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Particular Radio Function

WCDMA RAN

Feature Guide

Particular Radio Function Feature Guide

Particular Radio Function Feature Guide


Version Date Author Zhang Yiqian Chen Changgen, Zhang Yiqian Approved By Remarks Added three function descriptions: Dynamic Power Track, OCNS and Smoothly Cell out off Service Added descriptions of VSWR Alarm Recovery, Int ra-s ector RTWP Unbalanced Alarm, Node B Energy Saving Mode.

V4..5

2010-06-18

JiangMing

V5.0

2011-2-9

JiangMing,Liuqi

2011 ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved. ZTE CONFIDENTIAL: This document contains propriet ary information of ZTE and is not to be disclosed or used without the prior written permission of ZTE. Due to update and improvement of ZTE products and technologies, information in this document is subjected to change without notice.

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Particular Radio Function Feature Guide

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 4.2 5 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 6 6.1 6.2 7 7.1 7.2 8 8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2
II

Functional Attribute ............................................................................................ 1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 1 Active Tx Gain Calibration .................................................................................... 1 Received Power Scanner ..................................................................................... 1 Electrical Tilt Antenna ........................................................................................... 2 Multi-band Support................................................................................................ 2 Dynamic Power Track........................................................................................... 2 OCNS .................................................................................................................... 3 Smoothly Cell out off Service................................................................................ 3 Node B Energy Saving Mode ............................................................................... 3 VSWR Alarm Recovery......................................................................................... 3 Intra-sector RTWP Unbalanced Alarm ................................................................. 3 Active Tx Gain Calibration................................................................................. 4 Objective Function ................................................................................................ 4 Principles of Implementation................................................................................. 4 Received Power Scanner................................................................................... 5 Principles of Implementation................................................................................. 5 Function Application.............................................................................................. 5 Electrical Tilt Antenna ........................................................................................ 6 Functions of Electrical Tilt Antenna ...................................................................... 6 Constitution of Electrical Tilt Antenna System ..................................................... 6 Control Motor ........................................................................................................ 6 Electrical Adjustement Bias Tee ........................................................................... 7 Other Accessories................................................................................................. 8 AISG Interface....................................................................................................... 9 Typical Application of Electrical Tilt Antennas...................................................... 9 Application Scheme of Single System Electrical Tilt Antennas in Macro Base Station ......................................................................................................... 9 Application Scheme of Single System Electrical Tilt Antennas in RRU ............ 10 Local and Remote Control Application Schemes for Electrical Tilt Antenna System ................................................................................................................ 14 Multi-band Support ........................................................................................... 14 Principles of Implementation............................................................................... 14 Supported Bands ................................................................................................ 15 Dynamic Power Tracking ................................................................................. 15 Objective ............................................................................................................. 15 Working Principle ................................................................................................ 16 Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator Test.................................................... 17 Function Objective .............................................................................................. 17 Test Mode 1 ........................................................................................................ 18 Test Mode 2 ........................................................................................................ 18
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Particular Radio Function Feature Guide

8.1.3 8.1.4 8.1.5 8.1.6 8.2 9 9.1 9.2 9.2.1 9.2.2 10 10.1 10.2 11 11.1 11.2 12 12.1 13 13.1 13.2 13.2.1 13.2.2 13.2.3 13.2.4 13.2.5 13.2.6 13.2.7 13.2.8 13.2.9 13.2.10 13.2.11 13.2.12 13.2.13 13.3 13.4 13.5 14 14.1 14.2 14.2.1 14.2.2 14.2.3

Test Mode 3 ........................................................................................................ 18 Test mode 4 ........................................................................................................ 19 Test Mode 5 ........................................................................................................ 19 Test Mode 6 ........................................................................................................ 19 Implementation Principle .................................................................................... 19 Smoothly Cell out off Service.......................................................................... 20 Objective ............................................................................................................. 20 Working Principle ................................................................................................ 20 Process for enabling Smoothly Cell out off Service ......................................... 20 Process for disabling Smoothly Cell out off Service ......................................... 21 Node B Energy Saving Mode........................................................................... 22 Objective ............................................................................................................. 22 Working Principle ................................................................................................ 22 VSWR Alarm Recovery..................................................................................... 23 Implementation principle ..................................................................................... 23 Application........................................................................................................... 23 Intra-sector RTWP Unbalanced Alarm ........................................................... 23 Implementation Principle .................................................................................... 23 Parameters and Configuration ........................................................................ 24 Parameter List..................................................................................................... 24 RET Parameter Configuration ............................................................................ 24 Parent DN ........................................................................................................... 26 Device serial number .......................................................................................... 26 Device Type ........................................................................................................ 26 Vendor code ........................................................................................................ 26 AISG Version No................................................................................................. 26 Subunits No......................................................................................................... 26 Description of self-defined field .......................................................................... 26 Superior channel ................................................................................................. 26 Local channel ...................................................................................................... 26 Connected TMA device ...................................................................................... 27 Connected RET device ....................................................................................... 27 AISG main control unit ........................................................................................ 27 Tilt........................................................................................................................ 27 Smoothly Cell out off Service Parameter Configuration..................................... 30 Node B Energy Saving Mode Parameter Configuration .................................... 32 Intra-sector RTWP Unbalanced Alarm Parameter Configuration ...................... 34 Counter And Alarm ........................................................................................... 35 Counter List ......................................................................................................... 35 Alarm List ............................................................................................................ 35 Abnormal Power Alarm ....................................................................................... 35 RET Alarm........................................................................................................... 36 VSWR alarm ....................................................................................................... 36

