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K a r t t u n e n L. Presuppositions of compound sentences. Linguistic
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. 352

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. , () vs.
, fiezeichnung vs. Bedeutung;
. Do ku I i 1 D a n e s 1958.
2

, , (
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;
C h o3 m s k y 1974; F i 1 I m 1974 .
,
, R i i " 1970: 265; . D i k 1968;
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os 1972 KonstruktivitaUpnnzip
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6
. L a k o f f R. 1970; (D a h ] 1975),
: , is
was, ,
this text ' ', this paper '
395

' this contribution ' ',


.
6
. C o s e r i u 1973: 7, 1315, 17, 27 .
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, )
(. C h o m s k y 1974: 11);
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(. S e r e n s e n 1967). ( t e e 1975),
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, ()

. ( F i l l m o r e I974: V-2), , ,
next Friday ' ' next
Monday ' ', ,
next ' ' '
' (,
) ( Monday , ,
,
)
7
. . . . (.
1964: 6164), Tsar Fedor's son One of Tsar
Fedor's sons
.

( )
. , ( F i l l m o r e
1974: V-3) (We'll go there
right away ' ');
we
( ' ', ' ', ' ,
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: ()?
8

(. K a t z 1973);
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( ); , Z u b e 1972; ,
K u r o d a 1974. ,
,
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(); . H a j i c o v 1976; . S g a l l - H a j i f o v 5 B e n e S o v a 1973.
9
. D a h l 1972, (),


10
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396

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b. Spiro believed that Tricky Dick had betrayed him


' , '.
(14)
(12)
, (15) (15).
(16).
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' '.
b, Sam stated that Tricky Dick had betrayed him
' , '.
c. Sam believed that Tricky Dick had betrayed him
' , '.
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but that he believed that Tricky Dick had not betrayed him
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.. E m p s o n 1931, ,

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. 143
Ethics and Language. . . R i c h a r d s 1936; 1938.
,
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.

A I d i h 1943 1 d i h V. Pictoral Meaning and Picture Thinking. In:


The Kenyon Review, summer, 1943
A y e r 1936 Ay e r A. J. Language, Truth and Logic. London., 1936, ch. III.
B r o a d 1923 r o a d D. Examination of McTaggart's Philosophy Cam
bridge, 1923.
B r o a d 1926 B r o a d D. The Philosophy of Francis Bacon. Cambridge,
1926.
C a r n a p 1954 C a m a p R. Testability and Meaning, New Haven, 1954,
E m p s o n 1 9 3 1 E m p s o n W. Seven Types of Ambiguity. Harcourt, Brace,
1931.
M e n c k e n 1919 M e n c k e n H. L. The American Language. New York,
1919, ch. V.
R i c h a r d s 1936R i h d s I. A. The Philosophy of Rhetoric. Oxford,
1936, ch. 5, 6.
R i c h a r d s 1938 R i c h a r d s I. A. Interpretation in Teaching. Harcourt,
Brace, 1938.
S a p i 1921 S a p i . Language. Harcourt Brace, 1921 ( :
. . ., 1934).
W h i t e h e a d R u s s e l l 1910 W h i t eh e a d A. N.t R u s s e l l B. Prin-cipia Mathematica. 1910 (Introduction to the 1st ed., ch. III).
W i s d o m 19361937 Wi s d o m J. Philosophical Perplexity. In: Pro
ceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 19361937.
W i t t g e n s t e i n 1922 W i t t g e n s t e i n L Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Harcourt, Brace, 1922, 4.002 ( : . . ., 1958, . 44, 4.002).

. X. -

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165


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181

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J o s e p h 1936 J o s e p h H. W. . Introduction to logic. London, 1936.


M o o r e 1962 M o o r e G. E. Principia ethica. Cambridge, 1962 (
: . . ., , 1984).
T o u l m i n 1958 T o u l m i n S. E. An examination of the place of reason
in ethics. London New York, 1958,

P. M.

1.
: (descriptive) (evaluative).
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R. M. H a r e . Description and evaluation. 7 : R. M. H a r e . The
Language of Morals. Oxford University Press, London Oxford New York,
1972, p. 111126.
183

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* S t e v e n s o n 1944 :
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190

He is an eligible bachelor ' '


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is likely to make a very good husband for Jane '
' She was very sensible to say
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.
\4


L a g a r d e - Q u o s t 19471948 L a g d e - Q u s t P. H. J. The Bilin
gual Citizen. Britain Today, Dec. 1947; Jan. 1948.
S t e v e n s o n 1944 S t e v e n s o n Ch. L. Ethics and Language. New Haven,
Yale UP, 1944.
U r m s o n 1950 U r m s o n J. O. On Grading. Mind, vol. 59, 1950, 152
(. .: Logic and Language, ser. II, P. Flew (ed.), 1953, 166).

. .

,
. ,
, know '', believe '',
'' deduce '',
,
.
.
,
.
. , ,
,
.
.
to read ''
(Present Continuous) I am reading
' * ,
,
(Present Indefinite) I read ' '
.
.
, , ,

,
. ,
, to prefer ''
, I am preferring;
to wish ''
:
J. . U r m s o n . Parenthetical verbs, In: Philosophy and ordinary lang
uage Ch. E. Caton (ed.). University of Illinois Press, Urbana Chicago Lon
don, 1970, p. 220240.
1P6

I wish whenever I pass a wishing-well


' ,
'

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* ',

I wish that you would up your mind
' , - '.
wish
.
,
,
: I prefer
' 1 I wish ' '

, , I read ' ' I play
' 1.

, , love '', like '',
hate '', prefer '';
,
wish '', command '', beg '',
beseech ''. ,
.
,"
.
. to suppose ''

:
I suppose that your house is very old
(1)
' , *.
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(2)
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(3)
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, ,
to suppose ,
that ''

. ,

() , 197

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I suppose that your house is quite new
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:
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.
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( ): know '1,
believe
'',
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rejoice
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suppose
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guess
1
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'', predict ''.
198

. ,
conclude, , ,
, .
, , rejoice,
,
,
.

. :
(1) I rejoice whenever my sailor brother comes home
' , -
'.
(2) I am rejoicing because my sailor brother is at home
' , - '.
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' , '.
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. (1)

, ;
(2)
,
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rejoice ,
. ,

:
(A) is, I regret, unwell
', , '.
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, :
(') is, I am miserable, unwell
', , '.
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' , '.
I am miserable
, I regret . ()
because he is unwell

7
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.
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ponder '' be miserable. ,
199

-
. ;
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, ( 1 know.
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know believe
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200

He is, I regret, too old


', , '.
I believe, it will rain
' , *.
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' , , *.
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is, I hear, ill in bed
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201

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,
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rejoice ,
.
202


,
. I admit that he is able
' , '
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,
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:
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' , , ',
, John
was, I conclude, the murderer, . ' , ,
',

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deduce '', infer '', presume '',
presuppose
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confess
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.
203

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' ' . .
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unfortunately
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, .
, , -, ,
204

,
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.
,
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.

: happily ' ' I rejoice
' '; unfortunately ' ' I regret '
'; consequently '* I Infer (deduce) '
'; presumably '' I presume '
'; admittedly ' ' I admit ' '; cer
tainly '' I know ' '; probably '' 1 be
lieve ' '. - ,
:
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,
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.

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probably I believe. ,
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believe probably 205

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:
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The King is visiting Oxford today '
', , , : Oh, for
no reason at all ' ',

,
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I believe that he is at home
' , '

is, I believe, at home


', , ',
,
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probably he is at home ', '
, ,
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believe ,
I believe that he is at home.
,
206

believe.
.
(A) ; X is, I believe, at home 'X, ,
'. (
I believe)
X is at home 'X '.
.
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believes, at home 'X, , '.
,
. , ,
,
, X (


).
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, , , :
Jones believes that the trains are working
' , '.
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believe. ,
:
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', , '.
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, , : The
trains are running ' ' I believe that the trains
are running ' , ' (,
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,
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,
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.
I believe
I am under the delusion that '
, '. I believe , .
, , , ,
, I can't
207

help believing 'He , '.


,
.
, , Jones
believes p ' , '
, It seems probable to Jones
thai p ' , \
Probably p ' \
I believe that p ' , '
. probably I believe
( ,
).

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.

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.
. I guess ' '

. ,
. ,
, :
Do you know who called this afternoon?
' , ?',
:
208

No, but I guess that it was Mrs. Jones


', , *.

,
. :
I guess that it was Mr. de Gaulle
' , \
, .

I guess
- .
, ,
.
-
, ,

, .
guess,
, know, opine '', suspect .

,
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know, .
.

, 1.
,
know,
, know guarantee ''.
, , , know ,
. ,
know
.

. ,
, know
, .

. ,
1

A u s t i n J. L. Other minds. In. Proceedings oF the Aristotelian Society,


sup. XX, 1946, 148187.
.
209

,
:
(I)
, ,

,
.
(II) ,
.
(III) ,

. ,
,
, , .
(IV)
, ,

.
, ,

.
.
. (I)
, .
; ,
: I was believing, he is believing, 1 was knowing, he is
knowing, I was suspecting, he was suspecting.

. , :
" -", ,
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, "
",
. , , .

. ,
, : All the while you were
assuming (presupposing, accepting) that so and so '
(, ) - -*. ,
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,
.
, -
,
. ,
210

: I assume that so and so ' , -


-'; ,
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,
.
, , ,
; ,
: Jones was, Smith admitted, able ' ,
, '.

. , , , deduce admit,
. ,
, assume, presuppose believe,
, I assume (believe,
suppose) ' (, )' -
, , ,
, .
, ,
() (
), -, .
, , , ,
,
,
.
, , -,
, .
,
,
(. (III) ).
, , .
,
.


seem ''. :
I regret thai it is too late Unfortunately it is too late
' , ,
'.
regretted that it was too l a t e I t seemed to him to be
unfortunately too late
' , , ,
, '.
I believe that it is lost It is probably lost
* , , , '.
211

He believed that it was lost It seemed to him to be probably


lost
' , , ,
'.
(IV):
, , -
, - ,
,
( ,
know).
: believed that it was lost ' ,
'

, ,
, .
he suggested * ', he concluded
' ' . . ,
,
,
,
.
,


.
, ,

,

. , ,
believe,
.
I know , ,
, , :
,
,
I know. ,
believe,
. Know
,
believe. , I presup
pose that ' , '
,
212

, presupposed that
' , /?' :
, , ,
, , , ,
.
he believes that p, ,
, , , ,
I believe that p. assume
, believe, deduce, conclude guess
-. , ' '
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, -
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; believe.
, " ", ,
;
know.
,
,
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hear '', rejoice '
', expect '';
.
, ,
,
,
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,
,
to say '*.
, I am sorry that
; , say,
:
is, I am sorry to say, unwell.
', , '.
I am glad ' '
. ,

. ,

. , I regret to hear that p '
, ' I regret ' ' I hear '
',
213

. I am
sorry to conclude ', ...'.

.
,
. ,

( )

. , guarantee ''
, I guarantee '
' ,
. , I bet ' '
, I warrant '
' .
.
,

.

He'll come to a bad end, I guarantee ' ,
', : Taken! '
!', - : He'll forget to come, I bet
' , ', ,
, .

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.

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.

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:
214

Je regrette de vous informer que votre fils est mort


' , ';
Je suis desole du fait que votre fils est mort
' , '.
je regrette du fait que '
, '. , ,
, ,

,
, I regret
leider.
,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.
,
. , ,
,
.
meditate '', ponder '*, worry '
', imagine '', work out ''.

, .
, wish '', command '', implo
re '', like '', hate '', approve
'', love '',
,
. ,
,

, that,
. ,
,
, .

. ,
, know, believe de
duce. .
1.
, ,

,
.
215


,
,
.
,
, ,
- !
.

. -,
()
.
, , , ,
.
2. ,

;
.
3. , , ,
, ,
. ,
know, ,
,
. , ,

.
,

.
, -
. ,
, ,
. :
.

. ,

, ,
,
, ~ , , V
, (), 3(x),i *, (
)
,
1
not \ and '', or '', if '
', all '', some at least one '' '
', the ( ). , ,
, ;
,
; ,
, .
,
, , ,
, , ,
,
. ,

,

. , ,
,
,
,
. , -,
, ,
; -,
.
G r i c e H. P. Logic and conversation. In: Syntax and semantics, v. 3,
d. by P. Cole and J. L. Morgan, N'. Y., Academic Press, 1975, p. 4158
Academic Press, 1975.
* "| , &, V, --,V {*)> 3 (x), i x. . .
217

,
, .

, ,
;
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,
,
, , ,
,
.
- ,
, { ) ,
, ,
.

, ,
,
.
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) . ( ,
;
, - .)

.
, .
,
;
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;
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( ) .
,
; ,
( a fortiori,
), ,
218

; (
)
. ,
,
,
,

,
. ,
,
;
,
.

: ,
, .

, .
,

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.
,
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; -

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,
,
.

,
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, .
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, ;
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,

- . ,

.
219

: , (
) , ,
, ., ,
, .
, ,
(implicate)
(implicature), . .
, (implying), (implication),
. . , , (what is im
plied). ,

,
. , ,

,

. ,
.
,
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( ),
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is in the grip of a vice * '/'
' *. ,

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,
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; ,
,
( ) (1) :
- ,
(2) - ~
(,
). , ,
, :
() \
() ;
() ,
in the grip of a vice (
(1) (2)).
* vice : 1) ', '; 2) ', '.
, .
. .
220


:
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) , ,

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,
;
.

, , , .
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,
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,
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, .
,
;
,
(conversational implicatures *).
.

.
6

.
, ,
, -
* conversation ', ',
discourse ', '.
. ,

, .

. . .
221

()
.
(,
) ;
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() .
.
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: ,

, a npotTo .
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222

2. ,
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223

,
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. .

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).
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224

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, 8 . 352

226

, .

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).
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.

. , ( , 326

*), , , q.
, , q,
: (1) ,

; (2) , ( ),
q,
,
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, , ); (3)
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),
(2).
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.

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; 2)
; 3) ,
; 4) ; 5) (
),
,
, .

: , ; , * , (or making as if to say)
, ,
. .;
,
. . .
8*

227

;
, , q\ {
, , ),
, , q\ ,
q: ,
, q>.

,
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, ;
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:
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228

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(1) .
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, X ;
.)


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;

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.
(16)
, ,
.
229

, , \ , ,
,
- -,
, .
,
,
, (Methinks
the lady doth protest too much '-,
'*).
,
, .
,
,
, .
(2) ,
.
1. . X,
, . , ,
. : X . (
. , ,
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,
; ,
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.)
2. . You are the cream in my cof
fee, . ' ' **,
;
, , ; ,
,
* : Q u e e n . The lady doth protest too
much, methinks (III , 2- ). . :

!
, ,
.
( (18281844), . . ). . ,
** . . . , .
280

. ,
, (
) .
,
. :
,
" , ",
" ".
3. (). ,
, , :
.
4. . .
(26) ,
,
, ; -,
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;
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.
: ,
?.

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.
(4) ,
, .
1. , ,
, ,
,
. :
, , ,
281


? .
() ,
,
, ,
, , .
, , : Never seek to tell thy love,
Love that never told can be '
, , ' *.
, ,
I sought to tell my
love, Love that never told can be '
( ), , '.
. -, my love
' '
, ; -,
love that never told can be ',
', ', ,
, * **.
, -
( )
, ,

, , , ,
,
(. Since she [nature] pricked thee out of women's pleasure, mine
be thy love, and thy love's use their treasure ***).
* (17891793);
. . .
** . " : -*
, .
: .
Thy love '' (,
. , -, ).
FJpt'M- .
*** 20- (
: pricked thee out f o r women's pleasure).
. . :
[] ,
,
. .
. :
,
, .
. , . , . .
. 232

() ,
, .
. ,
, : Peccavi
(. ' '). I have
Sind/I have sinned ' '/' ', ,
,
.
,
;
, .
,
, (' ') ,
. ,

,
;
,
, ,
,
, , .
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
,
. . ,
, ,
, .

, -, Peccavi ,
,
; , -,
,
, .
.
2. .

? ,
,
, . ,
, ;
. , 1- (
); .: Shakespeare. Sonets. Ed. by A. Rowse. London,
1964. . . . , .
233

, , , ,
, .
, :
, ,
,
.
3. .
:
() X Home sweet home *.
() X ,
Home sweet home,
,
(), (). ( .
()
()? (,
X
, .
, , X
- . ,
;
.)

,
, .

, ,
,
, , .
, ,
, ,
(
) - -
. :

.
, , .
, : X is meeting a woman this evening
'X ',
, , ,
, -.
, : X went into a house yesterday and found
a tortoise inside the front door ' ()
* , ,
. , . . .
234

',
, ,
-.
a garden ' ', '
', a college ' ' . . ,
(I have been sitting in a
car all morning * '),
(I broke a finger yester
day ' '). ,
an
X (' X'): , ,
, ", X";
"an X ( ),

"; "an X { ),

1'.
(, ,
). -, an X,
, X (
-
). - ,
,
;
, .
, -

.
,
,
( )
, (
), .
. ,
,
,
,
; ,
,
, , ,

- . ( ),
,
. ,
, ,
235

,
. ,
, ,
, ,

.
, , ,
, ,
:
1. ,
, ,
, ,
,
.
-
, ,
;

, ,
, ,
.
2.
, ,
, (, ,
),
, ,
,
. ,
( )

.
, ,
, ,
,
.
3.
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
.
,

.
, 336

, ,
.
4.
, (, ,
, , ,
), ,
, , ,
(putting it that way).
5.
,
,
.
, .

; ,

, , -,
.

3.

,

( , ,
)

(. V e n d l e r 1970: 7997, V e n d l e r 1970b: 7390, V e n d l e r
1972).
, ,

.
() -,

.
, , kick '' push ''.
()
( L e e s
1960), -
, watch '1 imitate '',
( ( L e e s I960)).
,
watch
Continuous
()
, ,
,

, indicate '1, entail ' 1
. .
()
(achievement
Zeno V e n d l e r . Illocutfonary suicide. In: Issues in the Philosophy of
language, Yale University Press, 1976, p. 135145.
Yale University Press, 1976.
238

verbs) , , believe '


' intend '' (. V e n d l e r 1967: . 4).
() ,
1- .
( . ).
, ,
decide '' find out '',
.
, (
) : , , (comissives), (exercitives) (behabitives), CM, A u s t i n
1962: 147163,
, ,
, ,

, .
, ,
.

, ,
. :
() [to say] " V + " , V+
() [in saying] " V + " , V--
() [hereby] V-J-,
V + , -
. , ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
, -
, , , , say
'/', , . ,
?
: , ... (),
... (), ... (),
... (), ... ( ).
, ,
: ,
, , , . .,
.
239

?
, , .
?
, ,
, ,
, , ,
. , , -

.
.
, ,
. ., ,
argue '
' warn ''
convince
'' deter '1.
, ,
,
,
. , ;
, - -,
. , , ,
, , ,
.

. , ,
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
, 1- .
. :
, .
.
, ,
, ,
,
. , allege ' ', insinuate '
' brag '' ; egg on '', goad '', incite ',
' threaten '' ;
, scold '', berate '', scoff ''
flatter ''
.
240

. , , - ,
,
, , ,
- .
- ,
, -
, - ,
,
-
- . - ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, . .

. ?,
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1- .
,
.
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?
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.
.
,
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,
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,
, , , , -
, " ".
, ,
241


, .
. ,
,
, , :
brag '' boast ''; insinu
ate '' hint ''; allege

lie ''.
, , , , ,
, ,
, : "
, "? .
", , ".
, ,
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, .
, ;

; ( ): " ,
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; .
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: , , (
), ,

. :
,
? , , , ,
242

, ? ,

, .
, , /?? ,
, , , >
( . . ;
. G r i c e 1957). .,
, :
, , ,
. , allege.
, , " , ";
.
,
.
,
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, ,
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), .
- .
,
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.
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,
, , ,
.
, , ,
, , -, , ,
, , , , , , .
.
: ,
allege,
. , ,
,
243

, ,
, , ,
,
, , ,
(
).
(spoi
ling) , ,
,
.
: , , , ,
, , , .
, allege,
. , , ,
, , . ,
" ".
, ,
.
slander '';
, ,
,
.
,
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,
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; ",
? , ". ,
,
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, ,
: . ,
: " ?'1
, , :
" [, ],
..." . .

: , ,
. ,
(
, ,
), .
:
244

" ...";
.
, ,
: ,
, .
imply '' , ,
: " ...".
brag ''
boast ', '.
,
brag , ,
boast. , ,
,
- ,

, , ,
.
,
" ", .
boast,
( ,
), ,
, " ()"
,
, . 11: : - ;
,, , ,
- (boast)... ? ...
? : .
, ,

, .
, , ,
.
,
blurt out ',
'. ,
.
: , ,
. :
, , -
, , , ,
. , : " ,
..." , : " ,
, ,
". - .
245

,
, . ,
egg on goad ', '
, incite instigate ''
. threaten '' .

entice '*, seduce '' , ,
cajole ' '.
egg on goad
, hint '' insinuate '
*. , :
,
, - , -
. , ,
, , ,
, . "

, ... ...
:
, !.."
: ,
-, , ,
,
.


...", " ...",
.
incite instigate '' -
, . ,
- , , ,
,
.
; , ,
" *\ , ,
, X, ,
, , .
, threaten ''. ,
threaten warn '',
(I warn you not to do X '
, X'), warn (The bull is going to charge ' -
'). " "
, " "
. ?
? .
- , , 246

,
, .
, ,
.
" ", ,
,
: , ,
.
,
. ,
.
,
: scold '', berate '
1
, nag '' upbraid ''
, a scoff '', mock '
', taunt, gibe '', jeer '', belittle '
' flatter ''
. .

: , ,
. .
: , , ,
,
,
, , ,
.
,
,
, ,
, . . ,
,
. ,
, " ", , "
" .
?
-,
? ,
,

. ,
" " " ",


. , ,
: " , ?", ,
; , : " ,
247

?", , ;
, :
" , ?", ,
.


