Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 72

1 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

DESIGN AND MAINTAINANCE OF STORAGE TANKS FOR HSD


MAIN PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by: MUHAMMED SHAFEEQUE PRASOON KUMAR K.P MUHAMMED JAWAD ABINRAJ P.K SHADIL N.K GUIDE: Mr.BALAGOPAL Sr. Engineer Maintenance Department BPCL KOCHI

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AWH ENGINEERING COLLEGE KUTTIKKATOOR, CALICUT, KERALA 2013

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

2 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all we would like to thank God the Almighty for the divine grace bestowed on us to complete this project successfully on time. We express our sincere thanks to Prof. JUSTIN DICOTTU (Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, AWH ENGG. COLLEGE) for giving us this opportunity to present this project and for the facilities offered to us throughout this endeavor. The main motivation and driving force behind this project is our external guide Mr.BALAGOPAL (Sr. Engineer E&C Department of Department of BPCL). We are unboundedly grateful to him for the timely corrections and scholarly guidance, which made us confident enough to come out successfully. We also thank Mr. SARUN (Asst. Engg. E&C Department of BPCL) for his support and guidance throughout the completion of our project. We extend our hearty thanks to our internal guide Sir. JITHU

PAUL(Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, AWH ENGG. COLLEGE) for his enterprising attitude and support that made our project fruitful. We express our sincere thanks to all the faculty members of the Mechanical Engineering Department for their co-operation.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

3 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

ABSTRACT
Petroleum storage tank is an indispensable part of petroleum refining industries. They are used for intermediate and final product storage in process plant or for storing petroleum products and chemicals at terminals. They are used for mixing, blending, precipitation and setting process or as chemical reactor vessels. Storage tanks are different types such as cone roof, floating roof, floating cum cone roof and spherical vessels . For storing motor spirit/ High Speed Diesel (HSD) we use floating roof tanks. As safety has the prime importance in a refinery different fire fighting equipments are designed and installed. Along with this thorough inspection procedures and maintenance are necessary to ensure better safety. All the petroleum refineries are mainly concentrating on the storing of various products because of efficient storage and better safety, the designing of storage tank is highly important.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

4 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

CONTENTS
1. Company Profile 1 2. Introduction to Storage Tanks... 4 3. Types of Storage Tanks. 5 4. Parts of Storage Tanks. 12 5. Material Specifications for Storage Tank 20 6. Design of Storage Tank... 22 7. Inspection of Storage Tank. 55 8. Testing of Storage Tank. 63 9. Conclusion.. 67 10. References68

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

5 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

COMPANY PROFILE
Kochi Refinery, a unit of Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL), embarked on its journey in 1966 with a capacity of 50,000 barrels per day. Formerly known as Cochin Refineries Limited and later renamed as Kochi Refineries Limited, the refinery was originally established as a joint venture in collaboration with Phillips Petroleum Corporation, USA. Today it is a frontline entity as a unit of the Fortune 500 company, BPCL. Kochi Refinery, located at Ambalmugal near the city of Kochi in Kerala, is one of the two Refineries of BPCL, presently having a crude oil refining capacity of 9.5 Million Metric Tones per Annum (MMTPA). The product portfolio of the 190,000 barrels per day refinery today includes petrochemical feedstock and specialty products in addition to its range of quality fuels. Fuel products of this fuel based refinery includes Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Naphtha, Motor Spirit, Kerosene, Aviation Turbine Fuel, High Speed Diesel, Fuel Oils and Asphalt. Specialty products for the domestic markets include Benzene, Toluene, Propylene, Special Boiling Point Spirit, Poly Iso Butene and Sulphur. The refinery has implemented world class technology and systems for operations and enterprise resource planning. It is an ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management System (QMS) accredited company and has also obtained the ISO 17025 (Testing Methods in Quality Control) certification from NABL (National Accreditation Board for testing & Calibration of Laboratories). The refinery has successfully implemented the Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSAS) 18001:2007 in the year 2009. With the prestigious Crude Oil receipt facilities consisting of the Single Point Mooring (SPM) and the associated shore tank farm in place since December 2007, the refinery is equipped to receive crude oil in Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs). This facility helps Kochi refinery in reducing the freight charges to a great extent, over and above increasing flexibility in crude oil selection. This, thereby, is a major infrastructure facility to accelerate the future growth of Kochi Refinery. The refinery has facilities to evacuate products to the consuming centers through road, rail, ships and through pipelines. All the major industries in the area are connected to the refinery for product receipt. The BPCL installation at

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

6 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Irumpsanam, to which the refinery is connected by pipelines, is the major product distribution centre of the refinery. Petronet CCK, a joint venture company of BPCL looks after the 300 km long pipeline that connects the refinery to various consumption points in Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore and Karur. Of the two-part Capacity Expansion cum Modernization Project (PhaseII), the capacity expansion to 9.5 MMTPA has been successfully completed and refinery modernization slated for completion in August 2010 would equip the refinery to produce auto-fuels conforming to Euro-III and partly Euro-IV specifications. The refinerys foray into direct marketing began since 1993 through marketing of its aromatic products - Benzene and Toluene. The entry into the international petroleum business stream began with its first parcel of Fuel Oil exported in January 2001. Since then the refinery, has earned the reputation as a reliable player in the international trade, by virtue of superior product quality and customer service. Moreover, the Fuel Oil has been benchmarked in the Singapore and Dubai Fuel Oil markets. Kochi Refinery is situated in Kochi, the most happening city in Kerala that is rightly called Gods own country. The refinery has a unique bond with its environment which is evident in the green blanket so carefully nourished right around it. The refinery has been blessed with a fine topography and the entire complex, spreading across over thousand two hundred acres has been so constructed as to blend naturally with it. Upcoming expansions and developments would also adhere to this philosophy of blending with nature. The most recent addition to the refinery architecture is the rainwater harvesting pond and eco-park that has been converted to a must-see spot with sprawling landscaped lawns and thatched canopies for conferences and get-togethers. Year after year the refinery has been bagging accolades for its commitment to the environment; for the all round care for the environment, the judicious storage, use and reuse of water, the efficiency in managing solid wastes and effluents and the care taken to keep the atmosphere clean. The recent achievement of 24 million accident free man-hours stands testimony to the fact that the prime focus of Kochi Refinery is on safety in everything we do. From training to retraining, and adhering to international standards in safety practices, both, offsite and onsite, Kochi Refinery has taken it as a mission to make safe living and working a natural mantra of its employees, contract workers, customers and the general public. Several awareness programs have been successfully conducted to this effect with the results for all to see.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

7 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

As a socially responsible corporate citizen, the community welfare initiatives of the refinery concentrate on developing the weaker sections of society, particularly, the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and people below the poverty line in important sectors like health, education, housing and women empowerment. Most of the programs falling under the categories of medical and educational assistance turned out to be poverty alleviation measures also. This is since the programs like universal health insurance, scholarship to SC/ST students and medical camps for poor have helped the poor villagers in the refinery vicinity to save money over their medical expenses and educational expenses of children. Various people intensive small-scheme community development programs have brought new life for many; be it poor villagers in need of medical treatment; poor students in government schools or differently abled children! Thus, apart from maintaining its world class standards in operational excellence, the singular objective of Kochi Refinery is to uphold the BPCL vision of energizing lives by continued excellence in all round performance with new ideas, added vigor and sustained commitment to its social, cultural, organizational and natural environment.

Process
Kochi Refinery presently has a crude oil processing capacity of 9.5 MMTPA (Million Tons per Annum) in its two Crude Distillation units (CDU-1 and CDU2). The refinery currently processes about 30% of Indigenous and 70% Imported crude oils. Crude oil is transported in ships from the point of origin to Kochi and is received through a Single Point Mooring (SPM) facility. Kochi SPM, located approximately 20 kms off the shore of Puthuvypeen, is capable of handling Very large Crude Carriers (VLCC) with crude oil carrying capacities upto 3.0 Lakh Tons. Crude oil from SPM is received in offshore tanks in Puthuvypeen and is then pumped to the refinery. Apart from the Crude Distillation Units, major processing facilities in the refinery include a Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) unit, Diesel Hydro Desulphurization (DHDS) unit, Kerosene Hydro Desulphurization (KHDS) unit, Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) and an Aromatics Block consisting of a Naphtha Splitter Unit (NSU), Naphtha Hydro Desulphurization (NDHS), Catalytic Reformer Unit (CRU) and Aromatics Recovery Unit (ARU).

