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53

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2005

81.2 .
72

72
53 . .: ,
, 2005. 352 .
ISBN 5-87852-162-8

53 .............................................. 19


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53
05.09.2005. 6088/16
Times. . . 22 . .
5 000 .


E-mail: andrapublish@yandex.ru
- .
188350, , . , . , 2

ISBN 5-87852-162-8

.......................................................................................................... 5
................................................................................................................ 7
.................................................. 14
................................................................. 16

, 2005
, 2005

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2) ..................................................................................................... 25
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5) ......................................................................... 34
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15

53

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= , : fool

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(),
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16


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!!!

!!!

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53 ,
.
18

53


1) ?

) , ( )
(=

), ,

I, you, we,
w

you,


:
+
they, My catS

, , , , , ,

!!!!!

C, C, C, C?


+(e)S:

///?/
+S.
+
+S:
He/ she/ it/ Who?/ My CAT


I eat He eatS.


() .
21

53

() + ! = It + stinkS !

NB. ,

(-) + = A man + workS in the field.


w ,

to !!!

(. . 31 !).
.

:
1

+ (to)
1

= I + like to run.

+ (to)
1

=
=

= You + want to read.

w
1

( !!!):

+ = We + plan to get back soon.


w
:

///// ///// =

= You + make it very well!


w

///?/ = DOESNT love.

= They + wash every day.


 ,
w

= Children + play in the yard.


,

= +S:

+
22

= He + thinkS about you.

6
= She + adoreS flowers.

= DONT

love.

///////// / = DIDNT love.


= WONT

love:

+ .
My friend +

WONT

despise

us;

23

53

) , ,

, ,
ING ,
ING
:

2)




, ,

+ AM/IS/ARE + ING . .

2- ,
:
1) +()D :

:
Im (not) writing

() = ()
( ).

Hes (not) reading ()

= ()
( ).

We are (not) waiting w () w = ()


().
:
() /-/-/- ..,
:

I receiveD many letters


e studiED art

= a/ .
= O .

:
2) = 2-
. = 2- /
2-
:
I rn away = .

7 50,
2-
(+ . . 44).

() / //.

7 . 43.
24

:
2- ,
, /
, :
25

53

= yesterday

= the day before yesterday ,

= recently
= last week

= last month
= one month ago

6
w 6


= last year
= a millisecond ago

+ last ago.

(bought found = 2-
buy = find = ):

I bought this car two weeks ago =


, w

He found this cat yesterday = .


,

We learned this yesterday = .


w ,
26

I visited London in the year 1998 = 1998 .


, 1998

NB.
, ,
(= 2-),
, () .

(= 2-)
, ,
(. . 44).
2- ,
, , , / -, .
(
!!!).
, , , 2-
, ,
7 50.
.
,
- - /,
/

DIDNT ,
27

53


( ) :
I/you/he/she/it/we/they DIDNT

plan

to rob

, , = used

(= to)
,

!

!
!

( !!!) :

3 !,

3

:
I useD to come here every day =

.
He useD to drink all his life = .

() useD
to (= -)
,
.
28

do !, does !

did !,

/ / /-/-:
USED TO = (-) ,

3) ?

the bank

NB.

1)

do !
+ +
I + love + you

2 :

does ! :

+ !
I DO love + you!

+ + !
My children + read
My children + DO read!

..! ???
29

53

() + + + !
He
+ loveS + her He DOES love + her!

doeS

4) ?

+
+

+ + !
My dog barkS
My dog + DOES bark!


,

:
, .. ( !)

(. 21) !
2)

did !
:

+ +
I + loveD + you

I + WILL + come! = + !
30

to !

+ ! = I have + to pay him!




1

+ = I want + to run and to jump.


w
1

+ = She planS + to leave.



!!!

3)
,

will:

!!!)

= - - :

+ + !
I + DID + love + you!

+ + !
My dogs + barkED My dogs + DID bark!

HE + = She doesnt plan + to leave.



:
1

+ = She plannED +

to

leave.
31

53
1

can, could, may, might, must, will/shall, would, should,


neednt, d rather, d better),

She

+ = She will try + to leave.


w

wont

+
try

to

leave.

NB 1.
( ,
!),
, , to ,
( ) ,

(I want to run and to jump),

to
(I want t run and jump)
, , , ..!;

NB 2.
to



32

+ = She didnt plan + TO leave.


:

+ - = I can +
read English.


to !!!

+ = She could + swim.



w
- :
1

If you want

TO get a solid

legal assistance

call the

Casus Consult company,

. (812) 275-59-77.

(812) 275-59-77.
***


.
?
!

!

I need TO bring
some goods from Italy.
Which company should I choose?
Softline only!
The most reliable
transporter in our city!
33

53

5) ?

NB.
,


, .. ( !)

!!!
2

+ + + +
.
.

1
2
+ + .
He + ordereD me + TO leave.

:
1

.
,
+(e)D
(.: countED = ).
( ,
+(e)D),
(= )
(.: wrote).

+ + .
He + orderED me + NOT TO leave.


( -!).

34

to

(. . 31).

1
2
+ +
.
+ , + + () .
She + tolD me + TO
+
stay
there.

:
1

+ + a + .
She + tolD me + NOT TO stay + there.

35

53

6) ?
1

+ + .
H + orderED me + TO run and TO jump.
.

to
, ,

to
:
1
2
3
He ordered me + TO run and jump.

= I DONT
= He DOESNT
= I DIDNT
= I WILL NOT

= I WONT

know
want
run.
run.
run.

, - - /-/-,
,
,

, ,
- :

When I needed

-,

a transportation company,

my friend adviseD me

TO find the Softline company

they render all kinds of services

including insurance

and storage.

I called

. (812) 3-36-37-35

(812) 3-36-37-35

and they arranged everything!

36

4
=

1) DONT

, /, , ,
;

2) DOESNT (), (), (), ()?


() ;
3) DIDNT

/
;

4) WONT

/
.
37

53

, :

( to).

write books.

+ .

= NOT
(= +NT) , , , ,
DID:

+ +

I + DONT +

+
+

WANT +
w
+

= DOESNT ,
( = doeS+not),
,

, +S :
He/ she/ it + + ( ):
HE
+ DOESNT

() +

+ = = DIDNT,

this apple.
, 
.

, , , , , ?
( )

+ WANT to swim.
w w
+ .

?
to !!!
38

The teacher + DOESNT


.
:

We + DIDNT

see
him.

+ .

, , , ,

= NOT = +NT

WILL,
:
W = WILL NOT W = WONT:
, + .
We WILL NOT buy a new car unless + we sell the old one.
w w

w , w
= We WONT
!
39

53

+ .
I HAVE + LEARNED it from my
old
friend.

7) ?



!

HAVE
3- (= )
(+ . . 44).

:
.
+
He HAS + BOUGHT it already.
. ( !!!).

Present Perfect.
, - -

( ) + 3- .

: ( ):

HAVE/HAS
+ +()D.
HAVNT/HASNT

, 3- () , (: = countED count = ),
:
) +()D ,
:
) 3- :
40

, , , , .
, ,
,

, ?

- ,
,
,
, - ,
,
:
Yesterday BY 3.00 I + had already finished + my

3.00 +

job.

+ .
41

53

,
Have + 3-
,
:

=
=
=
=
=

already
ever
never
yet
not yet

:
Have we already completed the mission? =
?
Have you ever been to London? = -
?
He has never been to Russia
= .
She hasnt finished yet
= .
They havent yet arrived
= .
Been = 3- be.
,
,
, -, ( , )
(have, has)
- ,
- ?
:
have been
42

to

, , , ,
, ,
,

:
He HAS BEEN very helpful these days (: so far).
, (: )
, ,
,
(has)!

be (very) helpful, ( )
have, ,
, / !

,
,
(
):

VE BEEN

S BEEN

ING
.

(
!)
ING :
43

53

Ive been thinking about you = ( ) .


Hes been trying to get it
= ( )

8) ?
,

() .
NB 1. - -
, ,
have!!!,
have has
(= have )

1)
ING ,

(= , .):
+ .
, +
He left + smoking + his
thick
cigar.

= HAD:
, .
I HAD already solveD this problem BY the time you CAME.
,  ,

, + + .
She stood + laughing + in the rain.

:
= you came,

= I already

HAD

, + + .
We sat there + looking + at this
thick
man;

!!!

, (= )
, (= )!!!
NB 2.

5.00 +

+ .
BY 5.00 + I WILL already HAVE written + this article.
w


!!!
44

2)
, , ,
ING have
(= having)
c 3- .
:

HAVING + 3- :
45

53

, +

+ .
He left + having finished + this job;


3) + . . 164 ( ,

).

.
3-
(= ),
+(e)D

(.: countED = ).

( , +(e)D),
3- (= )

(.: written).

9) ?

!
,
,
!
,
(: ),

( ).
- :
No, I dont go there! = , !,
,
, , , ,
,
.
I. = :
1) NOT, /
,
(, could no t
not me
not him
I am not

46

=
= , ,
= ,
..),
47

53

:
2) +NT, :
)

(, cant = ),

) , ,
(dont, doesnt, didnt wont)

NO + THING = NOTHING = , ,
, .
6
NO + WHERE = NOWHERE = ,
, :
w
1

3) NO
( ):
I have NO (big) money = () ;
II. :
) ,
NO:
NO + EVER = NEVER = , .

NO + BODY = NOBODY = , ,
.

NO + ONE
48

= NONE = , ,

1+2

= He NEVER lies.


isnt, wasnt, hasnt ..);

1+2

= She loves NOBODY.



1

, t .
1+2

She

does NOTHING

to

help

me;

) NOT + ANY DONT + ANY ,


ANY ( NO!) , / ,
, NO+ .
ANY
:
1

DONT touch ANYthing! = !


6
49

53
1

She DOESNT go ANYwhere!

= !

6 w

I DIDNT meet ANYone


w

= .

IV. -

She will NOT talk


w

= I DIDNT give ANYthing to ANYone;

neither nor , = 1) , ;
= 2) , :

to ANY stranger.

2

) : without + ING

neither drinks, nor smokes.



, .

;
1

1+2

(. 164):

, ! = Do neither this, nor that!

, + + = He left + without saying + a word;


w, w

- :

III. ( )
= ANY
(
!):
1

1+2

= I NEVER loved ANYbody.



2

Natalya Markozubovas

Legal Center

and her Casus Consult

will never let you down

and will solve all your problems

including international disputes.

= I DIDNT touch ANYthing ANYwhere.


a 6
50

w
51

10

53

10) ?
! !
C ! HE !
, !

!
-
, 1- ,
.. , .
: ,
!.
:
!,
!,
!,
!
( =
= ).
:
(-) , ! = , !
= Help me, please!
100 ! =
= !
= Give me a hundred bucks now!
52

= !
= Be nice to me!

