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.. , ..

11
. 11 .: .
. . / ..
2- ., . .: , 2002 .

1.

1. .
2. , ,
.
- .
3. ,
, , .
4.
, .
5. .
, .

2.

1. .
2. ,
q,
, t .
I = q/t = q'.
I = q/t.
2

3. ,
,
.
4. . 1 = 1 /.
5. , .
.

1.
:
t = 60 c,
I=2A
q-?
2.
:
t=1c
I = 1,6 A
N?

:
I = const, , I =

q
q = It
t

q = 60 2 = 120 .
: q = 120 .
:
q
I = q = It ; e ,
t
q It
1, 6 1
N= = ; N=
= 1019
19
e e
1, 6 10

: N = 1019 .
3.
:
:
t = 1, I = 1 A
Itme
e/me = 1,761011/ M = N me = e (. )
M?
1 365 24 60 60
M=
= 1,8 104 . : 0,18 .
11
1, 76 10 /
4.
:
:
S = 1 2
q
I
q = q0 nSvt
= I = q0 nSv v =
,
I = 1,6 A
t
q0 nS
23 3
n = 10
1, 6
T = 20C
= 100 /.
v = 23 3
6 2
m = 9,1 1031
10 10 1, 6 10 19
V?

3

3 1, 38 10 23 / 293
mV2 3
3
=
= 11, 5 103 /
= V =
2
2
m2
9,1 10 31

: V = 100/.
5.
:
:
q = It, q
t=4c
I1 = 1 A I
I2 = 5 A t (. ).
q = 12 .
q?
: q=12.

3.

1. - , .
2. ,
. .
3. ,

. SO42- Cu2+ Zn2+ . ,
.
4. - , , .
5. ,
. ,
, .
U = 1,5 .

4.

1. , . .
4

, ..
, .
2.
.
, .
, .
3. ,
.
= /q. [] = 1 = 1 /
4. U = |/q|.
5. , .

5.
( )

1. , . ,
.
2. ,
.
3.
. , 2 .
4.
.
5. - .
,
, .

1.
:
:
R = 44
U
220 B
U = 220 I = R , I = 44 = 5 A
I?
: I = 5 A.
5

2.
: U = 6 ,
I = 2 = 2106
R?

:
6B
U
U
= 3106 O.
I = R = , R =
R
I
2106 A

: R = 3106 .
3.
:
:
q = 2,88
Rq
5 2, 88 10 3
= U = RI =
, =
= 240 B.
t = 60 c
t
60
R = 5
?
: = 240 .
4.
:
N, e, U, R
t?

: t =

:
U q Ne
Nre
I= ; =
t =
.
R t
t
U

N r e
.
U

5.
:
R1 = 2 , R2 = 3 ,
I = 1 A, U = 12
U1; U2; I1; I2 ?

:
U1 = 2
U2 = 3
I1 = 6
I2 = 4
: U1 = 2 , U2 = 3 , I1 = 6 , I2 = 4 .

I, A
I1
I2

R = 2
R = 3

1
0

1U 1 U 2

U, B

6.

1. , , .
2. , . ( ), ( ).
3. . , 6


. []=1.
4. < 105 ; 105 < <
105 ; > 105 .
5. .

1.
:
= 1,610-8
S = 0,4 2 = 4107 2
l = 240
R?

:
l
1, 6 10 8 240
= 9, 6
R= , R=
S
4 10 7 2
: R = 10,2 .

2.
:
:
= 8,9103 /3
m
l
l 2
l 2
,
m=
= 1,610-8 R = , = R =
S
Sl
m
R
R = 10
8
2 2
3
3
l = 1 = 103 m = 1, 6 10 1000 8, 9 10 / = 14, 2
10
m?
: m = 14,2 .
3.
:
R = 4 ,
= 2,810-8
d = 1 = 103
l?

:
RS Rd 2
l
R= l =
,
=
S
4

l=

4 3,14 0, 0012 2
4 2, 8 10 8

= 112

: l = 112
4.
:
:
R = 2,8
m
m
l
l 2
mR
-8
R
,
V
Sl
S
,
=
=
=

=
R
=
l=
=
= 2,810
S

l
m

m = 0,27
0, 27 2, 80
=2,7103 /3
=
= 100 ,
8
2, 8 10 2,7 10 3 / 3
l?S?
S=

m
=
R

0, 27 2,8 10 8
2, 8 2,7 10 3 / 3

=10 4 2 = 1 2

: l = 100 , S = 1 2.
7

5.
: n = 10,
:
Al = 2,810-8 ,
,
Cu = 1,710-8 ,
mAl = mCu S Al l Al Al = S Cu lCu Cu ,
Cu = 8,9103 .3,
l
1 Al
S Cu = S Al Al Al = S Al
,
Al = 2,7103 3
lCu Cu
n Cu
k?
l
n l Al n Cu
RCu = Cu Cu = Cu
,
S Cu
S Al
R

l
: k 200.
RAl = Al Al k = Cu = Cu Cu n 2 200.
Al Al
S Al
RAl

7.


1. ,
,
.
2. = 0(1 + T), [] = K1.
3.
, .
4. , , .
5. , . . ,
: .

1.
: t1 = 0C,
R1 = 4 ,
t2 = 50C,
= 4,310-3 K-1
R2 ?

:
R1 = R0 (1 + t1 )
R1 1 + t1 1 + (t1 t 0 )
=
=

R2 = R0 (1 + t 2 )
R2 1 + t 2 1 + (t 2 t 0 )

R2 = R1

1 + (t 2 t 0 )
1 + (t1 t 0 )

R2 = 4

1 + 4, 3 10 3 50

1 + 4, 3 10 3 1 20
: R2 = 4,86 .

2.
: t1 = 20C,
R1 = 25 ,
t2 = 35C,
R2 = 25,17
?
3.
:
t1 = 10C
R1 = 10
= 1,01
= 6103 K1
t2 ?
t2 =

:
R1 = R0 (1 + t1 ), =

R1 R0
0,17
=
= 4, 5 104 1
15 25
tR0

: = 4,5104K1.

:
R1 = R0 (1 + t1 )

1 + t 2
,
=
R1 = R0 (1 + t 2 )
1 + t1

t 2 =

(1 + t1 ) 1
,

1, 01(1 + 6 10 3 1 10 o C) 1
6 10 3 1

4.
: t1 = 20C,
R1 = 20 ,
U = 220 ,
I = 0,5 A,
= 4,6103 K1
t1 ?
: t2 =5005C.

= 4, 86 .

= 11, 8C . : t2 = 11,8C.

:
U
R2 = ; R1 = R0 (1 + t1 );
I
t1 =

u JR0
220 B 0, 5 A 20
=
= 45650o C
2JR0
4, 6 103 K 1 0, 5 A 20

5.
:
:
S, R, d,
R
,
W = tcv m, R = R0 t t =
, v,
R0
W ?
l
R0 =
c mS 2 d R cv S 2 d R
RS 2 d
m
S
W = v
=
R0 = 2 t =
m
m
m

S d
Sl =
d

: W =

cv S 2 d R
.

8.

1. , ,

.
.
2. ,
.
3. , . ,

.
4. ,
( )
. , , ,
.
5. , . , .

9.

1. .
2.
,
. .
3. .
4. ,

10

.
.
5. , . ,
, (
) . ,
, ,
.

1.
:
R1 = 12 ,
R2 = 20 ,
R3 = 30
R ?

:
R2 R3, ,
R4
R R
R4 = 2 3 , R4 R1 R
R2 + R3
R R
20 30
R = R1 + R4 = R1 + 2 3 , R = 12 +
= 24 O
20 + 30
R2 + R3
: R = 24 .
2.
:
:
R1 = 12 , R1 R2 , R2 = 18 , R5 = R1 + R2,
R3 = 5 , R3 R4 R6 = R3 + R4.
R4 = 10 R
R5 R6 :
R?
R R
( R + R2 )( R3 + R4 )
30 15
R= 5 6 = 1
, R=
= 10 O
R5 + R6
R1 + R2 + R3 + R4
45
: R = 10.
3.
: R1 = 3 ,
: R2 = 2 , R3 = 6 , :
R4 = 8 , R5 = 3 ,
R6 = 2
R?
R2, R4 R6 , R7 = R2 + R4 + R6. R7 R3 R R
( R + R4 + R6 ) R3
, R8 = 7 3 = 2
.
R7 + R3 R2 + R4 + R6 + R3
R8 R1 R5.