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

8 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

INTRODUCTION TO STORAGE TANKS Petroleum storage tank are an indispensable part of petroleum refining industries. They are used for intermediate and final product storage in process plant or for storing petroleum products and chemicals at terminals. They can also be used as process equipment in non-ferrous plants where open top tanks are used for mixing, blending, precipitation and setting process or as chemical reactor vessels. Tanks are classified according to their construction, and the construction is on the basis of the product which is to be stored in them. CLASSIFICATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Petroleum products are classified on the basis of their Flash Points. FLASH POINT Flash Point of any petroleum liquids the minimum temperature at which the liquid yields vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air and gives a momentary flash on application of a smell pilot flame under specified conditions of test. Petroleum products are classified according to their flash pints as follows: Class A Petroleum Liquids which have flash point below 23 degree C-crude (Bombay High), gasoline, naphtha, low aromatic naphtha, high aromatic naphtha.

Class B Petroleum Liquids that have flash point of 23degree and above but below 65 degree Csuperior kerosene oil , high speed diesel, light diesel oil, aviation turbine fuel, and jet propulsion -5.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

9 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Class C Petroleum Liquids that have flash point of 65 degree C and above but below 93 degree Cfurnace oil, low sulphur heavy stock, asphalt, seal oil, plant fuel. Excluded Petroleum Liquids that have flash point of 93 degree C and above liquefied gases including LPG do not fall under this classification but from separate category. CLASSIFICATIONOF STORAGE TANKS 1. 2. 3. 4. Cone roof tanks Floating roof tanks Floating cum cone roof tanks Spherical vessels

1.

CONE ROOF TANKS

FIXED ROOF TANK


CONE ROOF VENT

SHELL

BOTTOM PLATE

FOUNDATION BPCL Kochi Refinery

9 March 2009

13

The cone roof tanks have fixed and are in a sense closed vessels. They are vertical cylindrical vessels having a conical top and made of welded steel plates and used mainly for storing less volatile products. Tanks meant for storing products like

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

10 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

asphalt, vacuum gas oil etc. at high temperature is fully insulated externally. There are 43 cone roof tanks in BPCL at present. Depending on the service the cone roof tanks will have the following accessories.

FLOATING ROOF TANKS Floating roof tanks are intended for storing products having high vapor pressure like HSD and gasoline. They have a movable roof that floats on the surface of the tank contents. Thus the vapor space is kept constant and minimum. Roofs are pontoon type having enclosed air chambers. Foam type neoprene seal off the clearance between the rim of the roof and the tank shell these tanks. As long as the pontoons do not leak the roof will not sink. The roof is supported when it is not afloat by a number of adjustable legs with low and high position. Normally roofs are kept on low legs. When a tank is to be taken out of service for cleaning or repairs, the roof has to be put on high legs toprovide space for people to work inside. Pump out vents in the roof permit the escape of air when an empty or near-empty tank is filled and the roof is afloat. Roof drains are provided to drain water that is collected on the roof during rains. This is done by providing hoses or pipes with swivel joints from the
AWH Engg. College Calicut Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

11 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

roof t0 the outside of the tank shell near the bottom. A non-return valve on the hose/pipe at the roof end and a gate valve at the bottom prevent escape of oil from the tank in case the hose develops leak. In certain case the roof is also provided with an emergency drain having water seal. In cases the rainwater does not flow freely through the roof drain it can get into the tank through the emergency drain. Access to the floating roof is by an inside stairway, one end if which is hinged at the gauges platform at the top of the outside stairway and the other end is free to move on rollers on a runway fixed to the roof as the roof moves up and down to maintain the shape of the tank when it is subjected to wind loads the tank is reinforced with stiffening rings called wind girders. There are 71 floating roof tanks in BPCL at present. The following are the accessories provided on floating roof tanks: Man ways to go inside the shell and over the roof Gauging datum plate Gauge hatch with cover and reference mark Dial thermometer Mixing devices Water draw Roof drain Inlet pipe header with jet nozzle and outlet Gas fired burners with steam heating coil for heating the product Outside stairway Inside stairway

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

12 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

FLOATING ROOF TANK


PONTOON SHELL ROOF DECK SUPPORT LEG

BOTTOM PLATE

FOUNDATION BPCL Kochi Refinery

9 March 2009

19

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

13 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

FLOATING CUM CONE ROOF TANKS They have fixed cone roof in addition to a floating roof and they are intended for storing toxic products having high vapor pressure. Products like benzene and toluene are carcinogenic and should be prevented from escaping into the atmosphere. So they are stored in floating cum cone roof tanks. These tanks prevent product from contamination and are used to store class A and class B products. There are 13 floating cum cone roof tanks in BPCL at present

FLOATING CUM FIXED ROOF TANK


CONE ROOF ROOF DECK SUPPORT LEG

SHELL

BOTTOM PLATE

9-Mar-09

FOUNDATION

13

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

14 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Grouping of Tanks Grouping of petroleum products for storage shall be based on product classification. Class A and/or class B petroleum can be stored in the same type of tanks. Class C petroleum should be stored separate enclosure. However, where class C petroleum is stored in a common dyke along with class A and/or class B petroleum, all safety stipulations applicable for class A and/or class B respectively shall apply. Excluded petroleum shall be stored in a separate dike enclosure and shall not be stored along with class A, B or C petroleum. Tanks shall be arranged in maximum 2 rows so that each tank is approachable form the road surrounding the enclosure. However, tanks having capacity 50000 cum and above shall be laid in single row. Inter-distances for tanks/offsite facilities The following stipulations shall apply for the inter-distances for above ground tanks storing petroleum: Inter distance for storage tanks

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

15 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Sl.No

Item

FRT

CRT (ClassA&B Petroleum)

Class Petroleum (D+d)/6

1.

All

tanks

with (D+d)/4

(D+d)/4

diameter upto 50m 2. All tanks with (D+d)/4 (D+d)/3 (D+d)/4

diameter exceeding 50m

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

16 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

PARTS OF STORAGE TANK


BOTTOM PLATES AND ANNULAR PLATES Bottom plates are those plates which are laid at the bottom of the tank. These plates are lap welded to each other. All bottom plates have a nominal thickness of 6mm excluding of corrosion allowance specified by the purchaser. Bottom plates get corroded rapidly if the fluid is having sea water content (crude petroleum). Bacterial corrosion of the bottom plates is generally observed in crude and HSD tanks having high sulphur content. The bottom plates develop deep isolated pits which eventually puncture and bottom starts leaking. So the proper corrosion allowance should be provided. Annular plates are those plates on which the shell plates rest. Annular plates should be capable of withstanding the weight of the shell plates and the appurtenance. According to API 650 (3.5) 11th edition 2007, annular plates shall have a radial width that provides at least 600mm between the inside of the shell, any lap welded joint in the remainder of the bottom shall have at least a 36mm projection outside from the shell. The projecting out portion of the annular plates is prone to corrosion at the edges due to accumulation of water between the foundation and the annular plates. So here also appropriate corrosion allowance should be given. DRAW OFF SUMP A draw off sump is provided at the bottom of the tank such that a shells inclination is given to the bottom plates towards the sump. Sump shall be placed in foundation before bottom placement. A neat excavation shall be made to conform to the shape of the draw off sump. The sump shall be put in place, and the foundation shall be compacted around the sump after placement and the sump shall be welded to the bottom. Draw off sump is provided in order to collect the

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

17 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

water particles in the oil. A draw off nozzle is provided on the shell plate to remove the water collected in the draw off sump. The sump and nozzle are connected by means of an internal pipe. SHELL Shell is the major portion of the tank which is exposed to the atmosphere. The major problem that may arise is corrosion. Shell plates generally get corroded internally where liquid-vapor is maintained. Internal corrosion in the vapor space is not commonly caused by hydrogen sulphide vapor, water vapor-oxygen giving pitting type corrosion. Atmospheric corrosion can occur on all external parts of the tank. This type of corrosion may range from negligible to severe depending on upon the atmospheric condition of the locality.

SHELL OPENINGS
The important shell openings are shell man hole, yield and suction nozzles, water drain and rain drain.

1.

