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104

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- , ( , , ), , . (90 200 ), .
- . .
(), () (, ) ,
. : , , - . . ,
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(III .) (I VI .).
.
;
. , ,
,1 . I . , (I V .)
, ,
VI .
. (14411545 .)
. 1

1950- . .. .
.: Coe M.D. Breaking the Maya Code. L., 1992; Houston S.D. Into the Minds of Ancients: Advances in Maya Glyph
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105



.
(III . ..)
I II . . .
, - . IV .
,
(). 378 . ( ) - (374439 .). -, ;
. -- I (378405 .). V . - III (486508 .).
.
. -- (537
562 .) - (553 . 572 .) .
- (636686 .), .
( ), .
695 . --
-- (695734 .),
.
VIII . . , - (
, , [] , , , ).
, 760- .
I .
I . (
). ( I .)
( .) , ( I .) ( .).
, , .
. -,
, , .

,
, , .2 2

Houston S.D., Stuart D. Peopling the Classic Maya Court // Royal Courts of the Ancient Maya.

106

() .
, - (--),
() () . - , . IV VI . . VII . , ( []). -.
,
.3
(). 400010000 ( 20 . 30
. ). 1000 3000 . . -
. ,
( ), (50100 ). ,
, . ,
. ;
.
VIII . ,
.

( ) , . .
chulel ( kuh) , .4 ,
Vol. 1. Theory, Comparison, and Synthesis. Boulder, 2001. P. 5483.
3
.: Stuart D. Historical Inscriptions and the Classic Maya Collapse // Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eighth Century A.D.
Wash., 1993. P. 321354; .. : // ., 2000.
. 186196; . (III I . ..) // . ., 2002. . 130155; Grube N. The City-States of the Maya // A Comparative Study of Thirty
City-State Cultures. Copenhagen, 2000. P. 547565; Houston S.D., Stuart D. Op. cit. P. 5483.
.: Martin S., Grube N.
Chronicle of Maya Kings and Queens. L., 2000.
4
Vogt E.Z. Zinacantan: A Maya Community in the Highlands of Chiapas. Cambridge, 1969.
P. 369371.

107

(teotl , masan -, pe , ini


).
, .
, ( ), ( ), - ( ), ( ),
I . , .
: , , ,
; . , -, --, --, --. , . . ,
-- ( ), -, ---.
: I, - ( ) -
, -, - - , --,
- .5
. ,
, . ,

. , . ,
. --, II II . .., -, ,
II . .. : - - (2325967 . ..) - ( 967 . ..).

. , I . ..,
, -.6 (, ) , . : ,
. , , V .,
- ( ), .
, , 5

Berlin H. The Palenque Triad // Journal de la Socit des Amricanistes. 1963. T. 52. P. 9199;
Stuart D. The Inscriptions from Temple XIX at Palenque: A Commentary. San Fransisco, 2005.
P. 130.
6
.: .., .. (III I . ..) // . ., 2005. . 1. . 146160.

108

.
( ). ( ) -. ,
. . (, , .), .7
,
. : hamliiy u-sakhun
8.
. , 1 -
-- (767780 .) :
[] --, , ; -.9 , .
, , .
(kihnich). , . . ,
( ,
, ). , . , kihnich, ,
kihn- .10
, , , . kihn- kin, . - .
. -,
[-], : , -- ( ), - ( ) -- ( ). -, , -, : -- ~ -, - ~ -, --- ~ --, -- ~ --. ,
.11
7

Stuart D. Kings of Stone. A Consideration of Stelae in Ancient Maya Ritual and Representation //
RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics. 1996. Vol. 29/30. P. 148171.
8
Schele L., Mathews P., Lounsbury F. Untying the Headband // Texas Notes on Pre-Columbian Art,
Writing, and Culture. 1990. 4. . 5.
9
PNG: Thr. 1.
10
.: Wichmann S. The Names of Some Major Classic Maya Gods // Continuity and Change:
Maya Religious Practices and Temporal Perspective. Markt Scwaben, 2004. P. 7781.
11
Grube N. Onomstica de los gobernantes mayas // La organizacin social entre los mayas
prehispnicos, coloniales y modernos: Memoria de la Tercera Mesa Redonda de Palenque. Vol. 2.