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III

Particular Radio Function Feature Guide

15

Glossary ............................................................................................................. 37

IV

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FIGURES
Figure 5-1 Appearance of Kathrein motor ............................................................................... 7 Figure 5-2 Appearance of Kathrein electrical adjustment bias tee ......................................... 7 Figure 5-3 Appearance of divider ............................................................................................ 8 Figure 5-4 Appearance of AISG control line............................................................................ 8 Figure 5-5 Appearance of AISG control line card ................................................................... 8 Figure 5-6 Remote scenario scheme for electrical tilt antenna in macro base station......... 10 Figure 5-7 RRU + electrical tilt antenna + RCU + ALPD scenario in a single sector ........... 11 Figure 5-8 RRU + electrical tilt antenna + RCU scenario in a single sector ......................... 11 Figure 5-9 RRU + electrical tilt antenna + RCU + ALPD scenario in three sectors.............. 12 Figure 5-10 RRU + electrical tilt antenna + RCU+NSBT+ASBT scenario in a single sector 13 Figure 5-11 RRU + electrical tilt antenna +RCU+NSBT+ASBT scenario in three sectors... 13 Figure 5-12 Local and remote monitoring diagram of electrical tilt antenna......................... 14 Figure 7-1 Load Variation of a WCDMA NodeB Cell in One Day ......................................... 16 Figure 7-2 D-PT Working Principle Diagram ......................................................................... 17

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Functional Attribute
System version: [RNC V3.09, Node B V4.09, OMMR V3.09, and OMMB V4.09] Attribute: [Optional] Involved NEs: UE Node B RNC MSCS MGW SGSN GGSN HLR

Note: *-: Non-related NE * : Related NE Dependency: None Exclusion: None Remarks: electrical tilt antenna subitem, hardware requires electrical tilt antenna.

2
2.1

Overview
Active Tx Gain Calibration
This function supports downlink active Tx gain calibration, i.e., the system calculates the Tx baseband digital power and the Tx analog output power at the same. If the analog power deviates from the digital power to a certain threshold, the system will adjust the downlink Tx gain to keep the Tx analog power consistent with the Tx digital power. This avoids not only damage to the amplifier due to over high power but also capacity reduction due to over low power, ensuring accuracy of downlink output power of the base station. It offers customers the following advanta ges: Enhance the security and precision of the RF Tx power Reduce the margin demand calculated for the maximum output power in net work planning to obtain higher output power.

2.2

Received Power Scanner


This function is used to scan the signal power received by the antenna within the receiver frequency bandwidth and judge whet her there is interfering signal on receiver frequency bandwidth. When this function is enabled, antennas scan at the same time: starting from initial frequency, calculate the power within the carrier bandwidth of center

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frequencies at specific scanning stepped interval (1 MHz), calculate and report the list of signal power within the scanned frequency band.

2.3

Electrical Tilt Antenna


This function is used to adjust the downtilt angle through remote or local control software. It is achieved through changing the phase of multi-element antenna array and adjusting field amplitudes of the vertical and horizontal vectors. The electrical tilt antenna control unit is integrated into the Node B internal rack. The operat or can adjust and detect the downtilt angle of an antenna through the RE T s oft ware in the remote O & M center. The electrical tilt antenna is widely used in radio coverage system. Compared to the traditional ant enna system, it has many ad vant ages. Adjust the downtilt angle of the electrical tilt antenna without the need of switching off the power. Detect the downtilt angle in real time. High-precision tilt avoids frequency interference and Tx interference. The operation can adjust the downtilt angle of the antenna remot ely. Weather change, time and Node B location have no affect on the tilt operation of the downtilt angle of the ant enna.

2.4

Multi-band Support
This function is used to help the operator to get base station of other frequency bands besides UMTS 2100 basic frequency band. Besides UMTS 2100, ZTM also supports UMTS850, UMTS900, UMTS AWS, UMTS1800, and UMTS1900. In addition, it can support customized frequency bands to satisfy customer requirements. Node B supports other frequency band through replacing with the RF unit of the corresponding frequency band.

2.5

Dynamic Power Track


This function is designed to enhance the power amplifier (PA ) efficiency under different loads, so as to help operators reduce NodeB operation expenditure and impro ve their product reliability. Dynamic Power Tracking (D-P T) is a unique technology developed by ZTE to adjust the bias voltage of the PA power supply. In combination with the advanced Doherty technology, the D-PT can not only enable the PA efficiency to reach 40% when the output power is the maximum, but also improve the PA efficiency under other different
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loads, so as to reduce the power consumption of the overall system of the NodeB. The solution perfectly satisfies operators demands for energy saving .

2.6

OCNS
The orthogonal channel noise simulator (OCNS ) can simulate many virtual users in the downlink net work load test through the built-in OCNS function, enabling that the operation can validate the RF performance and radio network performance without a lot of terminals.

2.7

Smoothly Cell out off Serv ice


The feature supports reducing the power of Common Pilot Channel step by step before closing the cell when whole or part of Node B is needed to be power off. Due to gradual weak ness of the pilot signals, it can smoothly switch the UE to the cell of other Node B or GSM network based on the hand-over strat egy, and the users that are attempt to access the carrier are rejected. The cell will be closed after the power of CPICH is reach the threshold value (-10dbm). In this way, it can avoid call drop caused by the sudden disappearanc e of the cell, which influences user experience. The use of this function can be set by OMC-B.