SHELL MANHOLE

One manhole is provided to the tank shell at the bottom shell course for the entry of humans into the tank for maintenance or other purposes. 2. YIELD & SUCTION NOZZLES

Three yield nozzles and one suction nozzle are provided for the tank. These nozzles are also fixed at the bottom shell course. Yield nozzle is provided fro receiving finished, intermediate or unfinished products into the tank. This nozzle is designed according to the velocity of yielding and need for agitation. 3. WATER DRAIN AND ROOF DRAIN

Nozzles for water draw off and roof drain are provided in storage tanks. The water drains are fixed at 120 degree apart on the bottom shell course.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

18 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

WIND GIRDER Wind girder or stiffening rings are provided on storage tanks to prevent the buckling of tanks against wind loads. Wind girders are usually constructed as walkways to facilitate the inspection and repair of storage tanks. FLOATING ROOF Floating roof are installed in oil storage tanks primarily to reduce evaporation & handling losses, to decrease corrosion and to reduce fire hazards. Floating roofs may be of pan type, single deck pontoon type or double deck pontoon type.

WHY USE FLOATING ROOF?


1. Floating roof tank reduces breathing loss

When a volatile product is stored in a freely ventilated fixed roof tank the concentration of volatile vapour in the vapour space will vary depending on the tank operation conditions. During holding periods, when no liquid is added or removed the vapour space will come to the equilibrium based on product temperature and vapour pressure. Emissions during holding are generated by the vapour space breathing process. As a result of daily ambient heating and cooling processes, the air-vapour mixture in the vapour space expands and contracts. During the daily heating process, some of the air vapour mixture is expelled from the tank, resulting in the evaporative emissions. During the product cooling air is drawn into the product space that helps to dilute the concentration. This initiates further evaporation that continues until the space again reaches equilibrium. 2. Floating roof reduces filling loss

Normal tank filling and send out operations also affect the vapour space of a fixedroof tank when product is removed from the tank air is drawn to the vapour space. Unless the tank is completely emptied, the air in the new, larger vapour space will become saturated with product vapour. During the holding period before the next tank filling operation, evaporative breathing losses will increase due to the

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

19 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

increased volume of the vapour space. When product is added to tank the increasing liquid volume displaces the air-vapour mixture through the tank vent, resulting in significant evaporative emissions than any other tank operation in a fixed-roof tank. 3. Safety

Crude and refined petroleum products are volatile in nature and will readily evaporative at normal storage and handling conditions producing vapour that are combustible over a range of concentrations with air. It has been shown that the addition of a welded floating roof to an open roof tank can produce the evaporative emissions by more than 98%. Properly designed, the floating roof, floating roof seals and floating roof deck fittings can control the quantity and release of product emissions to the environment. To prevent the roof from bottoming and failing access pipes etc located in the tank bottom and also to [provide under roof access for cleaning and inspection, vertical leg supports are provided for holding the roof about I or 2m above the bottom. To enable the free movement of the roof up and down in the shell I the normal floating condition, a flexible seal is installed between the roof and the shell. The buoyancy of the roof is supplied by the pontoons which cover approximately 25% of the total area. The codes stipulate that the minimum pontoon volume shall be sufficient to keep. The roof floating on the liquid with specific gravity not exceeding 0.7. if the single deck and two pontoon compartments are punctured and the primary roof drain in considered inoperative. ROOF LEGS To prevent damage to the fittings located beneath the flouting roof, clearance for tank cleaning and repair, roof legs are provided to hold the flatling roof at a predetermined distance above the tank bottom when the tank is emptied. The larger the diameter of the tank, the greater the number of legs required. Roof legs generally consist an adjustable pipe leg that passes through a slight larger diameter vertical pipe sleeve. The sleeve is welded to the floating roof, extending both

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

20 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

above and below it. Steel pins passed through the holes in the sleeve and leg to permit height adjustment.

ROOF OPENINGS Various roof openings generally [provided are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Deck manhole pontoon manhole roof drain opening opening for bleeder vent opening for gauging

Deck Manhole A manhole is provided on the deck which facilities the inspection and checking by allowing the worker inside the tank.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

21 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Pontoon Manhole A manhole is provided on each compartment of the pontoon for checking and inspection. It also facilitates the repair work of the pontoon.

Opening for Gauging An opening of about 15 inch dia. is made on the pontoons for the installment of gauge pipes. ROOF DRAIN Roof drains are made such that minimum size drain shall be capable of preventing roof from accumulating a water level greater than design at the maximum rain fall rate, when the roof is floating at minimum operating legal. Roof drain shall be made of flexible hose or may be joined type. A check valve shall be provided near the roof end on the drain pipe to prevent backflow stored product if leakage occurs. In joined type the drain pipes are connected using swivel joints.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

22 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

SEAL
The space between the outer rim of roof and shell should be sealed by an approved sealing device and sealing material should be resistant top the stored product and durable against friction due to roof of movement. Sealing system should exert sufficient sealing pressure in all directions to prevent any evaporation losses and the arrangement should touch the product during the operation.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

23 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Foam seals have excellent flexibility and recovery from compression and at the same time permit the roof movement up and down freely with the level of tank contents. AUTOMATIC TANK GAUGING Automatic Tank Gauging (ATG) is carried to obtain information about the total volume or weight of the product in the tank. This information is obtained from four parameter ie, liquid level, tank capacity tale, average temperature and relative density of individual tank. ADVANTAGES OF TANK GAUGING 1. 2. 3. Accurate and better inventory control reduction of work load tank level is displayed at the tank site and at the central monitoring unit for prompt attention 4. Accurate level measurements even under turbulent product condition

COOLING SYSTEM Storage tanks are equipped with water cooking system to bring down the temperature of the tank shell& protect them from damage when a fire hazard occurs to a neighboring tank. The system consists of rings fitted through which water is sprayed to the tank shell at a particular pressure. FOAM SYSTEM Foam for fire fighting purposes is an aggregate of air filled bubbles formed from aqueous solutions and is higher in density than the lightest flammable liquid. It is principally used to form a coherent floating blanket on flammable and combustible liquids lighter than water and prevents or extinguishes fire by excluding air and cooling the fuel.The foam generally used in modern tanks is AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming Foam). It is a synthetic film forming concentrate and is based on fluorinated surfactants plus foam stabilizers and is diluted with water to a 3% to

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

24 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

6% solution. The foam formed acts as a barrier to exclude air or O2 and to develop an aqueous film on the fuel surface capable of suppressing the evolution of fuel vapour. The foam produced with AFFF concentrate is dry chemically compatible and thus is suitable for combined use with dry chemicals. MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR STORAGE TANKS The materials used in the construction of storage vessels are usually metals, alloys, clad-metals, or materials with linings that are suitable for containing the fluid. Where no appreciable corrosion problem exists the cheapest and most easily fabricated construction materials is usually hot rolled mild (low carbon) steel plate. Low carbon steels are rather soft and ductile and are easily rolled and formed into the various shapes used in fabrication vessels. These steels are also easily welded to give joints of uniform strength relatively free from localized stresses. The ultimate tensile strength is usually between 380 Mpa and 450 Mpa and the carbon content between 0.15% and 0.25%. The material generally used for manufacturing storage tanks in India is IS2062 grade A. it is low carbon, hot rolled steel with the following specifications.

Carbon (max) Manganese (max) Sulphur (max) Phosphorous (max) Silicon (max)

0.23% 1.50% 0.050% 0.050% 0.40%

It has a minimum ultimate tensile strength of 410.6 Mpa and an yield strength of 247.6Mpa.The pipe material used for making roof legs is AI 06 grade B. the chen composition is given below:

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

25 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Carbon (max) Manganese (max) Sulphur (max) Phosphorous (max) Silicon (max)

0.03% 1.06% 0.048% 0.058% 0.1%

The minimum tensile strength is 414Mpa and the minimum yield strength is 241 Mpa.