11


( R + R4 + R6 ) R3
,
R= R 1 +R 5 +R 8 =R 1 + R5 + 2
R2 + R4 + R6 + R3
(2 + 8 + 2) 6
= 10 O
2+8+2+6
: R = 10 .
R = 3+3+

4.
: R; 2R
R ?

:
:

R1 R7
, R1 + R7
R2 , RR
R172 = 1 7 + R2 . , R1 + R7
.

R1 R7 , R17 =

1
2R
2R

2
R

4
R

3
R

5
R

6
R

7
2R

8
2R

9
2R

2R

2R

:
R1R7
R R
R127 =
+ R2 = 2 R, R1278 = 127 8 = R ,
R1 + R7
R127 + R8
R12378 R9
R12378 = R1278 + R3 = 2 R, R123789 =
= R,
R12378 + R9
R
R
R1234789 = R123789 + R4 = 2 R, R1234789 A = 1234789 A = R,
R1234789 + R A
R12345789 A = R1234789 A + R5 = 2 R,

R
R
R1234789 AB = 12345789 A B = R,
R12345789 A + R B

12

R123456789 A = R12345789 AB + R6 = 2 R,
R
R
R123456789 ABC = 123456789 AB C = R
R123456789 AB + RC
, 1-2-1, R.
: R = R

5.
:
:
I3 = 3 A :
I6; I8; U6;
U8 ?

, , D (
), , ,
.. I 3 = I 6 + I 282 , , ,
CE, EF, FD, . I 8 = I 2 I 3 = I 6 + I 8 .
C D ( ) :
U = R6 I 6 = 2 R2 I 2 + R8 I 8 = I 8 (2 R2 + R8 ) I 6 = 2 I 8
,
I3

=1 A
U 8 = I 8 R8 = 8 B
I =
I 3 = 3I 8 8 3

I = 2 I = 2 A U 6 = I 6 R6 = 12 B
8
6
: I6 = 2 ; I8 = 1 ; U6 = 12 ; U8 = 8 .

10.


1.
, . , ,

2. , .
, , .
13

.
( R + R3 )( R2 + R4 )
1
1
1
5.
,
=
+
R= 1
R R1 + R3 R2 + R4
R1 + R3 + R2 + R4
R5 .

1.
:
R
R ?

: (. ).

1
3
3 1
5R
.
=
+
+ Re =
R e 5R 5R R
11

: R cx =

5R
.
11

2.
:
R
Rac; Rad; Rbd ?

:
R 2 .

Rac , 2R, .
1
1
1
1
2+ 2
R 2
=
+
+
=
Rac =
Rac 2 R 2 R R 2
2R
1+ 2
,
1.
: 2R R 2 , R1 =
14

2 2R 2
2R + R 2

2R
2 +1

R1 R,
2R
R 2 + 3R
R2 =
+R=
.
2 +1
2 +1
R 2 + 3R
R
R 2 + 3R
2 +1
Rad =
=
R 2 + 3R
2 2+4
+R
2 +1
2,

,
( ,
). R 2 .
2R, . Rbd = R.
R 2
R 2 + 3R
, Rbd = R.
: R ac =
, Rad =
1+ 2
2 2+4

3.
: R
Rab ?

, .

: Rad =

7
R.
6

15

4.
:
:
R
h, d, (. )
, R ?
R, .
g, d, e. , ( R).

.
1
1
1
5
R ab = R + R + R = R.
3
6
3
6
5
: Rab = R.
6
5.
:
R
R ?

:
, ,
. Re, ( Re)
R R
Re = 2 R + e
Re 2 + Re R = 2 Re R + 2 R 2 + Re R Re = R 3R .
Re + R
,
Ra = R + 3R .
: R = R + 3R

11.

| Ac |
,
q
.

1. U ab =

16

2.
.
I=

.
R+r
3. , 2- , ,
, , . 3-
, ,
, .
4.
. I =
5.

1 2 + 3 ... > 0 , . -

1.
:
= 12
I=2A
U= 10
r; R ?

R + r I = = I r = U ,

U
U
I
+ r U + rI
R=

I
I
10
12 10
: R = 5 OM; r = 1 OM.
R=
= 5 OM, r =
= 1 OM .
2
2

2.
:
R1=10
I1 = 1 A
R2 = 4
I2 = 2 A
; r-?

I=

R1 + r
I1 R2 + r
I R I R
=
r = 2 2 1 1 = 2 O

+
I
R
r
I1 I 2
2
1

I2 =

R2 + r
= I1 ( R1 + r ) = I1 ( R1 + I 2 R2 I1R1 ) = 12 B
I1 I 2
: r = 2 OM; = 12 B.

3.
:
=6
R = 9
I = 0,6 A
r; I. ?

I1 =

:
I=

r=

IR = 1 O ; I

R+r
I
: r = 1 OM; I . = 6 A.

=6A

17

4.
:
1= 4,5
2= 6
r1 = 0,2
r2 = 0,3
U=0
R?

= 1 + 2 , R = r1 + r2 + R, I = 1 + 2

U1 = 1 Ir1 = 1
1 =

1 + 2
r1 + r2 + R

r1 + r2 + R

r1 = 0

1 + 2 r R = 1 + 2 r r r
1
1 1 1 2
r1 + r2 + R

1 + 2 r r r =0,2
1 1 1 2
+ 2 r r r = 0,2.
: R = 1
1 1 1 2
R=

5.
:
:
, r, R

I(R); U(R) ? I = R + r . R I 0 , R = 0 I = r .

U =

18

R
. R U , R = 0, U = 0 .
R+r

12.

1.
:
R1 = 1 OM

R2 = 2 OM
R22 = 22 OM
R8 = 8 OM
R4 = 4 OM
U = 27 B
U 2; U4 ?

R (. ):
R = R1 + RCDEF ,

1
1
1
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
=
RCDEF RCD REF R2 + R22 R8 + R4 8
RCDEF =

( R2 + R22 )( R8 + R4 )
= 8 OM
R2 + R22 + R8 + R4

R = R1 + RCDEF = R1 +

( R2 + R22 )( R8 + R4 )
= 9 OM.
R2 + R22 + R8 + R4

= 3 A.
R
RCD 2 , REF, CD
.=> ICD = 1 A, IEF = 2 A.
U 2 = I CD R2 = 2 , U 4 = I EF R8 = 8 . : U 2 = 2 , U 4 = 8 .
I AB = I CD + I EF =

2.
:
R3 = 3 OM

3- :

R5 = 5 OM
R6 = 6 OM

19

2- :

1- :

3.
:
R1 = 40 ; R2 = 60 ;
R3 = 120 ; R4 = 15 ;
R5 = 25 ; = 240 B
I1; I AC ; I 4 ; I 2 ; I1 ?

20

RCA =

R1R2 R3
= 20 O,
R1R2 + R2 R3 + R1R3

Re = RCA + R4 + R5 = 60 ,
I AB = I CA =

Re

= I 5 = 4 A,

U AC = R AC I AC = 80 B, U 4 = R4 I 4 = 60 B.
R1, R2, R3 ,
80

I1 = 40 = 2 A
1 1 1
I1 : I 2 : I 3 =
:
:
80 4
R1 R2 R3 I 2 =
= A

60 3

I1 = I 2 = I 3 = I AB

I = 80 = 2 A
1
120 3

: I 5 = 4 A, U AC = 1,80 A, U 4 = 60 B,

I2 =

4
2
A, I1 = A.
3
3

4.
:
R; C; U ?
q?

:
(.
) :
2R 2R
Re = R +
= 2R .
2R + 2R

a, b.
, , D,
IR
IR
D = B +
.(
, 2
2
.)
21

IR
2
3
U = U.
U
U C 4
I=
=
R e 2 R

UC = U

q = CU C =

3
CU .
4

3
: q = CU .
4

5.
:
R, C, U
Uab ?

:
.

: Uab=0,05U.

13.

1. ,
,
. , .
2.
.
,
.
, (
).
3.
( , ). ,
, . , , , .

22

4. .
, .
,
.
5.
. Umax n ,
n . (n-1)
. , .

1.
:
I = 10 mA
R = 9, 9
I ' =1 A
r?

U U

nI = R + r
I'
R
nI = I ' n = = 100 ; n
I + I = nI ;
I
r
I = U

R
IR
R
9, 90
r=
=
=
= 0,1 OM. ;
I (n 1) n 1
100 1
: n = 100, r = 0,1 OM.

2.
:
I1 = 2 A
I 2 = 50 A
r = 0, 05 OM
R?

:
:
U U
I2 = +
R r I = I + I R R = I 2 I1 r =

2
1
1
U
r
I1

I1 =

50 A 2 A
0, 05 = 1,2 .
2
: R = 1, 2 OM .

23

3.
:r1 = 2 A
I1 = 2 A
I 2 = 10 A
U = 200 B
R; r2 ?