2.8

Node B Energy Sav ing Mode


The feature guarantees the battery backup of transmission and basic service, lower the load of battery to prolong its recycling life whic h decreases the OPE X

2.9

VSW R Alarm Recovery


This function supports VSWR alarm auto-recovery. The system measures the value of VSWR. If it exceeds default threshold (3.0) for consec utive 3 times, the system will disable its power amplifier. If there is neither over -power alarm nor over-high temperature alarm, the system will wait for 30 minute and automatically enable the power amplifier. Then it will observe the value of VSWR again. If the value of VSWR is smaller than pre-defined threshold, the VSWR alarm is automatically recovered.

2.10

Intra-sector RTWP Unbalanced Alarm


This function can be used to detect unbalanced values of RTWP received by two antennas within the same sector and report a RTWP unbalanced alarm. Each sector has two antennas. The system can detect and measure the values of RTWP received by the two antennas. Then the system calculates the difference between the two RTWP

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values. If the absolute value of the difference is larger than pre-defined threshold, a RTWP unbalanc ed alarm is reported.

3
3.1

Active Tx Gain Calibration


Objective Function
According to t he 3GPP TS 25.104 protocol, the maximum output power of the Node B must be within the range of device rated output power provided by the manufacturer 2.0 dB normally. In an extreme situation, it must be within the range device rated output power provided by the manufacturer 2.5 dB. To enhance the security and precision of the RF Tx power, and to reduce the margin demand calculated for the maximum output power in network planning for higher output power, ZTE has developed active Tx gain calibration. Normally, the output power of the Node B can be with the range of baseband digital output power 0.5 dB normally; in an extreme situation, it can be within the range of baseband digital output power 1 dB.

3.2

Principles of Implementation
Active Tx gain calibration is achieved by automatic closed loop adjustment of Node B downlink gain, including Tx baseband digital power and Tx analog output power synchronic measurement, active gain adjustment, abnormal power alarm. For details, see the following: Tx baseband digital power measurement It is achieved by the FPGA: multiplex the downlink signal sent by the baseband as I/Q data of carriers by the FPGA in transceiver board; calculate the power values of carriers in the FPGA, and get the average Digit al Tx Carrier Power (TCPWD) within a minute. Tx analog output power measurement Synthesize the signal from the pre-distortion feedback path of the transceiver board in the ADC, then calculate the power of carriers in the FPGA, and get the average Analog Tx CarrierP ower (TCPWA) within a minut e. Active gain adjustment Active gain adjustment controller compares the average Digital Tx Carrier Power (TCPWD) to the average A nalog Tx CarrierPower (TCPWA). If the analog power deviates from the digital power ( = TCPW D - TCPWA) more than 0.3 dB, adjust the digital gain adjustment factor to gradually adjust the total gain of the Tx path (once every one minute) in a manner that the analog Tx power is gradually close to the digital Tx power and Node B output power offset is compensated. The minimum step for
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adjustment is 0.1dB. When the analog power deviates from the digital power ( = TCPWD - TCPWA) less than 0.3 dB, the adjustment is complete. Abnormal Power alarm When the accumulated difference between the baseband digital power and the analog output power is greater than 6 dB (| |>6dB), active gain adjustment stops and Node B reports an abnormal power alarm. When the Node B is running, the system will automatically start active Tx gain calibration function to actively compensate the gain fluctuation that varies with the environment, temperate change or component aging due to long-time. This ens ures the precision of Node B downlink output power without any manual operations.

4
4.1

Received Power Scanner


Principles of Implementation
According to OMCB setting information, the transceiver board sets receive r center frequencies one by one and calculates the Received Total Wideband Power (RTWP) within the carrier bandwidt h of center frequencies, also called Rec eived Signal Strength Indicator (RSS I). Take the UMTS2100M band as an example. Configure a receiver center frequency every 1 MHz bet ween 1920 MHz to 1980 MHz. Report t he measured RTWP, and then scan the next center frequency and measure the RTWP. Finally, scan and list the signal power received by the antenna wit h the uplink frequency band 1920 MHz 1980MHz, and judge whether there is interfering signal on rec eiver frequency bandwidth. When this function is enabled, antennas scan at the same: starting from initial frequency, scan the power of within the carrier bandwidth cent er frequencies at specific scanning stepped interval (1 MHz ), calculate and report the RTWP.

4.2

Function Application
This function is originat ed manually: Start the received power scan order in the OMC -B background. Then, the system prompts to interrupt current services and delete the cell. After the scanning is complete, the frequency automatically res tores to the previous cell frequency before scanning. Interface pat h: view -> performance Management -> Measurement Task Management

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5
5.1

Electrical Tilt Antenna


Functions of Electrical Tilt Antenna
Electrical tilt antennas are generally classified into two types: fixed and adjustable. Adjustable electrical tilt antennas are also classified into two types by adjustment mode: local and remot e. Remote electrical tilt antenna allows the system to adjust the downtilt angle in directional pattern without powering off. Therefore, the ant enna can be detected and adjusted in real time, regardless of weather, geographic environment, etc. Its stepping precision in angle adjustment is high (0.1 ). Thus the remote electrical tilt antenna can be used to adjust the network precisely, shorten the network construction period and reduce the maintenance cost. Electrical tilt antennas have the main functions: Have standard AISG int erfaces Realize automatic angle adjustment of local antennas Cont rol automatic angle adjustment of remote ant ennas remotely One RRU c an control a maximum of three electrical tilt antennas to c ontrol the motor Perform configuration and network management through LMT or OMC.