PROCEDURE
Assume the values of Height of tank (H) and the diameter of tank (D) Divide the height into number of courses Find out the maximum allowable design stress and the maximum allowable hydrostatic stress for each course Also find out the volume of shell course Then find out the total volume of the shell Find out the total cost of shell plate in that case Repeat the procedure in 2 or 3 cases Design the wind girder based on API standards Location of wind girders based on API standards Data of shell openings based on API standards Data of man hole based on API standards Data of Bolts based on API standards Data of floating roof based on API standards Data of Pontoon based on API standards Data of Rolling ladders and spiral stairways based on API standards

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

26 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

FOUNDATION
BITUMEN CARPETING Sieved river sand is mixed with 8-10 % by volume of bitumen (80/100grade) and is laid on the site and consolidation, rolling, tamping etc are done. A slope of 1:100 is maintained towards the shell from the core of the tank. LAYING OF SHELL COURSE The laying of shell course from top to bottom. The topmost shell course is laid first. Then the whole course is lifted with the aid of hydraulic jack. The next shell course is laid and so on. In case of a roof type tank, the roof may be erected on top most shell course in the beginning as later installing of roof at such great height may be difficult. The metal plates used for making the shell course need to be rolled depending on the required curvature. Welding is performed to join the rolled plates. Vertical welding is performed to join metal in a same course and horizontal to join adjacent shell courses. The welding procedure and methods performed are mentioned as below: DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF STORAGE TANKS The design and construction of tanks is based on API 650 (11th edition 2007) standards Deign and construction of storage tank number 350 for storing High speed diesel (HSD). Tank Selection High speed diesel (HSD) highly volatile product. Its flash point is of 23 65o C. So it comes under class B of petroleum products and has to be stored in an internal floating roof tank. Height and diameter

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

27 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

For fixing the height and diameter of the tank, the criterion to be maintained as per API 650 is that ratio of the total height of the tank to the internal diameter must be less than 1.5 Height of tank (H) Diameter of tank (D) Height and diameter mostly depends upon the space available on the site, distance between two consecutive tanks etc. it also depends on the judgment of the designer. By studying the H/D ratio of the existing tanks in BPCL. Design Capacity of the tank Diameter of the tank = 36.58m Height of the tank = 14.2m
<1.5

Volume of tank = = =
=14915.76057 14000 KL

Here, H/D ratio = 14.2/36.58 = 0.38< 1.5

So it is possible according to API650. (Also the economic condition is maintained). BOTTOM PREPARATION Cone penetration test To assess the soil bearing capacity of soil at locations under the bottom plate penetration test was conducted by IIT Madras. Cone penetration resistance (CPR) was calculated by determining the number of blows required to attain a 300mm penetration by a test cone.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

28 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

The cone penetration resistance is found to vary between 20 and 40 which indicates that the maximum settlement to be less than 10mm which is permitted for large diameters (present tank being of 36.58 dia). Soil testing The test sample of soil is collected from various positions of tank bottom and is sent to IIT Madras. It was tested and certified OK for the construction of the above mentioned tank. Bitumen Carpeting Sieved river sand is mixed with 8-10% by volume of bitumen (80/100grade) and is laid on the site and consolidation, rolling, tamping etc are done. A slope of 1:100 is maintained towards the shell from the core of the tank. DESIGN DATA Design code: API 650 (11th edition June 2007) Internal diameter : 36.58m Height: 14.2m Product stored: High Speed Diesel (HSD) Specific gravity of product : 0.85 Design specific gravity:0.85 Corrosion allowance: 1.6mm for annular and bottom plate : 3mm for shell plates : 1.5mm for roof plates Design pressure : atmospheric pressure Material specification : IS 2062 grade A (As per API 650 Table 2.2& CI2.2.5)

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

29 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

IS 2062 is the metal plate readily available in Indian markets and also it has got an acceptable value of yield strength (36236 psi or 247.6Mpa) and tensile strength (59428 psi or 410.6 Mpa). Wind speed : 100 mph (max) or 160.93 km/h Maximum rainfall intensity: 57mm in one hour or 254 mm in 24 hours. I. DESIGN OF BOTTOM PLATES

According to API 650 standards, bottom plates shall have a minimum nominal thickness of 6mm exclusively of any corrosion allowance. So the bottom plate thickness = 6+1.6 = 7.6mm So the thickness of bottom plate is selected as from API 650. (Since the thickness of steel plates available in market are sizes 8,10, 12mm etc. Bottom plates of sufficient size shall be ordered so that when trimmed at least a 25mm width will project beyond the outside edge of the wed attaching the bottom to the shell plate. The commonly available size of plates in markets are of length 6m, 8m, 10m and of width 1.5m, 2m, 2.5m, etc. bottom plate preparation involves shot blasting and bituminized painting. II. DESIGN OF ANNUAL BOTTOM PLATES

Radial width of annular plates depends upon the shell course thickness. So annular bottom plate designing is done after the shell designing. III. DESIGN OF SHELL PLATES

Tank is made of plates. Plates of same width have been welded together to form a course of equal diameter. The course contains a number of vertical joints of length equal to plate width. A number of courses are welded together horizontally to form the total height of the tank. According to API 650, the shell thickness from the tank of diameter in the range of 36m-60m should not be less than 8mm. (For tank diameter less than 36m, the shell thickness should not be less than 6mm).

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

30 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

The shell thickness is calculated taking into account the material specification and allowable stresses. The maximum allowable product design stress Sd (API 650Cl.5.6.2.1), shall be either two-third the yield strength or two-fifth the tensile strength whichever is less. The maximum allowable hydrostatic test stress S t (API 650Cl.5.6.2.2), shall be either three-fourth the yield strength or three-seventh the tensile strength whichever is less. Yield strength of selected material (IS 2062) = 247.6MPa (Mega PascalNewton/mm2) Tensile strength of selected material = 410.6MPa Maximum allowable design stress, (Sd) Sd = 2/3* yield strength Sd = 2/3* 247.6 = 165MPa Sd = 2/5* tensile strength Sd = 2/5* 410.6 = 164.24 MPa So design stress is taken as 165 MPa (the maximum of 165MPa & 164.24MPa)
Maximum allowable hydrostatic stress, (St)

API 650 cl 5.6.2.1

St = 3/4* yield strength St = * 247.6 = 185.7MPa Or St =3/7* tensile strength

API 650 cl 5.6.2.2

St = 3/7* 410.6= 175.97MPa 176MPa So hydrostatic stress is taken as 176MPa (the minimum of 175.MPa& 185.7MPa) According to API 650 thickness of tanks less than 60m in diameter is calculated using 1-foot method, and if the diameter is above 60m, the thickness is found out using variable design point method. So here 1-foot method is used. 1-foot method calculates the thickness required at design points 0.3m (1ft) above the bottom of each shell course. In this method we find out the design shell

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

31 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

thickness (td) and hydrostatic test shell thickness (tt) and the maximum of the two values is taken. Where, td =(4.9D* (H-0.3)* G)/Sd + CA tt = 4.9D* (H-0.3)/St td design shell thickness in mm tt hydrostatic shell thickness in mm D nominal tank diameter in m = 36.58m H = height from the bottom of course under consideration to the top of the shell = 14.2m. G Design specific gravity of the liquid to be stored = 0.85 CA- Corrosion allowance in mm = 3mm Sd Allowable design stress = 165MPa St Allowable hydrostatic stress = 176MPa

Since the height of the tank is 14.2m, we have divided it into numbersof courses considering the economic condition. It is to be noted that standard thickness available in the market are 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 25 mm. values of thickness obtained by calculation are rounded off to the nearest size of metal plate available in the market. We select a number of random cases with varying no. of courses and course widths. CASE 1 We divide the total height 14.2m to 6 courses 3, 3, 3, 2, 2 &1.2m respectively. From the above formula shell thickness is calculated.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

32 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Shell thickness 1st Course H = height from the bottom of the course under consideration to the top of the shell, = 14.2m D = nominal tank diameter in meters = 36.58m Design shell thickness Hydrostatic shell thickness td = (4.9D* (H-0.3)*G)/Sd+CA tt = 4.9D* (H-0.3)/St td = (4.9*36.58*(14.2-0.3)* 0.85)/165+ 3 = 15.8348mm tt = 4.9*36.58* (14.2-0.3)/176 = 14.156mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt. In this case max value is15.8348mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 16mm = 0.016m Width of the shell course (W) = 3m Volume of shell course = *D*W*t = x36.58x3x0.016 = 5.516m3 2nd Course H = 14.2-3= 11.2m (total height 1st course height) D = 36.58m td= (4.9D* (H-0.3*G)/Sd + CA = 4.9x36.58x(11.2 0.3)x0.85 165 = 13.064 mm tt = 4.9D* (H-0.3)/St = 4.9x 36.58x(11.2-0.3) 176 = 11.1mm
+3

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

33 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Design condition is select max of td andtt . In this case max value is 13.064mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 14mm = 0.014m Width of shell course, W = 3m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x 36.58x3x0.014 V = 4.826m3 3rd Course H = 11.2 -3 = 8.2m D = 36.58m td =( 4.9D* (H-0.3)*G)/Sd + CA= 4.9x36.58x(8.2-0.3) x 0.85 165 = 10.29mm tt = 4.9D* (H-0.3)/st = 4.9x36.58x(8.2-0.3) 176 = 8.045mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt. In this case max value is 10.29mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 12mm = 0.012m Width of shell course, W = 3m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x 36.58x3x0.012 V = 4.137m3 4th Course H = 8.2-2 = 6.2m D = 36.58m td = (4.9D* (H-0.3)*G)/Sd + CA = 4.9x36.58x(6.2-0.3) x 0.85 165 = 8.447mm tt = 4.9D* (H-0.3)/St = 4.9x36.58x(6.2-0.3) 176 =6.008 mm
AWH Engg. College Calicut Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

