17.71, 17.73, 17.75, 17.77 Section 17.6: Separation of Ions Using Differences in Solubility 17.81, 17.83, 17.85 Additional Problems 17.91

Multiple Choice Problems


17.1 A 0.10 M aqueous solution of an acid HX has a pH of 3.00. What is the value of Ka for HX? a. 1.0 10 c. 1.0 10 e. 1.0 10 17.2
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b. 1.0 10 d. 1.0 10

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A 0.010 M solution of a weak monoprotic acid is 3.0% dissociated. What is the equilibrium constant, Ka, for this acid? a. 3.0 10 c. 9.0 10 e. 9.0 10
2

b. 3.0 10 d. 9.0 10

4 5

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A solution that is formed by combining 400. mL of 0.20 M HNO3 with 600. mL of 0.10 M NaOH has + an H3O concentration of a. 0.20 M. b. 0.10 M. c. 0.060 M. d. 0.020 M. e. 5.0 10
13

.
7 11

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Carbonic acid is a diprotic acid, H2CO3, with Ka1 = 4.2 10 and Ka2 = 4.8 10 . The ion product for water is Kw = 1.0 10 0.037 molar? a. 3.7 10 c. 6.5 10 e. 4.2 10
2 2 14

. What is the H3O concentration in a saturated carbonic acid solution that is

b. 7.4 10 d. 1.2 10

4 4

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Which of the following pairs of solutions could be mixed to produce a buffer? a. NaOH and HCl only b. HF and NaF only c. NH3 and NH4Cl only d. both a and b e. both b and c

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A 25.00-mL sample of propionic acid, CH3CH2COOH, of unknown concentration was titrated with 0.104 M KOH. The equivalence point was reached when 35.31 mL of base had been added. The concentration of the original propionic acid is a. 0.0736 M. b. 0.128 M. c. 0.147 M. d. 0.162 M. e. 0.295 M.

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What is the solubility product expression for Zn3(PO4)2? a. [Zn3 ][(PO4 )2] b. [Zn ][2PO4 ] c. [Zn ] [PO4 ]
2+ 3 2+ 3 2+ 3 3 2 3 2 2+ 3

d. [3Zn ] [2PO4 ] e. [Zn ] [PO4 ] 17.8


3+ 2 2 3

Which of the following metal sulfides is the next to the most soluble (mol/L) in water? a. CoS (Ksp = 4 10 ) b. CuS (Ksp = 8 10 ) c. FeS (Ksp = 5 10 ) d. HgS (Ksp = 4 10 ) e. MnS (Ksp = 6 10 )
16 50 18 36 21

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The Ksp for magnesium carbonate is 1.0 10 . What is the molar solubility of MgCO3? a. 1.0 10 mol/L b. 1.0 10 mol/L c. 4.5 10 mol/L d. 3.2 10 mol/L e. 3.2 10 mol/L
3 4 4 5 6

17.10 The Ksp of Cd(OH)2 is 1.2 10 . What is the pH of a saturated solution of Cd(OH)2? a. 4.5 b. 4.8 c. 9.2 d. 9.5 e. 9.7 17.11 What is the minimum concentration of Mg that is needed to begin the formation of a precipitate of Mg(OH)2 in a solution of pH 10.7? [Ksp Mg(OH)2 = 1.8 10 .] a. 2 10 M b. 7 10 M c. 2 10 M d. 7 10 M e. 5 10 M 17.12 The best explanation for the dissolution of ZnS in dilute HCl is that a. the zinc ion is amphoteric. b. the sulfide-ion concentration is decreased by the formation of H2S. c. the sulfide-ion concentration is decreased by oxidation to sulfur. d. the zinc-ion concentration is decreased by the formation of a chloro complex. e. the solubility product of ZnCl2 is less than that of ZnS.
3 4 4 5 5 11 2+

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Middlesex County College Department of Natural Sciences CHM 122 General Chemistry II Lecture (Section 06) Spring 2013 Chapter Eighteen Preliminary Homework Problems Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
Section 18.1: Spontaneous Processes 18.2 Section 18.2: Entropy 18.7 Section 18.3: Entropy Changes in a System 18.13, 18.15, 18.17 Section 18.4: Entropy Changes in the Universe 18.21, 18.23 Section 18.5: Predicting Spontaneity 18.29, 18.31, 18.33, 18.35, 18.37 Section 18.6: Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium 18.41, 18.43, 18.45, 18.47, 18.49 Section 18.7: Thermodynamics in Living Systems 18.53 Additional Problems 18.55, 18.59