109


. -, u-kuhil ( []), . -, , , , , (u-huntahn) . :
, , , .12
.13
, . , . ,
. ,
, -- ( - ), - (
). -.
. ,
.
.
. , ,
.
3 (u-sahal , y-ahkuhun , u-yajawkahk , u-ti-sakhun
, y-ahnaab .).
, , , (awinaaken) (a-winaak; , ).14
, ,
. ,
- --- (749
763 .) --- (763 810 .).
: 715 . () - (688708 .), -- 731 . Mexico; Merida, 2002. P. 339; Colas P. Kinich and King: Naming Self and Person among Classic
Maya Rulers // Ancient Mesoamerica. 2003. Vol. 14, 2. P. 271; Wichmann S. Op. cit. P. 81.
12
Motul I: 338, folio 201r.
13
Stuart D. Kinship Terms in Maya Inscriptions // The Language of Maya Hieroglyphs. San Francisco, 1997. P. 8.
14
. PNG: Lnt. 3, (?) : a-wi-na kena yo-NAL-AK, a-winaaken Yonal Ahk, , -, PAL: T-XXI,
: -na a-wi-na-ki a-ku-la MO-na-bi, n a-winaak Ahkul Mo Naab,
, --.

110

, - (698726 .).
, , -
, , , . ,
-- 661 ., 662 .
-- -,
. 690 . -- , , -- II .15

u-tsakbuih. tsak
, .
. . 11 ,
tsak ,
: yax / + kan / , kin +
akab , chan + chab , ik + ha , muyal
+ ha , wah + ha , kokan +
chich , ? + cham , ixik + xib ,
ek + uh , kin + uh .
, .

( <tzac>, ; <cak>, , , , ; tzac , , tzac , ) ( <caka>, , tzcan, , tzcalin ). , u-tsakbuih , *tsaklah, , .
tsakbu- tsakbuul ( , 16).
dzac (= tsak) - (16101612 .). :
1) tali uchadzic ahau pachimal ukaba uppenel auxaual, , , ; 2) tali uyuxdzac ahauob ukaua chanpel uppenel
pachimal, , , ; 3) tali
15

Martin S. Moral-Reforma y la contienda por el oriente de Tabasco // Arqueologa Mexicana.


2003. Vol. 11, 61. P. 4547.
16
., , : Yihkin Chan Kawiil u-hukwinak tsakbuul Yax
Ehb Xook, --, 27- -- (TIK: St. 5; Jones C.,
Satterthwaite L. Op. cit. Fig. 7); Wak Chan Kawiil Huk Chapaht Tsikiin Yax Ehb Xook kuhul
Mutul ahaw u-hunwinaak tsakbuul u-te Yax Ehb Xook, -- - --, 21- [] -- (TIK: St. 17; Jones C.,
Satterthwaite L. The Monuments and Inscriptions of Tikal: The Carved Monuments. Philadelphia,
1982. Fig. 25).

111

uchandzac ahau ukaua paxua uppenel chanpel, ,


, ; 4) Uhodzac ahau ukaua pachimalahix yithoc macvaabin
yidzin uppenel paxuaob, , , , chumvanihix ta ahaulel
macvaabin yidzin pachimalahix, ,
; 5) Uvacdzac ahau ukaua paxbolonacha uppenel Pachimalahix,
, , .17 , (2- V .) ( VI .) , : chumvanihix ta ahaulel macvaabin yidzin
pachimalahix, , .
, -dzac .
, u-tsakbuih . ? XVIII
. 1923 . ,
, 140 244
. . , ,
, , .18
, -- III
(721 . 736 .) .19
. in situ,
. 679 . , , -- I
(615683 .), .
, -- ( - II, 684702 .), --
( -- II, 702721 .) --. , , --, - I . , . , , : tsakbu[n]ah [a]w-ahawil Matal ahaw tihmah
aw-ohl a-tsakbuih [ ], , ,
,
. . [a]w-ahawil
(your lordships) , .
,
, ,