.

1- .
: ,
,
. , , (
')

.
,
:
(. , );
(.
, );

, , .
,
, ,
(crowing) . . ,

, ,
.

,

. ,
, .
, , ,

.
, ,
, ,
.
: , " ...",
, ,
, .
1

, ,
, , A u s t i n 1962: 7173. . .
248

,
. :
? ,
. :
, .
, .
, .
.
: - ,
, , ,
. ?


. .
, , , .
, .
, , . .
,

; .

. , : ",
, ". ? ?
,
, , , , .
,

.
, , ,
. ,
( ),
( ) , .
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
, : " ",
, ,
,
*
* . . .
249

(
),
. ,
( ).
, , ,
, ,
,
.
: " ,
?" ,
. .
, . ,

. ,
:
. ,
,
,
.
, ,
,
, , .
.

V e n d l e r 1967 V n d I e r Z. Linguistics in Philosophy. Ithaca, N. Y., Cor


nel! Universit- Press, 1967.
V e n d l e r 1970a V e n d l e r Z. Say what you think. In: Studies in
Thought and Language, J. L. Cowan (ed ), Tuscon, University of Arizona Press,
1970.
V e n d l e r 1970b V e n d l e r Z. Les performatifs en perspective. Langua
ges, 17, 1970.
V e n d l e r 1972 V e n d l e r Z. Res Cogitans. Ithaca, N. Y Cornell Univer
sity Press, 1972.
L e e s 1960 L e e s R. B. The grammar of English nomlnalization. The Ha
gue, Mouton, 1960.
A u s t i n 1962 A u s t i n J. L. How to do things whith words. Oxford, Cla
rendon, 1962.
O r I c e 1967 O r i c e H. P. Meaning. Philosophical Review, 1957, 66-



,
,
,
,

.
. .
( W i t t g e n s t e i n
1966:
192).

:
(1) !
(2) *.
,
. (W i b i k a 1969: 1332)

:
( 1 ) = , .
(2) = , , .
,
: ,
,
. ,

:
( 1 ) = : .
(2) = , , : .
,
.
( R o s s 1970). ,
,

; W i e r z b i c k a . Acts of speech. 7 : W i e r z b i c k a A.
Semantic primitives, Frankfurt-am-Main, Athenaum, 1972, p. 122146.
* , ,
. . .
25|

,
. , ,
; -f ,
+ , + , + , +
. . , , ,
: ...

, ""
"" (L a k i f 1970:166). . ,
,
: ,
(...) ,
" , ...", "
, ...", " , ...",
, " ",

(..,); ,

, " ,
" ( a w I e 1970).
, ,
, , , tell ['
'] ask [', '] ( M c C a w l e y 1968:157).
, (say),
(state), (declare) (tell)
- ,
(
); , ,
, ,
,
. , "
-" " - -"? ,
( ),
. ( ) ~
;
, ?
( )
,
, , ,
( , ,
; )*, . * , cause ', ',
,
; , ; . 252

,
*:
S = , S =
, , : S .
^= , =
, , : .
, ,

, \

: ,
.
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( ,
).
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,
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, , , , ,
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,
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= , ,
, , "", .

**. (

,
,
.
cause (. . spowodowac,
).
, , (.
"" , )
(. X , Y, Z).
, . , , X Z
' Y Z';
. . .
* ,
, . . .
** () ()
say tell. ,
..
.
253

),
,
- (),

. , ,
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,
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,
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,

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) , ,
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. (
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.

, :
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: , "X
Y, Z", X.
, "X Y, Z" 'X
Y : Z, , , Y (
), Z\ " , "
,
( ) - .
, -,
, .
( A u s t i n 1962):
- , Z, 254

, Z,
,
2
.
,
.
, -...
, ,
-, ...
X : Z = X : Z, , Y
, , , .
X Y, Z = X (Y): Z, ,
Y (), Z.
, ,
,
X. , ,
, , , ,
X, Y, Z, ,
X , Y , Z. (,
, ,
, ,
, .)
X Y : Z , X ,
Y , , , Y
, :
X , Y , X
Y . ., X Y.
, , , "X Y: Z"
X, "X Y, Z"
.
:
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, . .
;
,
, . .
: (1) (2) ,
/ , ,
, .
, ,
,
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, = ,

,
3
, : .

, ,
255

.
, ,.,,
,... (, , ...). , ,

, .

.
, = ,
, ,
.
( , 4
"") .
:
, =
, , .


(L a k f f 1968)
! " ",
,
.
, ,
, . /
" " "
" " "?
,
. !, ,
, ; !,
, ,
; !, ,
, . . ,
,
( ), (
, ,
) " , , ...".
, ,
, . .
,
( ).

( .
*):
* . . 261. . .
256

! ( )
=
, ,
, ,
,
: , .
( ) =
=
, ,
,
,
: , .

:
, ,
; ,
, ,
. "
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, , , , . .,
{ , //).
,
" : , ..." " ,
..." .
, .

. . ( G o r d o n L a k o f f
1971)
: "
, /?, ,
, , , ,
, ,
".
,
,

(
,
, , ,
), ,
(
) " , ...".

. (S 1 1969:66). ,
,
" ", 9 . 352

257

, " , ",
,
(" ") : ,
; ,
; , ,
(
, , ).
, .
,
(),
, ,
, .
, ,
( ,
), ,
(, . .) .
,
,

( ,
). , :
X Y Z =
X, , Y Z,
Z,
Y Z, Y:
, Z,
Z,
Z,
: , Z.
X Y Z
X, , Y
, X ,
,
Y:
, ,
, ,
: , Z.
(" ...")
. .
, ,
, ,
,
. ., , :
xlmperare est significare Tibi, nos velle, ut sit imposita Tibi necessitas faciendi; <aConstilere significare, nos utile Tibi judicare, ut
258

tacias * ( L e i b n i z 1903:499).
,
, ,
tibi '1 nos '', .

. ,
,
.
(. B o y d T h o r n e 1969 : 60) , ,
,
.
,
.
, , ,

, ,
: = ,
,.., : .

: Petere proponere aliquid tanquam bonum dicenti, quod effici possit ab audiente** ( L e i b n i z 1903:499).
,
, ( ),
,
.
, .

, (
) , :
" : (desire),
", " : ,
" ( " " (desire), ,
"" "",
, ).
.

: (. ,
. , . .),
{a, b, S),
* . , ,
<->; ,
, <:
) {.).
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(.).
9*

25*

(a, b, {b% , 5 ) ) ; , "


...", " , ...". ,

.
. (7) (2) ( G o r d o n La k f f 1971), (2)
, :
(7) . , , .
b. ,
?
c. , ?
d. , ?
(2) . , .
b. ?
c. , ?
d. ?
(7) .

, ( G o r
d o n L a k o f f 1971 :4).
.
, , ,
. (, ,
, ,
; ,
.)
:
(1) , .
(2) ?
,
. : ,
, , ,
. .
?.
? , ,
, .
.
,
, ; -
, , ( W i e r z b i c k a 1967).
, , . .
. ,
,
260

:
,
, .
, , . .
,
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. ,
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. , ,
,
, ?.

:

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,
. ., (
,
). ,
, ;

.
, X Y: ,
, Zt, X
"X Y, Z"? , .
- ,
.
: X
Y , Z.

... ... (
) :
, =
, , .
? ,
, , , :
, .
- , ,
, .
:
X Y, = X,
Y , (X) ,
261

, , ,
, ,
: , .
,
, : Querere id
est interrogare est voluntatem cognoscendi ostendere ei, qui potest
docere seu dare cognitionem. Qui si det, dicitur respondere * ( L e i b
n i z 1903:494).
, : (1) (
) , ,
, ,
, ,
(...)- (2) , ()
, ,
;

, ,

,
( S e a r l e 1969:66).
,
. ,
,
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,
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.
, .
,
,
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, (,
?), :
= , =
, ,
, : .
X , = X,
, Y
( , ),
Y:
,
, ,
: .
* ( )
, . ,
, ().
262

Z =
, ,
,
Z,
: , Z.
Z =
, , ,
,
Z,
: ,. Z.
Z =
, ,
, ,
Z,
: : , Z.
,
.
,
,
. ,
, . ,
, -
-,
- -,
- .
(
, .)

. , ,
,
. ,
, ,
;

,
.
.
: = ( L e e c h 1969 : 206).
X Y Z, , X Y
Z , , , X Y Z
X Y Z. , ,
, ,
,
263

.
, ,
, ,
, ,
- ( B o y d T h o r n e 1969 : 60).
, ,
,
,
ad hoc.
,
, :
, .
,
, ,
: ", " ",
".
!. ( ,
) ,
( , )?
, ,
,
" Z" "
Z"?
.
, :
. ,

, ,
.
( ,
, ) ,
( ),
, , , ,
( 1969:22). ,
,
. ,
,
. , ,
, . , .
, ,
, ,
. ,
:
, =
264

, :
,
, ,
: , .
" "
'' "
(" "),
, : ,
,
(...).
I demand to know ' ',
*I command to know ' * ( B o y d T h o r n e
1969:60).
" "
. ,
, .
:
=
, :
, ,
, ,
: , .
=
,
,
,
, ,
: , .
"" (
) ""; , "
", ,
"".
, =
, , ,
, ,
,
,
,
: .
.
, ""
,
( ).
265

,
. ,
. ,
,

? ( , ,
, , ) ?
,
. ,
, , ,
, : 7. ()
,
; 8. (
) ,
A ( S e a r
te 1969:60). ,
:
" " " ,
, ". ,
:
( - ),
.
:
Z =
, , Z,
, ,
, ,
,
: Z.
,
, . "
..." :
, ,
,
.
,

,
,
, ,
.
,
( )
() 266

, (S 1 1969 : 67).
,
: suadere est
aliquid tanquam bonum audienti, dissuadere tanquam
malum* ( L e i b n i z 1903:499) ,
"bonum" "malum"
, , dicere, maledicere, minari ( L e i b n i z 1903:499) . .
,
petere '' :
petere aliquid tanquam bonum dicenti, quod effici possit ab audiente ** ( L e i b n i z 1903:499). ,
suadere '*
dissuadere '', (,
, )

.

"bonum" "malum" ,
, , ?
, ,
"" ""
, , .
(
), .
,
:
, ()
, ,
(: ,
),
,
,
: , .
, , ,
, ,

(: ,
),
,
* - , ^
(.).
** . . 259.
267

( ,
),
: , .
( ) =
, , ,
, ,
, ,
: , .
, ,
(...)
- (S 1 1969:67).
, , ,
,
. ,
;
:
,
, ,
, ,
.
, , -,
- (, ,
) .
, ,
-
, .
, ( S e a r l e 1969:67),
" : , ...",
,
.
, , , - -,
, , ,
( ) . ,

. ,
, ,
, -, -
. ,
, , , ,
,
, . ,
... .
,
, " - -",^
268

().
,
- ,
, ,
. , ,
,
...,
:
.,.
, ,
, , ,
,
: , ...
(behabitives)

behabitives ( A u s t i n 1962:
151) *.
, , ,
, -
.
( )!
, , ,
, ,
,
, ,
: ,
.
( )! =
, ()
,
,
,
, ,
: ,
.
=
,
( - ),
* behabitives, . ,
,
( . . . -
. ., 1976, . 48) { . 3. -
. . 2: .
, 39, . , 1982, . 159). . .
269

, - ,
, ,
- ,
: - .
! =
, ,
,
, - ,
, ,
,
: - .
! =
, ,
,
, ,
,
: .
! =
, ,
,
, ,
: , .
,
: , , ,
, , .

, .
, .
,
.
,
,
(S 1 1969:66);
,
,
,
,
. ,
- , (
),

.
, ,
,
, ! 270

!,
. ,
, ,
: ,
,
.
: Salutare est conversationem incipere cum significatione benevolentiae, praesertim cum voto, Vatedicere est tali significatione conversationem firure * ( L e i b n i z 1903:500).
,
( ) ,
; significatio benevolen
tiae ( ).
congratulari testari eventum tibi gratum etiam nobis gratum esse** ( L e i b n i z 1903:500),
, (
); , , eventum tibi
gratum (', ') -
, ,
.

:
, (-).
(benedicare est optare bonum alteri, maledicere est optare malum alteri*** ( L e i b n i z 1903:499)), -,
,
.
, , , -
, ,
, .

,
,
, ,
,
: .
* ,
.
(.).
** ^ , , ,
(.).
*** (, , )
; (, , ) (.).
271

=
,
,
, ,
,
: (-) .
=
, ,
, ,
,
: , .
,
*. ,
,
,
(
).
,
,
, ....

( A u s t i n
1962 : 160). , , (
), , ,
- ;

. , ,
, .
(maintain), =
, , , ,
: .
(claim), =
, , , ,
,
, , , ,
: .
=
, , ,
,
: , .
* . benedicare maledicere,
, ,
: benedicare ', ,
1, maledicere ', , , *. . .
272

=
, , ,
,
: , .
, =
, , ,
,
: , , .
=
, , ,
: .
, =
, ,
,
: .
, ~
( ,
) , ,
: .
, =
,
,
, , , ,
: .
, =
, ,
,
, ,
: .
=
, ,
,
: .

(, , ,
, , , . .)
.

, , , . .
;
, ,
(
),
.
273

,
,
" ",
( A u s t i n 1962:99).
,
()
"" "", .
" " ,
, .
, , -
,
. , ,
" "
( , , ):
, , , ,
. .
"
", " " . .
(
, , ,
)
. ,

,

.

' ,

: , lingua
mentalis
( ).
2
- . , :
,
, , ,
(35),
( L a k o f f 1970:335336). (35) :
, ,
.
3
. , 1.
4

W i e r z b i c k a 1969.

1969 . .
. ,
, . XXVIII, 1969, 1, . 1123.
274

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. 79128).

. , .

,
, . ,
: , ,
, .
,
. ,

. ,

.
; ,
,
, , ,
. ,
,
.
G r i c e 1975 , ,
,
.
: -,

; -, ,
,
,
.


( L a k o f f G. 1900).
David G o r d o n , George Lakoff. Conversational Postulates, In: Syn
tax and Semantics, Volume 3 (Speech Acts), Ed by P. Cole and J. L. Morgan,
New YorkSan FranciscoLondon, Academic Press, 1975, p. 83106.
t$ Academic Press Inc., 1975,
276


, .
L ;
L (
) (L); :
(1) L ||E(L) [' L E ( L ) ' ] .
,,
,
(conversational postulates
()), ,
.
.
,
CON,

.
CONi ,
L .
CONi L
, E ( L ) ,
, .
, CONi U U {L}
, E(L). ,
( ),
, ,
, .
,
( )
CONt: (2) L
CONi, CONi U (J (L}|/ - P
( CON;
L ).
L ,
;
, (),
.

,
( -*
):
(3) . (, (, 6, Q ) ) - ^ (, Q)
. (, (, by Q))-v
(, (6, Q))
277

c. (, (, , Q))^-
(, (6, Q))
d. (, (, by Q))
(, 1 Q), Q ( (b, R))
[' R']
, , R,
, R, ,
R, , R, ,
R .
, (3)
, ,
1.
,
,
2.
:
(4) a. I want you to take out the garbage
' , '.
b. Can you take out the garbage?
' ?*
c. Would you be willing to take out the garbage?
' ?'
d. Will you take out the garbage?
' ?'

. (4) (5),
:
(5) a. I suppose you're going to take out the garbage
' , '.
b. Must you take out the garbage?
' ?'
c. Are you likely io take out the garbage?
' , ?*
d. Ought you to take out the garbage?
' ?'
, (4)
, (5)
? ,
(4) (3).
, (3).
(4)
(a, Q), = I b = you. (4). (4) (4d)
,

3
(, Q), (6, Q) 1Q . 278

(4) ,
. () ,
.
, ,
, .
,
. , , :
(6) ()
, , ()
,
.
, (6)
4:
(7) . (, , (, Q))*-- (, b, Q )
b. (, , {b, Q))*-^
(, 6, Q)
c. (, , {b, Q))*-^
(, b, Q)
d. (, , Q ) * ^ (, b, Q),
Q ( (6, R)) ['
R'J ( ).
, (7) , .
,
.
, (7) ( )
. Can you take out the garbage?
' ?' :
,
, ,
.
, ,
.
, ()
,
( ) .
,
:
(8) Vp(a, b, S)* = Vp(a, b, S) 1 (,
(a, b, Vp (a, b, S))) (6, 1HAMEPEH
(a, (a, b, Vp(a, 6, S ) ) ) ) ,
Vp .

. 279

(, . , ),
: (, ,
(, , $)), (, , S), ,
... [I request that you tell me...], a
... [I ask you...].
, .
(4) (9):
(9) a. I want you to tell me whether Harry left5
' , , '.
b. Can you tell me where the bus stops?
' ,
?'
c. Would you be willing to tell me why you left your wife?
' ,
?'
d. Will you tell me how to adjust the TV?
. ' , ?'
(9) .

,
.
,

;
. , ,

6
, :
(10) . (, (, b, Q))-> (, Q)

b. (, (, b, Q)) -^ (, Q)
c. (, (, &, Q))-> (, Q).

(10) (10 ) ,
-, ;
- , .
,
,
:
(11) a. I want you to shut the door
' , '.
b. I believe it's time to go home 7
' , '.
c. I intend to pay you back
' ' 8 .
280

(It b)
believe, ( ) .
:
(12) . (, , (a, Q ) ) * - * (a, b, Q)
b. ( ( a , Q ) ) * ^ (atbtQ)
c. (, 6, (a, Q))*-^ {a,b,Q).
(10),
(6 ) , ,
, . (10)
,
(13)
:
(13) . Please close the window though I don't want you to
', , ,
'.
b. Harry is sleeping with Sheila, but I don't believe it
' , '.
c. I promise you to pay you back, but I don't intend to
' ,
*.

, *
, ,
, ,
.
, ,

. ,

, , ,

:
(14)
(a, Vp(a, b, Q)) -+ ()
(rt , [ ]).
, :
(15) . (, (a, b, Q))-> (, Q)
b. (, (a, b, Q ) ) ^
(, (6, Q))
c. (, (, 6, Q))->
(, (6, Q))
d. (, (, b, Q))-+
(, 1 Q)
e. (, {a, b, Q)) -> (, Q)
281

f. (, (a, b, Q ) ) - *
(a, Q)
(14), (15 ) (16 f)
:
(16) . (, (, b, Q)) -*- ()
(, (a, Q))
b.
(, (. 6, Q)) -> ()
(, , (,
(ft, Q))

c. (, (a, b, Q))->(3r)
(, , (,
(ft, Q)))
d. (, (, 6, Q))-*(3r)
(, , (a, 1Q))
e. (, (, 6, Q)) ()
(, , (a, Q))
f. (, (a, ft, Q))-^(3r)
(, , (a, Q))
.
(17) . ,
.
b. ,
, .
c. ,
,
.
d. ,
,
.
e. ,
.
i. ,
.

. (18) ,
:
(18) . Why do you want me to do that?
' , ?*
b. What makes you think I can do that?
' , ?'
c. What makes you think I would be willing to do that?
. ' ,
?'
d. Why do you think I wouldn't do that anyway?

' ,
?'
.- What make? you thinK that?
. ' ?*
f. Why do you intend to do that?
' ?'

:
(19) a. You don't really want me to do that it's against your
best interests
' , ,
'.
b. I can't do that I hurt my arm
' *.
c. I'd never be willing to do that it's against my religion
'
'.
d. I was going to do that anyway
' '.
e. There isn't any reason to believe it
',
i. You don't have any reason for intending to do that
why make a promise?
'
() ?'
, ,
,
.
, ,
- ,
.
,
, , (14).
, - - ,
. Does it need to be
done? ' ?' It's been done alrea
dy ' '. ,
.

,
;
,
, . 283

, , ,
,
-
, , -
. , ,
- ,
, ,
, . ,
- , ; -
.
- - , ,
, .
,
.

:
(20) [ (, 6, (, b, Q)) .
(, , (, b, Q)) (, Q - ^ P ) ] ^
(, ) (, 1
(6, )) (, (, b, Q))-^
(, , ) ] .
, , Q,
, Q, , Q ,
, , , ,
, 6, Q,
6, . ,
. ,
? . ,
, ?
. -
,
(20)
.
. ,
:
(21) Your wife is faithful
' () 1.
,
. . ,
, ,

, , ,
, ,

9
. , " ":
284

(22)
(a, bt Q)+-*
(,

(
(
{b,
Q
)
)
)
)
,
+ ,
,
- .
;
(23) (a, S ) - * S ,
(22) , :
(24) (, , Q)+->- (,
( (6, Q))).
(25)
( ):
(25) (, (R)) -*-
(a, 1R).
(22), (23), (24) (25) , :
(26) (, , Q)+ ->- (, 1
(6.Q)).
, ,
(21), , , .
, , .
(21),
,
, ,
.
S e a r l e 1969: 124.
,
. , ,
(27) :
(27) Either Senator Quirk is a Communist or he isn't
' , '.
, , ,
:
(28) {, , Q) -+ [ (,
()) (, (Q))].
- (27), ,
.
, ,
, ,
(27), . , (29) :
(29) Either Senator Quirk is a loyal American or he isn't
' ,
'.
,
285

, .


why
(30):

(30) Why are you painting your house purple?