, ! =
= , !
= Go and buy that book right now!

! !,
.. , , ?

/,
, !
: ()!:
1) ! (DONT !),
( to),

DONT + ! (= )
you: Dont + you + !!!!
:
!
Dont YOU waste your precious
time for foolish things!
w

6!

! = Dont mix vodka and beer!


 !
! = Dont move!
!
w! = !
DONT GO ANYwhere!
(= ).
53

10

53

, t ! = Dont tell him to do this!


,!
:
C + ! = Tell him + NOT to do this!
T ,!
, be
, :
! = DONT BE an asshole!

NEVER + TRUST a pretty face! = +


!
You can regret it! = !

+ .

Try + NOT to think about


promotion;
!

L + +

( to),
..
+ + + !.

TAKE + NOTHING! = + ! = DONT TAKE + ANYTHING!


6

NB. LET = , , .
:
+ + ! =
=
Let
+ him + go! =
= + + !

NB 1. Do not:
Do NO T come to me + anymore!

+ !
NB 2. , ,
..
to:
54

+
.

6

DONT try
+ to think about
promotion.


1+2

+ , , + :

2) ,
:
1+2

:
,
+ ! = Let me + do it for you!
+ !

: = + !
+ ! = Let her + buy that book for you!
+ ! ,
55

10

53


, -:
(-) + ! = (-) + ! = Let ME + go!

(-) + ! = Let me + NOT go!

Let him + NOT do

it!

Lets

+ (-)!


+ NOT dance!

(-) + !

:
+ ! + !:
Dont let + him + ( to):

Dont let

+ him + do it!
+ + !

:
+ ! = Dont let him + grasp you!

+ ! = Dont let her + mock you!

:
Dont lets dance! = (-) !
56

11) ?
(-) !

!
1) E (-) !:
DONT MAKE + + to
(. .)

( ),

make
,
, :
+ ! =
= Dont make + regret about it!
+ ! = Dont make + HIM
ay!
+ ! = Dont make + US
cry!
+
! = Dont make + THEM laugh!
,
+ !
Dont make
+ YOUR
PARENTS
regret about it!;


2) , - - -,
,
!
( 10 ! . 52).
57

11

53

12) ?

:

:

DONT

HIM

LET

MAKE


!
!

+ !,

you + !.

!

let = , , .

( : 2-
(are) = !!!):

=
Dont let

him

+
+
+ make

+
+
+ her

! =
!
suffer!


=
Dont let her

+
+
+ make

+
+
+ them
,

! =
!
regret!


=
Dont let them
,

+
+
+ make

+
+
+ us

! =
!
spoil everything!
6

, , ,
2 !
58

+ ! = BE + nice to me!

+ !

= BE + there!

NB.
- ..! ..!

+ !
+ !

BE + reasonable!

, =
, , / DONT ... !.

DONT +

+ ,
59

12

53

,
.
:
(-) + !

= DONT BE + an idiot!

(-) + !

= DONT BE + a miser!

(-) + !

= DONT BE + so arrogant!

()

13) ?

()
()
()
()

,
- 2 + 1 ,
,
:
1) , , , , , = CAN ;

, you :
+ ! = DONT you BE + so stupid!

+ !

.
,
Do not:
Do NOT be afraid! = !

2) ,
,

= COULD

WOULD BE ABLE TO ;
w

3) , , , = WILL BE ABLE TO
,
w
, ,
, , , , =
CANNOT

.: CANT

: cannot
can, not !!!.

60

61

13

53

,
=
,

OULD NOT
: COULDNT,

: WOULDNT BE ABLE TO
w

..
=
WILL NOT
: WONT
w

Will she be able to + learn English? = +


w
?

TO
TO

They cannot + arrive that* soon = + *

BE ABLE TO

to.

( )

( Do ? ..).

He couldnt + say anything = + .


6

I wouldnt be able to + deceive people = / +


w
+ .
1

She wont be able to + come in time = +


w
+ .

:
= + ?
= + ?

Could you + see her yesterday? = ?



62

We cant + stay here any longer = +


w
+ .

Could you + do me a favor?



Would you be able to + steal? = / + ?


w

BE ABLE
BE ABLE

, CAN, COULD,

Can you + swim?



w

()

* ,
so
that .

= +
?
63

14

53

I
He

I
He

+
+
+
+
+
+

( have to , has to , had to ),


.


MUST /
HAVE TO
(+ . . 226):
+
+ must

+ .
+ get you home.

have to
+ get
+ get
has to
+ get
had to
will have to + get
ve got to
+ get
s got to
+ get

you
you
you
you
you
you

:
haVE to + go

,
( -!),
, :

64

+ .

He haS

to + run away = () + .

We haD

to + get it! = + !

+
WeLL have to + leave = + .
NB. ,
must to:

=
+ .
= + .
= + !

= I

must tell the truth.


,6

= You must

= He

must do it.

= We
w

must check him.


+ = I must/ have to / ve got to + leave tomorrow.

+ go
+ run away
+ get it!

home.
home.
home.
home.
home.
home.

MUST VE ( S) GOT TO

Ive
got to
Hes got to
Weve got to

HAVE to ,

14) ?

save him.

+ = I have TO + apologize.

65

14

53
1

+ = You have TO + sell the car.



,

+ =
1
2
= They will (= heyLL) have TO + pay.
 , w

+ = He haS TO + change the situation.


,

+ =
= You haD TO + come at once.

w
+ = She haD TO + wait for him.

+ = We haD TO + forgive him.


w

= YouLL have TO + write to us.

+ =
= He will (= eLL) have TO + come back.
w (= )
66

MUST
(= has) .
HAVE

( ).
NB. Ho e

( AM TO ),
, ,

+ = ILL have TO + inform him.



+ =

+ = I haD TO + call in time.


(= ,)

, MUST HAVE to

+ = You have TO + leave tomorrow.


He
We
She
They

am

is
are
was
were

to + go there
,
to + go there
to + go there
to + go there
to + go there

=
=
=
=

+
+
+

+ .
.
.
.
.
67

15

53

15) ?

()

()
()
:
1) 2

BE GOING TO

BE ABOUT TO ,
: , ,
(- ).

:
1

Im (not) going to leave

= () .

Im (not) about to leave

= () .

You are (not) going to fight = () .




1

She is (not) going to stay = () .



68

()
2

We are (not) going to wait = () (-).


w
w
1

They are (not) going to read = () .


,

1

I/he was (not) going to run = / () .


/ w

1

You/we/they were (not) going to write = /// ()


/w/, w

;
2) going
ING , :
Im (not) planning to leave today = () ;


3)
, :
intend

= ,

plan
want

= ,
= ,

.,

:
I (dont) intend to + leave = () + .
She (doesnt) want to + read = () + ,
..
69

16

53

16) ?

need

,
,
,
,
,
,

: M ()
:

, :
NEED, needS,

needED, needING,

We
You

DONT need, DOESNT need, DIDNT need,


WONT need
,
, .

,
)!:

They
We
w

a :

70

needS money.

,

NEED =

(-

She

a new girlfriend.

needS some sun.


= NEED .

He

(HE) ,

need

You

a new suit.

need

pens.

need

elephants.

need

protection.

need

an accountant.

needED a lawyer.

=

/ =

He

needED the stewardess.


,

You

needED shoes.

71

16

53

needED a loan.

We

dont need any accountant.

He

doesnt

She

He

diDnt

need any loan.

diDnt

need a lawyer.

WONT

need a lawyer.

They

dont need any accountant.

need any loan.

doesnt need any lovers.


WONT need a lawyer.


WONT need any
lawyer.

NB.
, DONT ..

I + DONT + se + ANY + tigers = .

72

()

17) ?

()
()
()
()

()


() - - /,

NEED + .
,
(- /) -
NEED + TO (+ ) !!!
2 :
1) , ,
( ) ,
TO =
=
( = - : , , ),

ANY ,

( need);
2)
( )!,
I / you / we / they / he / she / it:
73

17

53

1-2)

:
1

= I need TO + leave in the morning.

DONT =
DOESNT = ,

,
+ 2 = You need TO + sleep for 2 hours.

+ = He needS TO + send a letter.

, () + = She needS + be kissed.



+

= We needED TO + go.
w

+ =
= YouLL need TO + come here.

= They WILL need TO + break it.


, w
.
(- ),

74

:
1

( !)
:

+ = I dont need to + repair my car.


+ = He doeSnt need to + leave today;



3)

DIDNT = ,

:
1

+ = We DIDNT need to + steal it;


w
4)

WONT = w:

+ =

()

HE + = They WONT need to + run away.


, w w

NB.


( ):
()

NEEDNT ,
75

17

53

!
(

),

()

NB 2: , - - ,
, -
-,
( - : )

to

/
neednt

,
,

SHOULD/shouldnt = /:

I
+ =

You
He, she
We
They

neednt + buy it.

( ) + ! =

= She should + have some sleep!



+ = He should + be braver.
// NB 1:


,
( !!!)

(I, you, we, they, he, she, it),
(

+ =

= We should + eat some fruits.



w

() + ! =
= They should + go and kiss her!

, , .;

76

77

18

53

We

18) ?

?
?

, :

) MAY

?
= May
? = May

MAY she ? MAY she NOT ?;

= May

I come in?
she come with me?
we

speak?

NOT MAY,
+NT MAY
(maynt );

) MAY
( ),

MAY NOT

) MAY ,

1) () MAY = - ?:

) MAY, MAY HE to;

!!!

MAY NOT swim here =


w

/
/

( )?

(= ).

MAY
( +s, +(e)d +ing);

, ( !)
, ,
I, HE/SHE, WE ..:

) MAY

( ) MAY
,
may

MAY NOT come back alone =



.

He

78

MAY NOT speak English =



-.

will/shall.

/:
79

18

53

BE allowED to : ,

: , .
( ,
).
BE

You are (not) + allowed to + run

,
Can I walk? = ?
,

ay I walk? = ?
,
-
.

(not) + allowed to + smoke = () + .

was (not) + allowed to + swim = () + .

She was (not) + allowed to + read

() +

We were (not) + allowed to + speak = () +


You were (not) + allowed to + run

Walk w = ().

= () + .

We are (not) + allowed to + speak = () + .


I

, can ,
, !

am (not) + allowed to + swim = () + .

He is

3) CAN ( . 61).

2)

!

( , !)
-,

www.dragunkin.ru

= () +

They were (not) + allowed to + smoke =

() +

You . + will (not) be allowed to + =


= ( .) () + ;

80

81

19

53

19) ?

!
!
!
!

DONT + LETS + dance!

/- + + !;

3 .
1)

/- + + !
LETS
+
NOT
+ dance!

2)

LETS

DO YOU CARE TO

+ (not) +

+
:

:
1

/- + ! = LETS + eat this fish!


!