+3

+3

34 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Design condition is to select max of tdortt.In this case max value is 8.447mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 10mm = 0.010m Width of the shell course, W = 2m Volume of the shell V = *D*W*t = x36.58x2x0.010 = 2.298m3 5th Course H = 6.2 -2 = 4.2m D = 36.58m td = (4.9D* (H-0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.9x36.58x(4.2-0.3)x 0.85 165 = 6.601mm tt = 4.9D* (H -0.3)/St = 4.9x36.58x(4.2-0.3) 176 = 3.97mm Design condition is to select max oftd ortt. In this case max value is 6.601mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 8mm = 0.008m Width of shell course, W = 2m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = 1.13 = x36.58x2x0.008 = 1.8387m3 6th Course H = 4.2-1.2 = 3m D = 36.58M td = (4.9D* (H-0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.9x36.58x(3 -0.3)x 0.85 165 = 5.493mm tt = 4.9D* (H -0.3)/St = 4.9x36.58x(3 -0.3) 176
+3 +3

= 2.749 mm

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

35 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Design condition is to select max of td ortt. In this case max value is 5.493mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 6mm Therefore, thickness selected, t = 6mm = 0.006 m Width of the shell course, W = 1.2m Volume of shell course V= = *D*W*t = x36.58x1.2x0.006 0.8274m3

CASE 2 We divide the total height 14.2m to 5 courses 4, 3, 2.5, 2.5& 2.2 m respectively. From the above formula shell thickness is calculated. 1st course H = 14.2m D = 36.58m

td = (4.9D* (H - 0.3)* G)/Sd + CA=

4.9x36.58x(14.2 -0.3)x 0.85 165

+3

= 15.834 mm

tt = 4.9D* (H - 0.3)/St = 4.9x36.58x(14.2 -0.3) 176 = 14.156 mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt. In this case max value is15.834 mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 16 mm = 0.016 mm Width of shell course, W = 4m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.58x4x0.016 V = 7.354 m3

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

36 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

2nd Course H = 14.2 -4 = 10.2 m D = 36.58m td = (4.9D* (H - 0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.9x36.58x(10.2 -0.3)x 0.85 165 = 12.14mm tt = 4.9D* (H - 0.3)/St = 4.9x 36.58 x (10.2 -0.3) 176 = 10.082mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt. In this case max value is 12.14 mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 14 mm = 0.014 mm Width of shell course, W = 4 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.58x4x0.014 V = 6.435 m3 3rd Course H = 10.2 3 = 7.2m D = 36.58m td = (4.9D* (H - 0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.9x36.58x(7.2 -0.3)x 0.85 165 = 9.37 mm tt = 4.9D* (H - 0.3)/St = 4.9x 36.58 x (7.2 -0.3) 176 = 7.027 mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt. In this case max value is 9.37 mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 10 mm = 0.010 m Width of shell course, w = 3m
+3 +3

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

37 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.58x3x0.010 V = 3.447 m3 4th Course H = 7.2 2.5 = 4.7m D = 36.58 m td = (4.9D* (H - 0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.9x36.58x(4.7 -0.3)x 0.85 165 = 7.0628 mm tt = 4.9D* (H - 0.3)/St = 4.9x 36.58 x (4.7 -0.3) 176 = 4.48mm Design condition is to select max of tdortt. In this case max value is 7.0628 mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t =8 mm = 0.008 Width of shell course, W = 2.5 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.58x2.5x0.008 V = 2.298 m3
+3

5th Course H = 4.7 -2.5 = 2.2 m D = 36.58 m td = (4.9D* (H - 0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.9x36.58x(2.2 -0.3)x 0.85 165 = 4.564 mm tt = 4.9D* (H - 0.3)/St = 4.9x 36.58 x (2.2 -0.3) 176 = 1.935 mm
+3

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

38 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Design condition is to select max of tdortt. In this case max value is 4.564 mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 6 mm = 0.006 m Width of shell course, W = 2.5 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.58x2.5x0.006 V= 1.7237 m3 Case 3 We divide the total height 14.2 to 7 courses of 2, 2, 2.125, 2.425, 2.425, 2.425, 0.790 are respectively. Shell thickness 1st Course H = 14.2m D = 36.58 m td = (4.9D* (H - 0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.9x36.58x(14.2 -0.3)x 0.85 165 = 15.8348 mm tt = 4.9D* (H - 0.3)/St = 4.9x36.58 x (14.2 -0.3) 176 = 14.156 mm Design condition is to select maxof td ortt. In this case max value is 15.8348 mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 16mm = 0.016 m Width of shell course, W = 2m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.58x2x0.016 V= 3.677 m3
+3

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

39 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

2nd Course H = 14.2 -2 = 12.2 m D = 36.58m td =( 4.9D* (H - 0.3)* G)/Sd+ CA= 4.9x36.58x(12.2 -0.3)x 0.85 165 = 13.98 mm tt = 4.9D* (H - 0.3)/St = 4.9x 36.58 x (12.2 -0.3) 176 = 12.119 mm Design condition is to select max of tdortt. In this case max value is 13.98 mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 14mm = 0.014m Width of shell course, W = 2 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.58 x2 x 0.014 V = 3.217 m3 3rd Course H = 12.2 2.125 = 10.075 m D = 36.58 m td = (4.9D* (H - 0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.9x36.58x(10.075 -0.3)x 0.85 165 = 12.026 mm tt = 4.9D* (H - 0.3)/St = 4.9x 36.58 x (10.075 -0.3) 176 = 9.955 mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt. In this case max value is 12.026 mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 12 mm = 0.012 Width of shell course, W = 2.125 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = *36.58*2.125*0.012 V = 2.9304 m3
AWH Engg. College Calicut Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

+3

+3

40 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

4th Course H = 10.075 2.425 = 7.65 m D = 36.58 m td = (4.9D* (H - 0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.9x36.58x (7.65 0.3)x0.85 +3 165 = 9.786 mm tt = 4.9D* (H - 0.3)/St = 4.9x 36.58 x (7.65 -0.3) 176 = 7.48 mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt. In this case max value is 9.786 mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 10 mm = 0.010m Width of shell course, W = 2.425 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.58 x2.425x 0.010 V = 2.786 m3 5th Course H = 7.65 2.425 = 5.225 m D = 36.58 m td = (4.9D* (H - 0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= = 7.547 mm tt = 4.9D* (H - 0.3)/St = 4.9x36.58 x (5.225 -0.3) 176 = 5.0157 mm Design condition is to select max of tdortt. In this case max value is 7.547 mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 8 mm = 0.008 Width of shell course, W = 2.425 m +3

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

41 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.58x2.425x 0.008 V = 2.229 m3 6th Course H = 5.225 2.425 = 2.8 m D = 36.58 m td = (4.9D* (H - 0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= = 5.308 mm tt = 4.9D* (H - 0.3)/St = 4.9x36.58 x (2.8 -0.3) 176 = 2.547 mm Design condition is to select max of tdortt. In this case max value is 5.308 mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 8 mm = 0.008 m Width of shell course, W = 2.425 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.58x2.425x.008 V = 2.229 m3 7th Course H = 2.8 0.790 = 2.01 m D = 36.58 m td = (4.9D* (H - 0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= = 4.578 mm tt = 4.9D* (H - 0.3)/St = 4.9x 36.58 x (2.01 -0.3) 176 = 1.7414 mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt. In this case max value is 4.578 mm.
( ) ( )

+3

+3

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

42 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 8 mm = 0.008 m Width of shell course, W = 0.790 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.58x 0.790x0.008 V =0.726 m3 ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION For selecting the optimum combination we are considering the material cost and fabrication cost for each cases. Case 1 The total volumeof shell plate required Total weight of the shell plates = 19.4431m3 = volume * density = 19.4431 x 7.85 x 103 = 152.968ton Material cost per metric ton So overall material cost of the shell plates = Rs35000 = 152.628 x 35000 = Rs 0.534 crores Case 2 The total volume of shell plate required Total weight of the shell plates = 21.2577 m3 = volume* density = 21.2577 x 7.85x 103 = 166.872ton Material cost per metric ton So over all material cost of the shell plates = Rs35000 = 35000 x 166.872 = 0.5840 crores Case 3 The total volume shell plate required Total weight of the shell plates
AWH Engg. College Calicut

