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# Code No: RR420208 Set No.

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IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007
FUZZY LOGIC AND APPLICATION
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
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## 1. Explain the operations on crisp sets by using Venn diagrams? 

2. In a computer engineering different logic families are often compared on the basis
of their power-delay product.
The fuzzy set F is the logic families F={NMOS, CMOS, TTL, ECL, JJ}.
The range of delay time D= {0.1, 1, 10, 100} in Nano seconds.
The power dissipation in micro watts P= {0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100}
By using max-min composition to obtain a fuzzy relation between delay time and
Power dissipation. 

## 4. These exercises use Zadeh’s extension principel

µ (xi ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
A

0.0 0.1 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.1 0.0
B

0.0 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0

## If x and y are real numbers defined by sets A

and B∼
respectively.
Calculate the fuzzy set C

representing the real numbers Z given by

(a) Z = 3x-2
(b) Z = 4x2 +3 

5. 3 is not a rational number; i.e., show that it can not be the ratio of two even

6. Write a short notes on aggregation of fuzzy rules and explain about determination
of aggregation strategy. 

7. In making a decision to purchase a air plane, air line management will consider the
qualities of an air plains performance with respect to the competitor. The Boeing
737 is the best selling airplane in aviation history and continues to outsell its more
modern competitor the A 320 manufactured by the air bus consortium. The four
factors to be considered are range payload, operating cost, and reliability. The
criteria will be comparison of 737 with respect to A320: superior (sup.) equivalent

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Code No: RR420208 Set No. 1
(eq.) and deficient (def.)

## Sup. Eq. def.

 
Range 0 .7 .3
 .8 .1 
R = 

Cost  .1 .5 .4 
Reliability .7 .2 .1

## Air lines weighting factors of the four factors as α

= {.15, .15, .3, .4} find the fuzzy
vectors for the evaluation. 

## 8. As a company issuing bank cards. We want to separate individuals holding personal

credit cards into two groups: profitable card holders usually let a nonzero balance
on the card go from month to month, thereby accruing interest: and a eventually
always pay the total balance. Unprofitable card holders often do not pay a balance,
and card privileges usually have to be cancelled. Suppose the data for the jth card
holder consist of three features:
Xj = (X11,X21,X31)
where X11 = account balance
X21 = amount paid
X31 = amount purchased
Suppose we want to classify four individuals, each characterized by the following
normalized data:
X1 = (1, .75, 1)
X2 = (0, 0, -.5)
X3 = (.5, .5, .75)
X4 = (1, -.5, -.5)
Note that the values (features) in each vector are normalized Gaussian variables
such that µ = 0 and σ = 1, where
Value=(X-µc)/σc
Hence, values at zero are at the mean of a class (c), positive values indicate a
variable greater than the mean, and negative values indicate a variable less than
the mean. Use the following 2-partition as the initial guess, and find the optimum
2-partition.  
(0) 1 1 0 0
Y = 
0 0 1 1

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Code No: RR420208 Set No. 2
IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007
FUZZY LOGIC AND APPLICATION
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

## 1. (a) Explain the difference between randomness and fuzziness.

(b) Describe the concept of a fuzzy set in your own words. 

2. In a computer engineering different logic families are often compared on the basis
of their power-delay product.
The fuzzy set F is the logic families F={NMOS, CMOS, TTL, ECL, JJ}.
The range of delay time D= {0.1, 1, 10, 100} in Nano seconds.
The power dissipation in micro watts P= {0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100}
Develop the fuzzy relation between logic families and power dissipation. 

## 3. How to generate membership function by using Genetic Algorithms? 

4. For the function y = x21 + x22 − 3x1 + 4 , where the membership functions for fuzzy
variables X1 , X2 shown in Figure 4: find and plot the membership function for the
fuzzy out put variable , y , using the DSW algorithm. 

Figure 4

5. 3 is not a rational number; i.e., show that it can not be the ratio of two even

## 6. A factory process control operation involves two linguistic (atomic) parameters

consisting of pressure and temperature in a fluid delivery system. Nominal pressure
limits range from 400 psi maximum. Nominal temperature limits are 1300 F to
1400 F. We characterize each parametre in fuzzy linguistic terms as follows:

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Code No: RR420208 Set No. 2
 
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
“Low” temperature = + + + + +
131 132 133 134 135 136
 
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
“High” temperature = + + + + +
134 135 136 137 138 139
 
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
“High” pressure = + + + + +
400 600 700 800 900 1000
 
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
“Low” pressure = + + + + +
400 600 700 800 900 1000
Find the following membership functions

## (a) Temperature not very low.

(b) Temperature not very high.
(c) Temperature not very low & not very high. 

7. Write a notes on decision making under fuzzy states and fuzzy actions? 

## 8. A fuzzy tolerance relation. R. is reflexive and symmetric. Find the equivalence

relation R and then classify it 
according to λ-cut levels ={0.9,0.8,0.5}.