17

Smailus O. El Maya-Chontal de Acaln: anlisis lingstico de un documento. de los aos 161012. Mxico, 1975. P.2632.
18
Blom F., LaFarge O. Tribes and Temples: A Record of the Expedition to Middle America Conducted by the Tulane University of Louisiana in 1925. Vol. 1. New Orleans, 1926. P. 175.
19
.: Ringle W. Birds of a Feather: The Fallen Stucco Inscription of Temple XVIII, Palenque,
Chiapas // Eighth Palenque Round Table, 1993. San Francisco, 1996. P. 4562.

112
20

.
679 ., 4,5 -- I. , , ahawil : , il ,
. ,
tsakbu[n]ah [a]w-ahawil , . , - I, .
31 (445 .)21 , :
317 . (8.14.0.0.0 7 3 ): u-tsakbuih uchabih Ix Unen Bahlam huk Ajaw kalaawtuun u-tsutsuw chanlajun winaakhaab
uhtiiy Tuunal, --, [] 7
, 14- ;
.
376 . (8.17.0.0.0 1 8 - ): u-tsakbuih uchabih Wak Chan Tahal Chaahk Chak Tok Ichaak ta hun Ajaw [kalaawtuun] utsutsuw huklajun winaakhaab uhtiiy Kantel chan-cheen,
--- -- (II), 1 [ ] 17- ; .
406 . (8.18.10.0.0 11 18 ): u-tsakbuih Siyaj Chan Kihnich
buluch Ajaw lamtahnaj Hun Pik Chan[al] Kuh Chab[al] Kuh uhtiiy Kukul
chan-cheen, --, [] 11
8000 ; .
, , -, , -, . .. .
10 (lamtahnaj, . []) 8000
( , , ).
, , ,
, .
u-tsakbuih u-chabih (
). 31 445 .:
alay uhtiiy lamtahnaj hun pik chan[al] kuh chab[al] kuh {Jaguar Paddler}
{Stingray Paddler} Ik-Kuh Itsamnaah Kihnich-Ahaw Hun-Winik-Naah-Kaan
bolon-tsakbu-ahaw u-chabih mam kuhul- Siyah-Chan-Kawiil kuhul Mutul
ahaw, : 8000
, , -, 20

Houston S.D., Stuart D., Taube K. The Memory of Bones: Body, Being and Experience among
the Classic Maya. Austin, 2006. P. 189.
21
TIK: St. 31 (Jones C., Satterthwaite L. Op. cit. Fig. 52).

113

, -, , - -- . ,
--, . ,
406 ., - II --.
,
,
. , 14 -22 : sihyaj u ajawil
u-chabhiiy Itsamnaah Kawiil,
-. ,
- : , ,
,
.23 ,
.
u-tsakbu . 4624 ,
713 . --, : u-tsakbu u-took-pakal Bahlam u-chukiiy , / -, , .
- II, VI .
564 . .
- III (681742 .) ,
,
. , ,
4525 681 .: u-tsakbuih utook u-pakal [ ].
u-tsakbu[ih] -
bolon-tsak-bu-li-ajaw, bolon-tsakbuulajaw.26 -- III (360
377 .). -- I (378404 .), -- II (411
458 .), -- III (. 486508 .). 31
8000 . VI .: -- (1- . VI .) (546 . 615 .). 1 -22

DPL: St. 14 (Houston S.D. Hieroglyphs and History at Dos Pilas: Dynastic Politics of the Classic
Maya. Austin, 1993. P. 91. Fig. 324)
23
.: Schele L., Miller M.E. The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art. N.Y., 1986.
P. 183. - ,
-- (682
734 .) .
24
YAX: Lnt. 46 (CMHI 3: 101)
25
YAX: Lnt. 45 (CMHI 3: 99).
26
bolon-tsak-bu-ajaw, bolontsakbu[uul]-ajaw.