= 17.7944 m3 = volume * density


Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

43 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

= 17.7944 x 7.85x103 = 139.686ton Material cost per metric ton = Rs.35000

So over all material cost of the shell plates = 35000 x 139.686 = 0.4889 crores Case I It (m) Td (mm) 3 3 3 2 2 1.2 Case II It (m) Td (mm) Tt (mm) Calculated Standard Total thickness thickness weight (mm) (mm) (ton) 15.834 12.14 9.37 7.0628 4.564 16 14 10 8 6 166.872 0.584 Total cost (crores) 4 3 2.5 2.5 2.2 15.834 12.14 9.37 7.0628 4.564 14.156 10.082 7.027 4.48 1.935 15.8348 13.064 10.29 8.447 6.601 5.493 Tt (mm) 14.156 11.1 8.045 6.008 3.97 2.749 Calculated Standard Total thickness thickness weight (mm) (mm) (ton) 15.8348 13.064 10.29 8.447 6.601 5.493 16 14 12 10 8 6 152.628 0.534 Total cost (crores)

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

44 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Case III It (m) Td (mm) Tt(mm) Calculated Standard Total thickness thickness weight (mm) (mm) (ton) 15.8348 13.98 12.026 9.786 7.547 5.308 4.578 16 14 12 10 8 8 8 139.686 0.4889 Total cost

2 2 2.125 2.425 2.425 2.425 0.790

15.8348 13.98 12.026 9.786 7.547 5.308 4.578

14.156 12.119 9.955 7.48 5.0157 2.546 1.7414

Here we take case 3 because of less material consumption and less total cost comparing than the other cases.

The shell course fig. Of the most economic case is shown below

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

45 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Course 7 8mm

0.790m m 2.425m m

Course 6 8mm Course 5 8mm

2.425m

Course 4 10mm

2.425m

14.2m

Course 3 12mm

2.125m

Course 2 14mm

2m

Course 1 16mm

2m

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

46 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

ANNULAR PLATE Annular plates are plates on which the shell rest and connects shell plates with bottom plates. As per table 3.1 of API 650, for 16 mm 1st shell course thickness, the minimum annular plate thickness is 6mm. So minimum thickness required = 6 + 1.6 (C.A) = 7.6 mm8 mm Here we provide 10 mm thick annular plate, since annular plate thickness should be greater than bottom plates. Radial width of bottom plate Radial width is calculated using 2 methods and the greater value is selected. 1st Method According to API 650, the minimum radial width is the sum of the projection from the outer surface of shell plate, dimension between the inner surface of the shell plate and lap joint, lap of annular and bottom plate and the 1st shell course thickness.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

47 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Minimum radial width = minimum projection from outer surface of shell plate + minimum dimension between surface of shell plate to lap joint + lap of annular and bottom plate + 1st shell course thickness From API 650 standards, The minimum projection from outer surface of shell plate = 65 mm (min50mm) Minimum dimension between inside surface of shell plate to lap joint, = 610 mm (min 600) Lap of annular and bottom plate 1st shell course thickness = 65 mm (standard) = 16mm

So required minimum radial width = 65 + 610 + 65 + 16 = 756 mm

2nd Method The minimum radial width is also given by the formula 215*tb/ (HG)0.5 tb thickness of annular plate in mm H maximum design liquid level in m = 10 mm = 14.2m

G design specific gravity of liquid to be stored = 0.85 So radial width = 215 x10/(14.2 x 0.85)0.5 = 618.845mm As per the above 2 methods the greater of required radial width = 756 mm. So we provide annular plate of radial width 1000 mm (to be on safer side)

IV.

DESIGN OF WIND GIRDER

Basic wind speed It is based on peak gust velocity averaged over a short time interval of about 3 seconds and corresponds to mean heights above ground level in an open terrain. Design speed of wind, V = 100 mile/hr= 160.93 km/hr

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

48 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Section modulus required for primary wind girder, Z =

)2 cm3

(API 650 11th edition 2007) t = Shell thickness at the attachment = 8 mm Portion of tank shell to be considered for calculating L = 32 * ts + t = 32 * 8 + 8 = 264 mm Locating the centre of gravity of primary wind girder Centre of gravity (x) = (A1 X1 + A2 X2 + A3X3) / (A1+A2+A3)

X= 8 mm

= 408 mm 8 mm

6 mm

264 mm

800 mm

Moment of inertia about C.G Ixx = (bd3 / 12 ) + Ah2

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

49 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Where, A = Area of the various sections (A1, A2, A3) h = Distance from centre of gravity to centre of various sections (h1, h2, h3) b = Vertical length of various cross sections (b1, b2, b3) d = Horizontal width of various cross sections d1, d2, d3 Ixx = ((b1*d13/12)+A1*h12) + (( b2 * d23/12)+A2*h22)+((b3 * d33/12) +A3*h32) Ixx = ( ) ( ) ( )

= 3.42 * 108 mm4 Distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber , X = 408 mm

Section modulus of the above I section (calculated value) Zxx = Ixx / X Zxx = = 8.382 * 103 cm3 > 1658

So design is feasible [as per API 650 requirements, calculated value of section modulus (Zxx) should be greater than required section modulus (Z)] Location of Primary Wind Girder The primary wind girder is provided as a walk way at a distance 1067 mm from the top. Here there is no change in design and location of primary wind girder, because of there is no maintenance work. So we take the existing data from the previous design data according to API 650 11th edition 2007. Design calculation of secondary Wind girder Requirement of Second wind Girder Maximum height of the un stiffened shell = H1 = 9.47 x t (r/D)3 * 190 V (According to API 650, cl5.9.7.1) t = Thickness of top shell course = 5mm
2

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

50 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

D = Nominal tank diameter = 36.58m H = 9.47 *5*(5/36.58)3* H= 3.370 m Transformed shell As per API codes the transformed shell shall be calculated as the change in actual width of each shell course into a transformed width of each shell course having a top shell thickness by the equation. Wtr = W {(t uniform / t actual)5} Where; Wtr= transformed shell course in mm W = Actual width of each shell course in mm tuniform = Thickness of top shell course in mm excluding the corrosion allowance. tuniform = 5 mm tactual = Ordered shell course thickness excluding the corrosion allowance in mm for which Wtr is being calculate. First,second and third courses Tactual = 8mm - 3mm C.A=5mm W=5640mm So Wtr=5640*[(5/5)5]0.5 = 5640mm Fourth course tactual=10mm - 3mm C.A=7mm W=2425mm So Wtr=2425*[(5/7)5]0.5=1045.7mm Fifth course [API 650 cl 5.9.7.3]

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

51 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Tactual=12mm - 3mm C.A=9mm W=2125mm So Wtr=2125*[(5/9)5]0.5 =488.8mm Sixth course Tactual=14mm - 3mm C.A=11mm W=2000mm So Wtr=2000*[(5/11)5]0.5 =278.59mm Seventh course Tactual=16mm - 3mm C.A=13mm W=2000mm So Wtr=2000*[(5/13)5]0.5 =183.48mm Transformed width wtr =5640+1045.7+488.8+278.59+183.48 = 7636.57mm According to API 650 (11th edition 2007, [3.9.7.3]), if height of transformed shell is greater than maximum unstiffened height,H1. an intermediate wind girder is required. No: of secondary wind girders required =height of transformed shell Maximum un stiffened height = 7636.57/3370 = 2.26> 1 Since ratio is greater than one, one number of secondary wind girders is required. Location of intermediate wind girder As per clause No.5.9.7.3, 5.9.7.3.1, &5.9.7.3.4 the secondary wind girder shall be provided, the girder should be located at the middle of transformed shell(7636.57/2=3818mm),The existing wind girder at a height of 3320mm from primary wind girder.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

52 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

The previous wind girder was too small for a walk way (200mm) there for we changed the dimension and constructed a new secondary wind girder of width 600mm, which made inspection around the tank possible.
1067mm

0.790 m 2.425 m 2.425 m 2.425 m 2.125 m 2m 2m 3818 mm

V. 1.

SHELL OPENINGS MAN HOLE (SHELL) One -man hole provided to the tank shell at the bottom shell course.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

53 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

It is enough to provide 600 mm manhole. Minimum thickness of cover plate, tc = 16 mm Thickness of bolting flange tf = 11 mm (API 650 table 3.3) Man hole diameter, Dm = 914.4 mm Cover plate diameter, Dc = 820 mm (API 650 table 3.5 page 5-18)

BOLTS Number of bolts Diameter of bolts = 42 = 22 mm

Diameter of bolt hole= 24 mm (API 650 3.4 A) e. DRAW OFF SUMP Two draw off sumps is provided at the bottom plate in order to store the water content in the product and to remove it. (Note: Two is selected according to Tank no: 019KR) Diameter of sump, A Depth of sump, B Distance from center pipe to shell, C Thickness of plates in sump Minimum internal pipe thickness Minimum nozzle neck thickness = 1220 mm = 610 mm = 150 mm = 10 mm = 114.3 mm = 3 mm

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

54 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

VI.