/- + !
= !
= LETS + go to the cinema!
= /- !


/- + !
= !
= /- !

D YOU CARE TO + dance?




+ !
.

NB.

, !
= LETS + go together!

to
!!!

! = LETS dance!
82

83

19

53

3)

,
we

dance!

SHALL WE

+
:

SHALL WE + go to bed,
darling!
w

, !
, ,


( )
!

NB.

20) ?


, ! = Shall

SHANT (= SHALL NOT),

= , / THERE IS/ARE =
= (.) .

!!!
/ !
IS
(= // )

, w, w, w =
= are, was, were, will be,

:
SHANT WE + go anywhere, darling?
w w
, ?
84

!,
.. ,
, (..
), , ,
(..

):

85

20

53

There

is

+ a table

in the room =
=

There

are

+ (many) tables in the room =


= .

There

was

+ a table in the room =


=

There

were

+ (many) tables in the room =


= .

There

will be

+ a table in the room =


= () .

There

will be

+ (many) tables in the room =


= () .
= () .

There is/are/was/were/will be + !

86

, , ,
,

, :
1

+ =
1

= Last year + there was a house here.



, w
= .

!,

, = There is

, ,

, ,

NB. , !:

( in the room , on the table ),

+ () + = There are + many dogs + in the yard.


, ,
= (..) + + .


, , ,

+ + = There is + a cat + on the table.


, ,
= (..) + + .
3

=
1

= In the summer + there will be + many people + here.


,
, w

87

20

53

=
= be =


( ):
2

IS THERE + anybody there?


,
,

= + -?

1
2
3

3
1
2
ARE THERE + many dogs in the yard? = (?) + ?

,

THERE IS NO money + in my pocket = +

,

THERE
,

isNT ANY money in my pocket =



.

THERE

WAS NOTHING in the room =

,

THERE
,

NEVER WAS a pool here


W

1
2
3
4
5
1+2+3 5
4
WILL THERE BE any shop here? = - ?

WILL THERE BE
w

,

.
=
.

:
There

+ .

NB.

WAS THERE + a house here last summer? = (?) +


W

+ :

(, , , w, w, w = am, is, are, was, were, will be)

any shops here?



- ?

there.

!:
2

THERE is + a house + there.

+ + .
88

89

21

53

, - : ?)!

21) ?


,

-:
:

IF
IF

= ,
= ,

-:

WHEN = W .


( 4-5
, , 10)
:
) ,
)
: , +(e)S +(e)D
( ).
IF WHEN
W = WILL = SHALL,
..
( , ,
if
:
,
..
90

()

w If I will come

W w When I will come .

( will/shall !!!):

+ ,

=
If I

+
+ come

() + ,

= + C
If she + writeS

=
If I

+ /,

= w +
If we + have

() + () , =
If he
() + ,
1

+
+ cant

+ ()
+ (only) learnS.

= +
If it + happenS
2

2+2

+ - = +
If he + ever had
+ ,

= +
If you + dont do it

() +
= +
,
If it + never happenS.
91

21

53

+ ,

+ ,

= W w + ,
When we + arrive there
= W
When I

+ w ,
+ was there

+ , = W w
When youre quite allright
:

+ ,

= +
If I + only could
1

2+2

+ , = +
If I + had money.

+ ,= +
If I + had no money

+ ,

= +
If I + came

+ ,

= +
If he + knew

NB.
,
.
92

()

,
IF
BE
( !
W WERE ( werent).
:
E

+ , = + w
If you + were here

+ , =
If I

+ , =
= + w ,
If
I + werent your brother,

=
If I

+ W
+ WERE

= w + w
If we + were rich
+ w
+ were you

IF
:

IF

I/he

( () / )

WAS ( );
WERE ( /
).

,

If I was .
93

22

53

22) ?


= w
= = She wouldnt do it.

HE = She wouldnt do it.


.

!
+ W + 1-
(WOULD)
( ):

()

:
?

= Would you like to ?


w

+
+

() + 1- ( to).
WOULD
+ speak,

() ? = Wouldnt you like to ?


w

+
+

() + 1- .
+ speak
( to).
WOULDNT

,
WOULD D
,

+ , +

w
It would be +

if

great

,
Wed
w

buy

a car

if

w
+ you were here.
.
we
w

had money.

WOULD NOT WOULDNT


:

= I would NEVER take it,

= I would like to w

= Id like to

= I WOULDNT go ANYwhere.

? = w ?
= Wouldnt you like to ?
94

/:

, .
If
I were
you
I WOULDNT go there.

,
95

22

53

A :

( )

with a mission * I myself

, ()

wouldnt like to execute.


w

, to

23) ?

I wouldnt charge my people


w

w,

( )
.

* that , = !
( ) , .
:
Neither would I! = ( )!.
= !.

X,
,
,
,
,

+ + + c (= )
I + WANT + HIM + TO + KNOW,
:
C + WANT/-s/-ed + + to.

!
:

:
1) :
I would Neither = I wouldNT either = ;
w ,
w ,
2) ( !) :
Neither would I! = !.
, w
,, ,.
96

, +

I want

:
=

him
2

TO

+ !,
+ make this!,

, ,
( make
) !!!
, , ,
(= him) !!!
97

23

53

, to to,
to !!!
/ ( )
WANT ( WANTS, WANTED, WILL WANT)

(. HIM ),
,
( ),
( ,
):

YOU
HIM
HER
IT
US
THEM

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

; ; ,
, , ; , , ; ,
; ;
;
, ( , ), ; ,
; ;
; ; .


,t
,t
,t
,t
,t
,t
98

, to

(-) - ,
, (= +()S ), ,
!!!:
I want + the child(-ren) + to + play = , t
w , ()
() + /.
: , + + t
( 25 . 103!).
, :
, t ,
:
I + DONT WANT + HIM + TO (= + ),
( ,
) , ,
DONT DOESNT, DIDNT WONT.

ME TO ,
YOU TO ,
HIM TO,
HER TO,
US TO ,
THEM TO .

( ,
TO):
1

, = I dont want the children play.


w ,
99

23

53
1

() , = I (dont) want you know.


() , = You (dont) want me know.
1

, = He wantS
us know.
, = He doesnt want us know.
1

He wantS ME TO leave = , /.
He DOESNT want YOU TO leave = ,
.
1

You want HER TO cry


= , .
= , .
We want YOU TO start
We DONT want YOU TO start = , .
1

I wantED THEM TO speak = , .


He wantED US TO listen = , .
He DIDNT want US TO listen = , .
1

24) ?

,
,

,
,
, .

, = We wantED
him know.
, = We didnt want him know.

-
/ :
+ + (* = , ) + ,

,

* ( -!!!)
THAT = ,
!
:
, () = I think (that) she knows him.
6 (,)

ILL want YOU TO drive me back home = ,


w
.

, () =
= He supposes (that) you saw it.
(,)

100

101

24

53

, * =
= We hoped (that) you would* come.
w (,)

25) ?
,
,

, * =
= She knew (that) we wouldnt* come back.
(,) w w

, () =
= They will think (that) youve done it.
, w 6 (,)
* would
( will) !
. . 168.
- :
,

I think (that) you can

be sure about

Softlines reliability!

They carry

even for GAZPROM!

102

2 :
1) , , , , - /-/-/-,

:
see
hear
feel
notice
observe
watch

=
=
=
=
=
=

(), ().

to

+
+ + 1- .
+

( to)
. .
103

25

53

(
, t ) , ,

,

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

me
you
him
her
it
us
you
them

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,.


, , !
:
,

+
+
I + saw
+ HER

,
,
+ .
+
DANCE.

,
- , , ,
, - ING
104

()
10 ,
( !),
.

( !)
(Mick Jagger) Rolling Stones:
It is the evening of the da-a-a--y.
,

I sit and WATCH (= . )


M
the children PLAA-A-A-A-AY
,

= .
=
( ),

= .

= to


:
I saw him shake your hand!.

, !.
,
..?
:
+ , + + .
Every day I +
HEAR
+ my uncle + SNORE.

+ , + + .
She +
FEELS
+ him TOUCH + her.

105

25

53

2) , ,
/ - /-/-, :
+

+ING.

.
:

+
I saw
+

HER

+ .

+ .
+ DANCING.

26) ?
, !
,
, !
:
1. :
.

(-)/ , () =

= I thought (that) IT WAS YOU.


!!!

, / , =
(= ) (= thought WAS);
2. ,
:
, () = I thought IT + TO BE you.
, = She thought IT + TO BE great.

106

107

27

53

27) ?
, ()

, ()

, + () + .
I told him (that) he + was allowed to +
do this.

w


NB 1.

1) -
:

=
2- ,


, .
, -
,
:
I read that drinking IS not good for health.

, .

( would . 168).
:
- : ,
()
(),
-
.

I THOUGHT (that)

= ,

I + WAS GETTING MAD.

/
=
.

. ..
:
, = I asked what his name was.
w w
108

didnt know what time


w

We
w

the film
usually BEGINS.

;

NB 2.

,


:
, ! = I know (that) he said it!

, = I will never believe
(that) he said such a thing.
, .
I have heard (that) he is coming back;

109

28

53

28) ... ?

1) l


...


to:

:
ID
:

BETTER ...

HED RATHER ...

, + = Id rather leave than + stay.


, + .

+

than

... ,

... ,

= Youd better + pay.


= Shed rather + obey.


= Shed better + obey.


+
( to),

(, , , ),

/,

(leave, stay, pay .)!;


Youd better ... , hed better ... , wed rather ... , ..:

2) , ,

, + .
than + leave.
Id rather pay

,
...
110

be

= ING ,
:
ID BETTER + BE GOING ! = , , !


111

29

53

29) ?

, , ..

.


, ,

,
,

to,

, ,
.

(
to !!!).
:

3 :
+ .
here every
Sunday.
We useD to + come
w

1)

USUALLY = :
USUALLY + I drink no ber = + ()

2) -/-


USE ,

/,

USE =

= USED ,
112

() + .
He useD to + wash his
car
here.
w


+ + .
I useD to + smoke very much.


+ .
Last year they useD to + call us every week.
w
, , + .
They useD to + hunt here before his death.


113

53

29

( ) /
used to
(= used to )

30) ?
()


, USED
, :

,
,

, , .
, ,
,
USED + TO (+ );
3) (!)
.

()

, ?
,

= SHOULD

: = SHOULDNT,
:

WOULD
w

+ SHOULD(+NT) +
( to):

, .
often =
= :

+ .
+
I + WOULD often + meet
my friends in unexpected places.


, , + +
Every time (when)* I meet her I + WOULD tell + her
w
w

* when.
114

+ should

+ .
+
go ( to).

)!

, , ..
( . . 117):

shouldnt do it! = () !
115

30

53

You

shouldnt leave without permission =


.