:
:
U = IRg.
U 200 B
Rg = =
= 100
I
2A

U U
+
R r I = I + I R R = I 2 I1 r = 10 2 2 = 4

2
1
1
1
U
2
r1
I1

I1 =

R
I I
: R = 2 1 r1 = 4 OM , Rg = 100 .
I1
I2 =

4.
:
U1 = 6 B

:
U
n = 2 = 40
U1
R = 2 OM

, U 2 = 240 B
, , :
RD ; n ?
(m 1)U 1 U1
I=
=
,
RD
R
m = n + 1 .
RD = R (m 1) = Rn = 80 O.
: RD = 80 , n = 40.
5.
:
R = 103 = 1
U = 12
S = 107 = 0,1 2
l = 450
= 210-7
U1 ?

:
:
l
RD = ,
S
R
(n 1)U U
l 1
I=
= n 1 = D =
.
RD
R
R
S R
n .
l
2 10 7 450
U1 = nU =
U=
12 = 120 B.
SR
10 7 10 3
: U1 = 120 B.
24

14. .
-

1. .
2. , ,
.
3. , ,
,
. Q = I2Rt.
4. , , , .
U2
P = I 2 R = IU =
R
5. , .
.

1.
:
q = 3 = 106
U = 220
A?
2.
:
R = 20
I = 15
t = 1 = 60
Q?
3.
:
r, R1 = R2
R?

:

A = qU = 3 10 6 220 = 0, 66 10 3 .

: A = 0, 66 10 3

:
-:
Q =I 2 Rt =225 2 200 60 = 18 10 3 =18 .
: Q = 18 .

:
R1 = 2 R
R2 =

R
2

25

P = I 2 R1 =

2
2R + r

2R =

2
R1 + r

R1 ,

R/2+r

R / 2 2 R(

R
R
+ r ) 2 = (2 R + r ) 2
2
2

2 R ( R + 2r ) 2 = 2 R (2 R + r ) 2 R = r
:R = r.

4.
:
t1 = 10 = 600 c
t2 = 15 900 c
tP; t ?

tP = t 2

:
Q = I 2 R1t1 = I 2 R2t 2 = I 2 RPtP = I 2 R t

R2 ( R2 + R1 )
= t2
R1 R2

R1t1 = R2t 2 R2 = R1

R1

t1
t2

t1
t
R1 ( 1 + 1)
t2
t2
t
= t 2 ( 1 + 1) =
t
t2
R12 1
t2

600

= 900
= 1500 = 25
900 + 600
t
R1 1
R2
t2
t
= t2
= t2 ( 1 ) =
t = t2
t
( R2 + R1 )
t 2 + t1
R1 ( 1 + 1)
t2
600

= 900
= 360 = 6
900 + 600
: tP = 25 , t = 6 .

5.
:
P1 = 60 BT

P2 = 40 BT
U H = 110 B
U = 220 B
P1' ; P2' ?

26

:

U:
U 2
U 2
U 2
U 2
P1 = H R1 = H ; P2 = H R2 = H
R1
P1
R2
P2
UP1 P2
U
U: I =
=
2
R1 + R2 U H ( P1 + R2 )

P1 ' = I 2 R1 =
=

UH 2
U 2 P1 P 2 2
=
=
U H 4 ( P1 + R2 ) 2 P1
U H 2 ( P1 + R2 ) 2

48400 2 60 1600
12100 2 (60 + 40 ) 2

P2 ' = I 2 R1 =
=

U 2 P 21 P 2 2

= 38, 4

U 2 P 21 P 2 2

UH 2
U 2 P12 P2
=
=
U H 4 ( P1 + R2 ) 2 P2
U H 2 ( P1 + R2 ) 2

48400 2 3600 2 40
12100 (60 + 40) 2

= 57, 6 BT

: P2' = 38, 4 BT, P2 ' = 57, 6 BT. .

15.


1. .
2. , .
, .
2R .
3. PH ( R) = I 2 R =
(R + r)2
4. , .
5. .

1.
:
P = 100 BT
U = 220 B
U = 200 B
P?
P=

:
U2
. P = .
R
U,
.

U2
.
R

27

2
100 40000 2
U 2 U
U2
=
P = P 2 =
= 82, 6 .
P
P
48400 2
U

: P = 82, 6 .
2.
:
N; ; r
P ?

:
2 ' , , r
P =
r'
.
' = N P = 2 ' = N 2 .
N 2
: P =
.

r ' = Nr
r
r'
r

3.
:
I =8A
U = 150 B
m = 450
V = 7 / =
= 0,116 /
?

:
P = Fv = mgV ,
P = UI .

P
mgV 450 9,8 / 2 0,116 /
= =
=
= 0, 42.
P
UI
8 150
: = 0, 42 ( 42%).

4.
:
r = 0, 2 OM

:
4

P = 10 B = 10
U = 250 B
?

P P P
=
=
P
P

= 1

P 2r

U 2 = 1 Pr =
P
U2

10 4 0, 2

= 0, 97.
62500 2
: = 0, 97 ( 97%).

5.
: ,
:
.
= 12
It 150 A 12 B
P = 95 BT
P = I Pt = It t =
=
= 18, 9 .
P
95 B
It = 150 A
t-?
It
: t =
= 18,9 .
P

28

16.


1. , . , , .
2. ,
.
(
, , ) .
3. ,
,
.
4. m = kQ
, .
1 M
m=
Q , F , M F n
, n , Q .
5. , , , .
1.
:
:
:
m = 5, 6 = 5,6 10 3
k = 1,12 10 6 /
q?

m = kq q =

m
5, 6 10 3
=
=
k 1,12 10 6 /

= 5 10 3 .

: m = 5 10 .
2.
:
m = 10 = 10

t = 3600
k = 3, 28 10 7 /
I?

: :
m
m = kq q = ;
k
q m
10 2
= =
= 8, 5 A
t kt 3,28 10 7 / 3600
: I = 8, 5 .

I=

29

3.
:
t = 28800
I = 10
= 27 10 3 /

: :
1 M
m=
Q
1 M
It =
F n m =
F n

Q = It

n=3
m?

: m = 26, 9 .

27 10 3 / 10 28800
9, 65 10 4 / 3

=.

= 2, 69 10 4 = 26, 9 .

4.
: S = 50 2 = 50 10 4 2 , h = 50 = 50 10 6 , I = 1, 3 ,
M = 0,108 /, n = 1, d = 10,5 108 /3
: t ?
: :
1 M
m=
Q
F n

1 M
12ShdFn
m = 12Shd 12Shd =
It t =
=
F n
MI

Q = It

9, 65 10 4 / 12 5 10 -3 2 5 10 -5 10, 5 10 8 / 3
=
0,108 / 1,3
= 21600 = 6 .
: t = 6 .
=

5.
:
:
t=5
: m = kQ = kIt
V = 1 = 103 3
-:
P = 105
m
PV
k = 8,29 /
PV =
RT m =
.

RT
T?

PV
PV
kIt =
T =
=
RT
kItR
10 5 10 3 3 32 10 3 /
=
8, 29 / 5 3600 8,31 /( )
= 258 = 15C.
=

30

17.

1. .
, ,
, .
2. .
3. .
4. ,
,
.
5. .

18.

1. ,
,
, , .
, .
2.
r
B .
, .
: () ,
.
3. : ,
,
.
r r
r
r
4. B = B1 + B2 + K + Bn ,
, 31

. ( .)
5. :
,
.
.

19.

1. ,
.
2. .
3.
.
4. ,
.
5. ,
,
.

20.


1. ,
.
.
2. : , ( ),
, ,

. FA = IB l sin .
3. .
4. :
, , -

32

,
, .
5. , , , .
H
[ B] = 1
=1 ().
A

1.
:
:
l=15 = 0,15 , FA = IB l sin .
B=0,4
B I sin = 1, ,
I=6 A
FA = IB l = 6 0, 4 0,15 = 0, 36 .
FA ?
: FA = 0, 36 H.
2.
:
:
l = 20 = 0,2 FA = IB l sin .
B = 0,1
1
( B$I ) = 30 sin = ,
I = 1 A, = 30
2
FA ?
1
FA = IB l = 1 0,1 0, 2 0, 5 = 0, 01 .
2
: FA = 0, 01 .
3.
:
l = 10 =
0,1
m = 10 =
0,1
I = 4,2 A
B = 0,1
T?

:
, ,
(. ).