' ?'
.
, - ,
, . ,
.
,
(30) (31 ), (31 ):
(31) a. I don't have much money and there was a sale on purple
paint at the hardware store.
' ,
',
b. What's wrong with purple?
' ?'
,
.
, ?
?
, (30) (32):
(32) (, , (6, , ()
(, 6, (6, Q ) ) ) ) , () (, 6,
(b, Q)) ' ,
Q'*.
, ,

,
, ,
. ,
:
(33) (, (, ( (
(, , (, 6, Q ) ) ) ) ) ) 1
(, (, ( (
* . . .
286

(, ft, (ft, Q ) ) ) ) ) ) ,
( (, ft, (ft, Q)))
' ft Q'
' ft Q'.
-
,
why.
,
. , b
Q, ,
, , ft
Q,
, ft Q:
(34)
[ {, ft, (ft, Q))
(, 1 ( (, ft, (ft,
Q))))] -+ (, (
(ft.Q)))).
,
, ,
, , , Q;
-
. ,
, :
(35) May be you shouldn't paint your house purple
' ,
1.
(35) ,

.
:
(36) :
Vp{a, ft, R) [Vp(a, ft, R) -> (,
( S ) ) ] - ^ (, S),
Vp , a R S .
(36) (37):
(37) V0(fl, ft, R) [Vp(a, ft, R) ^ (a,
(1 ( (ft, Q)))) -^ (,
1 ( (ft, Q))).
V p (a, ft, R) = (32);
,
(30) :
(38)
(, 1
(
(, ,
(ft, Q ) ) ) ) - * (, ] (ft, Q)).
287

(38) :
(39) Q,
Q.
(30) ,
why,
(39'):
(39') ,
,
.

. ,
(30), ,
,
.
, (30)
, .
.


.
, ,
,
- . ,

. :
(40) Why paint your house purple?
' ?'
(40) you '' .
(40) ,
(41):
(41) Why do you paint your house purple?
' ?'
- , (41). (41)
, (30).
(40), .
.
:
(39") ,
,
.
, , you ,
, (39").
(39')
,
, ,
288

you
.

:
(42) CONt

: WHY YOU TENSE *WHY , ,
CONi U U {L}||~ ' -
, *
( L ).

, ,
. ,
:
(43) WHY YOU TENSE *->WHY x ||-'
-
\
!1 ,
,
,
, , -.
, , .

.
,
. why (30)

, ,
.
,

, (38).
,
, (40),

.

,
, . .
,
,
. ,
.
. 352

289

, please ''

:
(44) please
, ,
10
.
please
,
.
*:
(45) a. Please, can you open a window?
', ?*
. Please, will you get me a glass of water?
', ?'
c. Please, it's cold in here
', *.
d. Please, my daughter's a virgin
', '.
e. Please, it's 10 o'clock
', 10 '.
f. Please, be glad that they didn't fire you
', , '.
g. Please, get me a drink
', '.
(45) (46):
(46) a. Can you open a window please?
' , ?
b. Will you get me a glass of water please?
' , ?'
c. * It's cold in here, please
' , '.
d. * My daughter's a virgin, please
' , '.
e. * It's 10 o'clock, please
' 10 , *.
f. * Be glad that they didn't fire you, please
' , , '.
g. Get me a drink, please
' , '.
(45) please
. please * (46)(47)

.. .
290


,
, .
(46) , , (46g), ,
, ,
, (46) (46), please .
, ,
please;
, , (46f),
.
,
,
please ,
:
(47) a. Who has ever lifted a finger to help me?
' - ,
?'
b. * Please, who has ever lifted a finger to help me?
c. * Who has ever lifted a finger to help me, please?
(476) (47)
please.
, , please ,
,
.
here '',
'', '!' here
,
,
:
(48) . here, ,
& ,


.
. here, ,
,

, .
(48):
(49) a. Here, I want a roast beef special to go
' ,
',
b. Here, I need that wrench
', '.
10*

291

c. , can you take care of me?


', ?'
d. Here, let me through
', '.

. (49)
(49) ,
.
here,
. here
,
,
.
(48):
(50) a. Here, pass me that wrench
', '.
b. Here, that's no way to fix a flat tire
',
'.
c. , can you get me a large wrench?
', ?'
d. Here, I knpw how to do that
', , '.
, ,
, -
(50).
. (50)
(50d), .
here, ,
,
. here
: -
, .
,
, ,
,
(50) . , ,

, (50)
,
.

.
, 292

,
*:
(51) a. I am asking you where Harry went
' , ',
b. Where did Harry go?
' ?'
,

,
:
(52) I want to know where Harry went
' , '.
(52)
, , ,
, ,
,
, . (52)

, .
,
:
(53) a. I want to know where Harry went,
b. I want to know where did Harry go.
(53) , ,
:
, . (53)
.
,

.
, .
(53)
,
, ,


,
. ,
,
,
, :
* ,
, . . .

(54). a. Yesterday I wanted to know where Harry went


' , '.
. * Yesterday I wanted to know where did Harry go.

:
(55) .

,
.
.

,
.
, ,
.

,
, ,
,
,
. ,
, ,
,
.

.
,
,
.
(56)
,
:
(56) Do you know who lives next door to you?
' , ?'
a. Yes ''.
b. No, tell me ', '.
c. Sylvia Vigones.

:
(57) . ()

. ' , ,
'.
294

. ' , '.
, , (56)
,
. . (56)
(57) (57).
? ,
:
(58) . ,
, .
b. , , -, ,
.
c. , , -, ,
.

. ,
,
(57)
(58).
?

:
(59) a. I don't know whether the frying pan goes in the closet
or not
' ,
',
b. Either the frying pan goes in the closet or not
' ,
'.
,
(59), :
(60) Does the frying pan go in the closet or not?
' ?'
(59),
,
. ? (59)
(60)?
,
.

. :
(61) a. May I offer you some of this brandy?
' ?' (
),
b. Must I offer you some of this brandy?
296

' ?' (
).
(62) a. I may offer you some of this brandy
' * ( ),
b. I must offer you some of this brandy
' * ().
(61) , (61)
. ,
may, may,
.
, (61), ?
must, (61),
? (62) .

, (62)? , ,
(62) may
may , may ,
;
, (62) , (62)
(61).
,
,
- , .
:
(63) a. May I tell you that I love you?
' , ?' (),
b. May I ask you how you got in here?
' , ?' ().
c. May I warn you that my pet wombat is dangerous?
' ,
* ?' ().
d. May I suggest that you accept the nomination?
' ,
?' ().
e. May I apologize for dripping ice cream on your dress?
' ,
?' ().
(64) a. I may tell you that I love you
' , ' (
),
b. I may ask you how you got in here
' , ' ( ).
* , s
. . .
296

c. I may warn you that my pet wombat is dangerous


' ,
* ( ).
d. I may suggest that you accept the nomination
' , '
( ).
e. I may apologize for dripping ice cream on your dress
' ,
' ( ).

:
(65) May I accuse you of murder?
' ?' ( ).
(66) a. May I ask you to move your car?
* ?'
(),
b. May I tell you to move your car?
' ,
?' ( ).
(67) a. May I offer to marry you?
* ?*
(),
b. May I promise to marry you?
' ?' (
).
, ,

?
,
( (62)),
,
?

, -, -
. ,
,
. :
(68) a. I am obligated to warn you that unless you pay up, your
car will be repossessed
' , ,
,
' (),
b. I'm supposed to tell you that Billy won't be home until
six
297

' ,
' (),
. I regret that I must ask you to leave
' , ' ().

,
, . ,
- ad hoc,
. ,
,
.
, (67)
, (67) ?

, ,
,
,
, .
,
.
,
,
,

. ,

,
,
.
, ;
. ,
,
, .
,
.
,
, ,
, .
, ,
. ,
D D*.
298

a
(69) Dft : S,
...
L
D :S ft , a . . . &Lb
( S , S , L, L* -
).
Da D&,
,
: a
(70)
L L*
Laa L6
La
L*
b
L
L
t(S a ) = t(S ft ), t(S')
S*.
,
:
(71) La LA
,



, , ,

.

,
, . ,
,
,
,
, ,
. ,
,
.

.
,
,
. ,
,

.

(3) ,
,
.
299

,
.
, ,
(4) .
, , ,
3
, , ,
. ,
, .
, Don't take out the garbage 'He
', Won't you take out the garbage?. 'He
?', Will you take out the garbage? '
?' , .
, ,
,
, , ,
. , Do not make
that noise 'He ' (7).
: Can you not make that noise? '
?' , <5>~| = ") ,
, , ,
<>, '', must '',
,
Must you make that noise? '
?*
,
, ', "| Q'
(, "1 Q); ''. ,
- ,
.
*
:
<1). (, . (, (, Q))) -* (,
, Q)
b. (a, i, (, (6, Q))) -*
(, , Q)
c. (, , (, ] Q ) ) - * (, , Q)
, (la) (lb) :
() a. I assume you can take out the garbage
' , '.
b. I assume you'd be willing to take out the garbage
' , ',
c. I assume you won't take out the garbage
' , '.
() () , ,
, , (
) .
. (1) ,
. () ,
() , .
, .
5

I want to know whether Harry left ' , '.
:
(, , S) -* (, (, S)).
(a, S) -* S , 300

(, , S) -*- (, S). ,
, :
(, (, , (, , Q)))--*- (, (, , Q))
, , :
(, (, 6, (, , Q)))-*- (, (, Q))
, (6) :
(, 6, (, (, Q))) *-*
(, 6, (&, , Q)).
I want to know whether Harry left ' ,
'
.

,
:
(I) . (, (a. b, Q ) ) - ^ (,
(6, Q))
. (, (, , Q)) -+ (,
(, Q)).
(la) , - -,
, . (lb) ,
- -, , .
,
,
, ,
(lb) ,
, , ,
, -.
(II) Do you want me to leave now?
' , ?*
(II) ,
; .
:
(III) a. Do you want some cake?
' ?' ()
b. Do you want your candy store to burn down, Mr. Schwartz?
' , , ?' ()
:
(IV) . ( , , (b, Q ) ) T - * (, , Q)
. (, , (b, Q))*-*- (, , Q).
, ,

.
1
(lib), ,
, . ,
- (10)
,
.
8
(11), , .
9 (11) , .
, ,
, -
, , , ,
, : The Pope's a Catholic, right? So why should he be ce
lebrating Passover? ' , ?
?'
10
. ,
please ,
, .
301

, ,
: Shouldn't you close the door, please? . '
, ?' ( ).
, ,
. ( ),
, ,
: 1 want two hamburgers, and put mustard on both '
, '.
. ,
.
: ,
: .
( ),
, . ,
- : Don't you
think the people in the back of the room should shut up? 'He ,
?',
, .

A u s t i n 1962 A u s t i n J. L. How to do things with words. New York


London, Oxford University Press, 1962.
1 i n g e 1967 B o l i n g e r D, The imperative in English. In: To
Honor Roman Jakobson. The Hague, Mouton, 1967.
G r e e n 1970 WH-imperatives. Unpublished manuscript, 1970.
G r i c e 1975 G r i c e H. P. Logic and conversation. In: Syntax and Se
mantics, Volume 3 (Speech Acts), New York San FranciscoLondon, Acade
mic Press, 1975, 4158 (. . , ., . 217237).
L a k o f f G. 1973 L a k o f f G Some thoughts on transderivational con
straints. University of Michigan mimeo, 1970. In: Issues in linguistics: papers
in honor of Henry and Renee Kahane, B. Kachru et al. (eds.), Urbana, Linguistic
Research, Inc., 1973.
L a k o f f R. 1973 L a k o f f R. Questionable answers and answerabele ques
tions. In: Issues in linguistics: papers in honor of Henry and Renee Kahane,
B. Kachru et al. (eds.), Urbana, Linguistic Research, Inc., 1973.
S a d o c k 1970 S a d o c k J. WH-imperatives. In: Studies presented to
Robert B. Lees by his students, Edmonton, III.: Linguistic Research, Inc., 1970.
S h i f f e r 1970 S h i f f e r S. Meaning. Ph D. dissertation. Oxford
University. 1970.
S e 1 e 1969 S e a r l e J. Speech acts. New York London, Cambridge
University Press, 1969.


.
(

1965 ).

( .)
, 1 . . , . , . .
,


.

, ,
, ;
, -
, . , , ,
order '' force '*
,

, believe ''
realize ''
.
, realize , a force .
, (1)

,
.
L. K a r t t u n e n . La logique des constructions anglaises a complement pr$dicatif. Langages, 1973, 30, p. GG80.
Ditter, Paris, 1973.
303

(1) a) order '* (:, , S),


force '' (, , S);
) realize ', ' (, S),
belive '' (, S) ;
) manage ' <-. >\ '' {, S),
decide ' < -. >' {, S)
able ' <-. >' (, S);
) seem '' (S), happen '' (S),
certain ', ' (S), odd '' (S),
possible '' (S).
, happen seem
,


.
(1) ,
. : , ,

,
. (2),
,
, (1):
(2) .: realize '', odd ', ';
: manage '', happen '';
IF-: force '', certain ', ';
ONLY-IF-: able ' ', possible '
'.


. , i s k
1968, (1) ,
() (36), ()
:
(3) a) It was certain that BUI was alone
' [], *.
) Bill was certain to be alone
' '.
) It was odd that Bill was alone
' , '.
) *Bill was odd to be alone
* ' *.
, ,
,

, . 304


,
.
1.

.
. (Ki p a r s k y 1968)2,
.
*:
(4)
significant ''
know ''
tragic ''
realize ', *
relevant '*
bear in mind ' '
odd ''
take into account ''
regret ''
make clear ''
ignore ' ' find out ''
resent ''
,
** , , (5)
,
.
(5) a) It is odd that Bill is alone
', () '.
) Bill is alone
' () '.
) It is possible that Bill is alone
', () '.
, (5), ,
(56) , . (5),
, ;
.
(6) (66):
(6) a) Mary realized that it was raining
' , ',
) It was raining
' *.
* , .
, K i p a r s k y 1968, "",
, .
. .
**
' ',
' '.
. .
305

) believed that it was raining


' , '.
odd possible realize believe
: (5) (6)
.
,
.
(5) (6), (7),
.
(7) a) It isn't odd that Bill is alone
' , ',
) Mary didn't realize that it was raining
' , '.

: (8)
, (5) (7).
(8) Is it odd that Bill is alone?
' , ?'
,
, ,
.
1.1.

,
,
.
,
.
,
,
.

3
:
(9) Q , ,
T(P)=>T(Q) F(P)=>T(Q), ()
'X ', a F(X) 'X '.
, Q ,
Q , .

.
,

(10), ,
4.
(10) Q :
, ,
, Q.
306

1.2.

. ( M o r g a n 1969)
(11):
(11) a) If I had missed the train I would have regretted it
' , *,
) I dreamed that I was a German and that nobody realized it
' ,
'.
, ,
,
,
. () it '' that I
had missed the train ' '. reg
ret , ()
, .

, ,
, ()
. (116)
,
. . ,
(12), (11),
.
(12) a) If I regretted that I missed the train, I would
not have mentionned it
' , ,
',
) I dreamed that nobody realized that I was a German
' , , *.
(12) ,
, ' ; (126)
, .
(II) (12) ,
(12)
, (126) dream
'' *.
,
if '', dream ''

. , , ,
* (12) (126) () ()

... .. .
307

5 .
:
. , (116) ,
dream, I was a German ' '
;
nobody reali
zed that I was a German ' , ',
dream.
() I had missed the train
' ' ,
, .

() (12). (126) ,
realize, ;
,
. (126)
, , . (116)
, .
, ,
.
- ,

, , , ,
. ,
,
,
. , (11)
,
.
1.3,

,
,
; ,

regret realize. ,
,
realize
. (13)w (136):
(13) a) If I realize later that I have not told t e truth,
I will confess it to everyone
' , ,
'.
308

6) If 1 regret later that I have not told the truth,


I will confess it to everyone
' , ,
'.
, (13) realize
,
; .
(136)^. ,
" " .
, ,
, find out '
'.
2.

, ,
(14).
(14) :
manage ', < - >'
bother ''
happen '1
see fit ' , <-. >>'
get ''
''
have the misfortune ' <-. >-*
have the foresight ' '
take (the) time ' <-. ^ '
take (the) opportunity ' '
take (the) trouble ' '
condescend ', '.
, . ,
(15) ,
.
(15) a) Yesterday, Bill happened to break a window
' , ',
) everyone's surprise, Sam managed to solve
the problem
' , 1.
(16) a) Yesterday, Bill broke a window
' ',
) everyone's surprise, Sam solved the problem
' , *.
(15), (16) ;
(156) (166).
309

manage decide, . (17)


(166) .
(17) everyone's surprise, Sam decided to solve the problem
' ,
'.
, (15) (156)
yesterday '*
to everyone's surprise ' ', -,
(17),
to everyone's surprise
.


. (18) (7).
,

, .
,
, . ,
, (18),
(19).
(18) a) Sheila didn't bother to come
' ',
) Max didn't have the foresight to stay away
' ,
'.
(19) a) Sheila didn't come
' *,
) Max didn't stay away
' *.
(20) :
(20) *Sheila didn't bother to come, but she came nevertheless
*' , *.
(186) (196),
2.1.

()

, (186) (196),
() ' *
''; ,
(21).
(21) Q , , ,
, , Q.
-, .
( A u s t i n 1962). 310

6(necessitation)
(. V a n F r a a s s e n 1968) . ,
,
Modus Tollens*; , (21) ,
-Q , -.
,

,
Modus Tollens.
(21), ,
(22) (226):
(22) a) John managed to kiss Mary
' ',
) John kissed Mary
' '.
, Modus Tol
lens, (226) (22),
, (23) (236):
(23) a) John didn't kiss Mary
' ',
) John didn't manage to kiss Mary
' '.
(23), ,
(23), ,
(236) . manage (236)
, (23). (236)
,
.
(23) (236)
;
: (236) (23); (22) (226).
2.2.
,
. , , ,
(15) -.
(16) .
,
(15) ,

(16). ,

* . . .
311

, 7 ;
.
:
,
.
( K a r t t u n e n 1971)
. mana
ge, bother . . ,

,
.
8
,
(24), v
, a S (
).
(24) a) v(S)3>S 'v(S) S'.
) ~ V ( S ) I D ~ S 'v(S) S'.

, .
, bother
'',
, manage ', ',
, happen ''.



- .
, ;
. ,
, Modus Ponensi
(25)

, P D Q

6)

~P:D~Q

, , , , (26)

, ,
.
(26)

312

a) Yesterday, John did not happen


manage
bother
see fit
'


to kiss Mary

6) Yesterday, John did not kiss Mary


' '
(z.66)
(266).
2.3.
(27) forget ''
fail ' '
neglect ''

decline ''
avoid ''
refrain ' *

(
)
. , , (28) (286).
(28) a) John avoided getting caught in the traffic
' , ',
) John didn't get caught in the traffic
' '.
,
,
. , (29) (296).
(29) a) John didn't avoid getting caught in the traffic
' , ',
) John get caught in the traffic
' '.

/ , ,

, :
(30) a) v(S) ~ S 'v(S) S'.
) ~ v ( S ) = > S 'v(S) S'.
, ,
-

(lexical inser
tion),
. ,
(31), fail (
) not succeed ' , '.

not succeed fail - .
(31) fail = not succeed.
,
(24).
, , 313

(27)
. , ,
avoid?
-:

.
2.4.

,
, (14);
.

.
, true '1 false '',
, - ,
.
,
.
(, , )
, false not true.
fact '', , , . .


; imply ', ',
, . ,
, , ,
, ,
if-.
3. [F- ONLY-IF-

, ,
.

, ,
. ,
-, (24).

;
if-.
; only-if-. , ,
if- only-if-

(one-way implicatives)
(two-way implicatives) ,
314

,
( ).
3.1. If-

if- , , :
(32) cause ''
make sure ''
make '*
bring about ', '
have '1
see to it ', '
force ''
mean ''
certain ', ' imply ' '
prove ''
indicate ''
show ''
-
, ,
. , ,
(33).
(33)

a)

fforced ^
John made > Mary to stay home
(. caused )

' { } * ')
( ordered *|
John < asked
> Mary to stay home
\ advised )

\
)

*.

(33),
, .
, .
(33)
(336): ,
(336)
.

(336) if- . (34) force
order :
.
(34) a) John didn't force Mary to stay home
' '*.
*
. ,
.
. .
315

) John didn't order Mary to stay home


' '.
) .. and she didn't
'.. '.
... but she stayed anyway
'.. '.
, (34)
(34) (346). , ,
force
, .
, force
(24), (24):
v(S)=>S 'v(S) S*
if-,
.
, -,
.

, , wise '* proud '',
if-,
that '', bring about, see to
it make sure. To, if-,
, , (35), ,
, .
(35) Did Bill see to it that Mary get what she wanted?
' , ,
?'
, ,
, ,
;
.
if-, ,
, .
, , certain ', '.
if-
().
(36) a) It is certain that Sheila left with Max
' , ',
) Bill is certain that Sheila left with Max
' , '.
(36), ,
. , certain
if- (366). -, certain,
,
, ,
316

(experien
ce!*) 9. ,
, , , (36).
, certain if-,
, .

mean imply, (37).
(37) a) That the grass is wet implies that it has been raining
To, , , ',
) For Bill, it means that somebody has watered the lawn
' , - '.
(37) , ,
, (376), ,

.
,
:
(37) (376) , .
,
if- .
prove '
'. prove
, if-,
, .
(38)
.
(38) a) Bill proved to me that Max was a liar
' , '.
) Bill proved to Sally that Max was a liar
' , '.
) That there is no money in the bag proves that Max is a
liar
'To, , ,
'.
:
(39) That there is no money in the bag doesn't prove that
Max is a liar; perhaps he is, perhaps he isn't
To, , ,
; , , , '.
,
prove if-.

prove. , prove
(40),
317

.
(40) prove (, , S ) : D cause (x, know (, S)).
, (38)
,
cause know. ,
(40) (386) (41),
(416). ;
, (41),
.
(41) a) Bill caused Sally to know that Max was
. ' ,
'.
) Sally knew that Max was a Har
' , '.
) Max was a liar
' '.
, , (39)
(41), , cause
; (39)
, , , ,
, .

indicate '', show '' . .
, (42),
,
.
(42) indicate (x, , S) cause (x, believe (, S))
' (, , S) (, (, S ) ) \
, , ,

.
(43) a) That there is no money in the bag indicates to me that
Max is a Har. (*But I don't think that he is.)
To, , ,
. (* , .)'
) That there is no money in the bag indicates to Sally that
Max is a Har. (But I don't think he is.)
'To, , ,
. ( , .)'
, (43)
, ,
cause (42)
. (436) , ,
;
.
318

8.1.1. if-.
if-, ,
(44).
(44) IF-:
prevent ', '
dissuade ''
keep (from) '() < > '
discourage ' , '
if-,
,
,
. , ,
45) , .
45) a) John prevented Mary from leaving
' ',
) ...* but she left anyway
*...* *.