COOLING WATER SYSTEM DATA

Cooling water system is provided to the tank as per OISD codes. The cooling water is sprayed onto the tank with the help of nozzles. INPUT DATA Type of tank: floating roof tank Diameter of the tank: 36.58m Height of the tank: 14.2m Wind girder from bottom: 13.2m Design code: OISD 116 The cooling water is sprayed on to the tank with the help of nozzles on three set of pipe rings around the shell as per the new design aspects. Area below primary wind girder (AI)= x36.58x13.2 Total surface area = 1556.16m2

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

55 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Since OISD specifies that a minimum of 3 liters has to be sprayed per minute per unit. Area of the shell, the total amount of water required = 1556.16 x 3

= 4668.48 (1p liters per minute) Considering the pressure losses in the pipes connecting the ring and the water tank, the operating pressure of the nozzle is calculated to be between 1.5 to 3.5kg/cm2. Two sets of cooling water rings are provided, one above the primary wind girder, and the other below the secondary wind girder. Ring no;1 Surface area to be cooled by the water from top ring = Dh D = dia of the tank= 36.58m H = distance between two wind girders = 6 m Surface area = x 36.58 x 6= 689.16 m2 Water required = 3 x surface area = 3 x 689.16 = 2067.50lpm VII. FOAM SYSTEM PROVIDED Foam recommended Foam application rate = AFFF = 12 liters/min/m2 of seal area. (As per OISD 116) Foam dam width D, diameter of the tank Height of the foam dam =1m = 36.58m = 600mm= 0.6 m

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

56 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

VII.

FLOATING ROOF

The roof and accessories shall be designed and constructed so that the roof is allowed to the float to the maximum designed liquid level and then return to a liquid level that floats the roof well below the top of the tank shell without damage to any part of roof and accessories. Deck plate data As per the API 650 standards deck plate shall have a minimum thickness of 5 mm (Cl C.3.3.2, pg C-1, API 650) So the thickness of deck plate selected = 5 mm Dimensions= 6300x1500x5thk Total weight=31527.56kg The deck plate shall be provided with a roof manhole, rain-drains, support legs etc. Pontoon data No.of components(N)= 38+1=39Qty Pontoon bottom plate= 6300x1500x5thk Pontoon material= IS 2062 Gr A Weight of single pontoon= 39.25 kg Total weight of pontoon=15318.17kg

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

57 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

36.58 m

Deck

Pontoon

3.06m

200

600

600

110

1050

Pad

Deckplate 1000.57 1000.57 1000.57

3066.69

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

58 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Data of Rolling ladder and spiral stairways Rolling ladder rolls over a certain path with the help of wheels which are made of steel and having a brass cap to prevent spark.

Length of ladder = 17960 mm. Track slope = 1 : 100

Supporting legs
The floating roof shall be provided with support legs. The length of support legs shall be adjustable from the top side of the roof. According to API 650 standards the length and attachment shall be designed to support the roof and uniform live load at least 1.2 KPa.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

59 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

INSPECTION OF STORAGE TANKS


INSPECTION PROCEDURES Before commencing the inspection of a tank, all details given in the history card and record shall gone through. Inspection of tank is needed to be carried out at different staged of its making. The tank is inspected for its roundness, proper curvature, the welding carried out, local deviations. Inspection shall include: Study of all technical specifications and the code to which the tank is to be built. Checking the foundation pad and slope Identification of plate materials Qualification of welding procedure and welding operator Checking of painted underside of the bottom plate prior to these being laid Checking of each batch of electrodes as per specifications and assurance of its use as per suggested methods of their manufactures and codes. Checking of proper welding sequence Evaluating spot radiology of butt welded annular (radial) joints and vacuum box test of the portion of the weld on the bottom plate in which shell is to be erected Checking of fits ups and noting of curvature and plumb readings before and after welding of the shell courses

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

60 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Inspection of Welds
Butt-Welds Complete penetration and complete fusion are required for joining shell plates to shell plates. Inspection for quality of welds shall be made using either radiographic methods or ultra sonic method. Visual examination may also be done. Fillet-Welds Fillet welds shall be inspected by visual method of examination. The final weld shall be cleaned to slag and other deposits prior to inspection. Inspection of Tank bottom Upon completion of welding of tank bottom, bottom welds and plates shall be examined visually for any potential defects and leaks. In addition to it can be done by vacuum test tracer gas test. Inspection of Reinforcement plate welds After fabrication is completed but before the tank is filled with test water, the reinforcement plates shall be tested by applying up to 100 kPa gauge pneumatic pressure between the tank shell and the reinforcement plate on each opening using the tell-tale hole specified. Testing of shell After entire tank and roof structure is completed, the shell shall be made tested by one of the following methods. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) If water is available for testing shell, the tank shall be filled with water as follows To maximum design liquid level, H For a tank with a tight roof, to 50mm above the weld connecting the roof plate or compression plate to top angle or shell To a level lower than specified in sub items i) or ii) when restricted by over flows.
AWH Engg. College Calicut Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

61 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

a.

If sufficient water is not available to fill the tank, tank may be tested by painting all of the joints on inside with a highly penetrating oil and carefully examining the outside of joint for leakage.

b.

Applying vacuum top either side of joints or applying air pressure as specified in roof test.

Testing of Roof It can be done by Applying internal air pressure not exceeding the weight of roof plates and applying to weld joints a soap solution or other material suitable for detection of leak. Vacuum testing of weld joints VISUAL INSPECTION Visual external inspection of each tank shall be made once in a year. During the visual inspection, following shall be checked. Protective Coatings Condition of paint shall be checked visually for rust spots, mechanical damage, blisters and film lifting. Roof Plates Roof plates shall be inspected for defects like pin holes, weld cracks, pitting etc, at water accumulation locations. Ladder, Stairways, Platform and Structures These shall be examined for corroded or broken parts. Free movement and alignment of wheels on rolling ladder shall be checked. ladder and staircase steps (trends) shall be checked fro wear and corrosion.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

62 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Tank Pads Tanks pads shall be visually checked for settlement, sinking, tilting, sapling cracking and general deterioration. Proper sealing of opening between tank bottom and the concrete pad shall be checked (no water shall flow under the tank bottom). Slope of tank pad shall be checked to ensure water drainage

Anchor bolts Anchor bolts wherever provided shall be checked for tightness, and integrity by hammer testing. These shall also be checked for thinning/bending. Distortion of bolts is an indication of excessive settlement. Concrete foundation at anchor bolt shall be checked for cracks. Fire Fighting System General condition of fire fighting facilities and sprinkler systems provided on the tank with respect to clogging of spray nozzles, perforation of foam connections, etc, shall be checked. Frequency and procedure for checking shall be over as per OISD-Std-142 (Inspection of Fire Fighting Equipment). Vents and Pressure Relieving Devices All open vents, flame arrestors and breather valves shall be examined to ensure that the wire mesh and screens are neither torn nor clogged by foreign matter or insects. Rim and bleeder vents for floating roof tanks shall be examined for proper working. All vents and pressure relieving devices shall be inspected as per the frequency and procedure outlined in OISD-Std-132 (Inspection of Pressure Relieving Devices).

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

63 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Insulation If a tank is insulated, the insulation and weather proof sealing shall be visually inspected for damage. The water proof sealing of the insulation shall be examined every year, since the entry of moisture will greatly reduce the insulating properties and may also result in serious undetected corrosion of the tank plates underneath the insulation. Grounding Connections Grounding connections shall be visually checked for corrosion at the points where they enter earth and at the connections to the tank. The resistance of grounding connections shall be checked annually before monsoon. Leaks The tank shall be inspected fro any obvious leakage of the product. Valves and fittings shall be checked for tightness and free operations.