5.2

Constitution of Electrical Tilt Antenna System


Electrical tilt antenna system is generally composed of electrical tilt antenna, a control motor, lightning protection board, AISG cable, and other an electrical adjustment control parts. The electrical tilt antenna and main accessories (control motor, light ning protection board, rout e transfer board, etc.) are generally installed on the out door iron standing at the top of the t ower. They are mounted on a pole. Their external sealing and waterproofing meas ures meet IP95 standard.

5.2.1

Control Motor
Generally, the control motor is also called Antenna Control Unit (ACU, a RFS control motor) or Remot e Control Unit (RCU, a Kathrein motor). As a part of the antenna downtilt angle remote control system, the control motor supports precise adjustment of antenna downtilt angle at the bottom of the tower or through the network management system, as shown in Figure 5-1.
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Figure 5-1

Appearance of Kathrein motor

5.2.2

Electrical Adjustement Bias Tee


Electrical adjustment Bias Tees are classified into Antenna Smart Bias Tees (ASBTs) and Node B Smart Bias Tees (NSBT), shown in Figure 5-2.

Figure 5-2

Appearance of Kathrein electrical adjustment bias tee

Its functions and typical characteristics are as follows: Provide DC through RF cables and transmit AISG communic ation signal Include AIS G MODEM Feature 824 MHz -2170 MHz wide frequency band application, small compact outdoor unit Have 10kA, 8 us/20 us lightning protection function Support several connector types

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5.2.3

Other Accessories
Other accessories include A ISG divider, AISG control line, and A ISG control line card.

Figure 5-3

Appearance of divider

Figure 5-4

Appearance of AISG control line

Figure 5-5

Appearance of AISG control line card

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5.3

AISG Interface
Antenna Interface Standards Group (A ISG) interface is a set of standard protocol proposed by Antenna Interface Stand ard Association for remote control and monitoring of antenna series products. AISG has two protocol versions: ASIG1. 1 and ASIG2.0. ASIG2.0 is written into 3GPP R7, i.e., Iuant interface (electrical tilt antenna and tower amplifier standard control interface) ZTE WCDMA devices support remot e electrical management of antennas from Andrew, Kathrein, Argus, Powerwave, RFS, Mobi and Comba. These antennas have standard AISG interfaces. ZTE WDCMA systems already supported ASIG1.1 in the V4.00.100 .

5.4
5.4.1

Typical Application of Electrical Tilt Antennas


Application Scheme of Single System Electrical Tilt Antennas in Macro Base Station
This scheme is mainly used to remote scenarios where the macro base station location is more than 30 meters away from the electrical tilt antenna. For the solution, refer to Figure 5-6.

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Figure 5-6

Remote scenario scheme for electrical tilt antenna in macro base station

RET

RET

RET

+45 -45
Tx/Rx Tx/RxD

+45 -45
Tx/Rx Tx/RxD

+45 -45
Tx/Rx Tx/RxD

Jumpers

ACU

AISG cable

ASBT

7/8 Feeder Cables

NSBT

Jumpers Special AISG cable


Tx/Rx Tx/RxD Tx/Rx Tx/RxD Tx/Rx Tx/RxD

Sector1

Sector2 Node B UMTS

Sector3

5.4.2

Application Scheme of Single System Electrical Tilt Antennas in RRU


The RRU is usually installed outdoor. The following t akes ZTE RRU as an example to describe application scenario and solution for single system electrical tilt antenna.

5.4.2.1

Local scenario scheme for RRU + Electrical Tilt Antenna


In this scenario, the RRU installation location is generally less than 10 meters away from the electrical tilt ant enna. If the RRU and electrical tilt antenna are installed on the top of a building, typical configuration is an antenna feeder system, including electrical tilt antenna, RCU, Antenna Lightning Protect Unit (ALP D), and feeder cable. The single sector configurations are shown in Figure 5-7 and Figure 5-8. Figure 5-8shows the configuration in a scenario where the ant enna is installed on the top of a building outside without ALPD, and the antenna is connected to the RRU with an AISG cable. Threesector configuration is similar, as shown in Figure 5-9.

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Figure 5-7

RRU + electrical tilt antenna + RCU + ALPD scenario in a single sector

RCU

RRU BBU

ALPD

Cable AISG cable

Optical fiber

Figure 5-8

RRU + electrical tilt antenna + RCU scenario in a single sector

RCU

RRU BBU

Cable AISG cable

Optical fiber

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Figure 5-9

RRU + electrical tilt antenna + RCU + ALPD scenario in three sectors

RCU

RCU

RCU

BBU

RRU

ALPD

RRU

RRU

Cable AISG cable

Optical fiber

5.4.2.2

Remote scenario scheme for RRU + Electrical Tilt Antenna


In this scenario, the RRU is generally installed under the tower or indoor; the electrical tilt antenna is installed on the tower; the distance between the electrical tilt antenna and the RRU is great er than 10 meters. Typical configuration is an ant enn a feeder system, including electrical tilt antenna, RCU, NSB T, ASBT and feeder cable, as shown in Figure 5-10 and Figure 5-110. To regulate the configuration, the NSB T and ASB T are uniformly installed on the main antenna.