You

He

()

C:
beforehand

behave
by heart

=
=

obey
permission

=
=

= , !
= !

place
properly

=
=

should go and take a walk! = !

shut
shut up

=
=

take a walk
without

w
w,

=
=

word

should behave properly! =


=

You

!
!

= !
should learn some words by heart = ,
.

She

should obey! = /!
=

We

should have planned it beforehand =

.
Should

we

Shouldnt

116

really leave this place? =


( ) ?

he

shut up?

= ?
= ?

117

31

53

31) ... ?

...
...
...
...

=
=
=
=

+ + .
The platoon + WAS orderED + to attack.

(-) ...
...
...
...

+ +
We + WERE informED + about this event.
w
w

..

+
+

They + ARE BEING tutorED + every day.

+ ( ) +
(
+ 3- ).

+ + = She + WILL BE TAUGHT + to swim =


w
w
= + + .

,
3- = +()D,
3-
!

+ + = I + WAS TOLD + the truth.

.
+

He + WAS GIVEN + a difficult task.


118

= I + WILL BE + listenED to =

w

=
ILL BE
+ listenED to =
: = +
+ .

+ , + to .
You
+ WERE SAID + to
be missing.

:
1)

2)

be,

!!!
119

32

53

32) ?

,
,

.
.

( !)

! !
:

! !.
, ,
:

(I, you, we, they,


he, she, it)


+
LIKE
+

to:

+ + = He + likeS + to swim.
= () + + .

120

to swim?
, likeS =
( ) ,
swim = ( ) !!!
(
) to:
1

I + like +

to

+ read = + + .

( ) !


,
( )
/:

:

... (= ),
like, , like
,
,
:
+

= I like + this apple.



+ = You like + that girl.



+ = He likeS + to travel.
= () +

. 123

, + = We like + the way you work.


w w w
121

32

53

= They like + us.


/ = We didnt like the weather.


w w
= They wont like it.
w

+ o + .
My children +
will like
+ this teddy-bear.

w

NB.
, ,

, - ,
- ,
:

- - ,
THE WAY w,
:

1) , ,
NO


( ):
() = I like NO apples.
= ()
() = She likes no magazines;

2) LIKE, ,

= 1- 4 :
dont, doesnt, didnt wont:
! = I dont like him!

= He doesnt like mice.


= () .

!!!

+ = I likeD + those dolls.



122

=
=
=

I like
+
THE WAY
+
he dances.

T :
+ LIKE + THE WAY + +
( )
( ).
SHE + LIKES
+ THE WAY + HE + MOVES.

+ + .
+ +

123

53

33

33) ?
,
,

.

.
IT
, , !
.
:

:
1) It seemS to It seemED to
,

seem;

2)


(to me, to you, to him, to her, to it, to us, to them);
3)

, ,
IT + / + , () + +

,

, , - ,

It seemS to It seemED to :
:
/ o,
+ + + / .
IT + seemS / seemED to me + (that) + he +
IS / WAS fighting.

/ w
,
+ + .
It + seemED to him + that + she LET him down.


NB. LET
(let, let, let), ,
( 2-) , ( 1- ).
124

It seemS to me (that) he

fighting =
= , () .

IS

:
It seemED to me (that) he

fighting =
= , () ;

WAS

4) , that = , ,
,
.

125

34

53

34) ?

()


!
SHOULD =
( !).
:

+ (-).

BE

+ SHOULD

+ punishED,

:
+ SHOULD BE + 3- .

,
- ,
:

+ + .

, , :
1) 3- = +()D,

: ) 3- ,
: ) !!!;
126

2)

= +

=
=


=

-
/

)!

=
=
=

should be promotED.

You
He

should be senT away.


c w
should be checkED.

She

should be encouragED.

We

should be rewardED.

You

w
should be hangED!

= They should be preserveD.

= The car should be washED.


w
= The rooms should be tidiED.

()

= The table should be clearED.

= The hair should be CUT shorter.


=

127

34

53

35) ... ?

... ,
... ,

, ... ,

check

clear
cut (cut, cut)

=
=

encourage
hang

=
=

. - .

preserv
promote

=
=

reward
send away

w
w

=
= (3- = sent)

short
tidy

=
=

wash

:
+ (, ) + /.
BEATEN = ,
I + WAS (am, will be) +
+

+ w

, - ,
be:

..,


=
=

was were,
am / is / are,
will be !

+ ( ) + ( 3- =

= +

)
128

129

35

53

( , ..
I, he, she ..) :

(am/is/are):

, .
IM BEATEN every time
I enter that bar.



= He IS very much SPOKEN ABOUT.

= We ARE PUNISHED very often;
w

(was/were):

(will be):

= She WILL BE BROUGHT there.


w

.
The music WAS performED very well.
w w
= They WERE lockED in a trap.

w

= You WERE followED by a tail;
w

130

+ .
We
WILL BE treatED
+
like kings.
w
w

T :

... = I was beaten,


w
...,
,
..., ..

= He WAS caressED by everyone.


w w
= The tree WAS CUT with an axe.
w w

- !!!
:
axe
bring
caress
enter
follow
king
lock
perform
trap
treat

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

(-)

( ...)

NB.

.
131

35

53

,

ING ,
,

= I was being treated like a slave.


w
(, ).

, () ()

,
BEING
BE
( !

):

= That book is being written now.


.

( ) .
Im being treated like a child.

( ) / .
are being treated
like a slave
You

The car is being washed right now.


w

132

being

be + being!

(, ) .

.
being ,
!
!!!
.
,
, , ,
, , - .

3- =
,

=
() ,
.
,
,


-, - ...
133

35

53

I WAS GIVEN ..., ,


:

1)

...

2) ...

A photograph + was given + to me ( ?) =



w

= +

+ =
= + + ;
)

,
:
1)
, ,
, ;
2)
:
)
,

(, ) ?:
I + WAS GIVEN + TO THE CANNIBALS.

w
+ + = ...,

,
?

,
,
,
I + WAS GIVEN + A PHOTOGRAPH.

w
= + ,
: +

+ =
= !,

I
, , , ..,
.
, , , , ,
(, , , .).

,
I

, , , , ..
- :
134

135

36

53

36) ?
( ..) ()
()
()

1) MUST + BE ,
,
.
, MUST ,
) ,

( , )

:
+ + ().
+ BE
+ punishED

+ HAVE/HAS TO +
+ VE GOT TO + BE

+ punishED.
+ punishED.

+ AM
+ BE
: +

+ punishED,
+ 3- .

) MUST ,

(
will/shall).

!!!
2)

-, !

(must, have to, ve got to

HAVE TO + + 3- ,

,
:

am to)

(= ) (are) ,
:
136

) must

/
(are) /:

+ . . 64.
*

NOT MUST
+NT ;

* +
I* + MUST

) HAVE
( has, had, will have);
)
dont , doesnt , didnt wont ;
137

36

53

)

Do ?, Does ?, Did ? Will ?,
Have/Has/Had ?;
3) VE ( S) GOT TO + + =
=
HAVE TO + ;

(= be to ) (-!!!) , - , ,
.
,

HAVE TO + BE

3- .

+ + , ,

..

4) (is)
AM TO + BE + ED,

, :

) /
( is, are, was, were will be
!);
) NOT
+NT ;
) be
(
m I to ..?, Is he to ..?, Are ..?,
Was ..?, Were ..?,
Will be ..?),
:
Is + he + to be blameD? = () ?


138

:
I + must

+ be

+ instructED.

+ + + .
= .
He + must

+ be + eecuteD = .

+ +

He + must NOT + be executeD = + + .


= .
Ive got to + be instructED = .

+ .
Hes got to

+ be
executED = .
+ .
139

36

53

They + have to + be fed up = + .


= .
They + DONT have to

+ be

be

37) ... ?
,
35 (. 129),
, , - .

+ sen away.

+ + + =
= + .

( = - )

sen away.
She + DOESNT have to + be
+
+ (= ).
=

+ .

We +
w

haD

to

+ =
.

+
= +
She + has to

fed up

be

taught
to fly.

+ + + =
= + +
.
We + DIDNT have to
+

+ be
taught
to fly.
+ =

= + +

+ + + ,
HE + WAS +

SEEN

+ TO FALL.

3-

+ + +

to.

.
(am / is / are):
,
+ t + +
We are said + to +
spend + a lot of money.
w


,
+ t + +
We are said + to + have spent
+ a lot of money.

140

141

37

53

(was / were):

38) ... ?

, + = She + was heard + to cry.


, to + .

w
, t +

= He + was thought + to disappear.


w

, to

, ...
!

, + = We + were noticed + to kiss.


, to + .
w
w

+ BE SUPPOSED + + :

(will be):
, t + = They will be said + to drink.
, to + w

- :
,

Mrs. Markozubovas

Legal Center

. , 18

in the Mohovaya str. 18

is known to be

the most experienced

legal company

-.

in Saint-Petersburg.

IM SUPPOSED + TO ... (. ...),


IM NOT SUPPOSED + TO ...


NOT !

( am, are, is, was, were, will be)


,

NOT c be
( not),
+nt ,
(= we have):
am not, are not, isnt, wasnt, weret, wont be ...
142

143

53

38

.
(am / is / are):
, + t =
= Im supposed + to be absent.


, + t =
= You are supposed + to disappear.
y
, + t =
= Hes supposed + to return.
y

, + t =
= We are supposed + to be late.

w
, + t =
= They are supposed + to call us.
y

, + t =
= Im not supposed + to be absent.

, + t =
= He isnt supposed + to return.

, + t =
= He is not supposed + to return.
y

144

, to

, + t =
= We are not supposed + to be late;
w
(was / were):
, + t =
= I was supposed + to be healthy.
w y
, + t =
= I was not supposed + to be healthy.
w
, + t =
= She

was

supposed + to regret
.

, + t (= ) =
= We were supposed + to be missing;
w w
(will be):
, + t =
= They will be supposed + to fight back.
w
, + t =
= They

will

not

be

supposed + to fight back.


145

39

53

39) ?

,
, , 2

There is a necessity + THAT + WE SHOULD COME,

:
There is a necessity + THAT + + SHOULD +

, =
= There is a necessity .
,

,
,
.
, + :
There is a necessity + OF + OUR + COMING,

There is a necessity + OF + + ING ;

There is a necessity + FOR + US + TO COME,

:
There is a necessity + FOR + + TO;

146

( )
( ) ;
2) / -
, ,

() = SHOULD
SHOULDNT,
, , =
to,
= :
You should + go and take it by force =

1) , :

a)


= , + .
= + .

She shouldnt + do it again = , +




+ .
= + + .
, , !!!
147

40

53

40) ?

, ,
,

:
!

W WILL
SHALL,

, , ,


YOU, HE, SHE, IT THEY
= SHALL

shall

= He

shall

= It

, SHALL
,

shall do it !

! = She

W WILL.