I
ur
B

Mg+FA

, . , 2- :
33

2T = mg + FA
mg + IBl
T =
=

F
IB
l
=

sin
90

2
A
0, 01 9, 81 / 2 + 4, 2 0,1 0,1
= 0, 07 .
2
: T = 0, 07 .

4.
:
l = 10 = 0,1
m = 10 = 0,1
I = 9,8 A, B = 0,1
?

:
2- (. ):
r
r
r
FA + 2T + mg = 0 .

2T

FA
mg

:
FA = 2T sin BI l = 2T sin . (1)
: mg = 2T cos . (2)
(1) (2): tg =

BI l 0,1 9, 8 0,1
=
= 1 = 45 .
mg
0, 01 9, 8 /

: = 45 .
5.
:
l12 = 20 = 0,2
l23 = 15 = 0,15
l34 = 12 = 0,12
l45 = 15 = 0,15
I = 5 A, B = 0,1
F12; F23; F34; F45 ?
34:

:
12 45 I B , , F12 = F45 = 0.
23
F23 = BI l 23 sin 90 =
= BI l 23 = 0,1 5 0,15 = 75 .

F34 = BI l34 sin 45 = BI l = = 0,1 5 0,12

: F12 = 0; F23 = 75 ; F34 = 42 ; F45 = 0.

34

1
2

= 42..

21.

1. ,
.
2. ,
, .
3. M = ISB sin .
,
.
4. . , . .
5.
. , , , .

1.
I


.
ur
X X B Xur
X
X

Bo
X X
X
X
X
, ,
X X
X
X
X
( 180).

, .
X

2.
:
: M = ISB sin , S = a 2 ,
a = 10 = 0,1
sin = 1 M = IBa 2 =
B = 0,1
I=5A
= 5 0,1 0,01 2 = 5MH .
M?
: M = IBa 2 = 5 MH M
3.
:
a = 4 = 0.04
b = 5 = 0,05
B = 0,2
I = 5 A, = 60
F1; F2; M-?

:
, ,

.
a (. ):
35

1
= 0, 02 .
2
b:
Fb = IBb = 5 0,2 0,05 = 0, 05
.
M = ISB sin ,

Fa = IBa sin(90 60) = 5 0,2 0,04


Z

ur
Bo

ur
B

uur
Fa

a
uur
Fb

Y
b

uur
Fa

uur
Fb

S = ab M = IabB sin =
= 5 0,04 0,05 0,2

3
=
2

= 1, 73 10 3 .

: Fb = 0, 05 , Fa = 0, 02 . M = 1, 73 10 3 .
4.
:
:
a = 5 = 0,05
1
M = ISB sin , S = bh, sin = 1.
b = 6 = 0,06
2
B = 0,2
2
b
b
b2
M = 0,24
h = a2
M = IB a 2

I?
4
2
4
M
0, 24
=
= 10 3
I=
2
2
b 2 b
0, 0036
B
a
0, 2 0,03 0,0025 2
2
4
4
: I = 1 .
5.
:
M max = 5 10 2 H
S = 10 2 = 10 3 2
I =2
N = 1000
B?

36

:
, sin = 1, =>
M
M max = IBSN B = max =
ISN
=

5 10 2

2 10 3 2 10 3
: B = 250 .

= 250 .

22.


FA
, N .
N
2. ,
.
F = qvB sin .
3. , . ( , .)
4. = 90,sin = 1, F v , ,
, .
, F v .

1. F =

2
5. ma n = F v = qvB R = mv , T = 2R = 2m .
R
qB
v
qB
, .

1.
:
6

v = 5 10 /
e + = 1, 6 10 19
B = 0,3
F ?

:
F = qvB sin
, ,
sin = 1.

F = e + vB = 1, 6 10 19 5 10 6 / 0, 3 = 2, 4 10 13 .

: F = 2, 4 10 13 .
2.
:
mp=1,6710-27
v = 5 106 /
+ = 1,6 1019
= 0,3
r; T ?

: 2-
F = m p a qvB = m p
r=

m pv
qB

v2

1, 67 10 27 5 10 6 /
1, 6 10 19 0, 3

= 0,17.

37

T=

2r 2m p 2 3,14 1, 67 10 27
=
=
= 0, 22 10 6 .
v
qB
1, 6 10 19 0, 3

: r = 0,17 , T = 0, 22 10 6 .
3.
:
m = 6, 68 10

27

q = +2e
U = 10
D = 0, 064
B?

:
:
2mv .
mv D
R=
= B=
qB 2
Dq
:
qU =

mv 2
v=
2

2qU .
m

2m 2qU
2 2Um 2 2 1000 6, 68 10 27
=
=
= 0, 2 . .
Dq
m
D
q
0, 064 3, 2 10 19
: B = 0, 2 . .
B=

4.
:v = 5 106 /
D = 8 = 0, 08
me = 9,1 10 31
e = 1, 6 10 19
B?
Z

:
, , ,
OY (. ).
OD ,
.

B
e V

e 0

2vme 2 5 10 6 / 9,1 10 31
D vme
=
B=
=
= 7,1 10 4 .
19
2
eB
De

0, 08 1, 6 10

: B = 0, 71 10 3 .
5.
:
:
r

: d, d B , e
(R > d)(. ).

38

R=
e v

mv
2deB
mv
deB
= d v, v1 =
.
= d v0 =
. 2R =
eB
m
eB
m
v1 < v < v0,
, .
v > v0,
.
v v1
B
.
d

23. -

1. , -
.
.
.
, .
2. , . ,
qBB0
m =
R.
E0
3. .
.
.
4. .
, , ..
5. , , ( ), .

24.


1. .

39

, .
2.
.
3.
.
,
.
4. .

.
5. , .
, ,
.

25.

1. , .
2. , , , . .
3. .
4. [ I ] = 1 . 1 , ,

1 , 2 10 7 .
I
5. B = k m .
r

26.

1. .

40

2. ,
, , .
3. ,
.
4. , ,
, .
5.
.

27.

1. , . vr = vS cos .
2. S ,
r r
B S .
r r
= ( B S ) = B S cos
3. , , .
4. [ ] = 1 ().
5. 1 , 1 12, .

1.
:
B = 0,1 = 0,1
R = 10
= 60
1; 2-?

r 2
B cos
4
r 2
3,14 0,12 2
1 =
B=
0,1 = 0, 785 .
4
4
r 2
3,14 0,12 2
1
2 =
B cos =
0,1 = 0, 392 .
4
4
2
: 1 = 0, 785 , 2 = 3, 92 .
= B S cos =

41

2.
: t = 2
a = 10 = 0,1
v = 3 / = 0,03 /
B = 0,01
-?

:
, t = 2 c.
S = atv.

= B S cos = avtB = 0,1 0, 03 2 0, 01 = 6 10 5 .

: = 6 10 5 .
3.
:
:
R, = 180,
,
B
:
= 0 cos t = B R 2 cos t ,
?
, 180 -

. = 2BR 2 .
: = 2BR 2 .
4.
:
t, a, b, w, B
(t) ?

:
(t ) = 0 cos t = Bab cos t
= 2 /

Bab

-Bab

, .
: (t ) = Bab cos t .
5.
:
:
B, R
S , .
?
n

S = S i cos i = R 2 = S B = R 2 B.

B
S

i =1

: = R 2 B.
42

28.

1. , -
. , ,
.
2. B, B I I .
3. ,
, . [ L] = 1 ().
4. .
5. .
LI 2
Wm =
.
2

1. , , ..
.
2.
:
:
l = 0, 5
6 10 2
A
A = IBld B =
=
=
d = 20 = 0,2
Ild 6 0, 5 0, 2
I =6
= 0,1 .
A = 60 = 6 102 : B = 0,1
B?
3.
:
:
I = 2,5 A
5 10 3

=
LI

L
=
=
= 2 10 3
3
= 5 = 510
I
2, 5
L?
: L = 2 .
4.
:
:
LI
0, 5 36
L = 0,5
W =
=
= 9 .
I=6A
2
2
W?
: W = 9 .
2

43

5.
:
:
= 0,2 = 2107 :
U0 = 100
LI 02 CU 02 LI 2 CU 2
3
+
=
+
L = 1 = 10
2
2
2
2
U = 50 , I = 5 A, t
2
2
2
LI
C (U U 02 )
LI
Q?
Q= 0 =
+
=
2
2
2
103 25 2 2 107 (2500 2 10000 2 )
=
+
=
2
2

= 25 105 = 0, 25 .
: Q = 0,25 .

29.

1. , ,
, .
- , , , .
- , ,
, .

B
. 1 . 1 . . =
B0
>>1.
3. , , B0. ,
.
4. (, ) , .
5.
, , , .