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Figure 5-10 sector

RRU + electrical tilt antenna + RCU+ NSB T+ASBT scenario in a single

AS BT

NS BT

RRU

Cabl e

AISG cable

Optical fiber

Figure 5-11

RRU + electrical tilt antenna +RCU+NSB T+ASB T scenario in three sectors

RCU

ASBT

NSBT

RRU BBU

Cable

Optical fiber

AISG cable

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5.4.3

Local and Remote Control Application Schemes for Electrical Tilt Antenna System
Electrical tilt antennas are classified int o Mechanic al & Man fixed Electrical Tilt (ME T) antennas and Remote Electrical Tilt (RE T) antennas. Local and remot e monitoring diagram is shown in Figure 5-12.

Figure 5-12

Local and remote monitoring diagram of electrical tilt antenna

The local computer realizes local communication and control through the LMT. The OMC realizes remote control through the RNC and Node B.

6
6.1

Multi-band Support
Principles of Implementation
Using module design, ZTE multiple frequency bands base stations solution can improve multiplexing degree, shorten research and development cycle, reduce research and development cost, and bring forth more benefit to our customers. Its principles of implementation are described as follows: 1 The system architecture is designed based on the multi-band requirement, where the RF module is replaced according to the corres ponding bands.

14

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For different bands, the RF module is configured by changing Transceiver Unit, DuplexerUnit, and PA Unit corresponding to these bands. These units are also designed on the same plat form, in the same architecture on based the multi -band requirement. Based on the existing software platform, related software can realize base station function at multiple frequency band by changing its frequency configuration.

6.2

Supported Bands
3GPP defines 10 frequency bands in the UMTS system. For details, see the following table: Operating Band I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X UL Frequencies UE transmit, Node B receive 1920 - 1980 MHz 1850 -1910 MHz 1710-1785 MHz 1710-1755 MHz 824 - 849MHz 830-840 MHz 2500 - 2570 MHz 880 - 915 MHz 1749.9 - 1784.9 MHz 1710-1770 MHz DL frequencies UE receive, Node B transmit 2110 -2170 MHz 1930 -1990 MHz 1805-1880 MHz 2110-2155 MHz 869-894MHz 875-885 MHz 2620 - 2690 MHz 925 - 960 MHz 1844.9 - 1879.9 MHz 2110-2170 MHz

The multi-band series of base station is an important part of ZTE series of base station. Besides band I(2100MHz ), band II(1900 MHz), III(1800 MHz), IV(AWS), V(850 MHz), VIII(900 MHz) are supported also. In addition, customized band shall be supported to satisfy customer requirements.

7
7.1

Dynamic Power Tracking


Objective
PA efficiency generally means the PA efficiency when the output power is the m aximum. In fact, the load of the NodeB changes largely with the time. During the busiest period in the day, the PA output power approaches to the maximum, and then the PA efficiency also approaches to the maximum. B ut late at night, the traffic is much lower, the service load of the PA is lower accordingly, and then the PA efficiency is also lower. Therefore, when the traffic is low, the PA wastes power energy due to low efficiency. Figure 7-1 shows the load variation of a WCDMA NodeB cell in an area in one day.

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Figure 7-1

Load Variation of a WCDMA NodeB Cell in One Day

16 BS transmit power & time 15 14 13

power(w)

12 11 10 9 8

10 time(hour)

15

20

25

When the out put power is low, the reason why the power efficiency is low is that the traditional DP D+Doherty PA fixes the power supply voltage, that is, to reach a high output and a high linearity, the PA must use high power supply voltage. In this way, the PA also uses high power supply voltage even when the out put power of the PA is low. Therefore, the PA efficiency is low surely. This traditional technology is unable to help operators reduce NodeB power consumption in an all round way. According to the emulation, compared to the fixed power supply voltage, adjusting the bias volt age of PA power supply can enhanc e the PA efficiency when the output power is at other levels besides at the maximum level.

7.2

Working Principle
Figure 14 shows the working principle of D-P T, a unique technology developed by ZTE. This technology can adjust the bias voltage of the PA power supply. In combination with the advanced Doherty technology, the D-P T can not only enable the PA efficiency to reach 40% when the output power is the maximum, but also improve the PA efficiency under other different loads, so as to reduce the power consumption of the overall system of the NodeB. The solution perfectly satisfies operators demands for energy saving, The D-P T working principle is as follows: 1 2 Get measurement result of the digital transmitting power every two microseconds. Compare the current digital power with the previous digital power. If the current digital power is greater than the previous digital power, improve the drain voltage to the voltage of the power range grade according to the power range query table.

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When the current digital power is less than the previous digit al power, count the average digital power within one hour, and then reduc e the drain voltage t o the voltage of the power range grade according to the power range query table. 3 Map the adjusted voltage to the state machine of the power module. The power module then selects the output volt age based on the state machine. After the voltage adjustment, the RF gain varies. The system performs automatically large-step gain compensation according to the comparison between the digital power and the analog output power. The system then makes fine tune on the compens ation by using the Active Tx Gain Cailibration function.

Figure 7-2

D-P T Working Principle Diagram

As the digital power changes in the operation of the NodeB, the system runs automatically the D-P T function, thus reducing the power consumption of the overall system of the NodeB, without any additional operation at the background.

Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator Test


Function Objective
In the system performance test, due to the limit of terminal number and complexity of the test environment, it is hard to construct a radio transmission environment with certain interference level through a lot of terminals. ZTE RA N devices support channels simulated by the OCNS function to use the orthogonal channel codes. Each channel uses P N9 random codes that are not related with each other. Each simulated channel has its own power, but the power ratio between

8.1

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Particular Radio Function Feature Description

the channels is the same. Based on this principle, the OCNS can simulate t he PAR of signal interference bet ween channel codes and signals in the actual environment. You can simulate different downlink interference (load) level by setting the totol power of all simulated channels, so as to evaluate the actual performance of t he system under different downlink loads conveniently. ZTE RAN devices support the OCNS to simulate R99 and HSDPA channels, and can enable the OCNS function for multiple cells simultaneously. According to t he 3GPP TS 25.141 protocol, the OCNS test supports six test modes (test mode 1 - 6). Each test mode supports its own test items.

8.1.1

Test Mode 1
Test mode 1 has the following test items: Occupied bandwidth Spectrum emission mask Adjacent Channel Leakage power Ratio Spurious emissions Transmit intermodulation Base station maximum out put power Total power dynamic range (at Pmax)) Frequency error (at Pmax)) Error Vector Magnitude (at Pmax))

8.1.2

Test Mode 2
Test mode 2 has the following test items: Output power dynamics CPICH power accuracy

8.1.3

Test Mode 3
Test mode 3 has the following test items: peak code domain error

18

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8.1.4

Test mode 4
Test mode 4 has the following test items: EVM measurement Total power dynamic range Frequency error

8.1.5

Test Mode 5
Test mode 5 has the following test item: EVM for base stations supporting HS-P DSCH transmission using 16QAM modulation (at Pmax)

8.1.6

Test Mode 6
Test mode 6 has the following test item: Relative CDE for base stations supporting HS -PDS CH transmission using 64QAM modulation

8.2

Implementation Principle
1 Users can edit the OCNS loading script with the following parameter configurations: Base Station IP Local cell ID Test mode: one of the six test modes Modulation method: modulation method in test mode 5 or 6 (0-QPSK, 1-QAM, 264QAM) Radio link power Radio link channelized code On a host that can be connected to the base station, use the OCNS test tools to run the user-edit ed script to load the OCNS, and establish the code flow based on the corresponding radio links generated and sent by the user script.

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Particular Radio Function Feature Description

9
9.1

Smoothly Cell out off Service


Objective
When Node B is going to upgrade its SW/HW version or in other operation &maintenance conditions that whole or part of Node B is needed to be power off, the cell involved should be closed in advance. The sudden disappearance of the cell without any helpful measurements, it will likely result in call drop in the cell, which influences user experience and receiving user complaints. This function can realize the intelligently cell out off service, for example, when Node B is gonging to upgrade its SW version, although there are lots of on -line user in the cell, the users of this cell will not be impacted, this function can help smoothly switch the UE to the cell of other Node B or GSM network bas ed on the hand-over strategy, by reducing the power of Common Pilot Channel step by step before closing t he cell that will be upgraded.

9.2
9.2.1

Working Principle
Process for enabling Smoothly Cell out off Service
The function of Smoot hly Cell out off Service is achieved by start-up, users handover, and cell out. For details, see the following: 1 Start-up

Select View-> SDR Dynamic Data Management, Open the S DR Dy namic Data Management, select the NE to be handled on the left topology tree, and select Local Cell Object item on the center tree, click Query , all of the Local cell Objects will be listed in the table of the right panel. Select the local cell objects that you want to handle in this table, and click the button of Local Cell Smooth Block , then set the parameter of Total Attenuation Time(s) in the popup dialog. After setting the parameter, click OK button, it will send a function enabling message to the corresponding process of OAM. In default, this function is closed. 2 users handover

After OAM receives the function enabling message, it will forward the message include the two parameters to RCS (Radio control subsystem, with responsibility for Iub signaling process and transmit) Main Cont rol Proc ess.
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After receipt of the function enabling message, RCS Main Control Process obtains the involved cell numbers from the database and broadcasts the massage to these cells. After RCS Cell Process receives the function enabling message with the two parameters, sets the CPICH power attenuation timer based on the attenuation interval time parameter, When the timing length is due, then constructs the cell broadcast message with the CP ICH power which be reduced from original value bas ed on the attenuation step parameter. RNC knows that the pilot signal is gradually weakened via UE measurement, and then it will switch the UE to the cell of other Node B or GSM net work based on the hand-over strategy. After the function enabling message is send, if RCS Main Control Process receives the cell set up or cell reconfiguration requirement message, it will refuse the requirement and returns a cell set up or reconfiguration failed message to the RNC, the users that are attempt to access the carrier a re rejected, except that the function disabling message is send.

ii

iii

iv

cell out

With gradual weakness of the pilot signal, the cell broadcast will be stopped, it means that the cell will be closed after the power of CP ICH is reach the threshold value (10dbm).

9.2.2

Process for disabling Smoothly Cell out off Service


If maintenance personnel wants to stop the function to keep the cell normally running when the function is in the enable status, it can end the process of cell out via OMC-B setting. For details, see the following: Select View-> SDR Dynamic Data Management, Open the SDR Dynamic Data Management, select the NE to be handled on the left topology tree, and select Local Cell Object item on the center t ree, click Query , all of the Local cell Objects will be listed in the t able of the right panel. Select the local c ell objects that you want to handle in this table, and click the button of Local Cell Smooth unblock , then set the parameter of Total Recovery Time(s) in the popup dialog.

