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1.
2. .
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.
9.

:
.
1 = 4,5 .
= 2,8.

.

1. .
1.1. :
= 2 .
1.1 :
= 0.97;
.. = 0.96 ;
= 0.99;
= 0.97 0.96 0.992 = 0.91.
1.2. :
P = 3 / = 4,5 / 0.91 = 4,94 .
1.3. 1
4 ( 19523-81)
P = 5,5 n = 1000
/ 132S2 . P = 5,5 ;
n= 1000 22 = 978 /
1.4. :
U = U U .;
U = n/ n3 = ./ 3;
= n/30. = (3,14 9,78) / 30 = 0,1 n;
= 0,1 n = 1,1 978 = 97,8 /;
n3 = 30 3 = 30 2,8 = 84 /;
U = n/ n3= 978/84 = 11,64;
11,64 = 2,3 5;
U = 5; U .= 2,3;
1.5. :
=/;
= / = 5500 / 97,8 = 56,2 ( )
3 = = 3/ 3= 4500/2,8 3,14 = 511,94 ( )
1.6. :
/= ..
= ..=5,50,96=5,4 ;
n/ n= U .;
n= n/ U .=978/2,3=425,21 /;

= / U .=97,8/2,3=42,52 /;
= / =5400/42,52=126,99( );
2. .
2.1 .
dA = 6 3TA;
dA = 6 3(56,2 103) = 229,8 . dA = 250 .
2.2 .
d = dA i ( 1 E ) ;
i = U . ; E = 0,01 ;
d = 250 2,3( 1 0,01 ) = 569 . d = 560 .
2.3 .
i = d /( dA( 1 0,01 )) ;
i = 560 / 250( 1 0,01 ) = 2,262 ;
: i / i = (2,262 2,3) 100 / 2,3 = 1,65%;
3%;
2.4 ;
= 2( dA + d) ;
= 2 (250 + 560) = 1620 .;
2.5 ;
= 180 - 60 ((d - dA )/ ) ;
= 180 - 60 ((560 250) / 1620) = 168
2.5 .
L = 2a + 0,5( dA + d) +( (d - dA)2/4);
L = 2 1620 + 0,5 3,14 (250 + 560) + ((560 250)2/4 1620 = 4526.
2.6 .
dA n)/60;
/.
2.7 .
F1 = P/
F1 = 5500/12 = 458;
2.8 .7.1 800 z =3,
= 1,5,0 = 3 /. dA.
z = 1,5 3 = 4,5 .
0,025 250 = 6,25.
.
2.9 .
a;

a
2.10 , .
04 0,0004
04 0,0004 122 = 0,98;
2.11 .7.5

= 1,0;
2.12 ,
, ;
60 = 1,0;
2.13 1. .
[ ] = 0 a
[ ] = 3 0,96 0,98 1 1 = 2,82 /.
2.14 .
b > F1/ (z [ ] );
b > 458/(3 2,82) = 54 , .7.1 b = 50.
2.15 .
F0 = b;
F0 = 1,8 50 4,5 = 405;
2.16 .
F1 = F0 + 0,5 F1;
F1 = 405 + 0,5 458 = 634;
F2 = F0 - 0,5 F1;
F2 = 405 0,5 458 = 176;
2.17 F1.
F1/( b;
634/(50 4,5) = 2,8;
2.18 .
= (dA);
= 100(4,5/250) = 1,8 ;
2.19 .
= ;
;
2.20 .
max= + ;
max= 2,8 + 1,8 + 0,15 = 4,75 ;
max < 7 ;
2.21 :

L;
-1;
i = 1,53i 0,5;
i = 1,532,3 0,5 = 1,45;
= 1 .
.
0 = (i )/(max2 3600
0 = (76 107 1,45)/(4,756 2 3600 2,6) = 7834.
2.22 .
F = 3 F0sin
F = 3 405 sin168/2 = 1208.
3.
3.1. :

,

(. 33): 45,
, HB 230; 45,
, 30 HB 200.
2.2. :
[ H] = H lim b K HL / [S H];
H lim b .
H lim b = 2HB + 70
K HL ;
, ,

K HL = 1; [S H] = 1.10

(3.10) . 3:
[ ] = 0.45([ H1] + [ H2]);

[ H1] = ((2HB1 + 70) KHL) / [ H ] = ((2 230 + 70) 1) / 1.1 481 ().