. , (46) (466).
prevent avoid
, (27),
.
(46) a) John didn't prevent Mary from leaving
' '.
)

f and she left


\
'" \ but she chose not to leave J
( '
\
'" {' ' J '

if- ,
.
. ,
,
(30), (30):
(30) v(S) ZD ~S
'v(S) ~ S \
,
,
,
(44). .
(Lakoff 1969). ,
discourage, ,
(47).
(47) a) discourage s== cause not to have courage
' sa *,
) keep ss cause not to be able
' ss '.
319

keep
. (476),
,
keep cause
not to be able. To, ,
, be able
only-if-.
if-
prove indicate:
.
. ; ,
cause not to be able keep,
(476'),
keep cause not to be able
.
(476') keep (, , S) ZD cause (x, ~able (, S)).
,
- .
, (476')
, (476);

(476')
, , ,
,
.
,
, if-
(30) avoid
.
3.1.2. . if-
,
, kill '' break ''. M c C a w 1 1969 ( ) ,
-
,

cause. ,
:
(48) kill = cause to become not alive.
cause if-,
, kill
. ,
, -, :
kill ,
320

, , (beco
mes not alive ' '). , (49)
(496).
(49) a) John killed Harry
' '.
) Harry died
' '.
) John didn't kill Harry
' '.
(49) ;
,
, , , -
. kill
(49).
- ,
kill ,
(48').
(48') kill (, ) => cause (x, become (~alive ())).
3.2. Only-if-

,
, only-if-,
(50).
(50) ONLY-IF-:
''
able ' , '
possible ''
be in the position ' , 1
time
have Che, \ J ^ T *

courage
'
'
'
'

-
,
,
:
(51) a) Sebastian did not have an opportunity to leave the co
untry
' '.
. 352

321

) Sebastian was not able to leave the country


' *.
) ...* but he left anyway
"...* '
(51) (516),
, : (51)
. ,
(50)
. ,
(24), (246): ~ v ( S )
: ~ S 'v(S) S\
,
(, (51) (516)),
.

; , (52)
(526), (52).
(62) a) Sebastian had the opportunity to leave the country
' '.
) Sebastian was able to leave the country
' *.
) ...but he chose not to do so
'... '.
(50) ;
.
, , ,
have the X (to) ' X, ()',
.
, have the foresight '
' have the misfortune '
', (14);
(50);
,
.
:
(68)

/ right
J
have (the) I !authority
",*
^
1 permission
^ orders

f *
,'
M ^ 11
'"
.
l
^ '

,

: (54)
(51) ,
- .
322

(54) Sebastian did not have a permission to leave the country


' *.
3.2.1. only-if-.
if-,

only-if-. be able
only-it- ,

;
, .
(30), (306): ~ v ( S ) => SV(S)
S\

.
,
, -, . ,

onlyif-10
, hesitate '' . !
(55) a) Bill did not hesitate to call him a liar
' (,
) *,
) Bill called him a liar
' *.
, (55), , (556)
.
(56) ; (566).
(56) a) Bill hesitated to call him a liar
' (, )
',
) Therefore, he didn't say anything
'... '.
...but his conscience forced him to do so
'... '.
, hesitate , avoid, .
, hesitate
only-if-,
.
, hesitate if- pre
vent (30),

avoid. ,
be able,
cause manage, (24).
, if- (,
*

323

prevent) ,
cause not to be able +
if-.
,
(30), ,
avoid hesitate
. , ,
(24) (30).
4.

, :
. , ,
,
(embedding).
,

.
, ,
,
. (57).
(57) a) Bill saw to it that the dog not have the opportunity to
run away
' ,
'.
) The dog did not have the opportunity to run away
' '.
) The dog did not run away
' '.
(57) if- , (576).

only-if-;
, (57).
, (57)
, .
, (58).
(58) a) Bill had the opportunity to see to it that the dog did not
run away
' ,
'
) Bill saw to it that the dog did not run away
' , *,
) The dog did not run away
' *.
324

have an opportunity only-if-,


(58)
, (586). (586)
, (58).
(586) (58),
,
(58)
. , (58),
-
. , (
) ,
, .
, (59)
, (57).
(59) John prevented the dog from running away
' '.
, (57)
(59)
. if-,
, prevent,
if- only-if-,
.
(60).
(60) Bill did not have the foresight not to force Mary to pre
vent Sheila from having an opportunity to try that new de
tergent
,
,
*.
, , (60)

, ,
(60) ,
(
). ;
,
(60) , .

.
(60) (61) .
(61) - V , ( ~ V 2 (V3 (V4 (5)))),:
Vi = have the foresight ( );
Va = force (if-);
V3 = prevent ( if-);
V4 = have an opportunity (only-if-);
325

V5 = Sheila tried that new 1detergent '


.
,
, , , (61)
(62), ,
,
.
(62) a) ~ V , ( ~ V 2 (V3 (V4 (S)))) ( = (61))
b)
V2 (V3 (V4 (S)))
- (246)
) Vs (V3 (V4 (S)))

) V3 (V4 (S))
- (24a)
) ~ V 4 (S)
- (30a)
e)i ~ S
(246)
(62) , (60)
(63).
(63) Sheila did not try that new detergent
' '.
, (60) .
, , ,
,
.
5. (")


.
(64)
(64) a) John's wooden leg didn't keep him from dancing with
Mary
' *.
) John danced with Mary
' '.
(64)
, , , -
.
, (646).
if- keep (from)
. (64)
, (646).
, , ,
(64)
, ,
. , (64) , , (65).
(66) John's wooden leg didn't keep him from dancing with Mary,
but her husband did
326

'
*.
-
(64) , -, ,
.
.
force if-,
, (66)
(666),
(66) a) Bill didn't force Mary to change her mind
' ',
) Mary didn't change her mind
' '.

, (666) (66) ,
*.
only-if-. ,
- ,
(67), , ,
**.
(67) a) John was able to leave early
' *,
) John left early
' '.
- (67)
: be able only-if,
. , (67)
- , (676) ,
(67)? ,
,
, ,
. ,
(676) (67), be able
manage.
, , ,
,
G e i s Z w i c k y 1971 * ,
: X
'Y ', a X
Y 'Y
X' . .
** : (67)
(676) . . .
827

. ,

.

(68) , , .
(68) If you mow the lawn, I'll give you five dollars
' , *.
,
(68) (69)
(696).
(69) a) S i ^ S 2 ; ) ~ Si=3S 2 .
,
(69). ,
(68)
(696) .
(68)
,
, .
,
? , G e i s
Z w i c k y 1971, (69) ,
, (696).
: , ,
; . (70).
(70) If you mow my lawn, I'll give you five dollars, but I'll
give you five dollars even if you don't
' ,
, ,
'.
, ,
, ,
. (70)
( , ,
).
, if-
, force (66), , ,
(24): v(S) = S,
()
(246): ~ v ( S ) ZD ~ S .
, (66)
, (666) (666)
(66). , only-if-
(, be able), (246):
~v(S)z=> ~ S , (24): v(S)r>S.
(67) (676),
328

,

,

12
.
6.

(71)
, .
,

. ,,-f-"
, ,
" , . , , + / " ,
,
. + " ";
,
, .
,
, .
(71)

+/-


if-

+
+

__

regret
''
manage
', *
avoid
''
cause
''
prevent
''
be able
' '
hesitate
''

if-

only-if-

only-if-

,

. , , ,
if-
, .
,
; , if-
329

. , on
ly-if-

, ( only-if-
).
manage avoid,
, ,
( )

.
, (72) ,
.
(72)
(24)

(30)

()

v ( S ) n S cause ''

()

' v (S) ^> S be able ' '

()

v (S) ZD ~ S prevent '*

()

v ( S ) 3 S hesitate ''

manage
',
'
avoid
''

,


.
, ,
,

. ,
,
.
,
K a r t t u n e n
1969,
, , . B a k e r 1970.

K a r t t u n e n 1970, 1971; K J p a r s k y 1968;


L a k2 f f 1969, 1970; M o r g a n 1969.
.
, , know
'' realize '', ,
, .

. , ,
330

.
3
( V a n F r a a s s e n
1968).
4
, (
):
(I) ( X) " , ...";
(II) " X , ..";
(III) " X , ...".
(I) (II), -,
, (III).
(II) : "
X , ..."

,
,
; (I) (III) -
.
5
, ., ,
Hi n t i k k a 1967.
6
( V a n F r a a s s e n 1968)
; Q , ,
, Q .
7 .
. , ( 11 t 1969)
8 , .
. ( 1947),
:
,
. ,
If Sheila is a spinster, then she is not married
' , ',
(V ) ( ():
> ~ ()).
,
9 .

1970 . (Experiencer) ,
( (Goal))

.
10
only-if- be afraid '
' , , ,
(I) The princess wasn't afraid to kiss the frog
' *

.
help can't help ...ing
' ...'. help only-if-, (II)
(III), a (IV) .
(II) The frog couldn't help feeling happy
' *.
{Ill) The frog felt happy
' '.
(IV) *The frog helped feeling
"" '.
881

, (II) (III). help


avoid; (IV) ,
. (IV)
,
.
11
(60) ,
.
.
12

, , (46)
. prevent if-, (46)
,
.
, .

A u s t i n 1962 A u s t i n J. L, How to do things with words. N. Y., Oxford


University Press, 1962.
F a k e r 1970 B a k e r L. Double negatives Linguistic Inquiry, 1970,
v. I, 2, 169186.
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tional' Conference on Computational Linguistics, Stockholm, KWAL, 1969.
C a r n a p 1947 C a r n a p R. Meaning and necessity. Illinois, The Univer
sity of Chicago Press. Chicago, 1947 (. : .
. ., 1959.)
V a n F r a a s s e n 1968 V a n F r a a s s e n . . Presupposition, implica
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G e i s Z w i c k y 1971 G e i s M,, Z w i k . . On invited inference.
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transformational grammar. In* Papers from the fifth regional meeting of the
Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago, 1969,


; , ,
, ,
. ,
,
.

,
,
. ,

-
.
1. , -,
; -, ,

( -
); , ,
(
- ).
,
.
,
; ,
,
;
, .
Ferenc i e f . Zur Rolle der Pragmatic in der linguistischen Beschreibung. Die Neueren Sprachen, Heft 3/4, Juli 1978, Verlag Moritz Diesterweg,
Frankfurt am Main, S. 264268.
Ferenc Kiefer
333

-

.
, ,

.
-,
,
.
,
. ,
,

;
, ,
.
, -
,
.
, ,

:
.
,
; ,
, ,
.
:
: ()
: (, - )
: (, - ,
- )
, ,

----;
->
->- ( , --
).
,

.
2.


(1) (1) (., , K a t z 1966).
334

(I) . .
. .
. .
(1) (1)
. (1) (1)

, . B i e r w i s c h K i e f e r
1969, ,
.
;

(. G i 1975). ,
(1) (1) ,

.
.

, , (1) (1)
. "", ""
"" ,
, ,
, .
() ().
(1) (1)
,
() ,

, .

.
, , ,
. , ,
(1).
: ,
.
(1 )
:
, , , .
(16) ,
,
, .
(1) ,
, : ,
, -
; ,
335

, -
. , (1),
, ,
, , *.
(1) (1)
: :, ", ,
, .
:
, ,
, ,
-
. ,
;
(1) (1) .
, ,
(1) (1);
: ? 1,
3.

, , .
. ,
, (2):
(2) . .
. .
. .
. .
. , .


( ). (2)
(2) , ,

,
. (2) (26)
(. K i e f e r
1978); , ,
, ;
i

v.

Jv

/ .

1
/

* . , ,
36

()
(3):
(3) , .
,
. ,
,
, , ;
(3).
. (2)
:
,
.
(26).
, , (2) (2)
.
, , (2),
; ,

. (2)
(2) , (2) (2),
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, - .

, , (. G r i 1975:
46-47)*.
, ,

,
. ,
.
. (2) ,
,

;
,
. -,

,:
, .
, . -,
,
* . , , . 223. , .
337

, , .
,
,
(2),
,
, ,
. (2)
; (26)
. , ,
,
\
; ,
- ,
,
, .
(2) - :
" , "
, ,
, , .
(2), ,
, -,
. ,
; ,
.
(2) .
, ,
; , -
,
, (4), :
(4) .

, ,
: , ,
; , ,
, ,
.
(2) .
,
,
, .
(2) : ,
, ,
.

:
338

(5) () X, X.
() X, X.
() X, X.
() X, X.
() , X, X.
, , ;
3
.
, ()
,
.
,
, .
,

.
(5)(5) ,


, .
,

. ,
(2)
(56), (5); (2) ,
( , . .)
() (5),
(5) (5).
,
, , , :
?.
4.


(Voraussetzungen), (. i e f e r 1978).
:
(6) . .
. .
(7) . .
. .
(6) (66), ,
, ; 339

4 ,
(6) () . (7)
(76). (7), ,
; (7) ,
. (8)
,
5
(86) :
(8) . , .
. , .
, (7) (76) .
, ,
, , . ., ,
, , , , . .
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.

,
. ,
, ,
;
, ,

.
,
. :
(9) . .
. .
. , .
, ,

; ,
. (9).
, * :
(10) : .

. ,

, (10) ,
. :
(10)
.
340

(96).
, 5 2
. , (96).
,

. , '
' (''). ,
, , ,
, (
).
:
(11) , .
, ,
, ,
, (11) ''.
(11) ,
, .
(9).
, ( )
. (9)
, ,
(, ) *.
,
( )
. (12) (126),
(13) (136):
(12) . **, .
. , .
(13) . , ,
. , .
,
, , ,
.
() .
(12) *
, , , , . .
, , , ,
. . .
,
( ) ,
. . .
** (mannlicher)
, ' ', .
.
341

*.

/v

<

>

(12) ,
.
(126) ,
- .
, .
(13) (136)
.
,
.
, (12) ,
;
. (126), ,
,
, :
, . ,
,
, ;
,
, .
, , , ,
. ., ; ,
, ,
.

:

,
" Adj, "
" Adj" " Adj". ,
, .
, ,
, (9)
(9), .
, (14) (14)
.
(14) . -{- ,
.
. + , , .
342

. + ,
.
(126) (136). (15):
(15) . + ,
.
. + ,
.
,
,

( ). - (
, . .)
- .
, ,
(,
; ,
, . .), 6 .
(16):
(16) .
(16)
,
.
: , , . ,
(16) ,
() ,
.
(. L e w i s 1972), (16)
,
, , ,
. . , (16)
,
,
.
,
,
, .

, ,
, ,

,
, . ,
,
343


?
,
.
.
, , ,
;
: , ! , ,
,
, (17)
:
(17) .
,
. ,
,
, . - , ,
, ;
, , ,

. ,
(18),
:
(18) , .
:
, (
) , ,
, .
5.


,
.
(19) ( , )
,
.
().
, (19)
, (.
K o n i g 1977. K i e f e r 1980);
.
,
,
, ,
, .
344

, , (
):
(20) ?
(. S I 1975, W u n d e r l i c h
1976).
(20) : ,,
. ,
,
, ,
, .
, (19) (20), (21)
(21) ( , )
, . (22)
(22) ( , )
,
,
7
.
, ,
, ( ), ( ).

(., ,.
S e a r l e 1975).
, , (
), ,
. ,
, :
(23) . - , ?
. ? - ?
(23) (236)
; (23), (236)
. , , , (23),
(236) ,
(24) (246) :
(24) . , ?
. ?
(25) (256) t
(24)
(246).
(25) . -, , ?
. -, ?
, (24) (246),
(23) (246). ,
(24) (246),
345

{)
(25) (256).
, (24) (23)
. ,
(23) ,
(24) . , ,
(24) (246) - (26):
(26) , ( -,
- )?
,
,
.
:
(27) . ?
. ?
, ,
, ;
, (27) (276),
, (. G r i c e
1975). , , ,
;
, ,
. (276),
,
.
, ,
.
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Frankfurt a. M., Suhrkamp, 1976.


, , . . ,
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, . ( S e a r 1 1975), G o r d o n L a k o f f 1975,


;
R o s e n g r e n 1979
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, . ( K i e f e r 1980).


.


,
Rudi C o n r a d . Fragesatze als indirekte Sprechakte.Studia Grammatical,
XXII: Untersuchungen zur Semantik, R. RuilCka und W. Motsch (Hrsg,), Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1983, S. 343367
Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1983.
349

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,10 ?'.
. C o n r a d 1978: 42-50, 128134.

1970
. ., , 1970.
A q v i s t 1965Aqvist L. A New Approach to the Logical Theory oi Interrogatives. Uppsala, 1965.
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B i e r w i s c h 1983: B i e r w i s c h M, In: Studia grammatica XXII: tersuchungen zur Semantik. R. R u z i C k a und W. M o t s c h (Hrsg) AkademieVerlag, Berlin, 1983.
i t z 1978 B u b l i t z W. Ausdrucksweisen der Sprechereinstellung im
Deutschen und F.nglischen. Tubingen, 1978.
C o n r a d 1978 C o n r a d R. Studien zur Syntax und Semantik von Frage
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.
,

.
( ,
,
) .
,
, (

)
.

,
'. ,
,


2. ,
3
, , ,


.
(Ro h r e r I971), ,

, ,
,
.
; ,
,
.
, ,
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384

( )


,

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;
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1.11. vs.
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.
386


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4.
,
(1) ( , are
, )
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( ,
):
(1) The animals we hit yesterday are/were chipmunks
', , /
'.
(2) The animals we saw yesterday are/were chipmunks
', , /
'.
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, , /
'.
,
,
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, 5.
,
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(
(4) (5)), (,
P a n e v o v a 1967).
(4) wrote her about the quarrel of a husband and his wife
' '.
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quarrel
' , '.
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387

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388

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' , *.
(7) After his arrival we went to the other room
' *.
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' '.
(9) Waverley was read by Charles
' 1.
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' '.
(11) Few books are read by many men
' *.
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,
(. S g a l l H a j i v a 1973).
(1) ,
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(13))
; ()
(7) salva veritate
, , ,
X (14),
;
389

:
(6) (7) X (14)
:
(12) The sentence ,,X" contains a nominalized temporal clause
' "
'.
(13) If I told that after his arrival we went to the other
room, I only meant that X
' ,

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(14) Charles believes that X
' , X'.
() (III),

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vs. 390

vs.

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: not every writing person
is a writer), ,

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, eye-doctor;

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).

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)
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392


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);
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,
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) . .

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day,
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, we
here, now . . . ,
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;
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(15) ,
1975 ,
(16)? ,

now ( = in this moment ' ', in
these hours ' ' in these months ' ',
in these days ' ') here ( = in this part of the
393

room ' ', in this part of Europe '


' . .)?
(15) At the beginning of June 1975 A. D. the weather is nice in
Prague
' 1975 , '.
(16) Now the weather is nice here '
'.
(16) (18),
(16) (17)
, (16) (18) (
); (15)
(17) (
(18)
, ,
).
(17) X. , confirms herewith that he borrowed 100 DM from N. N.
'X. Y, , N. N. &
100 '.
(18) I confirm herewith that I borrowed 100 DM from you
' , 100 / \
, -,

; , ,
, ,
. .,
(. - i 11 1 1971: 50 .).
3. , vs.



,
. 12 ,

.
(.
1.3),
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) (.
S g a l l et a 1. 1969: 4, 9 .; . S g a l l 1966)
( , 4

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.
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60- ,
,
.

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, u
(
, );


15
(
, ,
, . .),
( ) , -
,

(
16
) .

. , () vs.
, fiezeichnung vs. Bedeutung;
. Do ku I i 1 D a n e s 1958.
2

, , (
)
;
C h o3 m s k y 1974; F i 1 I m 1974 .
,
, R i i " 1970: 265; . D i k 1968;
, (
) ,

.
4
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,
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,
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. ,
os 1972 KonstruktivitaUpnnzip
(. M o n t a g u e S c h n e l l e 1972: 21), ,
( )
()
.
6
. L a k o f f R. 1970; (D a h ] 1975),
: , is
was, ,
this text ' ', this paper '
395

' this contribution ' ',


.
6
. C o s e r i u 1973: 7, 1315, 17, 27 .
(
, )
(. C h o m s k y 1974: 11);
, -, ,
,
,
(. S e r e n s e n 1967). ( t e e 1975),
, . ,
,
, .
,
, . K u r y l o w i c z 1973: 175.
, ()

. ( F i l l m o r e I974: V-2), , ,
next Friday ' ' next
Monday ' ', ,
next ' ' '
' (,
) ( Monday , ,
,
)
7
. . . . (.
1964: 6164), Tsar Fedor's son One of Tsar
Fedor's sons
.

( )
. , ( F i l l m o r e
1974: V-3) (We'll go there
right away ' ');
we
( ' ', ' ', ' ,
', ' ' . .),
we
: ()?
8

(. K a t z 1973);
,
,
( ); , Z u b e 1972; ,
K u r o d a 1974. ,
,
,
, ,

(); . H a j i c o v 1976; . S g a l l - H a j i f o v 5 B e n e S o v a 1973.
9
. D a h l 1972, (),


10
,
, C a m 1955
396

,
11 .
,
12.
S g a l l P a n e v o v S 1976; (
)
S g a l l 1975;
H a j t c o v a 1973; , () ,
P a n e v o v S 1978 ( , ,
, . F i l l m o r e 1974: IV-2
:

).
,3
,

, E l i a s s o n 1975.
14
, D a h l 1975
( ), -,
(
),
, , the John I had
known in my childhood ' , ',

(.
).
15
( )
, . H a y s 1973. S g a l l
H a j i e o v a B e n e S o v i 1973, (
)
(
) 16 ()
. j i 6 o v a K f i z e k S g a l l 1975,
.