After click OK button, it will send a function disabling message to the corresponding process of OAM. 1 After OAM receives the function disabling message, it will forward the message to RCS Main Control Process

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Particular Radio Function Feature Description

After receipt of the function disabling message, RCS Main Cont rol Process obtains the involved cell numbers from the database and broadcasts the massage to these cells. After RCS Cell Process receives the function disabling message, kills the CPICH power attenuation timer, then constructs the cell broadcast message with the original CP ICH power.

10
10.1

Node B Energy Saving Mode


Objective
The power devic e will switch to battery automatically in case of mains power breakdown, Node B Energy Saving Mode can help prolong battery serving time. The f unction can shut down some carriers or all carriers intelligently to maintain the operation of transmission equipment and basic service as long as possible, so the basic service gets better guaranteed, and lower the requirement of battery capacity.

10.2

Working Principle
The function is achieved by function open, triggered by alarm, and recovery. For details, see the following: 1 Function open

In the OMC-B Configuration Management interface, you can configure the parameter Enable open accumulator-saving mode or not , open the mode. In default, this function is closed. 2 triggered by alarm

When mains power breakdown, the main power down alarm is reported by Node B, at the same time the power device will switch to battery automatically After OAM receives the alarm message, if the function is opened, it begins the timers based on the set parameters, 1)When the first timing length is due, it will shut down other cells smoothly until there is only one in each sector, as described in chapter 9,we have consider this a ctions affection to existing user, they will hand over to the reserved cells smoothly. 2) When the second timing length is due, all cells will be shut down, then the BP(baseband processing) boards and SE(site alarm extension ) board in the BP slot, PAs in RSUs or RRUs will be shut down, FS(fabric switch board)will be shut down at

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last. The other boards in BBU and transceiver in RS Us/RRUs are reserved, so BB U can remain the connections with RSUs/RRUs and RNC. 3 Recovery

When the main power down alarm is recovered, it will power on these boards and PAs that had been shut down and recover all these cells that had been blocked.

11
11.1

VSWR Alarm Recovery


Implementation principle
Assumed that P f orward stands for detected forward power, P backward stands for detected backward power. The VSWR is calculated according to the following formula, Pf orward -Pbackward = 20log10((VSWR+1)/( VSWR-1)) When the measured value of VSWR is larger than default threshold (3.0) for consecutive 3 times, an over-VSWR alarm is reported. Then the system will disable its power amplifier. Half hour later, the system will enable the power amplifer again to measure the value of VSWR. If the value of VSWR is smaller than pre-defined threshold, the VSWR alarm is automatically recovered. Otherwise, the power amplifier is disabled, and so on.

11.2

Application
This function is initiated by the system. It doesnt need manual intervention.

12
12.1

Intra-sector RTWP Unbalanced Alarm


Implementation Principle
A local cell is set up under a RRU or RS U. First, obtain the values of average analog power received by two ant ennas, denoted in RTWPm and RTWPd. Then calculate the absolute value of t he differenc e bet ween the t wo average analog power values for every 15 minute., i.e. abs(RTWPm RTWPd). After that, check whether the abs olute value is greater or equal to alarm thres hold. If yes, a RTWP unbalanced alarm is reported. If the absolute value is smaller than alarm rec overy threshold, a RTWP alarm -recovery message is report ed. If the absolute value falls in the range o f alarm thres hold and alarm recovery threshold, alarm status will be kept unchanged. In general, the alarm thres hold and alarm rec overy threshold are the same, default. The threshold must fall in the range of [1,14]dB. 10dB in

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Particular Radio Function Feature Description

This alarm function is an option in some scenarios, so it has a switch. The alarm switch is off in default. If there is a need to report this alarm, the switch is on. Application It is used to detect whet her an antenna is faulty.

13
13.1

Parameters and Configuration


Parameter List
Abbreviated name Parent DN uniqueId devType vendorCode aisgVersion multiAntNo userLabel fatherPort selfPort refTma refRet refSdrDeviceGroup Tilt Parent DN Device serial number Device Type Vendor code AISG version Subunits No. Description of self-defined field Superior channel Local channel Connected TMA device Connected RE T device AISG main control unit Tilt Parameter name

13.2

RET Parameter Configuration


OMC Path

Interface Path: View-> Configuration Management ->OMC->SubNetwork->Base station-> Base station Config Set->Equipment object->Auxiliary peripheral devic e->Antenna system controller->A ISG device object

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Double clicked a record in the right table, or click the Create MO Object button to create a new A ISG device object, you can configure all of these paramet ers.

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Particular Radio Function Feature Description

13.2.1

Parent DN
This parameter indicates the parent DN of this AISG devic e object. You can select one as the parent DN of this object from the list.

13.2.2

Device serial number


This parameter is the unique ID of this AISG device object.

13.2.3

Device Type
This parameter indicates the specific type of electrical tilt antenna, such as RE T, A TMA, or COM.

13.2.4

Vendor code
This parameter indicates the vendor who produced this AISG device.

13.2.5

AISG Version No
This parameter indicates the A ISG version.

13.2.6

Subunits No.
This parameter corresponds to an A ISG device that can be controlled independently. Attention that Subunits No. is invalid in the AISG1.1 and AIS G2.0 Single RE T devic es.

13.2.7

Description of self-defined field


This paramet er is the field that users create to descript this AIS G device object, and it can help to differentiate different AISG devices.