 1 0.8 0 0.2 0.1  
 0.8 1 0.9 0 0.4 

 

R= 0 0.9 1 0 0.3 
0.2 0 0 1 0.5 

 

 
0.1 0.4 0.3 0.5 1
 

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Code No: RR420208 Set No. 3
IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007
FUZZY LOGIC AND APPLICATION
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

## 1. Propose membership functions to describe ‘a fuzzy resister’ with a nominal value

of 1MΩ and another one of 5.6kΩ. 

2. In DC motor speed control under no load condition, generally the external series
resistance in armature Rse should be kept in cut in position. For example in ar-
mature controlled method the flux maintained at some constant value; then motor
speed is proportional to back e.m.f.

## (a) What should be the minimum and maximum level of Rse ?

(b) What should be the minimum and maximum level of Ia ?

## Rse = {Rs1 , Rs2 , Rs3 Rsn }

Ia = {I1 , I2 , I3 Im }
N= {N1 ,N2 ,N3 NV }
Where Rse , Ia , N, are fuzzy sets of armature series resistance, armature current,
Speed respectively. The membership functions for above for given in terms of
Percentage of respective rated values.
µRse = 0.3 30
+ 0.7
60
1.0
+ 100 0.2
+ 120
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.1
µ Ia = 20 + 40 + 60 + 80 + 100 + 120
µ N = 0.33500
0.67
+ 1000 1.0
+ 1500 0.15
+ 1800
R=Rse ×Ia ; S=N×Ia
Find max-min composition for T=R◦S. 

3. Using your own institution, develop fuzzy membership functions on the real line
for the fuzzy numbers 3, using the following function shapes;

## (a) Symmetric triangle

(b) Trapeziod
(c) Gaussian function. 

## 4. Explain Center of Sums, Center of Largest Area Defuzzifying Methods? 


5. Show that the dual of equivalence (P ∨ Q) ∨ p ∧ Q ↔ X is also true? 

6. Using the image processing techniques, suppose you are trying to locate object or
shapes within an image field. An object is big or small according to whether it has
a value above or below a predefined threshold based on the number of consecutive
pixel fields in a row - column image matrix. Define a universe of discourse of the
number of adjacent pixels above a certain threshold on the interval [50, 300], then,

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Code No: RR420208 Set No. 3
for the membership
 function for “big” and “small,”

0 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.9 1
“Big” = + + + + +
50 100 150 200 250 300
 
1 0.5 0.1 0 0 0
“Small” = + + + + +
50 100 150 200 250 300
Define the membership function for the following three linguistic expression:

## (a) Not big and very small

(b) Very, very big or not small
(c) Not very, very big. 

## 8. Write step by step procedure C - Means Algorithm? 

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Code No: RR420208 Set No. 4
IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007
FUZZY LOGIC AND APPLICATION
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Let the fuzzy sets A, B and C be the sub sets of the universe {1,2,3??., 199,200}.
Let A= {1/0.1, 2/0.3,3/0.3, 4/0.4, 5/0.5, 6/0.7, 7/0.8, 8/0.9, 9/1, 10/1} and
B= {1/0.1, 2/0.3, 3/0.5, 4/0.7, 5/0.9, 6/1,7/0.8, 8/0.5, 9/0.2, 10/0}. Find out the
fuzzy sets C= A*(A+B); C= A2 ; C= 1/B. 

2. The matrix expression for the crisp relation by using max-min composition opera-
tion The relation matrices for R & S wouldbe expressed
 as
z z
y1  1 2 
 
y y y y
x1  1 2 3 4  0 1 
1 0 1 0  y2 
R = x2   And S =  0 0   Find max-min composition?
0 0 0 1  y3 
 0 1 
x3
0 0 0 0 y4
0 0


3. Classify all possible hedges? And Explain with suitable meaning? 

4. For the function y = x21 + x22 − 3x1 + 4 , where the membership functions for fuzzy
variables X1 , X2 shown in Figure 4: find and plot the membership function for the
fuzzy out put variable , y , using A discretized form of the extension principle. 

Figure 4
5. Explain about classical predicate logic connectives? 

6. What are the different linguistic hedges and how the linguistic hedges have the
effect of modifying the membership function basic atomic term α? 

7. When evaluating expert system tools, four evaluation criteria are used:

(a) Excellent
(b) good

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Code No: RR420208 Set No. 4
(c) Fair and
(d) Mediocre.

There are four aspects: I / O facilities, debugging aids, knowledge based editors,
and explanation facilities. The following table shows relationship matrix.

## Excellent good fair mediocre

I/O 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1
Debug 0.2 0.5 0.3 0
Editors 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.1
Explain 0.1 0.6 0.2 0.1

## Suppose we have weight factor α

= {0.2, 0.4, 0.3, 0.1}, Evaluate the expert system
tool. 

8. A customer evaluates five banks by their mortgage policy, loan interest, and div-
idend benefits. She has developed a fuzzy tolerance relation R according to these
three criteria for banks. If she uses a λ -cut level of 0.8, then how many classes can
she make from these banks?  
1 0.2 0.5 0.9 0.7
 0.2 1 0.6 0.4 0.8 
 
R=   0.5 0.6 1 0.4 0.3 
 
 0.9 0.4 0.4 1 0.5 
0.7 0.8 0.3 0.5 1

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