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Unit -1-Introduction

Outline: Need Materials Modular co-ordination Standarization Production Transportation erection

PREFABRICATION
Prefabrication

is defined as the offsite preparation of the building components and making use of it in the onsite construction . Prefabricated buildings is completely assembled and erected building of which the structural parts consists of prefabricated individuals units or assemblies using ordinary or controlled materials..

NEED FOR PREFABRICATION


The

prefabricated structures provides simple constructions or simplified construction This concept introduces new technical methods and procedures The prefabrication structures make considerable savings in manpower, working hours

Cont.
In

prefabrication mass production is possible A lot of savings in wood or timber is possible by using prefabricated structures The prefabrication increased the mechanisation ( using machines or equipments without manpower.

The

quality of material is improved in prefabricated structures Cost and working time is also less in prefabricated structures Cost of concreting, reinforcement, shuttering and scaffolding is less in prefabricated structures

TYPES OF PREFABRICATION
Plant

or factory prefabrication Site prefabrication PLANT PREFABRICATION this is done in permanent plants in all factories

ADVANTAGES
Fabrication

work is done in covered room or area Weather condition and outer temperature will not affect the products This is suitable for mass production the members which are standardised in manufacturing Cheap or economic and reliable structures can be made in factories with good quality

disadvantages
Members

which are manufactured in factories must be transported to the places where they are to be used.

Site

prefabrication

Prefabrication done in site itself Done in temporary covered sheds Advantages Transport cost is reduced Disadvantages new labourers are often employed which leads to decrease in quality Quality is not assured or reduced Weather condition affect the production and the working environment

ADVANTAGES

OF PREFABRICATION
Used

to effect economy in cost

Improvement

in quality because components can be manufactured under controlled conditions.


Speed

of construction is increased because there is no curing period.


Helps

in use of locally available materials with required characteristics.

In

PFS there is better quality,shape and size of precast elements. The construction is not affected by rain wind and other weather elements.

Characters for choosing the materials of construction


Easy availability Light weight for easy handling and transport Thermal insulation property Easy workability Durability in all weather conditions Non-combustability Economy in cost

Sound

insulation

The

size and the number of prefabricates is limited by weight Lifting capacity of the equipment must be easy.

Types of prefabricated construction systems


Small prefabrictes plan area does not exceed 2 m2. Large prefabricates plan area exceed 2 m2. Light-not exceeding 30kg Medium-weight up to 500kg Heavy-more than 500kg.

Panels,blocks,

beams and columns

Methods of manufacture
Factory

prefabrication restored in centrally located plant for manufacture of standardized components on long term basis. high level of mechanization is introduced in this disadvantage is extra cost from plant to site.

Site

prefabrication: specific job for a short period.work is carried in open space. equipments are of mobile nature. no high degree of mechanization.

MODULE: Module is a unit size used in dimensional coordination.Module reduces the variety of component sizes produced. A) Basic Module B)Multi Module Basic Module is the fundamental module used in modular coordination ,the size which is selected for general application to building and its components.the value is 100mm for maximum flexibility and convenience.symbol is m.

MODULAR

CO-ORDINATION arrangement of dimension of a prefabricated unit based on a primary value which is accepted as a module Inter dependent arrangements of dimensions based on the module Advantages modular co-ordination make single components into large combinations Cutting wastages are minimum in the components

Dimensioning

of prefabricates Three basic types of unit dimensions are The design or erection dimension
it is a dimensions which governs the dimensional co ordination, it is called design dimension of prefabricate.

The theoretical dimension


it is the planned dimension of a prefabricates

The actual dimension

It

is the actual size of the elements Design dimensions will have the different components called as a module Non modular design dimension increase the number of types of units Theoretical dimension is obtained by subtracting the size of the joint from the design dimension

joint
Space

between two adjacent element is called joint Joint gap or space may be filled with additional jointing material Actual dimension of an element differ from the theoretical dimension by the value of production Prefabricates may be co ordinated in three ways

Three

dimensional co ordination prefabricates are connected to the neighbours in three directions i.e length, width and thickness or depth Superficial co ordination Here the unit is jointed to others in two directions i.e length and width of the roof panel Linear co ordination Here the unit is jointed to others in one directions i.e length of the beam

Standarization
Process

of making pre fabricated members with standard dimensions Industrial and other types of buildings the standard components are used Normally the standard prefabricates are published by catalogues

Advantages of standardization
Easier

design Easier manufacture Easier erection and completion

Factors influencing standardization


Rational

type is selected from serviceability and economy. Types must be limited and should be used in large quantities. The largest size to be used results in less number of joints.

Production techniques
Stand system-made at the point where moulded then the production team moves from one stand to next stand Conveyor belt system-splits the whole production process in a series of operation may be by means of trolley, cranes and belt. Aggregate system-describes casting concrete components in large complex set of machines.

transportation
Transportation

means taking prefabricates in a vehicle or wagon or truck from the industry to where they needed In some places lorries are used transport large prefabricates which are equipped or having power operated unloading derricks (cranes or lifting mechanism)

Erection procedure
Setting

out at the level checked with surveying instruments Working of cranes and correct layoutof the crane track must be checked. No unevenness of the ground to lay horizontal cranes.high embankment is necessary. Costly and technically difficult.

Prefabricated buildings are erected in convenient section which is correctly fixed should be sufficiently rigid in all directions.