44

30.

1. , .
2. .
.
3.
. .
4. -
, - , .
5.
. .

45

31. ,


1. , .
2. , .
3. , ,
, .
4. = vl, v ,
l , .
5. (81)
.

1.
:
v = 1080 / = 300 /
l = 30
B = 5 10-5
U ?
2.
:
v1x>0, v1y = 0
v2x < 0, v2y = 0
v3x = 0, v3y = 0
I1, I2, I3 ?

:
= U = vB l =
= 300 / 30 5 105 = 0, 45 .
: = 0,45 .

:
,
(. ).
Y B v.
r

X
I

r
v

46

, , . .
3.
:
: I = U/R
l = 0,2
.
= U = vB l
S = 0,017 2 = 1,7108 2
B = 0,1
l
I = vB l/R + r, r =
v = 3,2 /
s
R = 0,3
.
I?
3, 2 / 0,1 0, 2
I=
= 0,128 .
0, 2
0, 3 + 0, 017 106
0,017 106 2
: I = 0,128 .
4.
:
l = 0,2 ;
B = 0,2 ;
v = 5 /;
R = 2
F?

:
I = U/R = vB l/R
.
FA = IB l = vB2 l 2 / R ,
.
F = FA v = const 3-
5 / 0, 04 2 0, 04 2
F = vB2 l 2 / R =
= 4 103 H.
2
: I = 5 .
5.
:
:
l = 0,5 ;
I = U / r = (vB l + ) / r
B = 0,2 ; ( ,
v = 5 /
).
r = 0,2 ;
5 / 0, 2 + 1, 5
= 1,5
I=
= 5 .
0, 2
I?
: I = 5 .

32.

1. ,
-

47

, .
2. , ; ; ,
.
3. , .
, .
4.
, .
5. , ,
, . ,
,
, , .
,
.

1.
:
:
a = 4 ;
t:
R = 2 ;
vt.
B = 0,5 ; = B S = B la = B tva
V = 5 /
i = ' = / t -.
I?
i = Bvta / t = Bva
I = i / R = Bva / R .
0,1 5 / 4 102
= 0, 01 = 10 .
2
I ( ). : I = 10 .
I=

2.
:
t = 0,05 = 5105
= 6 = 6103
i ?

48

: i = ' = / t .
,
.
: i = 120 .

3.
:

:
i = ' = / t = ( B1 B 2 ) S / t
-.
u t
| U |= N | i | N = U t /(B2 B1 )/S =
=
B2 / S

B1 = 0,1
B2 = 0, 2
S = 10 2 = 103 3
t = 0, 001
U = 100

N ?
4.
:

a = 0, 1 , R = 0, 2
B = B 0 + t 2
B 0 = 0, 002

= 5 10 3 / 2
t=2

100 B 0, 001
0, 2 /103 2

= 500.

: N = 500.

i = ' = 2 t

I = U / R .
| I |= 2 t / R;
Fa = BIL .

:

F1 = F2 = F3 = F4 = ( B 0 + t 2 ) 2 at / R =
F1, F2, F3,F4 ?
(0, 002 + 5 103 /2 4 2 ) 2 5 103 /2 0,1 2
=
=
0, 2
: F = 2,2 104.
= 2,2 104.

5
:
:
R, S, , B ? , .
q = I t = i t / Rc = / Rc ,
Rc = l / S = 2R / S.
= B S = B ( 0 R 2 ) = B R 2
q=

B R 2 S BRS
=
.
2 R
2

33.

1. , , , .
2. , ..

49

. ,
, ,
(. . 110).
. , 0, 0. ,
( ).
3. , ,
. .
, . ,
(
).
4.
( ), ,
.
,
, .
5. , . , , .

34.

1. .
2. N , N2
, , -, N , , -, ,
,
N .
3. , , , . , . .
50

4. , , .
, . .
5.
.
.

35.


1. ,
.
2. - , . ,
().
3. , . .
1.
. 1.
4. - . ,
.
5. ( , )
( - ). ,
, .
,
, .
, .

51

36.


1. , , . ,
, .
2. , ,
. 90 . 1 3 (. . 119
) , 2 4 , , , .

= 2 /
B S

3.

3
2

2 5
2

B S
= 2 /

(t )

B S

3
2

2 5
2

B S

4. () .
5. (
) .

1.
:
a = 5 = 0,05
b = 8 = 0,08
T = 0, 02
B = 0, 2
im ; i (t ) ?

52

:
x

i = im sin(t ) ; i = 0,25 sin 100t.

: m = 0, 25 B; i = 0, 25 sin 100t.

2.
:
N = 20
B = 0, 5
m = 7, 85
2

:
m = BS , im = m / N
= m / NSB = (1 /(2)) m / NSB =
4

S = 25 = 25 10
?

3.
:
N = 10

7,85

2 3,14 20 25 104 2 0, 5
: = 50 .

= 50 .

:
im = BS = 2SB

S = 1200 2 = 0,12 2 m = N i = 2N SB =
= 50
= 2 3,14 10 50 0,12 2 0, 58 220
B = 0, 58
: m = 220
m ?

4.
:

:
F = evB sin . :
A = RF = e .

= 30
R=5
= 10
B = 5 10
?

= evBR sin

v = R = 2R = 2R 2 B sin =

= 2 3,14 25 2 10 5 10 4 sin 30 o = 0, 4 B
: = 0, 4 B.

5.
:
N = 200
S = 100 c 2 = 0, 01 2
T = 20 = 2 10 2
B = 0, 2
R = 100
I (t ); ; I m ?

:
i = i m sin t = BS sin t;
U = N i = BSN sin t

U BSN sin(t ) 2BSN sin t
I= =
=
R
R
TR
2NBS 2 3,14 200 0, 2 0, 01 2
=
=
Im =
RT
100 0,02
=1,26 .
53

2 2 3,14
=
= 314 / ; I(t) = 1,26 sin 314t.

0, 02
: Im = 1,26 A; = 314 /; I(t) 1,26 sin 314 t.
=

37.

1. ,
.
2. ( ),
.
3. 20,
()
.
4. , .
5. 50 ,
0,05 . , .

38.


1. t.
, .
t = 0 (
).
2. , , ,
, .
3. Im , 0. /2.

54

4. (
).
5. .

1.
:

:
2
T

u = 10 cos(( )(t + ))
u = 10 B ; 0 =
t
6
3
T
5
T
U = 10 cos
= 5 3 B.
u m ; ; ; U ?
4
6
4

T
: u m = 10 B; 0 = ; u = 5 3 B.
3
4
2.
:

3
i = 4 cos(10t + )
4

I m = 4 A; 0 =

3
4

x
Im

3.
:
u = 6 sin(5t / 3) B

u m = 6 B; 0 =

um
0

4.
:

u1 = 10 cos(t + )
4

u 2 = 10 sin(t + )
4
?

3
u1 = 10 cos(t + ) = 10sin(t + );
4
4

= , 2-
2

55

u1

u2

5.
:

u1 = 10 cos(t + )
4

u 2 = 10 sin(t + )
4
u = u1 + u 2

u m = (u12 + u 22 ) = 10 2
u = 10 2 cos t
: u = 10 2 cos t

39.

U
R
2. 1 , ,
1 .
.
3.
,
, .
4. () 2 .
()
2 .
5.
, .

1. : i =

40.

1. .
56

2. RC
R.
3. UC UC(t).
t = 0, t = RC.
4.
.
5. /2.
:
XC = Um / Im = 1 / C.

1.
:
q = t t 2
= 10 /
= 0, 25 / 2

:
dq
I =
= 2t = 10 / 2 0, 25 / 2 2 = 9 .
dt
: I = 9

t =2c

I
2.
:
C = 0, 5
u = 10 sin(100t )
i (t ) ?

I = q ' = C (dU / dt ) = CU 100 cos(100t ) =


= 5 10 7 10 100 3,14 cos 100t =
= 1, 57 cos(100t )

: i = 1, 57 cos(100t )
3.
:
C = 0, 5
U = 10 sin(100t )
p ?

p = IU = 10 sin(100t ) 1, 57 cos(100t ) =
sin(200t )
15, 7
B = 7, 85 sin(200t ) .
2
p
7,85
T
4

7,85

T
2
3T
4

57

4.
:
xc = 3, 2 = 3, 2 3
C = 1 = 10 6
?

2 3,14 10 3, 2 10 3

1
xc =
;
C
= 2 xc =

1
1
=
=
2c
2cxc

= 50 .

: = 50 .

5.

1
; .
c
2,3 , xc 2,5 .

xc

: xc =

41.