= You

I WE =

shall

obey !

come !

shall bark !

= They

shall

surrender !

NB.
, ,
( )!

,
!!!
148

149

41

53

41) ?

42) ?
, ,
, ,
,

!
!
!
,
-!

(
wouldnt w,

, ,

would :
+ + ! =
= She +

wouldnt
w

,
.
( !)
.
, :
1) ;

+ wash dishes!
w

2) to

+ + ! =
= They +

wouldnt
w

+ get out!

+ + ! =
= He +

wouldnt
w

+ give up!

+ + ! =
= She +

wouldnt

+ swim!
w

!
+ +
wouldnt
+ make friends with her!
We +
w
w
w
150

!!!

:
+ + ,
+ +

( to) ..
:
WE + SEEM
: + SEEMS
: I
+ SEEMED

+ TO
+ TO ,
+ TO .

seem
( !).
151

42

53

43) C ... ?

, ,

= You + seem TO + be afraid.

(), ,

= She + seemS TO

(), ,

= He + seemS + have gone.

+ be crying.

/- !
//- !
,

1) + !:

, , + = We + seemED TO + be hungry.

,
to !!!
,
,

S = :
, , = We + seemED + be lost.
B , ( be
have !) :
(), + , + + .
He
+ seemS TO + have fought + enough.

I WISH I COULD
w

HE
+
.

???

,

to?


( could !)


to !!!
+ !
I WISH I COULD + fly!;
w

+ !
I WISH I COULD + buy this
car!
w

152

153

43

53

, +
I WISH
+
HE COULD
w

, +
WE
WISH
+
THEY COULD
w
w

2) + !:

IF I ONLY COULD


IF
I ONLY COULD

+
:

+ !
+ buy this
car!

+ !
IF
I ONLY COULD + get him back!


+
IF
HE ONLY COULD +
imagine

44) ... ?
... ?
... ?
... ?
... ?
... ?

SHOULD :
?
...?
...?
...?

} }{

read this book ?


= Why
go away ?
SHOULD + write to him ?
I
fight with them ?

= Why should I let him insult me ?


?
w

?

?

?
( ?)

= Why should we dance ?


w w *

= Why should she retire ?


w

* dance
,
!
154

155

45

53

45) C ... ?

... ?
... ?
... ?

:
+
HOW + COULD I

+ to + ?.
+

+ YOU ?,

:
+
HOW +


CAN I

+ t + ?.
+

+ YOU?.

:
+ ? = How could I + meet you ?

/ + ? =
= How could YOU + get the money ?

EM + ? = How could + seduce her ?

+ ? = How could HE + catch her ?

+ ? = How could SHE + avoid this ?

156

HA + ? =
= How could W + get out from here ?

+ ? = How could WE + find them ?

+ ? =
= How could THEY + get rid of this ?

+ ? = How could THEY + find us ?


.
,
:
to

w
What SHOULD I do + to
make her love
me?
, + t ?
=
+
?
NB.
To

make
!
157

46

53

46) ... ?
, ...

WHAT ELSE CAN I DO BUT +


( COULD)
( ).

()
() , ...

, ? =
= What else can I do but confess ?
w

() , ...
!

, ? =
= What else can she do but stay ?
w

1)
,
... ... = ELSE ,

, ? =
= What else could we do but leave ?
w w

:
WHAT ELSE CAN ( COULD) I DO ?
w

()

/ / ?

?;
2)
, ,
( = what we needed from the very
beginning).
... ... -

( ,

) (= can

be able to ):

+ , + ?
What else + will we be able to do +
but
fight?
an /
=

be able to ,

BUT ,

,
,

, ,

:
158

be !
159

47

53

47) ?

, to ?

, ?
, ?
, ?
, , :
, + ?.
:

LE TO
(
will

be):

+ + ?
How + will I be able to +
make her + come back?;

w


2) :

1) :
+ ?.

/ ,
+ ?

CAN:
HOW CAN I + MAKE her + come back?,



(make come back)
to,
CAN,
MAKE = ,
, ,

to !
, , can,

:
w
(could, will be able to )

WHAT CAN I
w

+ DO + TO MAKE her + come back?;

3) :
,
+ ?

COULD = :
HOW COULD I + MAKE her + come back?
160

161

47

53

HAVE TO =

48) ... ?
+ , + ...

= MUST,

,

HAVE ( has, had, wll have):

IT WOULD BE + GREAT + IF ...

+ + ?
What HAS he TO do + TO
MAKE her + come back?

GREAT
, :

, + + ?
What HAD
he TO do + TO MAKE her + come back?


w
NB.

have
:

: had.
: have / has.
:
will have.
to,
, .
NB.
, , 4- (Do?, Does?, Did? Will?)
What does he have to do to make her come back?
w
to ?
162

WONDERFUL
SPLENDID
TREMENDOUS
FABULOUS

=
=
=
=

:
,
It would be wonderful
w w

+
+
if

+ .
+ she came
here.


, +
It would be splendid +
if
w

+ .
+ you were smarter.
w

, +
It would be tremendous +
if
w

+ !
+ you wn!
w

,
It would be
fabulous
w

+
+
if

+ .
+ they got married.

163

53

49

49) ?

50) ?

,
,
,

,
3.00

,

, ,
.
, (
),
WITHOUT w ( ),

( . . 40).

( , )

ING :
+ WITHOUT + +ING (+ a word).

HAVE + 3-

:
, +
+ .
a
word.
He left + WITHOUT sayING +

w


+ .
, +
We quit + WITHOUT payING + the bill.
w w
w

NB. quit w ,
quit!
164

- )

Tomorrow BY three

+ we
w

+ :

washED +

+ these dishes.
w

WILL HAVE
w

165

50

53

BY

+ +


HAVE already BOUGHT

+ +

+ this time + I

+ =

+ .
+ that car.


( [= have/has],

, , =

,
BY the time (when) you came, he HAD already PAINTED

[had]

(+ . . 40).

3-


( -
Perfect).
,
-
( 3 , , .),
,

()

( ,

).

(= )
[ ]

166

[ ].

[will have]).

, ,

have.

:
+ =

+ .
Tomorrow BY three
+ we WILL HAVE washED +
+ these dishes.
w w
w

BY

+
+ +
+ =
+ + + .
+ this time + I HAVE already BOUGHT + that car.


, , =

,
BY the time (when) you came, he HAD already PAINTED


167

51

53

51) ?

, ,
(l)

, .

... that ... = ..., ..., ..., ...


,
.. !

:
, = I tolD him + I would come.

w
, +

+ .
I always thoughT (that) + I WOULD become +
a pilot.
w () W

, +

+ .
You never
suspecteD (that) he + WOULD betray + you.

()
W

,
.
He didnt know (that) he WOULD regret about it all his life.
() W
(= +

+ )

, + + .
I didnt expect (that) + I WOULD HAVE TO + leave.
()
W

, , ,


-,

... W ... = ...

WOULD ...,

, +

+ .
I knew (that) she + WOULD tell + him this.

w

, ( ) +
+ .
I knew
she
+ HAD TOLD + him this.

, +

+ -.
We knew
they + WOULDNT speak
+
English.
w

+ .
, +
We were told (that) they + WOULD be + hungry.
w w
w

, +

+ .
I said (that) I + WOULDNT GO + there.

w

, + .
I hoped
they + WOULDNT tell him.

will!
168

169

53

51


(= ):
Heres the postcard
I THOUGHT I WOULD never SEND.

w

, () , () .

52) ?
: ...
/ (. 108)
.

.
7
,

, ,
(
) :
1) say tell
( say tell);
2) , ;
3) (= )

(= )
;
170

171

52

53

4) :
will
this
these
now
today
yesterday
tomorrow
ago
here

would
that
those
then
that day
the day before
the next day
before
there

They asked us:


Have you
read the book?

You asked me:


Where
do you
go?

=
=

You asked me
where

He said to her:
Come
to me!

He

She said to me:


Dont
kiss her!

She

5)
whether w ( if ) = ... ...;
6)
1- (= )
to ;

They asked us +

whether

(:

if)

we had
read the book.

I
went.
told her
to come
to him.
told
not to

me

kiss her.

7) Dont
e not.
2
Dont ... not

to

....

:
She said to me:
We will leave
tomorrow
172

told me (that)
would leave
the next day.

She
we

173

53

53

53) ?
,
,
1)
,
, ,
- :
, +
The man +

at

They laughed +

+ ,
+ I saw yesterday

what
w

+ .
+ he

said;

2) ,
, .
.
:
,

+ .

Here is the man +


, +

Im thinking +

+ ?

nd where is the dog + hes travelling +



w
174

ABOUT.

WITH?
w


- ..?

()

(/)
(/)

..

/ , 2- (. ), :

( )!!!
, (- ) :
+ + .
:
I:
!




(-)

=
=
=
=
=

=
=
! =
=
=

II:





w
w
w
w
,

III:
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Im
a pupil.

You are a fool.


You are an enginer.
He is
rich.
Hes
rich.
She is a widow.
Shes
a widow.
It is wonderful!
Its wonderful!
The dog is big.
177

53


= W
= We are pupils.
= = You are enginers.

= , w
= They are workers.

= , , ,
, ,
3 be:
AM, IS, ARE,

ARE
, , , , = you, we, they


,
: ,
,
I am ,



( = I am in the forest ),
=


BE

I/he/she/it/who?/my dog + was + there = ////?/ + + .


You/we/they/my dogs

+ were + there = //// + + .

+ will be + there = + ... + .

He
is ,

..
.., ,
= BE .

, :
, ..

178

,
is ,
are .

- ,
be:
,

are ,

..,
..,

(= , , )

? = /? = WHO ARE YOU?

You

(My catS are ).

,

I
am ,

, , ,
be = ( . 177 III-
) (= RE) , ,
:
= Im = I am =
= Hes = He is =
= Shes = She is =
= Its
= It is
= , ,
( ).
179

53

, , ,

? ?,
2
be:

YOU ,

ARE :
/ = You are a good businessman.
(= )

.
:
My name is Carol =
,
:
1) : Im Carol!
!;
2) ,
, :
The names Carol! , = !.

180

?
?
?
w ?
w ?

=
=
=
=
=

Am
Are
Is
Are
Were

I ?.
you ?.
he ?.
we ?,
we ?,

..

:
?
?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ( )
?
? ?
? ?
? ?

=
=
=
=
=

+
+
+
+
+

?
= Am I
? = Are you
= Is he
?
?
= Is she
? = Is it

+
+
+
+
+

ill?
alive?
here?
good?
interesting?

= w + ? = Are we + rich?
= + ? = Are you + married?
= Are they + there?
= , + ,?

- , :
1) be:
? () ?
?() ?

=
=
=
=

Is

Is

+
+
+
+

, ,?
the stadium there?
, ,?
the cat in the room?
181

53

? ?