13.2.8

Superior channel
This parameter is used for the SDTMA devices of NSN private prot ocol. The superior channel value is 0 in other devices.

13.2.9

Local channel
This parameter is used for the SDTMA devices of NSN private prot ocol. The superior channel value is 0 in other devices.

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13.2.10

Connected TMA device


Connected TMA device indicates the TMA devic e that this AISG device object connected.

13.2.11

Connected RET device


Connected RE T device indicates the TMA device that this AISG device object connected.

13.2.12

AISG main control unit


This parameter indic ates the RRU device that connects to the 485 control cables of this AISG device.

13.2.13

Tilt
OMC Path SDR Configuration Management-> A ISG Equipment Central

Interface Path: Management

Open the AISG Centralized Management interface.

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Particular Radio Function Feature Description

Select the NE to be queried on the left topology tree, and right-click Query AISG Device on the right menu.

The queried A ISG devices are listed in the right table. Right click the AISG of RE T, and select Set Tilt item of the menu.

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Particular Radio Function Feature Guide

The Set Tilt dialog will pop up. Then set the tilt and click OK.

Parameter Configuration

This parameter specifies the downtilt angle of the electrical tilt antenna.

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Particular Radio Function Feature Description

13.3

Smoothly Cell out off Serv ice Parameter Configuration


OMC Path

Interface Path: View-> SDR Dynamic Data Management, Open the SDR Dy namic Data Management.

Select the NE to be handled on the left topology tree, and select Loc al Cell Object item on the center tree, click Query , you will see Local cell Objects are listed in the table of the right panel.

Select the local cell objects that you want to handle in this table, and click the button of Local Cell Smooth Block , then the parameter set dialog will pop up.

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Set the value of Tot al Attenuation Time(s ), click OK:

Input the verify code and click OK, you will see the result.

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Particular Radio Function Feature Description

Parameter Configuration

The parameter of tot al attenuation time(s) indicates the time before the Local Cell Objects are blocked.

13.4

Node B Energy Sav ing Mode Parameter Configuration


OMC Path

Interface Path: View->Configuration Management -> Configuration Resource Tree-> 100001[10.62.44.65:21099] -> test(Subnet work name) ->aaa$ZXS DR BS8700(V10.03.01)$0 -> Base Station Config Set 0 -> SdrFunction object(on the left view)

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Particular Radio Function Feature Guide

Click the records on the right view then Open the SdrFunction object interface, you can configure the parameter Enable open accumulat or -saving mode or not now.

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Particular Radio Function Feature Description

13.5

Intra-sector RTWP Unbalanced Alarm Parameter Configuration


Notice that thes e parameters are configured in EOMS not in OMCB, unlik e the parameters configured below. EOMS Path:

Interface Path: EOMS-> Base Station (right click) -> Set Base Station Attribute -> other parameters (tab)

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Notes: red words are alarm paramet ers. Parameter Configuration

Reception ant imbalance alarm s witch: this parameter cont rols whether the Rec eption ant imbalance alarm enable or not. Reception ant imbalance alarm threshold (db): this parameter indic ates the scene that the Reception ant imbalanc e alarm appears. Reception ant imbalanc e res ume (db): this indicates the scene t hat the Reception ant imbalance alarm resumes.

14
14.1

Counter And Alarm


Counter List
This feat ure has no related counter.

14.2
14.2.1

Alarm List
Abnormal Power Alarm
Alarm Code Alarm Description Alarm Severity Alarm Caus es 198092758 abnormal Power Major 1. PA is not enabled. 2. PA transmit power is abnormal; 3. RU has a fault.

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Particular Radio Function Feature Description

14.2.2

RET Alarm
Alarm Code Alarm Description Alarm Severity Alarm Caus es 198092688 RET motor fault Major 1.RE T motor fault. 2.EMC fault

Alarm Code Alarm Description Alarm Severity Alarm Caus es

198092689 RET hardware fault Major RET hardware fault. EMC fault

Alarm Code Alarm Description Alarm Severity Alarm Caus es

198092690 RET software fault Major Parameter error.

Alarm Code Alarm Description Alarm Severity

198092693 ATMA communication link is interrupted Major 1. ATMA device or RET device fault. 2. The communication link bet ween ATMA/RE T device and the system has a problem. 3. TAC border fault 4. EMC fault ATMA communication link is shared by ATMA device and RET device

Alarm Caus es

Note:

14.2.3

VSWR alarm
Alarm Code Alarm Description 198092660 Remote antenna VSWR alarm High

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Alarm Severity Alarm Caus es Note:

Major 1. The antenna fail ure 2. The board failure.

15

Glossary
A ACOM ACU AISG ALPD ANT ATMA ADTMA ASBT B BT L LMT M MET N NSB T R RCU RCS Remote Control Unit Radio control subsystem Node B Smart Bias Tee Mechanic al and Man fixed Electrical Tilt Local Management Terminal Bias Tee Active Combiner Antenna Control Unit Antenna Interface Standards Group Antenna Lightning Protect Unit Antenna AISG Tower Mounted Amplifier AISG AISG Dual Tower Mounted Amplifier Antenna Smart Bias Tee

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Particular Radio Function Feature Description

RE T RF RSSI RTWP S SNMP

Remote Electrical Tilt Radio Frequency Unit Received Signal Strength Indic ator Received Total Wideband Power

Simple Network Management Prot ocol

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