Multiple Choice Problems


18.1 Thermodynamics is applied to learn a reactions a. pathway. b. mechanism. c. stoichiometry. d. rate. e. feasibility. H and U are nearly the same in all the following processes EXCEPT a. F2(g) + H2(g) 2HF(g). b. 3O2(g) 2O3(g). c. CuO(s) + H2(g) Cu(s) + H2O(g). d. CH4(g) + Cl2(g) CH3Cl(g) + HCl(g). e. C6H6(s) C6H6(l). The heat of fusion of acetic acid is 11.5 kJ/mol. Its melting point is 16.6C. The change in entropy for the melting of acetic acid in J/(mol K) is a. 11.5. b. 11.5. c. 15.1. d. 39.7. e. 694. Which of the following processes would be expected to have a S value very close to zero? a. H2O(s) H2O(l) b. 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(g) c. H2O(s) H2O(g) d. N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g) e. OF2(g) + H2O(g) O2(g) + 2HF(g) If a reaction is endothermic and nonspontaneous at 25 C, then it a. can never be spontaneous. b. can become spontaneous by adding a catalyst. c. may be spontaneous at higher temperature. d. may be spontaneous at lower temperature. e. is exothermic and spontaneous at high temperatures. A reaction must be spontaneous at all temperatures when a. G is negative. b. H is positive and S is positive. c. H is positive and S is negative. d. H is negative and S is negative. e. H is negative and S is positive. For the reaction MgSO3(s) MgO(s) + SO2(g), which is spontaneous only at high temperatures, one would predict that a. H is positive and S is positive. b. H is positive and S is negative. c. H is negative and S is negative. d. H is negative and S is positive. e. G is positive at high temperatures.

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Middlesex County College Department of Natural Sciences CHM 122 General Chemistry II Lecture (Section 06) Spring 2013 Chapter Nineteen Preliminary Homework Problems Electrochemistry
Section 19.1: Balancing Redox Reactions 19.1 Section 19.2: Galvanic Cells 19.6 Section 19.3: Standard Reduction Potentials 19.11, 19.13, 19.15, 19.17 Section 19.4: Spontaneity of Redox Reactions Under Standard-State Conditions 19.21, 19.23, 19.25 Section 19.5: Spontaneity of Redox Reactions Under Conditions Other Than Standard State 19.29, 19.31, 19.33 Section 19.6: Batteries 19.39 Section 19.7: Electrolysis 19.43, 19.45, 19.47, 19.49, 19.51, 19.53, 19.55, 19.57 Section 19.8: Corrosion 19.59 Additional Problems 19.75

Multiple Choice Problems


19.1 Which of the following is TRUE for a galvanic cell? 1 The electron flow is from the positive electrode to the negative electrode. 2 The electron flow is from the anode to the cathode. 3 The electron flow is from oxidizing agent to the reducing agent through an external circuit. a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 2 only e. 1, 2, and 3 19.2 In an electrochemical cell, which statement is ALWAYS true of the cathode? a. It is considered the negative electrode. b. It is considered the positive electrode. c. Reduction occurs here. d. Metal is plated out here. e. Negative ions flow toward the cathode. For a galvanic cell using FeFe (1.0 M) and PbPb (1.0 M) half-cells, which of the following statements is correct? Fe + 2e Fe Pb + 2e Pb
2+ 2+ 2+ 2+

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0.44 V 0.13 V

a. The mass of the iron electrode increases during discharge. b. Electrons leave the lead electrode to pass through the external circuit during discharge. c. The concentration of Pb decreases during discharge. d. The iron electrode is the cathode.
2+

e. When the cell has completely discharged (to zero voltage), the concentration of Pb is zero. 19.4 Calculate E for the cell reaction 2Cr + 3Sn 3Sn + 2Cr . Cr + 3e Cr
4+ 3+ 4+ 2+ 3+

2+

Sn + 2e Sn a. 1.93 V b. 0.89 V c. 0.59 V d. 0.45 V e. 0.59 V 19.5

2+

E = 0.74 V E = 0.15 V

For a certain reaction, H = 76.0 kJ and S = 234 J/K. If n = 3, calculate Etot for the reaction at 25 C. a. 0.022 V b. 0.032 V c. 0.065 V d. 0.096 V e. 0.192 V
a. G is negative and K is less than 1. b. G is negative and K is greater than 1. c. G is zero and K is greater than 1. d. G is positive and K is greater than 1. e. G is positive and K is less than 1.

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For a certain oxidationreduction reaction, E is negative. This means that

Middlesex County College Department of Natural Sciences CHM 122 General Chemistry II Lecture (Section 06) Spring 2013 Answer Key to Multiple Choice Problems
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 b d c c a c b d e e c c c e d d e b d c 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 a e c e e d b c a a d b d e d d e c 17.7 17.8 17.9 17.10 17.11 17.12 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 c c e d b b e b d d c e a b c c b a e