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,
.
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, -
.
- ,

.
,
,
,
. ',
, (S 1 1972: 54).
(
(
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. , ,
.

, ,
, ,
.

- ,
, ,
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, ,
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.

,
.
2.
,
.
.
,
, , ,
,
: ,
.

, . . ( F i l l m o r e 1971),

.
, (D u
r o t 1972:23). ,
, :

. ,
:
{1) ,
,
,

(
): () ,
() .
, ,
.
(2) ,


: ;
, .
3. ,
, , ,
400

.

(semantic inference). "
" :
. ,
;
.
:
-+<1^~->~<
{= q <

:
(3) ,
.
\= , \

\= , .

:

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:
(4) , . , ,
. (^= ).
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. (^=, , .)

.
(implications),
, ,
(allusions), ,
.

.
(2) :
, ;
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) ,
, .
4.
, ,
.
401


:
X

Z ()

Z' (, )

-:
[X]Y|=Z/Z'

(2)
:
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,
,


.
.
,

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, ,

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(6)
: " () ,
, ".

: " , (
, )".
.
(7) .
!
(8)
:
(9) No khong mom
, ' ' ( "
").
402

,
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.
,
() (...)
,
( 1076:279), ,

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.
,
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(10) ,
: () " ";
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?, ()
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)".

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5. ,
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,
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,
.
403

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.
1. , *
.
2. .
L
,
, -.
2. ,
, ,
.
1 " ".
" q" ( ,
q)
:
1 ~ -* ~ q\
2 ( q
) ~ q *~ ~ .
2 " q".
" q" (
- v p n ~q)
:

1 {~)"-(*);

2 ( ~ )
~ [-* ~ q)\
3 ( ~q ) ~q (-*- ~ ) .
79
,
. ,

,
*

,
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,
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, , .
404


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. ., . , 1976.
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. ( F r e g e 1957)
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
, ,
, ,
, .
,
,
.
.
,
- ,
, ()
, ,
. ,

, (=) ,
.

,
. ,
, ,

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406


.
: ()
, , , ,
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()
.
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() ().) (), ,
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, () () ,
, , (),
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,
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. ,
4,
0, 2
,
, ,

(Frege 1957).
, , 407

,
.

, , , , ,
, .

. ,
( ())
( ())
:
, who
which '' that ', ' (The
square root of 4 w h i h is smaller than 0... The square root of 4
t h a t is smaller than 0...);
,
(Kangaroos, which are indigenous to Australia ',
' ( J e s p e r s e n 1927; 87 .).
,
, (),
()
, . ,
()
(" " "
") ;
, 4, 0,
2 , 4
0 2.
() ,
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:
. (
.)

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,
4.
()
(,
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(,
).
()
,
408

, . ,
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:
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(Frege 1957:69 [198]).
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].
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, (2)
(1). ,

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409

; , ,
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0, %
410

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q" , ,
q
.

, , , , , 2-\-2 = 4.
.
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(F g e 1957: 73 [204]). , ,
, ; ,
"q, "
, q, , y ,
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. (, -,
, 411

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;
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tf\
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:

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, q" , q "q '\
, .
, (I)
,
412

. "
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413

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, '\ q , " ,
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, ,
. " ";

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.
,
, . " , q" p ,
q " , q " . (OTMeTHMt
,
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; ,
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.)
().
-,
, , , ,
, .

.
{ , ,
?),
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.
,
(
), , 414

, , (,
, ),

. -,
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.
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, " ", q" ,
.
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.

, .

(R 1 1950). , 416

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" : " qT\
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.
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q .

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416

.) ,
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reductio ad absurdum *.

. ,
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,

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. , l<

q, ".
q, , ,
,
"q, "
,
q.
,
,
"q, , q ".

.
.
,
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.
, " q'\ "
<?".
.
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; ,

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.
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* ( ) (.).
14 . 352

417

.
() ,
.

(),
().
:
(), (),
(),
,
. ,

. ,
"X -", " X -", "XZ -"

,
.

() ().

.
; ,
,

; - ",
, X,
. ,
,
, ,

.

F r e g e 1957 F r e g e Q. Sinn und Bedeutung. In: Translations from the


Philosophical Writings of Oottlob Frege, New York, 1957 (. : r e . . . , . 8. ., 1977,
. 181210).
J e s p e r s e n 1927 J e s p e r s e n , A modern English grammar on histo
rical principles, Part III. Heidelberg, 1927 ( London, Allen
& Unwin, 1954).
R y l e 1950 R y l e G. "If", "so" and "because".In: Philosophical Analy
sis, A Collection of Essays, M. Black (ed.) t Cornell University Press, Ithaca
(N. Y.), 1950.
S t r a w s o n 1950 S t r a w s o n P. On referring. Mind, LIX, 1950,
320344 (. , . . , . XIII.
., 1982, 5586).
S t r a w s o n 1952 S t a w s o n P. Introduction to logical theory. London,
Methuen, N. Y. Wiley, 1952.
S t r a w s o n 1954 S t r a w s o n P. A. reply to Mr. Sellars. The Philo
sophical Review, 63, 1954, 2.

. .

,
, ,
.'
, ,
.

;
,
.
,


.
, -
.
,
.

,
. ,
: -,

,
; -,
.

. ,
;
, , .
, ,
Robert . S t 1 n a k . Pragmatics. In: Semantics of natural language,
D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland, 1972, p. 380397.
14*

419

,

.
I.

,
. ,
(, designatum).
, , , (is taken account
of)* . ,
,
( M o r r i s 1938:45).
. ,
, , (refer) ,
, , ,
... (
;
,
. .,
.)
( 1939: 4).

,
.

.

. ,
(
);
, .
;

.

- ,
.
:
,
; ,
, .
* ,
: . , 1983, . 3941; . , . .
. 585586. . .
420

,
? , ,

.

,
,
, . ,
,

: ,
, , (. S c o t t 1970).
, ,

: ,
(),
'. , - ,
, .
,
.
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,
,
2
.
,
, ,
.
, , ,
, (
, ),
(linguistic act),
(, , ).
,
,
,
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.
-
: ,
,
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,
.

421

, ,
.


-.


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;

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,
.
422

,
.
, .
: -,
; -,
,
,
.
; (indexical)
,
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.
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.

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/
, 3 ,
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;
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.

;

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, ,
,
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.
: Everybody is having a good time'
423

'. ,
.
, ,
: -

,
. -

: -, ,
; -, ,
.
. -
. , , ,
, ,
, .

, .
: We shall overcome ' ',
, .
: That is a great painting ' ',
, , ,
.

. ,
can, may, might, must
ought '', '', ' ', '',
'',
.

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,
,
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,
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, .
,
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,
, (domain of discourse)

424

(rela
tion of relative possibility)
;
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.
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.
;

.

. ,
,
,
.
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.
,

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,
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;

.
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,

.
,
(object)
. ,
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, , .
(meanings) , ,

,
.
425

' : Are you going to the party? '


?' : Yes, I'm going ', ',
,
, .
,
, . ,
, , ,
, .
,
. ': Are you
going to the party? ' ?' : Yes,
snow is white ', ', .
' : I didn't have to be here
you know ', ',
: , '
". I '' here ''
; ,
, ', .
, '
, , ,
. , ,
- , '
: I am here ' '
,
.
, : is a fool ' ',
'. , ,
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. ,
: is a fool, ';
, , , .
,

. ,
,
.

, ,
: , , ,
.
,
,
,
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, 426

5
. ,
,
,
.


;
,
.
III.


;
, ( v a n F r a a s s e n 1966; 1968).
Q
, , Q ,
-. , Q ,
, .
,
, .
,
.
( , , ,
) .
.

:
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, ,
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, .

,
,
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.
427

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,

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428

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. 3
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,
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.
429

IV.

,
,
,
. (D n n 11 1966).
,
,
.
(
,
).
(1) Charles Daniels is bald
' ' (
).
(2) I am bald
' ' ( ).
(3) The man in the purple turtleneck shirt is bald
' ' ( - ,
, ,
, ).
,
? ,

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: .
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VI, , .

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;
430

,
.

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.
. (1)
,
.
, ,
()
I ''. ,

.
.
:

.
, ,
the man in the purple turtleneck shirt '
' , ,
; ,
(1) (2). I'',


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.
,
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,
.
,
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.
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. (
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:
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431

.
,

,
.

.
,
.
.


,
. :
(4) The man in the purple turtleneck shirt might have been some
one else ' -
',
() The man in the purple turtleneck shirt might have worn white
tie and tails '
'.
, ,
.
; ,
, .
, , -
, , , , .
, , -
(,
),
. ;
,
; :
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.
,
.
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.
, (4) (5)

,
(. T h o m a s o n - S t a l n a k e r 1968; S t a l n a k e r
T h o m a s o n 1968). , ,
:
432

()
(4) (5) :
-
,
.
()

;
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(3)
, , ,


.
(3) , , , ,
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,

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.
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433


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.
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,
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( ).
(3)
,
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, ,
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). , , -
,
.
,
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.
,
, ;
, .

, ,
,
.
,
,
. , ,
, ;
,
.
: Which one is Daniels? '
?' ,
, .
: Daniels is the bald one ' , ',
, " ,
. ,
, , . ,
,
434


.
, ,
,
.
,

( , , , ,
),
,
.

,
. , ,
, . , ,
. ,
(
),
.
,
.

,

, .
, ,
:
, ,

.
,
.
,
, , ,

(, , There are cookies in
the cupboard
if you want some ' ,
6
*) .
", "
: ,
, \
, ,
. 435

,
;
, .
,
,
, .

,
,
.

( U r m s o n 1952).

.
.

.
V.

.
,
, ,
.
,
.
: -,

,
; -, ,
,
.


. ,

.

: ,
,
;
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, ,
, , .
436

,
;
- .
, ,
; ,
.
, ,
, .
,
,
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, ,

.
, ,
,
.
*
1

.
,
,
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,
.
2
, ,
.
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,
.
,
,
.
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.
3
, , .

; ,
,


X,
4
,
: S c o t t 1970
9
, ,
.
{tensed sentence) , ,
?
? ,
; , ,
437


.
8
. S t a l n a k e r 1968.
. B e l n a p 1970,

B e l n a p 1970 B e l n a p N. Conditional assertion and restricted quantifica


tion. Nofls, 4, 1970.
C a r n a p 1939 C a r n a p R. Foundations of logic and mathematics. Chi
cago, 1939.
D o n n e l l a n 19G6 D o n n e l l a n K. S. Reference and definite descrip
tions. Philosophical review, 75, 1966, 281304. (. . .
, . XIII. ., , 1982, . 134160).
v a n F r a a s s e n 1966 v a . i F r a a s s e n . Singular terms, truth value
gaps and free logic Journal of philosophy, 63, 1966, 481495.
v n F r a a s s e n 1968 v a n F r a a s s e n . Presupposition, implica
tion, and self reference. Journal of philosophy, 65, 1968, 136151.
M o n t a g u e 1968 M n t a g u e R. Pragmatics In: Contemporary phi
losophy. La philosophie contemporaine, R. Klibansky (ed.). La Nuova Italia
Editrice, Florence, 1968, Vol. I. 102122.
M o r r i s 1 9 3 8 M o r r i s Ch. W. Foundations of the theory of signs. Chi
cago, 1938 (. .: . . . .:
. , , 1983).
S c o t t 1970 S c o t t D. Advice on modal logic. In: Philosophical pro
blems in logic. Recenl developments, Lambert (ed.), D. Reidel Publishing Com
pany, Dordrecht, 1970, 143173 (. . .
. ., , 1981).
S t a l n a k e r 1968 S t a l n a k e r R. A theory of conditionals. In: Stu
dies in Logical Theory, N. Rescher (ed.), Oxford 1968, 98112.
S t a l n a k e r T h o m a s o n 1968 S t a l n a k e r R. and T h o m a s o n R.
Abstraction in the first order modal logic. Theoria, 34, 1968, 203207.
T h o m a s o n S t a l n a k e r 1968 T ho m a s o n R. and S t a l n a k e r R.
Modality and reference. Nous, 2, 1968, 359372.
U r m s n 1952 U r m s o n O. Parenthetical verbs, Mind, 61, 1952, 192
212 (. . , ., . 196216).

,
-;
(indexicals) .
,
, (points of reference),
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
,
,
, ,

. ,

, .
.

:
(1) ,
, ,
-
, ,
,
.
:
()
, , , . .
George Lakoff. Pragmatics in Natural Logic. In: Formal Semantics of
Natural Languages, E. L. Keenan (ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
London, 1975, p. 253286 ( ).
George Lakoff, 1973.
439

{) ,
.
.()

, ,
, , , ,
, . .
() ,
.
,
,
,
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
-. ,
, ,
.
Leave ''
, ,
; ,

, I order you to leave '
', (order) ,
(I you).
; ,

,
.
,


. , There exist
unicorns ' '
(state ' ') ,
(I you). ,
,
;
- .

;
. ( L e w i s 1972), 440

( L a k o f f 1972a).
, ( ),
( ),,

,
:
n- ( )
, , . "
,
.
-, .
,

.
.
,
, , (
L e w i s 1968),
, .
-, ,

. (
,
.)
-
, , Today is Tuesday ' '; - , there are tigers
' '; - ,
I am Porky ' '; - ,
You are Porky ' ; -
, That pig is Porky ' ' Those men
are Democrats ' ';
- , The afore-mentioned pig is Porky '
*.
-, ,
,
, is tall 'x ' son of '
-\ , ,
, -
, ,
,
( , -
L , ,
L <..-> is tall son of
, ,
, I am tall ' * son of mine
' '
.
. , , ,
; -,
, .
, ,
, .
441

... ,
:
, , ,
( , ),
( ,
), (, ) ,
,
( L e w i s 1972: 175176).

, ,
:
,
, . S ,
. , ,
,
:
<j

S/N

I
V
(S/N)/NS

command
''
ask-whether
''

you
'()'

v
/
:
1 command you to be late ' '.
I ask you whether you are late ' , '.
( A u s t i n 1962 , ,
, .)

:
Be late! '!'
Are you late? ' ?'
,
442

,
, ,
. , ,

, .

, , ; ,

:
- , " (-,
. .), , :
. ,
. ,
, ! , ,
,
, , . ,

( R o s s 1970),
( L e w i s 1972: 210).

,
, ,
, ,
( L a k o f f 1972a; 1972b):
... , ,
(),

PRED

ARG

ARG

ARG

order
'*
ask
''

*
\
state
I '' I
|
say
''
^

''

you
' () *

(A) Si ,
443

. ,
, . ,
: I state that I am innocent ' , ',
: That's false * ', ,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
,
. 1 state that I am innocent
I am innocent,
. , ,

.
, (),

.

,
. , -
, .
s\t

,
. ,
,
.
, (),
.
() ,
,
, , ,
, ,
,
,
, (La ko if 1972a: -560561).
() ,
. , ,
( S c o t t 1969). ,
, ,
,
Bring what you now have to me over here ' ,
, 1. ()
. ,
()
,
s .
.
, I am innocent ' '
I state that I am innocent * , '
", . Si ().
, () ,
> ( L a k o f f 1972a: 569).


, ,
9:
444

General Se
mantics", .
" ".
, , ,
.
, , is tall
son of '1.
,
, ,
. .

, .
, ,
.
, (),
, ,
,
(). ()

( ,
), .
, , ,
( L a k f f 1972a: 655).

,
, .
,
.
, :
(1) I state that the earth is flat
' , *
- :
(2) a. That's true
' '

b. That statement is true


' ',
, (2) (2),
,
, 1- . ,
, :
. (2) (2)
.
(
, ) ,
, . ,
: ,
.
, ,
, .
446

,
, ,
,
, .
, ,
-.
, .
, .
, ,
,

1
true ',
, ,
,
. ,
,

, true '
* false '' .
, , ,
, ,
. ,
true false
, :
, ,
- .
:
(3) a. It is true that it is raining outside
', ',
b. It is false that it is raining outside
', *.

, .
, ,
. (4) (4)
, ,
,
.
(4) a. It is raining outside
' ',
b. It is true that it is raining outside
', '.

,
,
true 446

.
true
" ( )",
"
( )".
, true
. ( L e w i s
1972: 210):
(5) , I bet you sixpence it
will rain tomorrow '
, '
,
,
; ,
, ;
, (true).
,
true .
:
(6) a. I bet you sixpence it will rain tomorrow
' ,
',
b. That's false, because you don't have a penny to your name.
You didn't just make a bet.
' , .
',
b'. That's true you did just bet me sixpence
'
'
(7) a. I hereby christen this battleship Borman
'
'.
b. That's false, you have no authority to give a name to that
ship!
' ,
!'
b'. That's true you did just give that name to that ship
'
'.
(8) a. I hereby pronounce you husband and wife
' ',
b. That's false, you have no authority to marry those people!
' ,
!'
447

b'. That's true, he did just marry them


' , *.
() (')
(); ,
false true .
(5), -,
,
. ,
true (5) " (
)".
, ,
true.
( L a k o f f 1972b: 570);
, ,
, (felicity values),
. V w P ] ^
= 1, " w" ,
, VW[P] = 1 " w'Y

" 1 "
, .
,
,
; ,
, ,
felicitous '' true ''

.
( L a k o f f 1971: 335336), ,


.
,

, ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
.
448

So

state
''

S
/

unicorn
''

Z
exist
' *

,
true (. ).
(10) a. I state to. you that unicorns exist
' , ,
',
b. Unicorns exist
' '.

(10) () (9).

So. , ,
Si.
true , ,
, Sj.
, (10) That's true ' '
That statement is true ' ',
Si (9).

.
()
.
1/215 . 352

,.
449

b.
,


,
.

c.
I '', you
'', here '', now '' . .

I '', you '*,


here '', now '* . . ,

.

d.

e.
( ,

I, you ..).

f. {w, s, h, t, p, d,
a} 1 g.
-
.

{,
}.
-


-
,


.
.

,

I, you, here now
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
,
,
, :
(12) X U {} Q ( Q ,
X ), ,
, Q
, X .
i w = , s = , h =
, t = , = , d = ^
, = .
450

vs
/ ,
:
(13) .
. ,
promise '* I pro
mise to marry you ' ' I pro
mised to marry you ' '
.
b.

.
c.
.
d.
,
.
. G o r d o n
L a k i f 1971 (. 2 . 452)
:
(14) (, (, , ) ID (, )
[" , ', ,
, " ] .
,
, ,
.
, ,
. (14)
, ,
sincere '', state '
, ' believe ', *. (14)
, ,
sincere, state believe.
believe, ,
, state
sincere. ,
,
, ,
. (14)
.
(15) a. Spiro was sincere in stating that Tricky Dick had betrayed
him ' , ,
'.
1

5*

451

b. Spiro believed that Tricky Dick had betrayed him


' , '.
(14)
(12)
, (15) (15).
(16).
(16) a. Sam was being sincere
' '.
b, Sam stated that Tricky Dick had betrayed him
' , '.
c. Sam believed that Tricky Dick had betrayed him
' , '.
X (16),
(12) (16b), , (!6),
, (16),
(16) (14). ,
(17') ,
(14), (17) .
(17) (, (a, S)) = (, S)
, (17)
, ,
, 2 .
(17') Sam was sincere in stating that Tricky Dick had betrayed him
but that he believed that Tricky Dick had not betrayed him
' , ,
, ,
'.
(14) ,
(17')
2

, (I) :
(I) (, P H Q ) D (, ) (JC, Q).
,
:
() (, ) ZD I (JC, I p).

(14), (17), (I) (II), (17') :


<) . (, (, , (, 1 )))

=(1

b. (, (, 1 ))
c. (, ) (, (, 1 ))
d. (, (, 1 ))

[ (14)]
[

e. (, 1 )
[ (17)1
f. (, )
[ "
S. 1 (, 1 )
[ (II)
h. (, 1 ) 1 (, 1 )
[ g]
. (17')
, (17')
, (17') .
452

. (18)
(18).
(18) a. Sam stated that Tricky Dick had betrayed him but that he
did not believe that Tricky Dick had betrayed him
' , ,
, '.
b. Sam was not being sincere
' '.

, (12)
(14), (17), (I) (II) 2,
.
(19) a. Tricky Dick betrayed me, but I don't believe that Tricky
Dick betrayed mc
' , ,
'.
. (19) ( ,
).
(19) ,
(12), (14), (17), (I) (II) 2
.
, (20),
,
(21).
(20) . (, (, , ))=
(, );
b. (, (, , ))=> (, ) ;
c. (, {, , (, , )))=>
ZD (, (, )).
(21) a. I promise to marry you, but I don't intend to
' ,
'.
b. Please close the window, but 1 don't want you to
' , ,
'.
c. Who left, but don't tell me
' '.

.
,

,

, 15 . 352

453

.
,
,
,
, .
, ,
:
(22) a. Don't obey this order
'He ' [. .
].
b. I promise not to keep this promise
' '.
c. I advise you not to follow this advice
' ' . .
L a k o f f 1972b,
:
(23) . , , , () .
b. , , , - (
) .
c. , , , (
) .
, , , ,

1.
(23)
" ", (24),
(22).
(24) V w [OP] = 1, , , (3w) (Rww'& VW[P = 1),
w w' *.
(22). , (22),
, , , . =
= " ",
, ,
, , .
, ,
1. (22)
.
* "<^" " ". R
. ., ,
. . . .: .
. ., 1974, . 223246, 258 . . .
464

(22)


(23).
(22) (22).
L a koff 1972b,
.
:
(25) a. You do not believe this statement
' '.
b. I state that you do not believe this statement
' ,
'.
c. You believe that this statement is false
, *.
d. I state that you believe that this statement is false
' , ,
'.
(25) :
, , , , ,
, , , , .