114

(yax) bolon-tsakbu-ajaw. , VVI . .


. --
( ), ,
VII . --- (755784 .) yax-bolon-tsakbu-ajaw --- (693
. 730 .).
, / .
,
, , . , ,
. .
VII
VIII . ( , ,
, I). , 3121 .
.. - -.27
, ,
. 3114 . .. 13
(5126 ). : 13- , --. -. 3112 . .. 8
( ). , ,
I - .
7502 , 2360 . .. I . ,
. 18 2360 . ..
I, - -
. I 2360 . .. ,
, , I .28 , , ,
.29
,
27

, (Schele L.,
Freidel D. A Forest of Kings: Untold Story of the Ancient Maya. N.Y., 1991. P. 244255). ,
, , - (.:
Martin S., Grube N. Op. cit. P. 159).
28
.: Lounsbury F.G. Some Problems in the Interpretation of the Mythological Portion of the Hieroglyphic Text of the Temple of the Cross at Palenque // Third Palenque Round Table, 1978, Part
2. Austin, 1980. P. 99115; Schele L., Freidel D. Op. cit. P. 244245.
29
Stuart D. The Inscriptions from Temple XIX. P. 170174.

115

/ -
. u-chahb, u-chahbil y-akabil, , .
*kahb , , . chahb - ,
.30
. . VI .
cab- (ba
cabtan), - , (tu cabtahoon Dios), ).31
. chahb .
, ,
, .
kuh, . , . ,
, ,
.32
2325 . ..:
, [ ] -,
; -, , ( ). (u-tsak
kuh) , . , (2.0.0.0.0 2 3 )
, . 200
- . I , .
,
. - - I, , , , . ,
.
.
-- II (683702 .) VII . -- I
30

chahb *k *ch, *kahb.


31
Motul I: 253, folio 150r.
32
.: Stuart D. Blood Symbolism in Maya Iconography // Maya Iconography. Princeton, 1988.
P. 175221; .. //
: . ., 2003. . 3339.

116

(615683 .) ,
. ( ) . , , .33 . IV,
- 931 .
. -- II
.
VIII . 711 . -- II (702722 .) . .34 11 , --- III (722 734 .). -, -- I,
. --- III .
I, 3309 . .. ( ) I. - ( ). , ,
. -- III I, --
- --. - . . 9 .
,
I, ,
- -.35 , .
, ,
.
VII . 611 .
,
. 612 . -,
. 615 . -- I.36 ,
33

Schele L. Genealogical Documentation in the Tri-Figure Panels at Palenque // Tercera Mesa Redonda de Palenque. Pebble Beach, 1979. P. 4170.
34
Stuart D. Longer Live the King: The Questionable Demise of Kinich Kan Joy Chitam of Palenque // PARI Journal. 2004. Vol. 4. 1. P. 14.
35
Stuart D. The Inscriptions from Temple XIX.
36
Martin S., Grube N. Chronicle of Maya Kings and Queens. L., 2000. P. 161.

117

-- II , : -,
. 3 , 3- ,
20-; (u-kuhil) -, . 400-, 20- ... ,
, [] , , , . 20 3 ---,
-, .
, - ,
, , - -. 613 . (9.9.0.0.0
)
. , -- I.
.
(, ) ,
. , , , --
.
-, ,
.
, .
, , . ,
378 . . , -- I . , -- IV .
-- I,
--. , , . / () /
( ). , . ,
, , .. - ( ).
(14411545 .)
. , -

118

, , .
, , -
.

, . .

, , . ,
(, , ), ( , , ).37

(cuchcabal), , , , - ,
, .38 , , . ,
.39 , ,
( pueblo, ),
(, )
- ( , ) . 1549 . . .40 , 37

Quezada S. Pueblos y caziques yucatecos. 15501580. Mexico, 1993. P. 3436.