= + ?
= Is + he drunk?

2) + be:

NB.

:
I am NO soldier

She was NO
w

nurse.

= W
+ ,?
= Where is + the stadium?

= W
+ ,?
= Where is + the cat?

j :

= W
= Why

!, : !.

+ ?
is + he drunk?;

3)
( !):

(-!) - ,
, : !.

Do

- ,
( !), :

+ you know her?

= + ?
=

DoeS + he know her?


+ you know her?
+ you know her?

+ ?

= + ?
=

Will

+ ?

= + ?
=

DiD

? + /

/ ?

= W + ?
= + ?;

Im NOT A soldier
- ,
, :
Im

an

engineer!.

4) + :
+ ? + ?

= W

+ + ?

= Where + do + you live?


182

183

53

= w w = We were
= w = You were .. ,

/-/-
, - :
/-a/-o = WAS, = WERE.
w
w
:
was .. ,

= w = I
= w = He was /-/- = was
= w = She was ( !).
= w = It was
= w = Our cat was
:

in the South ,6
rich

killed

very

beautiful


= It was + big

(, ).
+ = It was + long

(, ).
+ = It was + tall

(, ).
+ = Our brother was + ill
184

+
+
+
+

=
=
=
=

I
He
He
She

was
was
was
was

+
+
+
+

/-/-/-

= were:
= , w = They were
= w = Our catS were

+ !

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

w w +
We were
poor.
w + ,
You were
in the room.
w +
You were
very kind!
, w +
They were
delivered.
w +
Our friendS were
glad.


, , :
= : =
+

were :
You were + wounded.

= You

= w + w =


-
( ).
be , ,
be,

,
185

53

/-/-/-

IF

:
2
1
?
?
?

1
2
1
2
= W + ,?
= Was + he there?
= W + ? = Was + she at home?
= Were + they glad?
= W + , ?

(.. 2- - !!!),

:
1
2
?

BE =

!!!)

(
= Were they there?

? = Were they glad?,

..

WERE W (a HE was):

:
1
3
2

1
2
? = W w

3
1
2 3
? = When was it?

:
= Yes, I was!.
, () !
= , w!
, () ! = , w! = No, I wasnt!.
,
= , w w! = Yes, we were!.
.
IF

1) ;
2)

= W ,
If
I
were the boss

= W
If
she were here

:
, = If she was there w ,

!!!
NB. ,
/if + were,
If I was .
,
,
( : /If + were)!!!

186

187

53

,
( )
( ), -

,
(!), (. 5 ).

= W, .. ,
= R, ..

( , , ).
R = S, .. ,

.
.

! = Im not an elephant!,

= Im

no

elephant!.

,
, , , W, W
:
AM, IS, ARE, WAS, WERE + NOT

+ NO.

- :

:
TRee
=
SCuLL (. ) =
=
=

= .
= .
( ).
= .
= .

I will NOT be an elephant = I WONT be an elephant,


:
= Ill be NO elephant.
I will be NO elephant
NOT ,
NO !!!

..!
(. 5 !).
:
- !!!
188

, WS
,
WR ( !!!).

LEFt
FeLL

-, ,

:
.
. W A R
. W A S

NB.

NO
( !!!),
NO !!!
189

53

( not no, , :


=
=
=
=

) ;
) NO !):
:

=
=
=
=
=

/
/ /

=
=
=
=
=

Im not a
Youre no
Hes no
Shes no t a
Youre no


( )

= / /
= W /W
= ,

=
=
=
= ,

w
= He wasnt

a fool.
w
= You were no fool.
w

w y

.
.
.

= You were not fools.


= They were no fools.

=
w
w

=
=
=
=

I will not be
I wont be
I will be no
Ill be no

a pilot.
a pilot.
pilot.
pilot.

/-/-/-/-/-/- = w = w
will not = wont
= w
I will not cry

= w .
= I wont cry.

= w = I will not be afraid.


= w = I wo n t be afraid.
() =
=
=
=

w ().
I will not be able to (run).
w ().
I wo nt be able to (run).

:
1) ,

=
= w = I will not be a fool.
= I wont be
a fool.
= w
= Ill be no
fool.
=

= W w
= W w
= W
190

= NO
(: NO, )
(

= We will not be
= We wont be
= Well be no

fools.
fools.
fools.


) !:

You are NO beggar! = !;



191

53

2) ,
n a :
We are not animalS! = !
w
, A N
- ,
:

,
.
(= He was NO fool!) , , , - ,

!.
, ,

?

( ):
NO,
- :
He wasnt a fool

He was no fool!.

, !

, .

, , ,
,
.
, ,
,
- .
192


( - !!!).
:
Im not a cook ,


Im no cook

, , ,
!.



/ :
!,
:
..!
-
) ;
) .
193

53

2 (l 4 5) .
, , ,
2- 3- .

, , ,
..
, !
/

W

, will shall ,

:
WILL/SHALL + !
/
:

194

1.
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

/:
1


will,
.


W ? = WILL ?, , ,

= WILL

= SHALL ,

2.
+
= I
w
w = You
w = He
w = She
w = It
w = We
w = You
w = They

3.
will
will
will
will
will
will
will
will

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

4.
Ill
youll
hell
shell
itll
well
youll
theyll

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

5.

,.

W ,? = Will you eat this? = ?


1

1+2

W ? = Will she come back? = ?


1

1+3

W ,? = ?

Will he be able

to do this? = ?


:
What ?
Where ?
Which (of) ?
When ?
How ?
Who ?
Whom ?
What kind of ?

w
w
w ()
w

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

? ?
? ?
() ?
?
?
?
? ?
?
?
195

53

What colour ? w = ?
How often ?
= ?
How long ?

= ?
( ) ?

How many ?

= ?
( , )

How much ?

= ?
( , ),


,
WILL
:
1

2+3

Who + will come here? = + ?


1

Why + should she do that? = + / ?



w
, ,
be:
Where + are they going? = + ?
w
,
Which of the books + is the best? = + ?
,
w ,
196

When
w

+ was it ?
w

Where
w

+ were you yesterday? = + ?


w

How

+ do

When
w

+ does she sing?


What
w

+ did

How much + is

How long

= + ?

you do?

= + ?
= + ?

he do?

= + ?

that jacket? = + ?
,

+ will it last?
w

= + ?

How often + do you plan to visit us? = +



?
:
1) , -
,

+ WILL + ( )

( to).
197

53

-
1+2

+ = We will (= well) + go tomorrow.


w w (= w)

1

+ = Well run + every day;


w

2) , ,
- =
, ()

be =
, .
, - :
+ + =

I + will

= Ill

be +
be +

a soldier =
a soldier.

:
Ill be + a pilot = + .


BE = !

:
) ,


( will/shall , !!!);

I wont be + a pilot =
w

Itll be + very beautiful = + +



( ).

) , be ,
!

This dog + will be + a good shepherd = +


,
w

.

, :

( )
-
, -, , , ,
, :

=
=
=
=

I
I
I
I

will
will
will
will

eat
sleep
jump
read

,
,
,
,

(-) :

198

,
!.

199

53

( !) ,

be = .

,

be (= )
,
,
be asleep

be afraid

= ,

= = .

be
ING :
!!!

You ARE

going to + stay

+ .

= + .

He

IS

going to + run away = + ;


w

She WAS going to + buy it = + .


w

We WERE going to + sell it = + ;


w w
3) WILL W ( shall)
IF !
:

be doing

= , ;

be going to

= , (-
).

, ,
be
!
200

going to + leave =

= ,

be able to = / (/ -) =
= ,

be nervous

IM

, ,

IF
( +()S):
C +
+

= IF I + run = + .
201

53

() + = IF she + comeS.

WILL w :
when
as soon as
till
until
before
after
provided

=
=
=
=
=
=
=



, ,
, , ,
, , ,
,
,

) +()S,
;
)
(= +()D 2-
. 2- . ).
:
AS SOON AS + I FINISH my work, I will help you.

w w
+ , .

it

BEFORE

+ he COMES!

, + !
We wont be able to solve that problem UNTIL + she HELPS us.
w w ,

, + .
WHEN + you RETURN Ill be already sleeping.
w

K + , .
:

I was sleeping WHEN + you RETURNED.


w w

) ;

202

Do

+ = + .
= If you + leave.

NB.
When ? ,
,
WILL:
WHEN
w

4) :

WILL
w

you return?

?;

,
..,

o
will be able to = w :
203

53

=
1
2
= I will not be able to come tomorrow,
w
: I wont be able to come tomorrow.
w

( = able = , - );

= They will not be able to sing this,


 , w ,
: They wont be able to sing this.
,
can =
( )
.

W WILL = ,
, ,
can
.

5) . . 168-169.
( . . 198):

+ = + .
= Ill make money.

= + .
= Youll be
tall.

= + .
= ell be famous.

= + + .
= Shell leave tomorrow.

+ !

I will + be able (to)


w +

204

+
( )
+ ( ),

= w + !
= It
will be
ugly!
= + !
= Itll be
ugly!

- : ,
:

= W w + .
= We will be
good.
= W + .
= Well be good.

= + ,.
= Youll come there.

= They

+ w .
wont

be

afraid.
205

53

... ?

9 ,
-, , -,
( !) 9 9 (= 9 + 9 )
, 1000 !

,
.. ?

, ,
9 ,
:

+S

(= + + )

+S (= +),
-S

( -SH, -CH, -J, -X -Z).
:


boy boyS =
= , ..


book bookS =
= , .

= ,
=
busES.

= ,
= .
boxES.



,

206

( . . .)

man

,

men

woman w

women

child

children

foot

,

feet

= ,

mouse

mice

louse

lice

goose

geese

207

53

tooth

teeth

ox

oxen

= .


,
:
algA = ,
: algAE = ,
phenomenON = ,
: phenomenA = .

, , +()S :
schoolboyS, housewiveS,
w

:
FrenchmAn FrenchmEn
.
, ,
:
father-in-law fatherS-in-law = ,

passer-by
passerS-by
= .

son of a bitch sonS of a bitch = .

NB.
, () , , , .
208

NB.

--,

+eS
(= ),
(), (), () ()?
,
2- 3-
+eD,

+eR +eST .
-- ,
, , ,
,
.
bushS =
-e- , !
- -

bushEs =
!
209

53


:
aircraft
deer
fish
grand
quid
salmon
sheep
trout

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

/-
/-/-
/-/-
(. .)
()
/-/-
/-/-
/-/-;


( +()S):
advice
craft
evidence
furniture
hair
information
knowledge
luggage
money
news
nonsense
rogress

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

/-
/-/-
/-/-

/-

/-/-

/-/-

* business = , , ( , )
(businesses = ).
210

- = HAVE.
have
( to have)
5 :
HAVE
HAS
HAD
WILL HAVE

=
=
=
=

.
.
.
.