.


, ,
:
(23) d. , , ,
() ,
,
, " believe
(, )", , , , ,
, . " believe {, ) "
, (26)
.
, (23 d)
-
:
(26) a. Sam ordered Olga not to obey the order he was then
giving
' ,
',
b. Sam did not give a felicitous order
' '.
*

453

(27) a. Sam stated to Olga that she did not believe the statement
he was then making
' , ,
,
'
b. Sam did not make a felicitous statement
' '.
(23 d)
() () (26) (27).
, ,
, ,
,
,

. . ,

, ,
. ., ,
,

.
, , ,
-
,

. ,
, -
. ,
.
(28)

(I)

.
(II)

,
,

.
(29) -

(I)

. ( 456

,
.)
(II)
;
,
.
-, ,

(, -
, , , , , . , ).
,

.

, 3 S e a r l e 1969,

,
.

,
:
, . ,
(14) (20),
,
.
, . (30).
(30) (, , ) {, (, ) ) .
(30)
, ,

. (30),
,
(31).
(81) a. Henry requested of Jill that she take her clothes off
, '.
b. Henry attempted to get Jill to take her clothes off
' '.
request , (31) ,
(31) . , (30)
.
467


,
. , ,
, ,
.
,
, .
(32) a. Sam ordered Harry to get out of the bar
' *.
b. Sam didn't order Harry to get ut of the bar
' '.
c. Sam may order Harry to get out of the bar
' '.
(32) ,
.
,

: (I)
(II) ,
, ,
..
(I);

, .
(II)
? (II)
(33):
(33) , ,
, ,

.
, (16) (16) ('
')

. , , (33)
,
, ""
' ".
; (33)
. , (33)
.
,
,

. , 458


. ,

. ,
(16) .
,
.
.
( ) ,
.

,

,
.
, ,
, ,

.
:
(34) . [is cooperating with]
,
, -
[
].
b. >
.
c. ,
, [
] . .
, (34)
[cooperate],

.
, "",
(34)
,

. , ,
.

,

, .
(I)
46

, () ,
, (III) ,


.

, K a r t t u n e n
1973, .
,
S " , " [
] , S X
, , [)\\ *.
:
(35) a. If Jack has children, then all of Jack's children are
bald
' , '.
b. If Nixon invites Angela Davis to the White House then he
will regret having invited a black militant to his residence
' ,
,
'.
" , ". (35)
Jack has children ' '.
, = , , , X (J |1 X.
(35) Nixon will have invited a black
militant to his residence '

1. ,
X, , Angela Davis is a black militant
' ' the
White House is Nixon's residence '
', XUAIh* , ,
, X
(35).

, ,
,
, . ,
" , ",
X .
, ,
" , "
* - (). . .
460

X. ,
:
(36} If Sam asks Professor Snurd to write him a recommendation
to graduate school, and Professor Snurd writes the recom
mendation, saying only that Sam has nice handwriting, then
Sam will regret that Professor Snurd wrote him a bad re
commendation
'
,
, ,
, ,
'.
(36) , Professor Snurd will have
written Sam a bad recommendation '
'. X,
,
,
, .
, X U 11 . ,
, (36) X,
, . ,
,
,
. (36) ,
,
.
, -, .
,
(36) ,
, (36)
, (35).

,

, ,
. ,

,
, . .
(37) a. John has three children
' *,
b. John has three children and he may even have six
' , ,
'.
461

(38) a. Jon caused Harry to leave


' ',
b. John caused Harry to leave but Harry may not have
left
' , , ,
'.
, (37), , ,
; (37).
,
(37). (37) (38) , (38)
( ), .
, . (38).
(37) (38) , ,

. , . ,
(12), ;
.
,
(39)
(39)
Q, , , Q
, .
38) ;
37) . , ,
, (37) .
, (37) ,
, .
(37)
, ,
,
.
, ,,

. , ,
(40) a. We've got a job for a welfare recipient who has at least
three children and the more the better. Do you defini
tely know someone who fills the bill?
' , ,
,
. - ?'
b. We've got a job for a junior executive with children, but
no more than three. Do you definitely know someone who
fills the bill?
* ,
462

. -,
?'
(41)
Exactly how many children does John have?
' ?'
(37)
(40) (41). (37) (40),
, , (37)

(40). (37)
(40) (41), ,
, (37b)
. .
(34).
X " X U {} Q" (12).
(34) , ,
, :
X .
, ,
. (40) .
(40) (41) . ,

,
,
(12).

,
,
, ,
.
,


.
.
,

:
(42) (S, L, , ), S (
), L ,
(
),
(,
, ,
L)
( , 463

;
)
, (S, L) ,
, S L.
D (S, L).
-:
(D, , ), D (S, L).


.
.
, ,

.


.
(43):
{43) Harry is a real genius
' '.
(43)
, . ,
,
,
, '
'. ,
, ,
, , ,

. ,
, .
. ,
( )
,
,
, . ,
(43) real genius '
1 ,
. ,
, ,

.
,
, ,
464

*
. :
(44) Can you pass the salt?
' ?'
(45) I want a beer
' '.
(46) Why don't you ask Harriet for a date?
'
?'
(47) Your mother would like it if you asked Harriet for a date
' ,
*.
,
.
, (44)
, ,
, , ,
,
, . , , (44)
. (45)
,
,
What do you want most? '
?'. . (46) (47)
,
.
,
, ,
,
. , (44)

, . .

,
. , , ,
, , ,

. (48) 465

(
) .
(48) (, ( {,
Q))) & (, , (, <) (, , Q
[ , , Q,
, , Q, ,
Q].
, (48) 7 ,
(45) ,
. (45)

, (48) .
,
(48), .
{4) a. Sam assumed that the pure question of his desires was ir
relevant
' ,
',
b. Sam said to Mary that he wanted a beer
' , '.
. Sam requested that Mary get him a beer
* , '.
(49) (49), , (49).
(48)
, ,
.
, ,
, , ,
,
.
, ,
, :
(50) . -

.
b.


, ,
.
c.

,

.
466


( )
:
; ,
,
.
,
,
, .
,
true ''
true in a model ' ', '
'.
{true) (false) .
,
true
, true, ' ', '
.
,
( P o s t a l 1969 B o r k i n 1971):
(1) a. IBM went up six points . ' '
[ ],
b. IBM stock went up six points '
'.
(2) a. Proust is impossible to read ' *.
b. Proust's works are impossible to read '
'.
(3) a. This page is illegible ' '.
b. The writing on this page is illegible 'To, ,
'
(4) a, This page is impossible to understand ' '.
b. What is expressed by the writing on this page is impossible to understand
. ', ,
'.
() ,
(). Proust (2) ' ';
Proust (5) , a Proust (5)
.
(5) a. Proust Is buried in France ' '.
b. Proust wrote a lot ' '.
, this page ' ' ()
, () , ( )
, (6)
.
{6) Tfiis page weighs l/50th of a gram ' 1/50- '.
(1) (4)
. , () ,
(), ( ) ,
, ,
. , -
, ,
, , ,
(2) Proust,
( ) , Proust (5),
.
467

,

: () Proust (2)
. ,
, ,
.
. (2) (2)
Proust (2) ,
Proust's works,
(2) Proust , Proust's works
. ,
,
;
-
.
,
,
,

,
, .

,
vs. ,
,
. ,
,
. , Proust (2)
, ;
, ,
, , (
).
,
,
.
.
, .
.
,

,
.
true.
, (7) , (7b).
(7) a. That sentence is true ' .
b. The proposition that the logical structure of that sentence expresses is true
', ,
'.
that sentence (7) , the proposition that
the logical structure of that sentence expresses (7b), (8)
.
(8) That sentence contains five words ' '.
, (1) (4)
, , .. (7)
, (7), .
^, true
468

, ,
. ,
,
, . ,
,
, ,
, .
,
S, S,
. :
S,
S? ,
S
,
. N,
N, ,
. ,
N, -.
N.
, . ,
(2):
(2) a. Proust is impossible to read ' '
Proust
: , .
, Proust
(2)? ,
,
, ,
. (
) : N,
N Proust (2)?,
, , '
. , -

(2). [...]

A u s t i n 1962 A u s t i n J, Performative utterances. In: A u s t i n J How


to do things with words. Cambridge, 1962.
or k i n 1971 ki n A. Coreferenc and beheaded NP's. Unpublished
paper, 1971.
G o r d o n L a k o f f 1971 G o r d o n D., L a k o f f G. Conversational postu
lates. Chicago linguistic Society, 7, 1971 (. . . , .,
. 276302).
G r i c e 1967 G r i c e H. P. Logic and conversation. In: Syntax and se
mantics, v. 3, P. Cole and J. Morgan (eds.), N. Y., 1975, p. 4158 (.
. , ., . 217237).
K a r t t u n e n 1973 11 u n e n L. Presuppositions of compound senten
ces. Linguistic Inquiry, 1973, 4, 2.
L a k o f f 1 9 7 1 L a k o f f G. Presuppositions and relative well-formedness.
In: Semantics, Jacobovits, Steinberg (eds.), Cambridge, Cambridge University
Press, 1971.
L a k o f f 1 9 7 2 a L a k o f f G. Linguistics and natural logic.In: Semantics
for Natural Language, G. Harman, D. Davidson (eds.), Dordrecht, Reidel Publi
shing Co, 1972.
469

L f f 1972b L f f G. Performative antinomies. Foundations of


Language, 1972.
L a k o f f 1973 L a k o f f G. The logic of politeness: Or, minding your P's
and Q's. Chicago Linguistic Society, 9, 1973.
L e w i s 1972 L e w i s D. General semantics. In: Semantics for Natural
Language, G. Harman, D. Davidson (eds), Dordrecht, Reidel Publishing Co, 1972.
P o s t a l 1969 P o s t a l P. Anaphoric islands Chicago Linguistic So
ciety, 5, 1969.
R o s s 1970 R o s s J. R. On declarative sentences. In: Readings in Eng
lish Transformational Grammar, Waltham (Mass.), Toronto London, Ginn and
Co, 1970.
S e a r l e 1969 S e a r l e J, Speech Acts. Cambridge, Cambridge University
Press, 1969.

, ,

,
, . , . ,
. , . . XIX XX 7
,
, ,
.
.
, ,
( )
. , ,
, ,
, .
,

.


. 6070-
,
. , ,


.

,
.
,
-',
,
2. 70-
80- .
,
,
.
,
, ,
' ., . . .. .
., . 3.
2
. , . , 1984;
. . . ., 1972.
471

, ,
, ,
3 ,
.
,
, , , .
: ,
, *.
,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
.


, .

?, * ,
.
.
,
,
, .
- .
,
.
, - ,
.

, . , .

. ,
. ,
,
, ,
.

, ,
, .
. :
,
- . ,
,
5. ,


,
. , ,
,
3
4
5

472

R u b i n s t e i n D. Marx and Wittgenstein. London, 1981, p. 205.


Wittgenstein: To Follow a Rulle. London, 1981.
W i t t g e n s t e i n L. Philosophische Bemerkungen. Oxford, 1965, p. 85,


.
,
, ,
, , ,
,
.
,
,
.


,
.
, *
, ,
, : .

,
, . ,
(, . .),

.

.

. ,
.

.
,
, .
,
.
,
.
,
.
, ,
, .
,
.
,
, ,
.
: ,
, . ,
: 7 .

. : ( )

. , *
, .
- 8
7

W i t t g e n s t e i n L. Philosophical Investigations. Oxford, 1962, p. 655.


Ibid., p. 654.

16 . 352

47

, -
8 .

, ,
. , , ,
. ,
,
: , ,
, .
,
, 9 ,

,
. ,
, .

,

? ?
.
,
, .
(, )),
, . ,
,
. ,
. ,
10 , ,
. ,
,

, , , . .
,
,
, .

,
.
, ,
, ,
, .
, -
,

.
, .
, .

, .
8

H i n t i k k a Y. Language-Games for Quantifiers. In: Studes in Logical


Theory, Oxford, 1968, p. 20.
'10 . . . , 1983, . 3847,
S e a r l e J. Intentionality. Cambridge, 1983.
474

( ),
, :
; ,
, ;
.
, - ,
. ,
,
, .

.
. , -
,
.
(
),
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,

12. , ,
-, -,
- .
, ,
. ,
13 ,
. , ,


.
, ,
, .

,
. ,
,
, , .

.
( ),
.
, , ,
, ,
. ?
, 11

E v a n s G-, M c D o w e l l I. Introduction. In: Truth and Meaning. Oxlord,121976, p. XVI-XVII.


S e a r l e J., V a n d e r v e k e n D. Foundations of Illocutionary Logic. N. Y,
1884.13
. . .
, 1982, 4.
14
D u m m e t M. Frege. The Philosophy of Language. London, 1973, p. 92.
16*

475

.
.


, ,

. -

15.
, *
.
, .
,
.
, ,

, .
,
.
,
; ,
; ;
.

.
. .

16

1984.
476

S e a r l e J., V a n d e r v e k e n D. Foundations of Illocutionary Logic. N. Y.(

172, 199
385
[]
(audience,
adressee, Horer) 10, 14, 20, 2730,
233, 257, 259, 261, 266, 270, 271,
284, 287, 291, 292, 302, 335339,
345, 346, 394, 441, 442, 444, 445,
464 (. )
14, 24 (. )
403
36,
39
396
[] 168
=
5, 13, 474
[ =
] , .
168, 331, 334, 335, 390, 437
18

18
34, 36, 259, 336, 429
- 9
448, 451,
454, 456

(declarative)
445
- (aptness-sentences, *
sentences) 172, 175178, 180
-, - (aptnesswords) 163165, 167, 175, 178, 179,
181
235
17, 18, 217

395

,
, .
31, 35, 36, 260, 261 (.
)
81
132, 145, 146, 148, 153
152

429, 431434
8 (. )
[ ]
king) 270
[ ]
sing) 271, 273

(than
(bles

(parenthetical)
211, 214, 215
214
33
(politeness, Hoflichkeit)
27, 30, 233, 270, 345, 346, 348, 367,
369372, 440
[ ] (verdictives) 239
179
(probability) 206, 207

(non-natural
world) 155, 162
(possible world, monde possible) 18, 20, 22, 38, 307, 308,
390, 396, 421, 422, 424432, 435
437, 441, 442, 445, 450 ., 454
[ ] (protest
protesting) 264, 265
[ =
] (question, Frage) 88, 89, 99,

* (, ,
)
.

477

107, 173, 174, 183, 279, 283, 286,


289, 291, 297, 300, 344, 347, 349,
353, 365, 370, 374377, 379, 382,
413, 414, 416, 469
345, 347
(embedded, reported, in
direct q.) 261, 292
261
(direct q.) 293
(Entscheidungsfrage, YaNein-F.) 344, 345, 347, 349
(straightforward q.) 286
288
why (why q.) 286, 287
30, 87, 291
(Erganzungsfrage) 349
347
[ ] 33, 85, 258
262, 278280, 288, 289, 292, 295,
296,306, 316, 344, 349, 353358, 360,
361, 367, 369, 371, 372, 374376,
381, 425, 426, 428, 439, 443, 444,
464
(Interrogati
ve Bedeutung) 374, 375
(Fragesatz) 349365,
358, 361364, 366, 368372, 375,
376, 379
(Fragewort) 347
[] (tense) 16,
288, 289. 437, 445
278, 279, 300
(Continouos) 238
(Present) 197, 198, 207,
209214, 239
16
(P. Continuous) 196,
197, 200, 210, 214, 215
(P. Indefinite)
196, 197, 200, 210, 215
(past, Past Perfect) 17,
293
[] (time) 424, 437
[ ,
] (time) 7, 17, 18, 20,
220, 393, 423, 439, 441, 445, 450, 466
(lexical insertion)
313, 320
(embedded
sentence) 451 (.
)
(choosing) 14, 15, 169, 190, 191
(inference) 311, 312, 326, 361,
356, 388, 459., 460.# 464
188
478

213, 217219, 227, 298,


320, 353, 356, 381, 401, 439, 4,
461
439
357
350, 382, 401, 408,
458, 459
439
(calculating, working out)
227,236
[
] (derivation) 298
311, 312, 368, 372,
375
(necessitation) 311, 331
[= ]
(satisfaction in a model) 447
451, 462, 463, 466, 467

471
471
257
, 129131, 164, 296
(utterance, Aufierurig)
II, 334, 335, 350, 382, 400404
.

423, 429
.

* .

, [
] (guarantee) 264266
, G- 158, 163,
165, 167, 175, 181
176
30, 231
, (verbs, predica
tes) [=] (v. of sa
ying) 37, 240, 241, 248, 249, 444
199, 209
208
(achievements v.) 238,
239
240, 248
.
(quasi -exerdtitives) 246
- (container v.) 238
296, 349, 364, 378, 382
9
450, 464
318
7, 14

.
240
.
6,
9
210
349, 382
(states) 239
.
239, 246, 249
(behabitues)
240, 247, 269, 271
[]
(deep structure, structure sous-jacente) 311, 312
16
[ ] (speaking, tal
king, saying, Sprechen) 88, 224, 240,
252-254, 269, 271, 475
(talkers) 18, 29, 38, 41, 224
(speaker, Sprecher, locuteur) 7, 12, 1618, 20, 22, 2729,
39, 131, 137, 139, 141, 147, 160, 161,
165, 171173, 176, 180, 181, 184,
188, 200206, 209, 212, 226, 229
231, 233236, 240, 243, 245249,
252, 255, 257, 259, 264, 266, 279,
284287, 289, 291293, 296, 298,
301, 305, 307-309, 315, 316, 318,
322, 325, 331, 335339, 343348,
351354, 357368, 371, 374, 378,
389, 393395, 401, 404, 413, 415,
420, 423, 425, 427, 428, 430, 431,
433, 439445, 447, 450, 457, 458,
464, 466, 475
, 8, 23
(grader) 47, 51, 53, 55, 68,
68
55, 56
(grading) 10, 4346,
55, 58, 6062, 65, 67, 7076
55, 56
(disjunct g.) 51,
53, 59
(close-gamut
g.) 5053, 59, 73
4552, 56, 57, 60, 76
(conjunct g.) 50,
51, 59
59
4749, 54, 59, 74
vs. 67
(open-gamut
g.) 5053, 59, 73

(polar g.) 76, 77


4955, 59, 74, 77
(blend-g.) 59
4652, 55, 76
,

(grading
iudgements) 63, 68
= 67
64, 66,
67
63, 66,
67, 69
70, 71
[ ] (movement in grading) 49,
5961, 70, 72
(deduction) 401 (.
)
7, 1518, 20
= = delxis
ad Phantasma 16
16
[ = ] (dei
ctic, indexical) 16, 19,
394, 423, 444
1820, 22
19, 20
1517, 240, 249, 393
, (act, action, Handlung, Verhalten) 14, 25, 163, 170,
176, 257, 263265, 267, 270, 279,
286-288, 345, , 359, 365367,
373376, 382, 395, 457, 472, 474,
476 (. )
364
27
353, 359, 365
(denotation, reference) 7, 18,
21, 406, 411, 412
15
406, 409
(indirect r.) 407
431
406
= (direct, custo
mary .) 407
434
[ = ] 420
vs.
(descripti
vely loose vs. exact words) 186, 187
.

479

[! 211, 248,
258
, D- 7, 165,
166, 183, 187, 188, 191
[== ] (descrip
tion, Beschreibung) 113, 183
199
9, 11, 12, 81, 82, 471
474
23, 25, 221, 222, 226, 361, 370
399
[]
(gamutt
(close g.) 50, 51, 53, 59,
74, 77
(open g.) 50, 52, 53, 59,
74
8, 24
(discourse, discours) 22, 28,
41, 225, 308

[ =
] (disposition)
133135,
136141, 143, 145, 146, 149153,
(. )
146148 (.
)
147, 152
146, 149 (.
)
(goodnes) 157159, 167, 168,
170, 171, 175
[ ] (guess) 208,
209, 242, 423

(doxastische
Sprachereinstellung)
379

380
(complement) 444, 446,
449
=

(NP object) 321


253, 444
446, 473
(. predicatif) 303,
312 (. )
238, 318
(admission) 203
[] (relia
bility) 203, 204, 212
, , (want,
desire, wollen, Wunsch) 23, 67, 70,
77, 79, 86, 141, 255, 257, 261264,
266, 268, 278, 279, 282, 293, 359, 361,
362, 369, 371, 374, 380, 381, 425,
465, 466, 474
480

(gesture) 129, 132, 146, 231


132
19, 97
[==
] 32, 33, .
313,
326


[ =
] 29
(standing for a property)
156, 157, 159, 162
, [ }
(forbidding, prohibition) 257, 263,
264
(wrong) 168
(signum, sign, Zeichen) 3, 79,
83, 84, 97, 102, 103, 107, 116, 122,
132, 137140, 143-145, 153, 384,
420, 471, 473
88, 120
5, 394, 473
(knowledge, Wissen) 39, 112,
263, 254, 256,-261, 262, 293, 361
364, 376, 386, 423, 425
(factual k.) 396
(meaning, Bedeutung, Deutung) 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 16. 17, 97,
101, 104, 105, 115, 123, 125, 132,
137139, 141 145, 150, 151, 153,
159162, 168, 179, 185188, 190,
218, 264, 274 333, 351, 355, 384,
385, 388392, 394, 395, 472475
343, 438 (. , )
(literal m., wortliche .) 29, 147, 148, 208, 277,
293295, 341, 450, 463465
= 374, 375,
377
(speaker's m.) 12, 18
10
17
20, 131, 132, 138,
142144, 145149, 150152, 154,
184, 188189, 190193, 211
(feste .) 114
vs. 152
= 375,
378, 379

= =
=
(-

versationaly implied, conveyed m.)