1.
.
2. xL = L.
3.
/2 .
4. .
5. , 0, . .

1.
:
L = 20 = 2 10 2
= 50
xL ?

58

:
x L = L = 2 l =
2 3,14 50 2 10 2 =
= 6, 28 .
: xL = 6,28 .

2.
: xL = L . 3 xL 3 .
xL

3.
:
L = 10 = 0, 01
R = 10
N = 10
?
: = 1590 .

1
1
xL =
= NR =
2L
2NRL
1
=
= 1590
2 3,14 10 100 0, 01

4.
:
L = 0, 35
U = 220

:
U
U
=
Im = m I =
xL
2L

= 50

I 7

220 B
= 2 .
2 3,14 5 0, 35

u
x

0
I

5.
:
U = 311cos(100t )
I = 7

L ?

Um
I =
L = U m /(I 2 ) = 0,1
L 2
: L = 0,14 .
59

42.



1. , L C, , .
2. (R 0).
3. t = 0 . t = T/4
, . ,
, .
t = T/2 0. , .
, t = T
. .
.
4. .

q = q0cos 0t;
2
2 LC .
5. T0 =
0

i = Im sin 0t.

1.
:
L = 10 = 0, 01
C = 1 = 10 6
U = 225 B

Im ?

60

:
LI m2 = CU 2 I m = U

C
=
L

10 6
= 2, 25 A.
0,01
: Im = 2,25 A.
= 225 B

2.
:
:
3
L = 4 = 4 10

T = 2 L C = 2

S = 10 2 = 10 3 2
d = 1 = 10 3
T ?

= 2 3,14

L 0 S
=
d

4 10 3 8, 85 10 12 / 10 3 3
10 3

= 11, 8 10 5 = 118 .

: T = 118 .
3.
:

L = 1 = 10 3
C1 = 40 = 4 10

11

11

2 = 90 = 9 10

1 =

2 3,14
10

2 =

1 2 ?
10
: 1 = 31,4 ; 2 = 21 .

4.
:

9 10

11

= 3,14 10 4

= 2,1 10 4

T = 50 = 5 10
T2 ?
T2 = T

4 10
2 3,14

11

C
C

C = 2C ,C =

C
; T = 2 LC ,
2

L = const,

2C
2T 100 .
C/2

: T2 = 100 .
5.
:
u c = 200 cos(1000t )
C = 0,1

L; I m ?

:
1
1
L= 2 =
= 0,1 .
C (1000 /) 2 10 7
LI m2 = CU m2
:
I m = U C / L = 200 B

10 5
= 0, 2 A.
0,1

: L = 0,1 ; Im = 0,2 .

61

43.


1. :
uL = ULmcos (t + /2), ULm = ImXL = ImL.
:
uC = Um cos (t /2), Um = ImXC = Im / C.
2.
y

u Lm

UCm

U Rm I m

3. :
2

Z = Um / I m =

2
2
R 2 + L
(R +( L 1 / C) ).
C

4. ,
. ,
, .
5.
Im
Um
R

R1 > R
0

1.
:
U C = 100 B
U L = 60 B
U R = 230 B
U ?

62

:
2
U m = U Rm
+ (U Lm U Cm ) 2

U = U R2 + (U L U C ) 2 = 900 + (60 100) 2 =


= 50 B
: U = 50 B.

2.
:
xC = 2, 5

:
Z = x L xC = 0, 5
: Z = 500 .

x L = 2
Z ?

3.
:
R = 5
L = 5

:
2

= 1 = 10 3

LC

C =

4 2
2

4 (3,14) 2
6

10 5

= 8 10 6

I = U / Z = U R 2 + (L 1 /(C )) 2 =

U = 220
?

=U / R =

220 B
= 44 A.
5

: = 8 ; I = 44 .
4.
:
L = 0, 2

C = 0,1 = 10 7
R = 367
= 1 = 10 3
x L ; xC ; Z ?

= 2 = 6, 28
x L = L = 1, 26
x = 1 /(C ) = 1, 6
Z = R 2 + (L 1 /(C )) 2 =
= 1346890 2 + (1, 26 10 3 1, 6 10 3 =
500

: xL = 1,26 ; xC = 1,6 ; Z = 500


5.
:

= 2 = 628 /

L = 0, 5

C = 4 = 4 10
R = 54
= 100
I = 0, 5

Z; Um ?

Z = R 2 + (L 1 /(C )) 2 =
= 54 2 2 + (682 0, 5

1
628 / 4 10 6

= 100
U m = I m Z = I 2 Z = 0, 5 1, 42 100 = 70, 7

: Z = 100 ; Um = 70,7 .

63

44.


1. ,
. .
2. ,
.

().
3. ,
,
.
.
, .
4. As Ge.
n-,
.
5.
Ga Ge. p-,
.

45.

1. , p- n-, p-n-. p- 1000 , n-, . , n-.
. p- n-.
64

2. , p-n-
, .
p-n- n-
p- ,
, , p- n-.
p- , n-
. p-n- () .
3. : p-,
n-.
. , . , , .
4. p-n- , .
p-n- . ,
.

, .
5. , .
.
U
0

D2

D1
R

D3

D4

U
0

65

46.

1. pn-
. , ,
. .
2. , ,
.

.


( -)

I = I + I
U = I R


( -)

I
+ -

+
- +

3. ,
.
.


( -)

+ + +- +
++++


( -)

p
n
p

R
I
- +
U

.
. 66

.
4.
U
U

U
U

U =U +U C

+
-

- +

U
U

5.

+
+ U

.
, ,
.
.

67



- -

47.

1. , . = 3 108 /.
2.
, ( ). , .
( ). ,
.
3. ,
, . 1 (. 155, )
, 2 3, . , .

.
4. , .
.

68

5. .

48.


1. 1 v
v. 2 vT/4.
3, 4 5 v(
T/2); v( 3T/4) v( T). 1-5 vT .
2. , .
.
3. E = E0 sin (t x/v).
B = B0 sin (t x/v).
157 )
.
XY, .
7T/4 .
157 )
( ). XY.
4. .
r
r
, E ( B )
,
.
,
.
5. .
,
.
69


1.
:

:
8

v = 100 = 10
c = 3 108 /
?

c 3 108 /
=
= 3 .

108
: = 3 .

2.
:
= 300

L = 100 = 10 4
?

=
=

LC

2c
L 2
C =

4 2 c 2

10 4 9000 2
4 (3,14) 2 9 1016 2 / 2

= 2, 5

: = 2,5 .
3.
:
1 = 108 ;
2 = 4 108 ;
L=1 =106
1; 2 ?

:
=

1
LC

2c
= 2c LC ;

1 = 2 3,14 3 108 / 10 8 10 6 = 188, 5


2 = 2 3,14 3 108 / 4 10 8 10 6 = 377 .

: 1= 188,5 ; 2 = 377 .
4.
:
0 = 1 / = 105 /;
= 600
?

:
E = E0 sin((t x / c)) .

= 2v = 3, 77 1015 .

E = 10 5sin(3,77 1015t 1,26 10 7 x) /.


: E = 10 5sin(3,77 1015t 1,26 10 7 x ) /.

70

5.
:
= 100 sin (6 104t +
+ 2 106 x
E0; ; ; ; v ?

:
E0 = 100 /.
v=

= 3 1014 .
2

T = 1 / v = 3, 3 10 15 .
= / v = 1 /(2 10 6 2) = 1
= v = 3 108 /.
: E0 = 100 /; = 3 1014; = 3,3 1015 ; = 1 ;
v = 3 108 /.

49. ,


1.
, S .

,
, .
2.
.
3.

.
4.

.
.
5. . , .

71

50.


1.
, . .
2.
.
3.
2 I 2 1, 4 10 3
p=
=
= 9, 4 .
c
3 108
4.
t:
p = 2p;
F = p / t = 2p / t;
P = ISt / c.
5.
.

51.

1.
.
2. , 0 2 104 , = 1,5 104 .
, 2 104 109 , = 0,3 1,5 104.
, 109 3 1011 , = 1 0,3 .
, 3 1011 3,85 1014 , = 780 1.
, 3,85 1014 7,89 1014 , = 380 780 .
, 8 1014 3 1016 , = 10 380.
, 3 1016 3 1020 , = 10 12 10 8 .
-, > 3 1020 , < 10-12 .
3. .
.

72


.
.
4. , .
: 780 620 .
620 590.
590 560 .
560 500 .
500 480 .
480 450 .
450 380 .
,
. , .
.
5. . , .
, . ,
, .
- ,
. . .

52. - -

1.
. , .
2.
:
( );
;
; .