Motul I: 141, folio 086r. , , (Calepino de Motul: Dicconario Maya-Espaol. T. 1. Mexico, 1995;
Motul I).
39
. (1957 .) . (1990 .)
. .
, , . 1565 .
, ..
,
. (1990 .)
, .
.. .. ,
, . (.: .
.
. ., 2001).
40
,
. , , , ,
38

119

, ,
(4365 .) (3555 .) (4230 .). 630 . , (3380 .)
(3330 .).41
, -
(ciudad). 42,
ciudad ()
, pueblo. ,
, , . , , ,
, , (. ).

, ; , .43
. ,
, , ,
. 9 ,
, . . , . ,
. , -, , . .44
, , , . , ,
, -
.45 , , .
, XVI . (.: Sanders W.T. Cultural Ecology of the Maya
Lowlands // ECM. Vol. II. Mexcio, 1962. P. 94).
41
Roys R.L. The Political Geography of the Yucatan Maya. Wash., 1957. P. 6870, 74, 101103.
, ,
. 4,5.
42
Okoshi Harada T. Los canules: analisis etnohistorico del cdice de Calkini. Mexico, 1992.
P. 254.
43
Codice de Calkini // Okoshi Harada T. Op. cit. P. 1146.
44
Kepecs S. The Political Economy of Chikinchel, Yucatan, Mexico: A Diachronic Analysis from
the Prehispanic Era through the Age of the Spanish Administration. Unpublished Ph.D. diss. Madison, 1999. P. 88125, 503504.
45
Motul I: 141, folio 086r.

120

, .
,
, , ,
1441 .
, , .
( , ), ( , ), ( ), ( ).
( ) , . ,
- ,
: ( ), ().46
-, ; ,
, , , , ,
47). , ,
.
, . , , ,48
.
-
.49 , 1536 .
-- , - .
:
. - -,
( ). , ,
, . , ,
, .50
( ) , ,
,
, ,
(principalos) . -

46

. . . .; ., 1955. . 114, 118120; Relaciones


historico-geograficas de la gobernacion de Yucatan. Mexico, 1983 ( RHGGY). T. 2. P. 185.
47
Motul I: 297, folio 176v.
48
Motul I: 7, folio 004v
49
. . . . . 141.
50
Quezada S. Op. cit. P. 52.

121
51

. , ,
.
( ) .
, , -- (
) , 52.
, - ,
, . , ,
(), ( ) -,
,
. , ,

. ( ).53
, , -, .54
( ), .55 ,
, , ; ,
-- -
,
.56
, ; .
, -, , (cosas de republica), .
. .

, .
.57 ,
, .
, .58
,

51

Garcia de Palacio D. de. Carta-Relacion. Relacion y forma. Mexico, 1983, P. 132.


. . . . . 146147; Roys R.L. Op. cit. P. 65.
53
RHGGY. T. 1. P. 237238; T. 2. P. 267268.
54
. . . . . 147. , .
, -.
55
Roys R.L. Op. cit. P. 65.
56
Quezada S. Op. cit. P. 164.
57
RHGGY. T. 1. P. 134, 146, 390; Quezada S. Op. cit. P. 167.
58
Codice Perez. Mexico, 1946. P. 358359.
52

122

, , , 59
- , - , - (que esta a cargo de alguno).
-- (regidor) , (principal60)
, [] - []
. --, .

. --
. , - . , . ,

. :

.61
,
, --
-.62 , ,
, .
, , , , ,
- . , (), (),
(8001000 .) , ,

, .
- ,
() ( 59

, - ( XVII .), ,
- ( XVI .), (XVII .).
:
.
60
Principal , , noble,
. , - . noble almehen. indio principal, , -
, , .
61
RHGGY. T. 1. P. 123124; T. 2. P. 61, 118; Codice Perez. P. 358359.
62
Roys R.L. Op cit. P. 68.

123

), , . -
, , - ;
-. .63 , - (--, --
--)
(). , ,
-, , - .64
, , ,
( -) , - .65 ,
-- - ,
.
, , , , , , .66
,
,
.
,
.
. ,
. ,
, ,67
, . (-) , ,
.68
, : , , ,
63

.. // -2000: . ., 2000. . 9092.