277, 279, 285, 288, 294
-
(Kotextabhangige B.) 333, 334, 343
-
(Kontextfreie B.) 333, 334, 343
,
(indirectly conveyed m.) 451,
460, 461
(indirekte B.) 350, 351,
353, 356, 357
391393
7

(confused
m.)
151
162
396
(confused m.) 151, 162
(ultima
tely conveyed m.) 464

(evaluative
m.) 14,
189193
vs. 189, 191,
279, 285
=
=
(conveyed
m.) 12, 99, 450, 464
(figurative m., Nebenbedeutung) 190, 347, 351, 391
16, 17, 339, 350,
474 (. )
~~ 348 (.
)
377
356
10
19133, 138, 141, 142,
146, 147, 149, 150-153, 190 .
385, 387, 390, 391, 396,
397
(value) (sati
sfaction v.) 448
(felicity v.) 448, 454
(meaning) vs.
(content) 386, 390, 391, 392, 394,
395
10
146, 147
36

(game, Spiele) 80, 82, 103, 108


110, 112, 115, 116, 123, 128, 254,
443
= (con
versational g.) 231
.

409, 410
22, 410
40
[ ]
(apology,
Entschuldigung) 213, 296, 370, 377
(infelicity) 241
= (illocutionary for
ce) 17, 26, 28, 29, 239, 250, 274,
306, 344, 349, 352, 403, 444, 475
[, ]
(goal) 243246, 248, 249
(illocutio
nary suicide) 238, 243, 245
(illocutionary act)
239, 252, 423, 425
240, 248

(Illokutionsindikator)
377, 378
377, 378
(noun phrase) 468,
469
238
238
321 (. )
238
[ =
] 253., 256, 356, 359
(Aufforderung) 359, 367 (. )
=
(Aufforderungsatz, impera
tive sentence) 291, 302, 359, 361,
364, 366, 369, 439, 440, 443, 456
[ =
] 371, 372
(implicatum) 220

(conversational
i.) 236, 237
,
(implicatives) 304306, 309313,
324, 329, 330

(two-way i.) 314, 322


325, 329, 330, 332
313, 314, 319, 323,
325, 326, 329, 332
309, 315318, 324
(one-way i.) 314, 321,
322 324 329
if- 304, 314315, 317, 319,
320, 323, 325, 326, 328, 329, 332
only-if- 304. 314, 320, 321,
323325, 327, 329, 331
(implicatures) 29, 34,
219, 230, 235, 236, 439, 460, 461,
463
481

,
(particularized i.) 234

(conventional
i.) 221, 227, 234
221, 223
(generalized 1.) 234,236

=
(conversational i.) 29, 30,
34, 221, 226227, 229, 234, 236, 451,
459, 462, 466
(nondetachability) 35, 236
(cancelling) 236
(generation) 223, 224,
226, 229, 231, 234, 236, 237

[ = ,
] (implication, entailment) 29,
172, 177, 244, 310311, 322, 325,
401404
vs.
311, 314, 315, 322,
323, 325327, 329, 330
.

= (conversational i.) 277289,


291293, 298, 299
164, 172, 175, 177, 178,
311, 382
311, 412
[ = ] 331
(implicate),
(implying) 220, 221, 227
229, 231, 234
= ,
[vs. , ] (what
is implied).220, 221, 237

399, 400, 402, 404

33
, [ =
] (Benennen, naming) 96, 101
(Name, name) 9598, 103107,
113, 114, 179
(Personenname) 90
= (common,
general n.) 161, 441
(proper ., Eigenname) 17, 91, 96, 160, 161, 167, 393,
406, 409, 412, 430, 431, 434, 435,
441, 468, 469
[ (point of
reference)] (index) 20, 439, 441,
442, 450
482

[ = ]
(indexal, indexical expres
sions, indexicals) 15, 394, 444
388
=
(referential indices,
points of reference) 388, 390
,
[ =
] (individual) 21,
73, 98, 160, 161, 421, 422, 430, 431,
434, 437
=
239, 253
[]
388
(intension) 388, 390,
392, 441443
(variable i.) 441
388, 390,
391
10
474
215 (.
)
[,
] (interpretation, interpretant, Interpretation) 425
(indirekte I.) 357, 380
(straighforward i.) 232, 233

- 450, 463
147,
148, 149
129, 255257, 261, 295, 346
, (intui
tion) 167170, 196
(conveying, ex
change) 184189, 192, 222, 223, 262,
346, 428
30, 48, 49, 173, 191, 194, 195,
230, 231, 341, 371
,
(la conditionnelle irreelle) 307
(sincerity) 26, 28,227 .,
276278, 280282, 299, 301, 310,
440, 443, 451, 458
168 {. *
)
426
168
(truth-value,
Wahrheitswert) 5, 20, 21, 26, 32, 88,
183, 218, 306, 329, 343, 348, 387,
406, 407, 409, 411414, 418, 421,

423, 425, 426, 430432, 434


436
447, 452, 467
312, 314,
315, 317, 318, 323, 325, 329331
[
] (background assumpton, Hintergrundannahme) 251, 257, 263,267
33, 347
391, 395
395
201, 264, 436
320
177
242, 244, 245
, 61,
62
(quantificates) 44
46
46
46
45
46, 76
45
45
45
, 6, 17,
217
(kinaestesis),
, . , .
60, 61, 63, 66, 69,
72, 78
[, ] 63, 73, 156,
165, 183, 186, 192, 384, 408, 40,
422, 433, 434
, (swear) 446
[] 152
384
384, 386, 388
384, 385
, 143,
151, 351, 368
[ ] (command,
Kommando) 360, 371
[ = ]
(SprechsituatJon) 335, 399, 400
(. )
7, 14, 29
29 (.
)
[ = ]
(illocutionary suicide)

,

(conversational requi
rement) 233
13, 14, 2830
,
368, 389
[ =
] 350, 382
6
, 15, 23, 26, 29, 30
3, 10, 15, 31, 33
, 47,
49, 56, 75 (.
)
(compromise) 52
, . ,
. (conventional mea
ning, force) 220, 221, 236
7, 44, 30, 144, 146149, 181,
202, 204, 207, 227, 231, 236, 243,
276, 279, 286, 288, 291, 292, 295, 298,
333, 340, 342. 344, 40.0, 401, 403,
431, 432
387
7
201, 212, 216
389
389, 390
201, 216
243
388, 389
243, 248
17, 394
432
34, 41
= =
7, 15, 16, 18,
29, 423, 425, 427, 429, 450
375
201, 216, 471 (.
)
216 (. )
308, 309
146
(contextual
implication) 172174, 176178, 180
(contextual back
ground) 181

(counterfactual) 423, 429


=
38, 197, 374
35
483

440, 459 (.
)
[,
] 439, 441, 442, 444
441, 442
, 441, 442, 444,
450
439, 441, 442, 444, 450
439, 441, 442, 444, 450
(assignement coordi
nate) 445
= 441, 442,
444, 450

=
441, 442, 450.
441, 445
450, 468
(reported, indirect
speech) 258, 259, 261, 407

349, 350, 352
349, 352,
363, 371, 376, 379, 380
(reported, indirect
question) 261
(indirect speech
act, indirekter Sprechakt) 345, 349
356, 358, 359, 363, 367, 369, 372,
376, 378381
=
345, 350, 354, 357, 358
360, 364, 368,
369
=
(meiosis)
31, 231
[] (person)
16, 17, 19, 444
16, 17, 19, 197, 198, 207,
209213, 215, 239241, 248, 253,
258, 296
18, 444, 457
5, 6, 8, 11, 115, 118, 119, 123,
155158, 162, 285, 306, 308, 419
395
32, 40, 217
25, 395
395
(natural) 23, 276,
277, 298300, 439, 440, 451, 453,
455, 456, 458, 459, 466

303
331, 395, 425, 454 .
419
25
484

424
25
25
12, 155, 162, 165
26
25
167
32, 314
25
217
439
[!
288, 289, 298, 299, 384, 440, 448,
450, 454, 463, 466, 467469
[
] 395
[lie, lying) 173, 177, 224, 244,
248, 255, 266 (. )
358
. *

129, 130, 132, 147
(mental attitu
de) 427
243
243
[ ] 7, 16, 18, 20,
343, 393, 439, 441, 445, 450, 466
7, 335, 392, 393, 450
1820, 22
1620, 251, 424, 426, 430,
431, 444
408
17, 424
147, 148, 150, 154, 230, 231
,
147149
(world) 121, 166
(non-natural w.)
155, 162
.
= (actu
al w.) 38, 120, 121, 307, 308, 420,
421, 428, 429

(world-creative)
, 28, 35, 36, 307
(belief) 6, 14, 24, 26, 37, 203,
207, 208, 244, 246, 249, 317, 325,
423
31
435
24
17, 24, 424
24

24
24
< 24
18, 424, 435
447451, 462, 463, 466, 467
8, 9, 24
Modus Ponens 312
Modus Tollens [ = = ] 311
(Zeitpunkte) 338,343,
359, 361, 363 (. ,
)
13, 18, 157, 161, 168, 169, 189,
424, 472

(reasonableness)
28! 283 (. )
(thought, thinking, Denken)
6, 115, 121, 124, 157, 351
24, 157
16
, [ = ]
(Benennen, naming) 82, 89, 90, 98,
159161, 168
(name-thing si
tuation) 161
54
17, 442
17
=
239,
253
= 253
256, 356
= 38,
197
, (suggest, hint) 219,
220, 242, 244, 245, 247
(intention, purpose, Absicht)
23, 147, 160, 243, 245,
254, 255, 259, 266, 282, 284, 286,
287, 337, 359, 361, 363, 372, 375,
376, 380382, 365, 420, 423
29
1- (, )
7, 16, 18, 19, 22, 125, 393, 426,444,
450
[ = ] (viola
tion) 222

226231, 235
,

[
] (instruction) 266, 268
(naturali
stic fallacy) 155., 164, 167
7
6, 8, 9, 15

246
[] (Nichtwissen)
359, 362, 371, 372
[ ] (zone
of indifference) 51, 52

25, 26, 32
(disaproval) 6670
(ambiguity) [
, ] 231233,
279, 288, 292, 293, 301, 396, 430,
432, 436
427, 429, 430, 435,
436
432, 433
(Vagkeit) 122
[ ] 444, 448
33
(con
versational insuitableness) 222
(obscurity) 233, 234
vs
(perfect vs. nonperfect nominalization) 238
(norm) 18, 47, 48, 50, 5256,
59, 74, 76, 77, 130, 341, 342
24
= 53,
59
54, 56
26
[ ] (promising,
promise) 255, 264, 265, 280, 283, 297,
298, 423, 428, 439, 454, 456
(domain of discour
se) 424
(lie) 423, 429 (. )
, (bezeichen,
denote, signify) 79, 83, 84, 96, 103,
159, 160, 472

[]
(grundung) 345, 370 (. )
[,
] (reasonableness) 9, 206210,
212, 215 (. )
(Muster) 80, 101, 111, 112
81, 92
[] 18,
19
[] 7,
18 40
(ordinary discourse)
11, 23, 30, 174, 181
485

(ordinary language)
163, 181, 472, 473
[ = ]

385, 406
, (obliga
tion) 170, 265, 266
[ ]
(comissives) 33, 239
(approval, commendation)
27, 28, 6670, 146, 189, 191
(. , )
, (expectation
Erwartung) 335, 336, 341, 342, 357,
423
384, 388
391, 392
361
35, 36, 361, 432
362
35, 432
28, 35, 38, 307
35
36
(Beschreibung, description)
89, 101
216 (.
)
=
(Erklfirung, Definition, definition) 111,
112, 114, 117, 118
(persuasive defini
tion) 190
430-435
(Erfahrung, experience) 52, 121
(insult, Beleiderung) 28,
370, 423
,

(reason)
[] 169, 175, 180, 286289
< ,

135, 136, 138, 139


24, 26, 169, 171, 177, 183,
184, 201, 223, 231, 282
189
282, 283
.

(answer, reply, Antwort, reponse) 173, 262, 284, 286, 316, 345, 346,
357, 423, 425, 426
(indirekt) 367
284
316, 365, 367, 368,
383, 414
316, 372, 382,
414
(relevant) 284
486

346
[ ] (accessibilitu relation, relation of relative pos
sibility) 425, 454
[] 141, 146,
150, 151153 (. )
(negation, Verneigung) 35,
41, 85, 88, 230, 260, 263, 264, 307,
310, 311, 313, 324, 325, 348, 396,
397, 402, 404, 435
[ ] (denying)
273, 306, 413
, .
(assertion negative) 300,
305, 306, 310, 314, 315, 317, 319,
321324, 326, 327, 330
(evaluation, appraisal, apprai
sing, Bewertung) 14, 15, 2426,
169, 174, 183, 188, 190, 191, 194,
286, 287, 338, 342
(moral appraisal) 169
14, 194, 340344
194, 340, 342344
(affective valua
tion) 68
, 187, 189
14
24
15
(evaluative) 6,
7, 14, 15, 155 .
13, 183, 187, 190, 191
, .
342
=
385, 395, 397
10, 121, 250
249
25, 26, 28, 172 249, 453,
456
27, 453456
[ = ] (paren
thetical) 196 216, 435, 436
213
[ ] 474
197,
198, 207, 209213, 215, 239241,
248, 253
(variable) 377, 410, 441,
445, 450
(free v.) 441
[ ] (transi
tion zone) 50

240
[] 403
,
6, 209, 214, 238241, 243, 244,
248, 251, 252, 258, 265, 272, 274 .,
279, 280, 287, 440, 442444, 446,
450, 451, 457, 466, 473
440
443
=
] (Tbehabitive) 269 .
440

444

448, 451,
,454, 456
(per
formative utterance) 258, 297, 298,
448, 450, 451
440
241, 243
247, 253

444, 448

(descriptive
use) 274

(constative
use) 274
(repor
ting use) 274
440, 443,
454458, 465, 466
439,
440, 456
.

446, 448, 450, 453, 455, 456,471,


473
, (bad, malum) 4760,
7376, 185, 267, 269, 270, 272, 285
[ ]
(exercitive, Aufforderung) 14, 33,
239, 240, 246, 247, 358363, 365,
368, 371, 373375, 382
(indirekt A.) =
=
365, 369, 371
/. )
(Benehmen, behaviour, Veriialten, Handlung) 6, 25, 26, 200,
208, 211, 216, 247, 269, 351, 352,
366, 472
364, 356, 357, 365
=
(sprachliche H.) 355, 358, 367, 374, 382, 427
(Handlungsablaufe,
Handlungsschemas) 356, 365, 366,
369

354

(imperative
form) 256, 268, 269 (. )
[
] (surface structure) 448, 469
471
vs. (recit vs.
discours) 23
(decla
rative antinomy) 455
(deslarative, indicative sentence) 200,
251, 253, 254, 260, 262, 440, 443,
445, 471
(everyday speech)
276 (. )
[] 10
[ =
] (raisonnement
quotidien) 305
(cancelling)
34, 236, 262, 463
, 41,343,
344, 461
(sujet, subject) 293, 294,
407, 408, 444
= ] (s
phrastique) 304, 317
[ = ],
(meinen, mean, as
sume, imply) 8587, 93, 94, 106,
115, 121, 127, 128, 156, 200, 205,
206, 209, 212, 220, 389, 428
(undermining)
249
[ ]
(undermining, spoiling factor) 244
248
[ ] (confir
ming) 273
(subordination.
embed
ding) 415, 416, 418
(embedded
sentence, phrase complement, ph. enchassee) 303, 305307, 309, 310,
312317, 319, 321, 324, 325, 329
331

[ ]
(wish,
Wunsch) 271, 272, 358
[ ] (congra
tulation) 270
[] (Verstehen)
21, 243, 35!
14
(Tadel, reproach, blame)
118, 247
487

[ = ]
319, 345, 346, 348
-
(Quantity) = .
=
26, 30, 34, 222, 229, 230, 235, 246

[ = ]

(Quality)

27, 222, 223, 229, 230

(Relation) =
27, , 227, 230
(Manner) =
= . (ma
xim of perspicuity) 27, 223, 227,
228, 231, 337
(meaning postu
lates) 257, 277, 278, 299, 452, 457,
466
223
459
[== ] ,
(con
versational postulates, . maxims)
26, 29, 222224, 226228, 257,276,
277, 278, 281, 284, 286289, 292
295, 297301, 335, 337, 353, 354,
368, 450, 451, 465, 466
[ = ]
(postulate de sens) 317, 319, 322
324, 326, 328, 330, 331
223
223
(gradab1) 45, 46
(praise, comrnendation, Lqb)
28, 118, 152, 159, 189, 194, 241,247,
248
367, 370
.
444, 450
367
15, 26, 29, 30
368
(Regeln des Spiels) 91, 92,
103, 115, 116, 122, 123, 126, 473
.
["= ]

459

[ = ] 311 .
[ = ] 459
[vs.
] 344
36, 12, 15, 25, 26, 30,
31, 33, 41, 143, 333, 334, 347, 350,
384, 393, 397, 419, 420, 422, 423,
430, 439, 445, 471, 475, 476
- 23
488

419

13, 15

[
] 21, 339, 343, 381, 403
- 425 (. -)
,
(practical discourse) 6,
13, 2325, 155, 156, 174
[
] (preparatory conditions) 258,
266, 373, 458
262
458
303
385
332
303
(sentence, Satz) 120
123, 334, 350, 382, 403, 404, 424,
442
.

435
449
449, 450
448, 456458,
466
442, 443
442, 443, 446,
448, 449, 456, 457
=
358, 361, 364, 366, 369
291, 302
.

24
406
406, 411, 418, 460
(hypothetical) 410, 416,
417, 460
85, 87
(clause) 406
. '

(main .) 407, 414, 415
[ ] (offer,
Vorschlag) 295298, 301, 360, 465
(softened .) 257
[ ] (war
ning) 255, 266268
(commendation, injun
ction) 14, 174
(assumption, sugge
stion, Voraussetzung, Erwartung)

210, 212, 242, 254, 278, 287, 295,


301, 339, 367
283
[ ] (sugge
stion, guess) 296, 297, 423
(preference) 5, 25, 175
,
, , (dis
position) 133, 134139, 141, 199,
207209, 216, 427
(. , )
142
[ ] (predi
ction) 243, 417, 423, 429
(warning) 11, 204,
207, 240, 241, 246, 296, 297
[]
36, 260, 348
39
9
(presupposition) 36, 37,
236 (. )
18, 37
9
9
39
(assumption of ra
tionality) 452
14, 23, 25
(defeasability) 34
[ =
] 36, 37
38
(cancelling) 41, 343,
344, 461
[ = ] (pre
supposition) 31, 32, 3341, 241,
274 ., 299, 306, 307309, 311,
318, 331, 339344, 346, 348, 388,
389, 402404, 406, 409412, 414
418, 427431, 433436, 458, 460,
461
, 400,
401, 403, 404, 406
18, 37, 331, 343, 435
vs.
306, 308, 309, 318,
322
37
38
344
31, 3840, 342,
427, 436
32, 39, 342, 427
=

37, 38, 414, 433



433
= 9, 34
36, 38
39
[ = ]
(invited inference) 326328
[ ] (greeting)
269-271

(clause)
46, 408, 410, 411, 415-418
33
412
411, 415
(relative .) 408
(identi
fying . .) 412, 413, 418

(nonidentifying . .) 414

(non-re
strictive . .) 408
(restrictive
. .) 408, 418
(because .) 24,411
= 309, 410,
411, 418
(although .)
241

, [ ]
(order, Befehl) , 85, 86, 88, 94,
97, 103, 106, 107, 112, 200, 233, 241,
247, 249, 256261, 263, 268, 345,
360, 371, 421, 423, 428, 443, 444,
454
155159, 162, 163,
165, 166, 168, 179, 336, 340, 342
340, 342344
27, 369, 371
[ = ]
(cooperative principle) 26, 222,
224228, 233, 236, 237, 283, 284,
335, 337, 459, 476
(prin
ciples of conversation) 276, 283,
284, 298, 353 (.
)
459
[ = ]
(reference assignement) 468,
469, 474
24
[,
] (utterance, uttering, saying,
Aussprechen) 86, 220, 235, 236, 252,
400, 403, 423
489

[ ] (cursing)
271, 272

= .
(propositional attitude)
9, 26, 37, 425, 427, 432, 433
262

=
6, 9
[
] (propositional content)
258, 270, 364, 358, 359, 443, 444
362, 443
364
443
377
369
443, 444
(propositional affections) 9
(proposition) 6, 20, 21,
24, 27, 28, 116, 230,231, 243, 262,
305, 309, 362, 364, 369, 377, 420
425, 426432, 435437
[ ] (request, as
king, Bitte, Aufforderung) 29, 30,
248, 255-261, 264, 266, 268, 277
282, 290292, 297, 298, 300302,
344, 345, 349352, 357, 370, 371,
375, 378, 381, 423, 465, 466
(hofliche .) 369
277, 278, 299
(con
versationally conveyed) 292
=

350, 357, 358


(. for informa
tion) 279, 286, 291, 293, 294, 301
300
(direct r.) 290, 370, 374
(kontradlctorische Aufierung) 307, 310,
336, 337, 347, 432
(contradiction, Wiederspruch) 172, 176, 322, 328, 336339,
402, 404, 452, 462
-- (contradiction-in-use) 25
(direct speech) 240, 407
41

(indeterminate field) 50
10, 132, 137,
138, 141, 142, 151 (. ,
)
210
490

43

153
199, 208, 210
14
4, 5, 12
12
26
41
(equality) 62
62
= 63
208
[ ] (area of
blend, blend area) 53, 54
, (vague
ness, Unscharfe) 112, 186

(Weisung/Anweisung)
360
, [ ]
(permission) 261, 263, 264, 266
(Meldung, report) 85, 87, 216
[ ] (order)
276
176, 177, 181, 204
(mental) 191
357, 367, 371 (.
)
,
,
(commendation, recom
mendation, ought-sentence, Empfehlung) 14, 174, 187191, 360, 461
27, 223, 227
346, 347
(referent, reference) 22,221,
227, 393, 468
19
430
431, 433
[
] 418, 429, 431
435
17, 2022
(failure) 434
12, 21, 160, 388, 384, 434,
435, 468, 469, 471, 472, 475
468
= 19
5, 6, 26, 28
221 ., 348
,
(conversational situa
tion, s. of discourse, Sprechstuation,
Sprechhandlungsituation) 284, 285,

335, 354, 357, 423, 428, 458, 49


(. )
.