[ H2] = ((2HB2 + 70) KHL) / [ H ] = ((2 200 + 70) 1) / 1.1 428 ().

[ H] = 0.45 (482 + 428) = 410 ();
[ H] 1.23 [ H2] .

2.3.
:
a = K a (u + 1) 3 ((3 HB) / ([ H]2 u2 ba ));
= 43,
U = 5;
HB ,
. . 3.1 HB = 1.25.
ba .
ba = 0,4.
= 43(5 + 1) 3((511 103 1.25) / (4102 52 0.4)) = 185,7.
2185 66
= 200 ().
2.4. :
m n = (0.01 -:- 0.02) a = (0.01 -:- 0.02) 200 = 2 -:- 4,
9563 60 m n = 2,5 ().
2.5. = 10
:
z1 = (2a cos ) / ((u + 1) m n);
z1 = (2 200 cos 10) / ((5 + 1) 2,5) = 26,2;
z1 = 26; z2 = z1 U = 26 5 = 130.

cos = ((z1 + z2) mn) / 2a = ((26 + 130) 2,5)/ 2 200 = 0.9750;
= 12 50
:

d1 = z1 (m n / cos ) = 26 (2,5 / 0.9750) = 66,66 ();
d2 = z2 (m n / cos ) = 130 (2,5 / 0.9750) = 333,34 ();
: = (d1 + d2 ) / 2 = 66,66 + 333,34 / 2 = 200 ().

d a1 = d1 + 2m n = 66,66 + 2 2,5 = 71,66 ();
d a2 = d2 + 2m n = 333,34 + 2 2,5 = 338,34 (),
b 2 = ba a = 0.4 200 = 80 ();
b 1 = b 2 + 5 = 80 + 5 = 85 ();
:
bd = b 1 / d 1 = 85 / 66,66 = 1,275
2.6. :

= ( 1 d 1) / 2 = (42,52 66,66) /( 2 103) = 1,41 (/);


8-
.

K H = K H K H K H;
K H . 3.5; bd = 1,275, HB 350

K H 1.155.
. 3.4 3 = 1,41 / 8- K H 1.07.
. 3.6 5 / K H = 1.0.

K H = 1.155 1.07 1.0 = 1.235;


2.7. :
H = 270 / a ((3 K H (u + 1)3) / (b2 u2)) = 270 / 200 ((511 103 1.155 216) /
2000) = 340 [] = 410 . !
2.8. , :
Ft = 2T / d1 = 2 126 103 / 66,66 = 3780 (H);
Fr = Ft ( tg / cos ) = 3780 (0.36 /0,97) = 1402 (H);
Fa= Ft tg = 3780 0.221 = 835 (H).
2.9.
: = Ft KF Y K F / (b m n) [ F];
K F = K F K F . . 3.7 bd = 1,275
HB 350
K F = 1.33. . 3.8 K F = 1.3. ,
K F = 1.33 1.3 = 1.73; YF ,
z
z 1 = z1 / cos3 = 26 / 0.935 28;
z 2 = z2 / cos3 = 130 / 0.935 140 ;
YF1 = 3,84 YF2 = 3.60

[ F] = F lim b / [S F];
. 3.9 45 HB 350 F lim b =
1.8 HB.
F lim b = 1.8 230 = 414 ; F lim b = 1.8
200 = 360 . [S F] = [S F ] [S F] - . [S F] =
1.75 ,
[S F] = 1 ( ). , [S F] = 1.75

:
[ F1] = 414 / 1.75 = 236 ;
[ F2] = 360 / 1.75 = 206 .
[ F] / YF:
236 / 3,84 = 61 ;
206 / 3.60 = 57 .
,
.
Y K F::
Y = 1 / 140 = 1 (12 / 140) = 0.9142;
K F = (4 + ( 1) (n 5)) / 4
= 1.5
8- K F = 0.91.
:
F2 = (Ft KF YF Y K F) / (b2 m n) [ F]
F2 = (3780 1.73 3.6 0.91 0.91) / (80 2,5) 97 < [ F2] = 206
.
!
4.