64
RHGGY. T. 1. P. 305; T. 2. P. 138139, 185; Lizana B. de. Historia de Yucatan. Madrid, 1988.
P. 5057.
65
Torquemada J. Monarquia Indiana. Mexico, 1964. T. 2. P. 52.
66
RHGGY. T. 2. P. 138139.
67
. . . . . 169191.
68
. . 120.

124

, ,
.69 , ,
. ( 80 )
; , . .70

.
, , .71
, , ..72 , - , .73 ( 74), .75
. (
).76 , .77
() ( , ) ,
: . : . , , (,
) , ( , ), .78 , ,
, -- .
, 69

RHGGY. T. 2. P. 110.
Las Casas B. de. Historia apologetica de las Indias. Mexico, 1967. T. 2. P. 510, 514.
71
RHGGY. T. 1. P. 378; T. 2. P. 246.
72
Ibid. T. 1. P. 270; T. 2. P. 267268.
73
Ibid. T. 1. P. 133; T. 2. P. 246.
74
Ibid. T. 1. P. 324.
75
Ibid. T. 2. P. 85, 324.
, .
.: . . . . . 156.
76
RHGGY. T. 1. P. 271.
77
Codice de Calkini. P. 90.
78
RHGGY. T. 1. P. 286 ( ).
70

125

, - : , . : 20 ,
.79 , , , , .80 ,81
: , , .., , .
, , , , . , , , , .
, , -, --, ,
, , .
- , ,
, , , ,
, (gente popular)
, ,
. ,
, , -- 82
: . , ,
, ,
, , . , -,
, .

-- .83
, :
,
, , ,
1441 . , , .. , . ,
, - ( )
79

Ibid. . 1. P. 390; T. 2 P. 216.


, , : (2 2) (1,45
2
).
81
Ibid. T. 1. P. 390.
82
Ibid. T. 2. P. 138139.
83
Ibid. T. 2. P. 267268. --.
80

126
84

. , ,
, , , -
, , . , , -: , .
, .
, , , . , , , .
, .85
: ,
, ,
, , -. , .86

. ,
- 1541 ., . -- --,
. -, , , , - - -. - , . , ,
-. ( -) - .
. ,
,
. , , , .
( ) 84

. . . . . 116118.
. . 40.
86
. . 118.
85

127

: , - , .87
,
, , : , . , , . -. -, ,
-88 . 1543 . ,
, ,
, , , , .89 .
,
, , ,
.

2000- ( VII VI . .. )
.
I II ., .
,
, (III IX .) (XI
XVI .) . ( , ), ( ), .

1970- . , ..90 , ,
, , .
87

Dieseldorf E.P. Extracto del libro antiguo, que consierva la cofradia de Carcha // Proccedings of
the Fourteenth International Congress of Americanists. Stuttgart, 1906. Vol. 14. P. 393402.
88
-, , , .
89
RHHGY. T. 2. P. 30.
90
., : Sabloff J.A., Rathje W.L., Freidel D.A., Connor J.G., Sabloff P. Trade and Power
in Postclassic Yucatan: Initial Observations // Mesoamerican Archaeology: New Approaches. Austin, 1974. P. 397416; Sabloff J.A., Rathje W.L. The Rise of a Maya Merchant Class // Scientific
American. 1975. Vol. 233. 4. P. 7382.

128

, I . ..
. . .
(, , ),91
,
. ,
,
.92 XV XVI . - .
, , .
,
,
. ,

.
, -,
.
.
, . ,

, , . ( ) . , , ,
XIV XV . - (IX .), , ., -,
,
.

91

., : Beliaev D. Wayaab Title in Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions: On the Problem


of Religious Specialization in Classic Maya Society // Continuity and Change: Maya Religious
Practices and Temporal Perspective. P. 121130.
92

( .. . ., 1995. . 267273)
( .. . . 1. ., 1995. . 342345).