-VE,
-S,
-D,
-LL HAVE,

HAVING ING .
(
) having,

( ve s)

/ GOT = ,
211

53

:
Ive
Youve
Weve
Theyve
Shes

got
got
got
got
got

=
=
=
=
=

w
,

=
=
=
=
=

(: -) - ,

l GOT
NO = !!!
(, NO !):

NB. ,
GOT 3- GET =
( got = /).
, :
= ,

IVE GOT + NO friends at all


+ !
:

= I have

a sister

= Ive got
= I got

a sister.
a sister.

= I have

NO

sister.

= Ive got
= I got

NO
NO

sister.
sister, . .

,
..!
GOT ,
.
ve/ s
.

got

,
(= ).

!!!:
HAVE = HAVE GOT = VE GOT = GOT !!!
GOT + any friends? = ( ) (-) ?


212

(
got no):

+ = W
,

} }
I

IVE

YOU

YOUVE

+ = WE

+ HAVE WEVE

YOU

YOUVE

THEY

THEYVE

213

53

T
( !)

= , w .
= They will have a day off tomorrow.

+(e)S:

+ = HE

= + = SHE

( .) =
+ = IT

HAS
HAS
HAS

= , .
= Theyll have a day off tomorrow.

= , .
= Theyll have no problems.

/// = = HAD

C: ...

= W =

= WILL HAVE
= LL HAVE :

=
= I have a friend

= .
= Ive got a friend.

= = .
= I have no friend = Ive got no friend.

= w
= He has a watch

= w.
= Hes got a watch.

= w = w.
= She has no watch = Shes got no watch.
= W .
= We had children.
= W .
= We had no children.
214

= , w .
= They will have no problems.

:
II.
.
have
/,
have .
HAVE = .
,
(, -).
- :

= Nekem van ,

-:
- :

() = Minulla on ,

( , ),

215

53


,

!!!

(= )

E = .
=
I HAVE !!!
- - / ,
( , ),

, , - :
( / , ),
- = Have !!!

.
, , ,
:
, ! ( ..?),
:
, ! ?
!

= I HAVE
:
.
( )
- = .
, (
, , : ),
,
216

, .
.

.
.

, ..!,

..

217

53

, ,
, ,
, -
.
- ,
, (= !).
HAVE
, , have x -
( -!) -ve-, ,
(= we have) c:
1) , , , ?
= e, she,
it, Who?
c
+()S = HAS;
2)
( )
+()D = HAD;
3) ( !)

W = WILL = WILL HAVE.
:
I, you, we, they, cats

+ HAVE ,

he, she, it, my cat


+ HAS ( haves),
I, you, he, she, it, we, they, cat/s + HAD ( haved),
I, you, he, she, it, we, they, cat/s + WILL HAVE ,
: HAVING = , .
218

-
-
(- = ):

= , ..

C, ,
:
Ive, youve, theyve

= have.

es, shes, its

= has.

Id, youd, hed, shed, wed, theyd

= had.

.
- ( VE S ) GOT ( , ),
( ), , , ,
-,
!
:
Ive got + a good friend = + .


Youve got + the best girl in the world = +
 ,w
.
219

53

Weve got + an old house


w

Hes got

= + .


+ very much money

Shes got

+ a big nose


+ a very long tail

= + .
= + .

friend =

nose

problem =

long

tail

world

= ,

,
( -) - ,
:
1)
/ / /
( , )
NO =
!!!
( no) !:
220

has

(had, will have) + NO girlfriend

= + .

She

has

(had, will have) + NO daughter

= + .

It

has

(had, will have) + NO leaves

= ( ) + .

We

have (had, will have) + NO flat

HAD

+ .

money

= (, ) + .

He

= (., ) +

house

( .) +

I have (had, will have) + NO friends


= + .
: = + .

= + .

They have (had, will have) + NO stamps

You have (had, will have) + NO money

Its got

= () + .

Theyve got + a lot of problems


,

+ NO future

= + .
= + .

WILL HAVE + NO chance = + .

:
Ive got

+ NO

Youve got + NO
Hes got
+ NO
Shes got
Its got

+ NO
+ NO

Weve got + NO
Theyve got + NO
chance
daughter
flat
future
girlfriend
leaf (leaves)
stamp

+ friends = + =
= ,

()

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

,
(-) ()
()
221

53

NB.
, NO, ANY ()

2) :
)

+ /-/- + :
) = =
= I HAVENT (GOT) ,
.. HAVE, HAS , HAD WILL HAVE
NOT (+NT),
:
HAVENT
HASNT
HADNT
WONT

(GOT)
(GOT)
(GOT)
HAVE (wont = will + not) ;

+
) , ,
:

= I havent (got) + any friends.

= He hasnt (got) + any money.

+ = She hasnt (got) +


+ any relatives.
+ = We hadnt (got) +
+ any opportunity.
+ = You wont have +
+ any time.
opportunity =
relatives

=
time

= .
, any,
!!!
, any

!!!;
3) have ,


=
= 4
(= 4- ).

- = ANY,

HAVENT/ HASNT/ HADNT/ WONT HAVE +

!;

222

ANY !!!

!
223

53

? ,
Have ( :
? ?), Have
:

I, you, we, they, catS

+ DONT

+ HAVE

ANY

+ .

He, she, it, my cat


+ DOESNT + HAVE
( . .) + DIDNT
+ HAVE

ANY
ANY

+
+

.
.

+ HAVE

ANY

( . ) + WONT

, ANY !!!
:

HAVE

you

we HAVE + any food?

+ () = I dont have + (any) friends.


+ () = He doeSnt have + (any) money.

, ,
=
= WONT w:
+ () =
= I wont have + (any) goats
,
NO, ANY

( ) !!!
224

+ ( -) ?
=
+
+ ( -) ?


Have:

+ () = She doeSnt have +


+ (any) relatives.

+ () = We diDnt have +
+ (any) opportunity.

+ ( -) ?
+ any choice? = +

HAD

+ ( -) ?
+ any money? =
+

she

WILL

+ any friends? =

HAS

HAVENT

you seen

her?

HASNT
HADNT

he
I

him? = ?
you? = ?

found
told

= ?

Have
Do?, Does?,
Did? Will? ( ),
:
Do/does/did/will have anything to offer? = //
///w 6
?
DONT you HAVE + some money? = +
+ ?
DOESNT he HAVE + a car? = + ?
225

53

DIDNT she HAVE + a brother? = () +


+ ?

(= haS haD)
will shall,

WONT they HAVE + any problems? = +


+ ?

MUST, ,
,
(

:
choice
=
food
=
found = 3- find =
(= )
=
offer
seen

= 3- see =
(= )
told

= 3- tell =
(= ).

NB.
have (= must):

will shall)!
() + = I must(nt) + go there.
= I (dont) have to + go there.
() + = He must(nt) + go there.
= He has to + go there
(He doesnt have to + go there).
() + = I haD to + go there
(I didnt have to + go there).
() + = I WILL have to + go there.
= Ill have to + go there
(I wont have to + go there).

HAVE + TO = MUST = ,
NB.

(can be), ,
MUST
, must !
,
HAVE TO

,
226



!!!

!!!).
227

53

-
/ ,
!

,
,

( )
:

,
, ,
-
- :


(, hard = , )

,
-
+,
- +ER
( +R , ):

, ?
!

HARD + ER
+

= HARDER ,
.

THICK + ER
+

= THICKER ,
.

BRAVE + ER
+

= BRAVER ,
,

:
(-),
( -),

(-- --),
+ (++)
(, , )

.
:
C+ (= + ).
228


-- !!!
, -
(: , ),
,
- THAN ,:
229

53

Harder than stone = (= , ).


,

- , , ,
, , , , ,

, ?

,
the ,,
( !):

.
- - ,
( !)

, ,
!
() :
, ///
..

the longEST
,

, (),

the brightEST
,

the shortEST
,

, (),

the bravEST
,

the slowEST
,

(),

(),

: Stronger than ME / HIM / US / THEM ..


.
(hard, thick, long, brave)

,
, ,
,

+()ST,
()!!!
230

.
,
:
+ ,

MORE

= , = R.

- ( ) = more (than ) (,)


( )
231

53

- = the most ,

2) , /,

( ).

more most.

:
This book

is more

interesting

than that (one).

, , , (w)

.
This book is the most
, ,

interesting

book in the world.

,w

.

-:

-:

-:

quickly

more quickly


most quickly

likely


more likely


most likely.

NB: = the most ,

,
( )

, /:

NB.

1) , ( +D: tireD = /
, afraiD = / ), 3- , ,
MORE MOST,
:
more tired (the) most tired,
more afraid (the) most afraid;

232

,
:

!!!

( :

NB !!!

feel

feelING


seem
seemiING

feelingS,

seemingLY,

tire

tireD

-
tiredLY.

()

).
233

53

2) -,

+eS, +eD, +ING, +eR +eST
- :

4
.
, :
1) ,

+eR, +eST, +eS +eD
-Y,
-Y ,

-Y -I-.

coarsE coarsEr
= ,

teasE teasEs, teasEd = ,


( );
3)
, /
+eD, +ING, +eR +eST
:

,
(= ) :
happY

earlY
,

easY

happIer

the happIest
,

earlIer

the earlIest
,

easIer

the easIest
;

:
studY studIes


234

studIed
;

beG
paT
beG
forgeT
paT
biG
faT

beGGed
paTTed
beGGing
forgeTTing
paTTing
biGGer
faTTer

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

,
,
/-,
, ,
, ,
,
.

= .
The biGGest tower ,
The faTTest woman , w = ;
4)
-f -fe
(, leaF = ),
-f
-V-,
235

53


-VES
(leaF leaVES = ):
calF
halF
liFE
kniFE
scarF
shelF
wiFE

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

calVES
halVES
liVES
kniVES
scarVES
shelVES
wiVES

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

,
,
,
,
,
,
.

4 ,

,
:
chieF = , : chieFS = ,
:
wolF w = , : wolVES w = .
NB. 9 , (= have) 14
, /
.
:
good

236

.
:

better

the best ,
,

bad, evil
,

worse
,
w

the worst ,w
/,
,

much,

more
,

the most ,
, -,
,

little, few
,

less
,

the least ,
,
,

far
,

farther
,
further
,

the farthest ,,

the furthest ,,
,

elder
,
,

old

many

the eldest ,
,
,
,
,
.

O
older the oldest,
, .
237

53

1) ,

?
!

AS + + AS .

1- :

+ + :

, ,
His
flat is +

AS

big

AS

+ mine.

( -
),

+ , + ;

2) ,

S ( +()S),

, ( )!

:
S
NOT SO + + AS .

BETTER.

My motheRS flat = .
,
2

- WELL, goodly!

238

, w

WELL
w

, ,

This way to wealth is + NOT SO


long
AS + that one.
+ , +
.
, w w6

His brotheRS ambitions = .