.
(.2) 38.
d=38.
:
, [k] =
20 .
:
d1 = 3((16k )/ ( [k])) = 3(16 126 103) / (3.14 20) = 31,4 ();
:
d1 = 32 ();
d1 = 40 ();
d1 = 48 ().
.

:
[k] = 25
:
d2 = 3((16Tk3 )/ ( [k])) = 316 511 103 / (3.14 25) 47,1 ();
:
d2 = 48 ();
d2 = 55 ();
d2 = 65 ().

5.
; :
d1 = 66,66 (); d a1 = 71,66 (); b1 = 85 ().
:
d2 = 333,34 (); d a2 = 338,34 (); b2 = 80 ().
d = 1.6 d k2 = 1.6 65 = 104 ();
:
l (1.2 -:- 1.5) d k2 = (1.2 -:- 1.5) 65 = 78 -:- 98 ();
l = 80 ().
:
= (2.5 -:- 4) m n = (2.5 -:- 4) 2,5 = 6,25 -:- 10 (),

2,5

z1

26

d1

66,66

d a1

71,66

b1

85

z2

130

d2

333,34

da2

338,34

b2

80

104

80

10

12050

- = 10 .
6.
:
= 0.025 + 1 = 0.025 200 + 1 = 6 (),
1 = 8 .
:
- :
b = 1.5 = 1.5 8 = 12 (); b1 = 1.51 = 1.5 8 = 12 ();
- :
p = 2.35 = 2.35 8 = 19 (); p = 20 ().
:
-
d1 = (0.03 -:- 0.036) a + 12 = (0.03 -:- 0.036) 200 + 12 = 18 -:- 19.2 ();
20;
-
d2 = (0.7 -:- 0.75) d1 = (0.7 -:- 0.75) 20 = 14 -:- 15 ();
;16
-
d3 = (0.5 -:- 0.6) d1 = (0.5 -:- 0.6) 20 = 10 -:- 12 ();
12
7.
.


.

; 1:1 ,
.

;
= 200 .
;
;
.
:
)
1 = 1.2 ; ;
)
= ;
)
= ;

, .

( 8328-75) ;

d 1 = 40 d 2 = 55 .
. 3 :

308

40

90

23

41

22,4

311

55

120

29

71,5

41,5

.
.


. y = 8 -:- 12 .
l1 l2
l1 = l2 = 82.

lr = 1,5; 308 = 23,


lr = 1,5 23 = 34,5. lr = 34. 311 = 29,
lr = 1,5 29 = 43,5 lr = 43.


d0 ; = 14.

0,7d6 = 0,7 12 = 8,4.


8.

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.
.
,
. .

:
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l 1. ,
( ,
);
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.
1 2 .
.

, ( 40 ).

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)
( 1 ) .
, , .

, .
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) 40
32 10 15 ,
.
32
.
.
:
)

; 65 60
2-3 ,
(
!);
) l 2,
( ,

);
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;

) l 3
; ,
.
60 55 2 3
,
( !).

;
)
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.
2 3 .

23360 78. ,
5 10 .

,
.
.
9. .
.
23360-78 (. . 8.9).
45 .
:
max 2T / (d (h t1) (l b)) [ ]
[ ] = 100 -:120 (), [ ] = 50 -:- 70 ().
: d = 32 ; b h = 10 8; t1 = 5.0 ; l =
70 ; T1 = 126 103 (H ).
= (2 126 103) / (32 (8 5.0) (70 10)) = 43,75 () < [ c]
:
(
).
: d = 48 ; b
h = 14 9; t1 = 5.5 ; l = 80;
T1 = 511 103 (H ).
= 2 511 103 / (48 (9 5,5) (80 14)) = 90,79 () < [ ].
< [ ] !


1. .. .
, 1987.
2. .. , ..
.
2002.
3. .. . - ,
1997.