[ = ] 225
[ = ] .

458
=
(conversation) 27. 29, 219, 221,
223226, 231, 276, 277, 283, 284,
298, 352
6, 25, 26, 382
(speech act, act of speech,
Sprechakt) 7, 1216, 19, 20, 25, 26,
28, 29, 31, 33, 39, 239, 242, 243,
248, 249, 251, 254, 257, 258, 279,
281283, 287, 349, 350, 352360,
378, 382, 386, 403, 421, 423, 429,
436, 437, 451, 457, 459, 466
.

(hybrid S.) 376


380
371, 372, 379
. '

(intend ierter,
implizierter S.) 357, 358, 376
=
] 355, 358
[ = ]
239
239
"
[ = ]
(comissive) 239
,

(exercitive) 239
,
239241
(behabltive) 239, 240, 247
46, 11, 25, 403
.
(- ) (deci
sion) 169, 170, 173, 176, 268, 428
3, 4, 30, 41
(property) 79, 109, 165
159, 166, 167, 431
(non-natural p.)
151 ., 158
(gerundive p.) 158
*- = (des
criptive .) 158, 166, 169, 183
(natural p.) 155 .,
158, 169, 342

(causal p.) 177181


(consequential p.)
163, 169, 180
179
341
(apthess-p.) 166
158, 160, 180
36, 143, 276, 298, 333,
334, 347, 350, 385, 388, 392396,
419423, 436, 445, 471, 475, 476
391
7, 419
276, 298, 395
- 456
20, 40, 420, 421, 424,
446, 453, 456, 457, 459, 461, 468
- 385, 393,
397
387
401, 404
,
,
, 403, 404

=
, (semantic
component) 36, 256, 257, 268, 272,
396
396
=
(asserted .) 31, 35, 36, 260, 261
33
(main) 261
380
399404
.
25
=
251253
342
(presuppositio*
nal .) 36, 260, 348
176
399404
,
[ = ]
(semantic primitive)
251253

,
(semantic
representation) 35, 37, 252, 261,
311, 331, 384, 385, 388, 390, 395
3, 4, 393, 471
36
(holes) 36
(plugs) 37
(singular term)
221, 431, 434, 435
491

387, 390, 391, 437


(not complete) 389
=
(complete,
genuine) 387, 389, 390
, (syntax) 3,333,
334, 393, 419, 423, 432, 440, 471
[] (syn
tactic connection) 169, 174
(" ]
(contemporary event) 200
421
= 133, 140
13
475
11, 320, 355,
380
=
355, 358, 362, 367, 372
358, 359, 367,
368, 375
(disposition) 200 (.
)
("= ] (entail
ment, implication) 298, 310, 318,
320, 326, 450, 451, 453, 454, 457,
459
462
462464
164, 310, 327, 460 .
450, 452, 459,
463
(entailment, inference) 35,
277, 312, 325328, 331
460
32, 33, 326, 327, 451
, ,
(invited, suggested i.)
326328
41, 459
= (lexicon) 388, 391,
397

, (hearer, ) 18, 20, 22, 39, 40, 131, 137,


139, 141, 147, 173, 174, 177, 185,
187, 188, 200204, 210, 226, 227,
229231, 233236, 240, 243, 246,
247, 257. 259, 266, 279, 284, 285,
287, 292, 293, 296, 300, 301, 343,
351, 353, 357, 358, 360, 361, 363,
365, 366, 368, 374, 397, 423, 429,
439, 440, 450, 451, 455, 457, 458,
466
(differed ostension) 19
[, ,
] (meaning) 21
492

= (literal m.)
220

(descriptive m.)
216 (. )
[ =
] 350, 382
220, 221, 236
30, 382
231
26
(conveyed m.) 29
(. )
190 (.
)
464
, (talkers) 29,
173, 222, 225, 226, 230, 243, 244,
249, 361, 367, 371
[ ] (advice, Rat)
169, 173, 174, 255, 256, 259, 261,
266268, 286, 291, 360, 454, 464
[ ] (agreement)
272, 273
(content) 384387, 390,
392, 394396
402
402
385, 386, 395. 397
386
386
(lament, Bedauern) 370, 433
[ ]
(telling)
251, 254256, 268

=

360, 371

(culture-specific assumption) 459
(social
interaction) 458, 466
381
4
[] (coordina
tion) 415-417
(conjunction) 36, 411, 412, 415
414
35
414
(aptness) 133, 164, 166
(. -, ,
)
339343,
347 (. )
[ ] (Mittelwert) 337
, (allusion) 40I403

(standard) 14, 183185,


188192
(s. of value) 191
(cleavage
of standards) 191
10 (. , )
16, 17
4, 41
10, 12. 14, 132, 134,
135141, 143, 144

16, 37
7, 8, 12
171
176,
472
(scenario) 385

(proposition,
statement,
judgement) 53, 167, 173
=
(analytic s.) 167, 168, 170
(universal p.) 156, 168
.

vs. 168,
169
46
168
(moral j.) 157, 168
(value j.) 194
vs.
53
' (synthetic s.) 167,
168
168 (.
)
(aesthetic j.) 157
[= )
(superlative) 7276
, (inconditioned, absolute s.)

(slose-gamut s.) 74
76, 77
(open-gamut
s.) 74
, (condi
tioned, relative s.) 73, 75, 77
[
] (essential condition) 457
- 262
[,
] 307, 308, 377, 432
379

22, 32, 229, 285, 339, 347,


402, 404
-
346
137
6
448, 450, 462, 463
~ 349, 352, 353, 461,
458
, \vs. ,
] (what is said) 229, 237
397
(Gesichtpunkte) 16, 338

(Srpechereinstellung) 379
(point of departure)
44, 56
=
(point of reference) 425, 426, 437,
349441, 447, 448, 451, 462, 466
468

(transderivational rules, t.
correspondence grammar) 276, 440,
450, 463464, 466
384,
395
[ ] (deman
ding, Aufforderung) 257, 264, 265,
345, 349351, 358361, 369, 370,
381, 423
353, 382
[ ] (threat, Drohung) 11, 240, 241, 246, 247, 266,
267, 301, 349, 351
(hinweisende
Lehren) 8183, 101
[== ] ,
, (hinweisende Definition, h. Erclarung) 7, 81,
9095, 97
(hinweisende, demon
strative) , 16,
17, 21, 97
(indicative words) 7, 97
(indexicals) 18, 439,441,
466
(hinweisende Gebarde) 19, 97
, (point, indicate,
weisen) 21, 22. 81. 90, 93 102, 125,
187, 203, 441
[ =
] (refer) 160, 161, 434
493

,
(appropriateness, adequathelt)
40, 426, 446, 448
335, 344, 347
(argument, deduction)
156, 167, 178, 423
178
178

(mental) , .
211, 215
, .
149, 152
(grading) 43 ., 4547
(gra
ding relations) 57
= (use,
Verwendung, Gebrauch)

197, 207, 209, 210, 212214, 248,


256
- 211,
248, 258
208
254, 444, 448
198, 199, 202,
207, 209214, 216
248
214, 241, 243
248, 253, 258, 259
97, 103, 137139,146, 472
18
18

430434
418, 430435
1113, 86, 184, 185,
188, 388
355, 382
349, 352, 356, 358,
363, 371, 376, 379, 380
vs. 103
, 9, 12, 8183,
"90, 9498, 102, 105, 114116, 119,
124126, 157, 160162, 167, 170,
177, 186-194, 216, 219, 220, 237
194, 195, 341
(conventional u.)
194
193
10
(inverted commas u.)
193, 194
131
79, 81, 82, 87, 102, 103,
125127, 157, 172, 194, 472
464
494

[ ] (reproach, comp
laining) 184, 213

402
384, 385, 395
312314, 316,
322
312314, 316, 322,
328
(conditions) (sa
tisfaction .) 450, 451, 456458,
467, 469
, (since
rity .) 257, 266, 270, 271, 277,
279281, 287
262

(speaker-based s. .) 27, 280

(heare-based s. .) 279, 300,
301
277, 279
(truth .)
20, 386390, 420422, 431, 432,
436, 443, 444, 448, 454, 457, 467
312
314, 316, 322

328
[ "]
(reasonableness .) 281283

(. of appropriate use)
446 (. )
(felicity
, Sprechaktbedingungen). 33, 254,
255, 258, 353355, 359, 370, 373,
423, 436
375

359, 360362, 372, 375


264
355
.

362
[ ]
308, 435
328, 435
, , ,
(conditional sentence, proposition
conditionnelle) 34, 307309, 327,
328, 435, 437

[ ] (felicity)
454 455
,
(phrase affirmative, asser
tion affirmative) 305, 306, 309,
313-315, 319, 320, 323326, 330
[ = ]
260, 261
[ = ] (asser
tion) 31, 409, 410, 412, 414418,
446

[ =
] (statement, assertion)
25, 278, 279, 281, 291, 301
[ ] (state
ment, Behauptung) 33, 87, 88, 241
262, 259, 280, 282, 284, 292, 293,
296, 298, 306, 311, 393, 421, 423,
425, 428, 429, 436, 439, 443, 444,
455
,
7, 16, 20, 40, 233
. ,
225, 226, 427, 428, 459
175, 179, 181, 201, 305
(factivity) 304, 305, 308,
330
330
330

, 36,
38, 304310, 317, 318, 329331
[ ]
21,-342
.

334, 339
(Familienahnlichkeit) 109
346, 389, 397
(background)
9, 210
9, 210
9, 210
9, 210
, .
(background knowledge) 227, 236
(frame) 385

(functional
word) 184'
420, 435, 437, 441
(charakterlstiscnes Erlebnis) 94
, 28, 245
[ ] (Zug) U, 88

, (good, bonum) 47T


4953, 55, 5760, 7277, 155,
157159, 167, 171, 183194, 259,
267271, 341
, 45, 5054,
80, 90, 91, 93, 102, 104, 105, 111,
128, 158160, 162, 165, 183187
(purpose, purport, goal, Ziel)
23, 24, 69, 70
15, 261
354, 363, 367, 375, 376,
381, 429
365, 474
13, 14, 2830
, , .
27, 28, 223, 224, 226,
233
107, 222, 225, 263,
284, 357, 369, 372, 374
[ = ]
, 162, 173, 174,
180, 181, 185, 189, 190
,
(inverted commas use) 193, 194
39, 382
6
, 30, 43, 65, 68,
79, 82, 83, 90, 91, 109, 143, 144
.
(shifters) 393
(scale) 43 ., 45, 49, 5456,
58, 59, 61, 62, 67, 71, 73, 377
203, 204,
207
212
216
9, 210
(token) 19
(experiencer) 317, 318, 331
(expositives) 239, 246,
249, 272
(exploiting)
226, 229, 233
[]
388
(extension) 386, 388,
390, 392, 441

(extralinguistic) 386
(. patterns) 386
396
495

,
, 356, 381, 388

386
129, 131, 132, 142
, (emotions, feelings,
affects, Gefuhlen) 8, 9, 66, 67, 70
72, 93, 201, 202, 129131, 133,
146, 150153, 164, 165, 176, 259,
296, 335, 399
232
(affecti
ve determinants) 71
70,
71
[ = ]
, 149
4, 396, 397
391
[vs. ] 397
35, 36, 361,
432

[= ]
355, 338
113, 165, 174
26, 27
,
(behabitives) 239, 240,
269, 271
4

(language, Sprache) 5, 911,


79, 80, 85, 86, 89, 108, 120, 121,
123125, 128, 351, 385, 386, 391,
442, 471476
(natural 1.) 3, 5, 25,
79, 217219, 250, 252 ., 330, 384,
385, 391397, 440, 441, 444440
(artificial 1.) 422
386, 391, 395, 475
(lingua mentalis) 274
(ordinary l.) 163, 181
(formilazed l.)
331, 421, 433
(formal 1.) 219, 390,
432
274
351
= 351, 356,
386, 395

(language-game,
Sprachspielen) 11, 82, 84, 8789,
93, 95, 97, 99, 101103, 106108,
111, 113, 116, 121, 127, 257
(convent ion$j,
(rules) 143145, 148, 11,
153, 172, 173, 177, 425, 429
, (maxim
of perspicuity) 223, 227, 228, 231

(Augustinus Sanctus) 79,


80, 92, 119
(Ayer A. J.) 14, 153, 154
, . 8
. . 16, 264, 274
. . 22, 40, 42, 269
(Bally Ch.) 8, 22
- (Bar-Hillel Y.) 15, 388,
394, 397
(Baker . L.) 330, 332, 406
(Bellert Irena) 331, 332
(Belnap N.) 438
(Benveniste E.) 23
(BeneSova E.) 389, 396
398
(Berkeley G.) 165
(Berne E.) "25
(Bierwisch M.) 16, 335, 348,
382, 385
. . 474
(Bloomfield L.) 471
(Boyd J.) 259, 263265, 275
(Boilnger D.) 10, 302
(Borkin Ann) 467, 470
(Broad D.) 153, 154
(Bublitz W.) 378, 382
. . 26
( S. .) 33, 40
( .) 16
(Vanderveken D.) 26
(Wierzbicka Anna) 251,
260 272 274 275
(Vend'ler 2.) 9, 12, 238, 239,
250
(Winograd T.) 296
(Wittgenstein L.) 10
13, 25, 79, 140, 141, 154, 251, 275
. . 16
(von Wright G. H.) 11

(Wunderlich D.) 345, 348,


352, 354, 358, 383
(Gazdar G.) 34
(Hajicova E.) 389, 396398
(Geis M.) 327329, 332
(GoralfikovS A.) 398
(Gordon D.) 12, 29, 257, 259,
260, 275, 276, 302, 349, 352354,
382, 451, 453, 465, 466, 470
(Grice H. P.) 12, 26, 29, 217,
243, 250, 276, 283, 284, 302, 335,
346, 348, 352, 405, 439, 459, 461,
463, 470, 474, 476
(Green Georgia M.) 302
(Gruber J. S.) 385
. . 475
(Dahl O.) 395397
(Dummett M.) 475
(Danes F.) 395, 397
. 471
(van Dijk T.) 23
(Descartes R.J 8, 9
. . 269
(James W.) 471
(Joseph H. W.) 1S7
(Dik S.) 395, 397
(Dokulil M.) 395, 397
(Donneilan K. S.) 430, 431,
433, 438
(Ducrot O.) 399, 400, 405
(Dewey D.) 471
(Hjelmslev L.) 84, 386, 388 (Jespersen O.) 408, 418
. . 40, 403, 405
(Kant I.) 23, 222
(Kaplan D.) 20, 21
49

(Carnap R.) 5, 14, 153, 154,


331, 332, 388, 393, 396, 397, 420,
438
(Curry H. .) 396
(Kattunen L.) 36, 303,312,
330 332 470
'( J. J.) 334, 348, 355, 383,
396, 398
(Kempson R. M.) 40
(Konig E.) 344, 348
(Keenan E. L.) 32, 33, 39
- (Kiparsky Carol) 303
305, 330, 332
. (Kiparsky P.) 303305,
330, 332
(Kiefer F.) 33, 333, 335, 339,
348, 349, 383
. P. 10
. . 13
(Conrad R.) 349, 350, 355,
361, 362, 382
(Coseriu E.) 384, 396, 397
(KFizek P.) 397, 398
(Kripke S.) 425
(Quine W. O.) 16, 19
(Kurylowlcz E.) 396, 398
(Kuroda S.-Y.) 396, 398
(Kay M.) 385
(Kamp J. A. W.) 439
(Carroll L.) 84
- (Lagarde-Quosi P. H,)
191, 195
(Lyons J.) 16, 18, 400, 405
. (Lakoff G.) 12, 19, 20,
29, 252, 257, 259, 260, 274276,
280, 302, 303, 319, 330, 332, 349,
352354, 382, 395, 439, 440, 443
445, 448, 451, 453455, 466, 470
. (Lakoff Robin) 256, 257,
295, 300, 302, 387, 395, 398, 440,
457, 464
(Lang E.) 348, 382, 383
(Lancelot C.) 440, 457
(Levinson St.) 3, 34, 36,
37
(Letbni2 G. W.) 268, 259,
262, 267, 271, 272, 275
(Llnsky L.) 12
1 (Lees R. B.) 238, 250
(Lycan W. G.) 33, 40
(Leech G. N.) 3, 27, 263, 275,
475, 476
(Locke J.) 133, 168
(Lawler J.) 467
498

(Lewis D.) 18, 20, 343, 348,


388, 440449, 467, 469
- (McDowell I.) 471
(McCawley J. D.) 252,276,
332, 395, 440
(Malcolm N.) 11, 18
. (Marx .) 471
(Mencken H. L.) 131, 154
(Miller G.) 19
(Montague R.) 20, 388, 390,
395, 398, 425, 437439, 441
(Morgan J.) 303, 307, 330
(Morris Ch. W.) 3, 16, 393,
420, 438, 471
(Motsch W.) 382, 383
Myp (Moore J.) 13, 25, 28, 165, 159.
166
. . 13
(Nebesky L.) 398
. . 23
- (Nowell-Smith
12, 23, 26, 155

. .)

(Aqvist L. .) 361, 382


(Allwood J. S.) 20
(Aldrich V.) 151, 154
(Osgood Ch.) 10
(Austin J. L.) 9, 239. 248, 250,
254, 269, 272, 274, 275, 281, 302,
310, 332, 442, 446, 470, 474
E. B. 39, 40, 42
(Panevova J.) 387, 397, 398
[ = ] (Partee Bar
bara Hall) 396, 398
. . 16
(Pierce Ch.) 4, 15, 471
98
(Posner R.) 396, 398
(Pomeranz A. A.) 27
(Postal P.) 259, 280, 385,
440. 457, 467, 468, 470
(Ryle G.) 415, 416, 418
(Ramsey F. P.) 115
(Rapoport A.) 10
(Russell B.) 7. 8, 21, 98, 153,
154, 395, 471
(Rowse A.) 233
(Reichenbach H.) 19
. . 396, 398
(Richards I. .) 154
(Rosengren I.) 349, 383
. . 396, 398

(Rosenbaum P.) 303


Popep (Rohrer Ch.) 384, 386, 399
(Ross J. R.) 251, 252, 259, 276,
280, 440, 443, 457, 470
(Rubjnstein A.) 472
(Ruzicka R.) 395, 398

(Whitehead A. N.) 153, 154


(Wilson D. M.) 30, 40
(Wisdom J.) 151, 154
(Whitney D.) 440, 457
(Urmson J. O.) 6, 186, 195
196, 436, 438
A. A. 16

[ = ] (Sanctius F.)
440, 457
(Sgall P.) 384, 389, 394, 396
398
(Sadock J.) 290, 302, 440,467
. . 399, 405
(S^rensen H. S.) 396, 398
(Searle J. R.) 257, 262, 263,
266, 268, 270, 271, 275, 285, 346,
348, 349, 352354, 358, 369, 385,
399, 405, 457, 458, 470
- (Simon-Grumbach A.)
23
(Skinner B. J.) 9
(Scott D.) 20, 388, 421, 437
439, 441
(Smith N.) 30
98
(Saussure F. de) 4, II, 384,
471
(Stenius E.) 442
. . 8
(Stevenson Ch.) 10, 14,
129, 190, 195
(Stalnaker R. C.) 17,
20, 21, 40, 419, 432, 438
(Straight S.) 302
(Strawson P.) 32, 388, 396,
406, 409, 418
(Sapir E.) 10, 43, 140, 164
(Suci G.) 10

(Faraday M.) 123


(Viehweger D.) 382, 383
(Fillenbaum S.) 10
(Fillmore Ch.) 317, 331
395398, 400, 405
. . 26
(Franck D.) 369, 370, 382
(France A.) 41
(van Fraassen . .) 32,.
311, 330, 332, 427, 438
(Frege G.) 21, 32, 36, 101, 128,
406, 407, 409413, 415, 417, 4l8
471

(Tannenbaum P.) 10
(Thomason R.) 432, 438
(Thome J. P.) 259, 263265,
275
(Travis Ch.) 475
(Toulmln S. E.) 180, 182

Xaac (Haas W.) 302


(Hays D. G.) 385, 397, 398
(Heringer H. J.) 451, 463
(Hintikka J.) 331, 332,473 (Hoang Phe) 339
.
(Chomsky N.) 384, 391, 399*
397
(Hare R. M.) 14, 23, 183
(Hallet G. A.) 12, 25
(Zwicky A. M.) 327329, 332
(Schiebe T.) 37
(Schiffer S.) 302
(Schnelle H.) 395, 398
(Evans G.) 475
. . 41, 42
(Eliasson S.) 397
(Empson W.) 154
(Engels F.) 471
(Hume D.) 24

, . . .
. .
3
. . . . . . . 43
. .
. .
79
. . .
. .
'.'
129
. X. - , .
. .
155
. . X . . , .

183
. . . . ..

196
. . . . . .

217
3. . . . .

238
. . . .

251
. , . . .
.
278
. .
. .
303
. . .
. .
333'.
. . .
.
349
. . , .
. .
384
X . . .

399
500

. .
. ,
. . . . . .

. .
. . .
. .
.
, , . . . . . . .
. . .
. . .

406
419
439
471
477
497

; . 16. 74 . : . . ./
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .: ,
1985. 500 .
,
-.
, , ,
.
,-
.

, , .

4602000000-740

ooe(oi)-S6

67_85

81

13288
. .
10. .
. . , . .

15.10.84. 10.11.85, 60X84I/ie*


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