, 
2

LenAS hair

= ,
.
239

53

+S,
s ,

:
the girlS room = .
,
S
:
= ,
yesterdays news
todays information
= .
, ,
:
1) ,
( +S (= S),

1
My

2
motherS

3
flat.

1
M

3
.

,

, , ;
3) ,
, ,
,
.
NB. ,

)
,
(
);



, , .

2) ,
,
:
240

!
241

53

( )
, mother
, mothers
.

, ,

, ,
?

:
I saw + THIS girlS + father = + + .

( )

father/;

2- :
OF
,
,
, :
The hair OF my father = B .
,
,
.
, , , ,
=
= the .
NB. , ,
OF
-:
The hair OF my father =
,
,
= .
242

!
/, ( )
(, first =
= )

+ly = -.
,
? ( ?),
,
- -:
:
NICE

NICELY

SLOW
SLOWLY

BRIGHT BRIGHTLY


COSY
COSILY

WEEKLY
,

PART

PARTLY

WEEK

FIRST

FIRSTLY
-,
-

SECOND SECONDLY
-
243

53

TECNICAL

TECNICALLY
,

..

.
:
COSY COSILY.
-Y ,
,
-I-

-Y ( ) (-Y -I-),
-
-!

, ,

:
1) well,
good+ly ,

2) very, ,
=
( -!).
A
-:
:
:

= bardz,
= .

:
crY = ,

crIes = .
NB. 4 ,
:
well
little
much
very
244

=
=
=
=

.
245

53

Wont be ?
?
.
3.

1) :
( = ),
, , .
/,
- !
1- :
Am I ?
Am I not ?
Is (he) ?
Isnt (he) ?
Are (you, we, they) ?
Arent you ?
Was (I, he) ?
Wasnt (I, he) ?
Were (you, we, they) ?
Werent (you, we, they) ?
Will ?
Wont ?
Will be ?
246

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

?
?
?

?
/// ?

? ?
?

?
?
!
?
?
?
(- -,
-)?

= (- -,
-)?

Have you (I, we, they) ?


= ?
Havent you (I, we, they) ? = ?
Has he ?
Hasnt he ?

= / ?
= ?

Had ?
Hadnt ?

= /-/-/- ?
= ?

Will have ?
Wont have ?

= ?
= ?

( , !):
WAS I ill?
w

= ? Yes, I

WAS.

WERE you there? = ? No, we WERENT.


w

,
, will wont
,
to:

WILL they come?


w
,

= ? No, they WONT,


: Yes, they WILL.

WONT she do it?

Yes, she WILL.


No, she WONT.
247

53

HAVE you any money? = - ?


No, I havent.

COULD you do me a favour? = ?

Yes, I
HAVE you made it? = ?


No, I
Yes, I

have.

MAY

I visit

him?

Yes, I COULD / I CAN.


= ?

No, you MAY NOT!

havent.
have.

HAS it flown away? = ( ) ?


w
Yes, it has.
No, it hasnt.

,
MIGHT she come?

= , ?
Yes, she MIGHT!

MUST I see it?

= ?
Yes, you MUST!


2- (= [] ):
Can ?
Could ?

?
?

= /-/-, /-/-/- ?
= /- ? /- ?

May ?
Might ?

? = ?
? = ? , ?

Must ?
? = ?
Ought to ? ? = ?
Will ?
Shall ?

W ?
?

= ?
= ? ?

Would ?
W ?
= ?
Should (he) ? ?
= () ?
Neednt ?

248

Yes, she CAN.

OUGHT she TO play in the garden? = ?

,

Yes, she OUGHT!


No, she OUGHTNT!

WOULD he buy it?


w

= ?
No, he WOULDNT!
, !

SHOULD we go there? = ?

w ,

Yes, we SHOULD!
, !

? = () ?

CAN she walk? = ?

NEEDNT he get married? = ?

No, he NEEDNT!

249

53

, , , =
!

Do ?/Does ?/Did ?/Will ?


,

,
to!
( ought to!);
2)
, = DO = ,
- 4 !!!
:



I, you, we, they;

? = DO ?

= DOES ? ,


he, she, it;

? = DID ?

,
/
;

W ? = WILL ? ,
/
.

!!!
250

? !

.. ,
?, ? ?.

NOT,
, , +NT,
=
= 4 ,
, ,
( , , ),
.
=
= 4 = 4 ?:
/DONT /DOESNT /DIDNT

W/WONT:

DIDNT you see him last Sunday? =



?
WONT she read this book? =
w ,
?
251

53

(l),

(see, read)

DOES the dog


= ?
!!!

?
,
w

, ():

? , , ), ), ) ):
) ? = DO ?

DID you know her?

DID they

?
?

? ?
, ,

, , , , ,
+ :
DO you speak
English?
? -?

DO the children play


that game?
?

?
,
,

DID your

,
, ,
:
DOES he know this lady?
?
?
,

DOES it
grow?
? ?

parents

receive

read

my

this book?

letter?

? ?


) W ? = WILL ? = ?,

?,

? ..
!!!
.. -,
!

) ? = DOES ?

252

wag

= = . .
its tail?

) ? = DID ?

DO they read newspapers?


? ?

,

1+2

WILL she come here? = ?


w = ?
- 2
( ), -
1 (= Will ).
253

53

o
to,


!!!;

:
1

Why dont we take a bus? = ?


w w

3)
:

NB.

Where?
When?

= W?
= W?

= ? ?
= ?

Who ? ? = ?
Do?, Does? Did?

Why?
Who?

= W?
= ?

= ? ?
= ?

Whom?
Whose?

= ?
= ?

= ? ?
= ?

What?
How?

= W?
= ?

= ? ?
= ?

Which (of)?
= W ()? = ()? ()?
How many ? = ? = ? ( ,
)
How much ? = ? = 1) ? ( ,
);
2) ?
How come ? = ? = ?!
How often ? = ? = ?

( ),
..

Who
Do?, Does? Did?.

:
WHO loveS you more than I do? = ?

,
WHO receivED this letter?

,
WILL :

How long ? = ? = ?
+
What kind of ? = W ? = ? ?
What colour ? = W ?
= ?
254

= ?

1+2

Wh WILL drive us back home? = ?


W
255

53

5) :

, -,

1) () :
WOULD you + like + to come with me?
w

w,

+ + ?;

2) HAVE :
HAS she

any

+ friends?

+ - + ?;
3) BE:
ARE you + all right?

+ ?;

WHERE + is that guy? = + () ?;


w
,
6) C + :
WHERE + DID + she go? = + ? + ?;

7) + be (. . 5),
+ have,
+ :
WHEN + HAVE you started? = + ?
w

WHERE + ARE you? = + ?
w

WHAT + CAN you say? = + ?


w

4) :
DO you + know ?
= ? + ?
DOESNT he + know ? = ? + ?

256

257

53

!!!

,
,
,

,
.
1)
,
( )
ING .
, ,
, , -,
(, ,
) = Continuous Progressive.
,

:
!!!;

2) - ,
- ,

= Perfect.

+ +

+ + !!!
258


.
,

( , ):
DO you know him?

YES, I DO!

NO, I DONT !

DOES she know him?

YES, she DOES! NO, she DOESNT !

DID they write this?

YES, they DID!

WILL they come?

YES, they WILL! NO, they WONT!

CAN she do this?

YES, she CAN!

NO, she CANNOT!

HAVE you a friend?

YES, I HAVE!

NO, I HAVENT!

HAS she a book?

YES, she HAS!

NO, she HASNT!

HAD they any money? YES, they HAD

NO, they HADNT!

WILL we have a lunch? YES, we WILL!

NO, we WONT!

IS our cat there?

YES, it IS!

NO, it ISNT!

WERE our cats there?

YES, they WERE! NO, they WERENT!

NO, they DIDNT !

WILL our cats be there? YES, they WILL! NO, they WONT!
:
DONT you read it?

YES, I DO!

NO, I DONT!

ISNT she there?

YES, she IS!

NO, she ISNT!

WONT you come?

YES, I WILL!

NO, I WONT!

CANT they play?

YES, they CAN! NO, they CANT!


..
261

****
. . . HAVE + been + .. HAVE + been + being +
+ ..

HAVE + ..

HAVE + been + ..

( . )

BE + ..***

BE + being + ..

. . .

4.

3.

BE + ..**

, .

2.

,
-

:
:
:

:

:

.:
+(e)S
.: +(e)D
2-
.: WILL +
1.

53

262


4 3 .

AM, IS, ARE.


HAVE, HAS;

WAS, WERE.
HAD;

BE HAVE:

(l):

* (..

WILL BE.
WILL HAVE.

.
.. =

(2- )

()

**

:
3-

()

) +(e)D ;
)

() +ING.

,
.

*** .. =

****

!!!

263

53

2-

1) =

/ = I counted/ate

= 2- .

5 7
7.34

5.00

/ = I

+
+ counting/eating.

/ = I had* +
+ counted/eaten.

...

=
=

...

WAS/WERE/WILL be.

AM / IS / ARE + ...ing;
HAVE / HAS / WILL have + 3- :

/ = I will +
+ have counted/eaten;

5.00

count/eat ...
= I am +

+ counting/eating.

...
...

WILL + ;
WILL be
+ ...ing;
WILL have + 3- :
/ = I

5 7
7.34

will

+ count/eat.

/ =
= I will be + counting/eating.

5.00 / =
= I will have + counted/eaten.

/ =
= I will be counting/eating.

2- (1- )
be / have ( ).

= I am +
+ counting/eating.

5 7

= I was +
+ counting/eating.

3- ING

= I have +
+ counted/eaten.


(= )

264

{ +S,

was*

/ = I had +
+ counted/eaten.

5 7

3)

* WAS HAD = 2- ;

2)

5.00

(= +(e)D ):

...

( )

) !!!
265

53

+ ...:

We + SHOULD + BE THINKING + about some drinking!.


w

+ :
I + CAN + BE

+ +

+ 1-

killED.

(-) = .

!:

I + CAN +
READ
+ any
English
book.

+ + + .

+ 2-

, , -
:

?!.

:
I +
And +

COULD
COULD

+ HAVE DANCED + all night,


+ HAVE BEGGED + for more!.

+ +
+ +

+ ,
+ !.

You +
SHOULD
+ BE LIVING + here.

+ +

+ .

+ 3-

I + COULD + HAVE EATEN + this soup.



+ + () + .

+ 4-

I + MIGHT + HAVE BEEN WAITING + for you all my life.

+ +

266

+ .

267

.

..
.
.
.

:
, ,
( );
;
;
;

( ,
);
;
, , ;
;

: -, . , . 18
.: 275-59-77, 275-06-09, 279-99-72,73
: 275-99-04
E-mail: kazusspb@rol.ru