73

().
3.
, =103 104 , v = 105 ,
=102 103, v = 106 .
, = 10 102, v = 107,
.
, = 1 10, v = 108 ,
= 10-1 1, v = 109 .
, = 10-3 10-1 , v = 1010 1011 .
4.
( ).
5.

. , , , , .

53. ,
:
1. , , , .
2.
.
,
.
3. ,
. . -
.
, .
4. .

74


. .
: , .
5. :
= 0 + cos t.

75

54.

1. ,
. .
2. ,
.
3. ,
.

.
.
4. .
.
.
5. ,
. ,
.

55.

1.

.
.
2. . , , , .

76

. - , . , .
3. , .
4.
.
,
, .
5.
,
. , , .
,
. ,
.
.

1.
:
:
,
= 90
= 2 = 45
?
: = 45
2.
:
,
?
: = 2.
3.
:

h?

:
,
2( + ) = 2 + = 2

2
h 1

1 = 2 ( ) h =( h) h = /2
: h = /2.
77

4.
:
= 1,8 ;
= 30
d?

:
d = H / tg = 1,8 / tg 30 =
= 3,1 .
: d = 3,1 .

56.

1.
.
, .
2. ,
. , , ,
. , .
, .
.
3. ,
.
.
4.
. , , .
5.
, , .

,
.
,
.

78


1.
:
n = 2,42
v?

3 108 /
= 1,2 108 /c.
2, 42
: v = 1,2 108 /c.

v=c/n=

2.
:
= 540
n = 1,333
?

:
540
= 406 .
1,333
: = 406 .

= / nv =

3.
:

:

= 60
,

= .
n = 1,333

?
:
sin
sin
3
= n sin =
=
= 0, 649
sin
n
2 1, 333
= 180 = 120 = 120 40 = 80
: = 80.

4.
:
n2 = 1,52;
n1 = 1,333
= 90
?

:
n
n = 2 = 1,14
n1
sin
;
n

= 180 o arcsin

sin sin
90 o arcsin
= sin(90 );
;
n
n
sin
= cos tg = n . = 48,4.
n
: = 48,4.

79

5.
:
h = 1 ;
= 90
r?

:
= arccos (sin / n)
r = H ctg (arccos (1/n) = 1,13 .
: r = 1,13 .

57.

1. .
2. .
3. .
4.
.
, .
5. ,
.

58.


1. n , .
2. n , .
3. , , ,
.
4. ,
.
= (n 1).
5.
.
. 90.
.

80


1.
:
n = 1,5
d = 1
a = 50
b?
2.
:
n1 = 1,33
h1 = 4
n2 = 1,5
h2 = 6
H?
3.
:
n = 1,5
d = 10
= 60
h?

:
b = AB + BC = d tg tg (90 ) =
= d sin / sin cos / cos + a =
= 51,3
: b = 51,3 .

:
,
H = h1 sin + h2 sin = h1 / n1 + h2 sin / n2 n1 =
= h1 / n1 + h2 /n2 = 7
: = 7 .

:
h = AB sin ( ) =
= d / cos (arcsin (1/n))
sin arcsin (1/n)) = 5,1
: h = 5,1

4.
:
n = 1,5
= 60
?
5.
:
AB = BC = AC
n = 1,52
?

:
= 180 180 + 2 = 2arcsin (sin / n) arcsin
(sin / n)) = 30 sin = n / 2 = 48,6
: = 48,6
:
= arcsin (1 / n) = 41,8
= 90 (180 60 ) = 11,8
sin / cos = 1 / n = arcsin (cos / n) = 40,7
= 40,7 30 = 10,7
: = 10,7.

81

59.

1. , .
.
2. ,
.
, .
3.
R1, R2 >0;
-
R1 > 0, R2 ;
-
R1 < 0, R2 > 0;

R1 < 0, R2 < 0;
-
R2 < 0, R1 ;
-
R1 > 0, R2 < 0.
4.
, .
5. , .

60.

1. ,
, , .
.
, .
2. 1 / F = (n 1) / R.
3. , . ().
4. D = (n 1) (1/ R1 + 1 / R2).
5.
1) , .
2) , .

82

3) , .


, .

1.
:
n =1,58
R = 11,6 = 0,116
F; D ?
2.
:
n = 1,5
d = 4 = 4 102
H = 2 = 2 103
D ?

:
1 / F = (n 1) / R F = R / (n 1) = 0,2
D = 1 / F = 1 / 0,2 = 5 .
: D = 5 ; F = 0,2
:
R2 = (R H / 2)2 d2 / 4 R =
= (H2 / 4 d2 / 4) / H =
4 10 6 2 16 10 4 2
+
: 2 103 =
=

4
4
= 20,05 .

1, 5 + 1
= 4,95 .
20, 05
: D = 4,95 .

D = (n 1) / R =

3.
:
R = 12 = 0,12
F = 24 = 0,24
n ?
4.
:
n1 = 1,5
R1 = R2 = 9,2
n2 = 1,33
D1; D2 ?

:
F = R / (n 1) n = R / F + 1 =1,5
: n = 1,5

:
D1 = 1 / F1 = (n1 1) (1 / R1 + 1 / R2) =
= (n1 1) (2 / R1) = 0,5 (2 / 9,2 ) = 10
D2 = 1 / F2 = (n2 1) (1 / R1 + 1 / R2) =
(n2 1) (2 / R1) = 0,33 (2 / 9,2 ) = 7 .
: D1 = 10 ; D2 = 7 .
83

5.
:
F1; F2 ?

:
F2
O

F1

61.


1. . ,
.
2. ,
.
= yf / yd = h / H = f / d.
3. .
4. , 2F.
5.

1.
:

2F

2F

2.
:

2F

84

2F

3.
:

2F

4.
:
A

F1

5.
:

A
B

B
F1

62.

1.
|| = f / d = (f F )/ F,
1 / d = 1 / F 1 / f.
1 / F = 1/ d + 1 / f.
f / d = (f + F )/ F,
1 / F = 1/ d 1 / f.
2.
1 / F = 1/ d + 1 / f.
3. d < F, f .

85

4.
f
2F
F
0

2F

5.

d f
d > 2F
F < f < 2F
d 2F
f = 2F

F < d < 2F f > 2F

fF
f =
d<F
f < 0; |f| < d

( > 0)

( < 0)

( < 0)
( > 0)

(|| < 1)

(|| 1)

(|| > 1)

(|| > 1)

+1
0

2F
d

-1

1.
:
d=1
f = 0,25
F?
2.
:
d = 15
D = 10
f?

86

:
F = (1 / d 1 / f)1 = 20 .
: F = 20 .
:
F = 1 / D = 1 / 10 = 0,1 = 10
f = (1 / f 1 / d)1 = 30 .
: f = 30 .

3.
:
N = 100
d = 10
D?

:
(d) = f / d = N f = 1000 , dx < 0
D = 1 / F = 1 / f + 1 / d = 10,1 .
: D = 10,1 .

4.
:
d>F
(d + f)min ?

:
f = (1 / F 1 / d ) 1 = dF /(d F ) ;
d + f = d 2 /(d F ) ;

(d + f ) ' = (2d (d F ) d 2 ) /(d F ) 2 ; (d + f ) ' = 0 d = 2 F .


d + f = 4 F .
: (d + f) = 4F.

5.
:
l = 40
F = 30
d1; d2 ?

:
l d = (1 / F 1 / d ) 1
l d = dF /(d F )
l = d 2 /(d F ) d 2 = ld lF

d = (l L2 4 Lf ) / 2
d1 = 10 ; d 2 = 30 .

: d1 = 10 ; d 2 = 30 .

63.

1. , , , .
, ( ).
2.
1/ F = (n 1) (1 / |R|).
3. , .
, .
, .

87

4. .
5. .206 )
2

1.
:
n = 1,5
R = 20 = 0,2
D; R ?

F = R / (1 n) = 40
d + 1 / F = 2,5 .
: F = 40 ; D = 2,5 .

2.
:
d = 4 = 0,04
H = 4 = 4 103
h = 2 = 2 103
D?
3.
:
F = 20 ; R = 10
n?
4.
:
R1 = 20
R2 = 10
n1 = 1,5; n2 = 1,62
D1; D2 ?
5.
:

F2

88

F1

:
R2 = (R H)2 d2/4 R1 = (H2 + d2 / 4) / 2H;
R2 = (h2 + d2 / 4) / 2h
D = (n 1) (1 / R1 + 1 / R2) = 4,95 .
: D = 4,95 .
:
F = (R) / (n 1) n = R / F + 1 = 1,5
: n = 1,5/
:
D = (n1 1) (1 / R1 1 / R2) = 2,5 .
: D2 = (n1 n2) (1 / R1 1 / R2) =
= (0,12) (1 / 0,2 1 / 0,1 ) = 3,1 .
: D1 = 2,5 ; D2 = 0,6 .