EXTERNAL INSPECTION
The detailed external inspection of the tank shall be carried out as per the frequency mentioned. The following shall be inspected/checked during external inspection, besides the visual inspection. 1. Tank fittings, Accessories and Pipe Connection All nozzles shall be visually inspected for corrosion/distortion. Thickness

measurements shall be taken with ultrasonic thickness meter. On nozzle of size 50 mm NB above, minimum 4 readings should be taken. 2.Tank Shell The tank shell be visually examined for external corrosion, seepage, cracks, bulging and deviation from the vertical. Cracks mostly occur at the welded connections of nozzles to the tank, in welded seams, at the weld connections of

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

64 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

brackets or other attachments to the tank and the fillet welds of the shell to bottom plate. The following minimum requirement for the thickness survey is recommended in all tanks. All the plates of first and second course of the shell should be thickness On the first course, 3 to 4 readings should be taken on each plate diagonally, the bottom, middle, and top positions of the plate must be covered. On the second course, two readings should be taken on each plate. One reading shall be near the lower weld joint and the other at approachable height. 3. Tank Roofs Floating Roofs On a floating roof, during visual inspection, the following shall also be thoroughly checked. Paint condition Depressions Pontoon boxes and buoys from leakages, indications/marks of seepage and corrosion Roof and emergency drain Drain shall be checked for breakages and blockages on the check valve fitted on to the roof drain inlet end. Emergency drains shall be checked for water level oil spillage on roof deck. Floating roof seals Before making a regular inspection of floating roof seals, the drawings of seals shall be studied so that operation and possible damages are well understood.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

65 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Floating roof seals shall be visually inspected every year. All seals shall be inspected visually for corroded, eroded or broken parts and deteriorated sealing materials. Exposed mechanical parts such as springs, hanfers, counter-balance, pantographs and shoes are susceptible to mechanical damage, in addition to mechanical wear and atmospheric or vapour space corrosion. The rubber seal have fairly close contact with tank shell plates. a. Hinge bolts at the top of ladder and its rollers b. Earthing of the ladder c. Lateral movement, rotation and titling of roof d. Electrical continuity between the floating roof and tank shell. 5. Projecting out portion of bottom plates

The projecting out portion of the bottom plates (annular plates) shall be visually examined for any corrosion/thinking ultrasonically gauged.

INTERNAL INSPECTION
Prior to internal inspection, an external inspection of the tank shall be done as specified earlier. Before commencing the internal inspection, the tank must be emptied of liquid, freed of gases and cleaned out. Roof and Structural Members

Floating Roof The underside and internal of floating roof shall be inspected for corrosion and deterioration. The floating roof seals shall be inspected from the underside. The legs and sleeved of floating roof shall be checked for deterioration, bowing and shifting. Thickness survey of the pontoon boxes and check shall be carried out. Any suspected pontoon/buoy compartment shall be checked with air and suds. II. Tank Shell

Entire tank shell shall be visually scanned for signs of corrosion, pitting, cracking etc. Finding of external inspection, service condition and history shall be guiding
AWH Engg. College Calicut Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

66 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

factors for such observations. All weld joints shall be examined carefully. The vapour space and liquid level line are likely areas of corrosion. However, if the walls are alternately wet and dry or the concepts are corrosive chemicals, the entire can be attacked. III. Tank Bottom

After the tank has cleaned of its sludge, it shall be visually inspected to obtain the first indication of the condition of the bottom. The tank bottom plates shall be visually inspected for pitting, corrosion and weld cracks. The weld joints shall be thoroughly cleaned and visually inspected for cracks or defects by magnifying glass wherever joints of shell and annular ring and inspected for any leakage. Depressions in the bottom and in the areas around or under the roof supports and pipe coil supports shall be checked closely. Corrosion on the underside of flat bottom tanks resting on soil or on pads cannot be checked from outside. From ultrasonic thickness instrument are also indications of underside corrosion. To carry out a positive inspection and accurate check, it is recommended to cut out representative sections of coupons (at least 30mm in least dimension) of bottom plate. IV. Water draw-off

Water draw off subjected to internal and external corrosion as well as cracking. They shall be visually inspected and hammer tested along with thickness survey as feasible. Bottom plate under dip hatch shall be checked for dents, etc. Drain sumps shall be carefully checked for crack, pitting, leak in the weld, and measured in particular when corrosion at the underside of the tank bottom plates has been suspected. V. Linings When the inside surface of a tank are lined with corrosion resistant material such as sheet lead, rubber, organic and inorganic coatings, or concrete inspection shall be made to ensure that the lining is in good condition, that is in proper position and it does not have holes or cracks in the rubber lining as evidenced by bulging.
AWH Engg. College Calicut Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

67 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Hardness testing of the rubber lining shall be carried out while inspecting the tank internally. VI. Roof drains

Roof drains on the floating roof can be designed in many ways. They can be simple open drain pipes, swivel joints or flexible hose drains that keep the water from contaminating the contents. Proper functioning of the roof drains shall be ensured otherwise this may lead to sinking or over turning of the floating roof.

TESTING METHODS
1. Dye-penetrating testing It is used for detecting discontinuities open to the surface Basic process 1. Surface penetration and pre cleaning 2. Applying a visible or fluorescent liquid penetrant to surface 3. Wait for the penetrant to enter surface breaking discontinuities 4. Removing excess penetrant from the surface 5. Applying a developer to the examination surface 6. Interpretation of indication 7. Dye penetrant testing Advantages i. ii. iii. Easy to apply and cheap Interpretation easier Can be used for any metal

Disadvantages i. Can detect only surface discontinuities

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

68 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

2.

Magnetic Particle Testing Used to detect surface and sub surface discontinuities

Basic process 1. 2. Magnetic field is induced in the specimen The discontinuities lying in a direction transverse to the field will cause a leakage flux to develop around it. 3. Fine magnetic powder if sprinkled on this will adhere to in the vicinity of leakage flux. 4. 5. 6. 7. Magnetizing yoke Florescent iron powder Black light source Both AC and DC current can be used for producing magnetic field permanent magnets are also used for the same Advantages i. ii. Can be used for surface and sub surface discontinuities up to 5mm Interpretation easy

Disadvantages i. ii. iii. 3. Can be used for only ferrous metals Residual magnetism is a problem Power requirement Ultra sonic Testing

Ultrasonic waves are sound waves with frequency above the audible range ie, above 20000 Hz. This method is used to detect all types of defects ie, volumetric NDT.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

69 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Basic process 1. Ultrasonic waves propagated through the material 2. Any change of medium reflects the waves due to change in acoustic impedance 3. Defects of material are change of acoustic impudence 4. The reflected waves are detected using cathode ray tubes 5. The amplitude and distance in the CRT will give an indication on the type and position of the defect 4. Radiographic test (Applicable only at shell, annular plate joints) Used to detect all kinds of defects Basic process It is a volumetric examination using X-ray radiation or nuclear radiation that penetrates through the specimen and produces an image on the film. Radiation is absorbed as it passes through the material The absorption depends on the amount, density and atomic material A discontinuity causes a condition of less material of lesser density. The image depends on the amount on the amount of transmitted rays that strike the film Radiographic source can be either X-ray tubes or Gamma radiation source X-ray gives better quality of image Gamma ray sources contain radioactive isotopes of Iridium 192 or Cobalt 60 Advantages Any kind of defects can be detected Gives a permanent record Defect location and positioning is more accurate no. of the

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

70 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Disadvantages Radiation safety is an area of concern especially in case of gamma ray sources The operators are likely to be exposed to radioactive radiation and needs constant monitoring The test results will take some time- processing time of film .

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

71 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

CONCLUSION
Introducing a floating type roof for the storage would mean increased safety level. The given parameters were to design and store HSD in a tank of diameter 36.58 m to height of 14.2m of plate of IS-2062A was used. The tank was designed to store 14000 KI. The designing was done according to the full design specification as required by the industry using American Petroleum Institute (API 650-11th edition, 2007) design data. After the designing was completed the design was checked with the existing parameters. The inspection of tank was also studied at different stages of its construction.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

72 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

REFFERENCES
1. AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (API) 650, 11TH EDITION, 2007. 2. 3. 4. 5. OIL INDUSTRIES SAFETY DIRECTORATE (OISD)116. Text Book of Introduction to Storage Tank . Guide to Storage Tank and Equipments API 653 2009 (Only for repair)

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.