64.


1.
()
.
2.
.
3.
|f| / d = (|F| |f|) / |F|,
1 / d = 1 / |f| 1 / |F|,
1 / |F| = 1 / d 1 / |f|.
4.
, .
, .
|f|
|F|
0
-|F|

|F|

|F|

5. , .

1
1,5
-|F|

1.
:

2.
:
A
A

B
B F

2F

89

3.
:
F = 10
f?

:
1 / |f| = 1 / d + 1 / |F| = 1 / 5 5 .
: f = 5 .

4.
:
F = 20 ;
N=3
d?

:
= 1 / N = |F| / (|F| + d) d = |f| 9N 1) = 40
: d = 40

5.
:
a = 4 c
b = 6
F?

:
f = Hctg; 4 = hctg;
6 = hctg; f + 6 = Hctg
f +6 f

= f = 12
6
4

f
H

: F = 12

65.


1. , ,
, .
2.
M
1

F2

F1

K
L

O1

F
F2

O2
F

3. D = |D1| +D2.
4.
1

B 1

2 F2

O1
l

O2

F1
F1

F2
F1

F2

F1

F2
N

1
F
F2 F1

F2
F1

N
F

5. D1 = |D1|, D = D1+D2.

90


1.
:
F
h?

:

, h=2F.( ).

2.
:
:
F1 = 20

F2 = 15

l = 30
F = (1 / F1 l) + 1 / F2)1 = 30 .
F?
: F = 30 .
3.
:
D1 = D2 = 2 .
D = 1,2
l?

: l = 42 .

:

D = 1 / (F1 l) + D2 l =
=1 / D1 1 / (D D2) = 42 .

4.
:
:
D1 = 5

D2 = 6
1 / f = D1 1 / d f1 = 40
l = 60 = 0,6
.
d = 40 = 0,4
2- d2 = (l f1)
f2; ?
1 / f2 = D2 1 / (d2 f1) f2 = 100 .
1=|f1 / d| = 1; 2 = |f2 / d2| = 5; = 1 2 = 5
: f2 = 1 ; = 5
5.
:
f1 = 25
F1 = 3,6
F2 = 12
l?

:
,
,
, F = f
1 / f = 1 / (F1 l) + 1 / F2 l = F1 (1 / f 1 / F2)1

l = 3,6 (1 / 25 + 1 / 1,2 )1 = 2,34


: l = 2,34 .
91

66.


1.
, , ( ), , , ,
, , , , , .
2.
( )
.
3.
.
4.
,
.
= 25.
, , .
, .
, .
5.
( ).
(
).
( ).
( ).

1.
:
d = 100
= 1
h?
: h = 2,91 .

92

:
tg = h / d d tg = 2,91

2.
:
F1 = 25
F2 =
(D2 D1) ?

:
D1 D2 = 1 / F2 1 / F1 = 4
: D = 4 .

3.
:
:
d = 20
, . . f = F.
D?
1 / d = 2 / F .
F = d / 2 = 10 , D = 1 / F = 1 .
: D = 1 .
4.
:
d=2
D?

:
Dmax = 1 / f + 1 / d = 59 .

D = 1 / f + 1 / d n = 62, 5 .
D0 = D Dmax = 3,5 .
: D = 3,5 .

5.
:
D = 2,25
d = 25
d ?

:
D = 1 / d 1 / d d = 16 .
: d = 16 .

67. ,


1.
.
, ,
.
= dD.
2.
( ) (
). .

93

3.
= D1D2dL.
15 1200.
, . (. 222
.)
4.
- .
,
. .
, , .
5.
= / = F1 / F2.
. . , , .
, .

1.
:
F = 5
= ?

:

: = 5.
=dn / F = 5.

2.
:
= 8
D?

:
= dnD, D = / dn = 32
: D = 32

3.
:
F1 = 1 ; F2 = 2
L = 19
?
4.
:
d = 27
D1 = D2 = 40 .
L0; ?
= (f F) / F 130.

94

:
= (L F1 F2) dn. / (F1 / F2) = 200
: = 200

:
1 / f = |D2 1 / d| f = 51,3

L0 = 51,3 + F1 + F1 + F2 = 58,8
: L0 = 58,8 ; = 130.

5.
:
D1 = 0,5
D2 = 60
a = 385000
d = 3480
?

:
H h( f1 F2 )
=
=
f2
F1F2
f = (1 / F2 1 / a)1
= h((D2 1 / a)1 1 / D2) D1D2 = 31
: = 31.

95

68.

1.
:
, .
2.
.
3.
,

, .
, .
4.
, .
5.
, .

.

69.


1.
.
2. -

96

,
:
tmax = mT,
m = 0, 1, 2, .
Imax = I1 + I2 +

I1 I 2 .

3.
, :

tmin = mT,
m = 0, 1, 2, .
Imin = I1 + I2

I1 I 2 .

4. .
5. :

= m,
m = 0, 1, 2, .
:
= (2m + 1)/2,
m = 0, 1, 2, .

1.
:
:
l = 550 /
r2 r1 = 0 =
1 = 1500 /
.
2 = 340 /
= m m = 0, , = 40
. m?
.
: .
2.
:
n = 1,5
d = 6
t ?

:
t = d / (cos (arcsin (1 / n) c 1,5 d / c
2- , - ,
97

d / cos (), d.
t = 0,1 .
: t = 0,1 .
3.
:
1 = 6
n = 4/3
2 ?

:
= t.
c

1
1 = 1 = 2 = n1 = 8
2 c2 n

: 2 = 8 .
4.
:
= 1,2
= 400
2 ?
5.
:
I = 1 /2
= 694
= 4,47
I ?

:
= 3,
.
: m = 3
:
= 6 .
IA = I1 + I2 + 2 I1I 2 = 4I1 = 4 /2.
: IA = 4 /2.

70.

1.
,
.
2.
.
.
, ,
.
3.
= dym / Rm,

98

m = 0, 1, 2, ; ym ; d , R
.
4.
: .
: .
5.

.
:
d = v1T/4 = 1/4,
1 .

71.

1.

, .
, ,
,
.
2.
:
,
.
3.

, .
,
/2 ( ).
4.
m- :

asin m = m,
99

m = 0, 1, 2 .
.
5.

, , ,
.
<< a2/l.

72.

1.
, ,
.
2.
I = N2I0,
I0 , .
,
.

dsin m = m,
m = 0, 1, 2 .
3.
= /N, N
.
dsin m = p/N,
p = 0, 1, 2 , p kN, k = 1, 2, 3 .
4.
1 = /(Nd). , , Nd, ..
.
5.

A = 1 / |2 1|,
1 2 .
100


1.
:
:
a = 10 = 105 a sin i = mi sin i = mi / a
= 589 = 589 = 0; = 1010.
0
3
109
: 0 = 0; 3 = 1010.
0; 3 ?
2.
:
a = 10
l=1
y1 = 6
?

:
= a sin = a y 2 + l 2 = 600
.
: = 600 , .

3.
:
= 500
d = 1/200 = 5
1 ?

:
1 = arcsin( / d ) = 5o 44 '
: 1 = 544.

4.
:
:
d = 2,5
m = a sin .
= 600
mmax = a / = 4,16
N?
N = [2mmax] + 1( ). N = 9
: N = 9.
5.
:
d = 10
N = 500
1 = 589
2 = 589,6
m?

:
1
A=
Nm
2 1
.
m = 2.
: m = 2.

101

73.

1.
, .
, , , .
.
2.
,

( ).
3.

.
:
. .
4.
.
1) .
2) q = 0.
3) .
4) 0.
5) : p = h / .
6) :
P = 2I / c.
5.
-:

RT = T4.

102

: , ,
.

74.

1.
.
2.
, .
.
.

, .
3.
:
1) , .
2)
.
3) ,
.
.

. , .
,
. , .
4.
h = A + mev2/2.

. , .
:

min = A / h.
103

:
= h A / h.
,
.

1.
:
:
= 400 = 4 107
ch 3 108 / 6, 62 10 34
=

=
h
=
=
?

4 10 7
4,965 1027 .
: = 3,1 .
2.
:
:
= 400 = 4 107
ch
A = 3,1 2,28 =
= h =
?

= 0,82 .
: = 0,82 .
3.
:
:
= 2,26
2, 26 1, 6 10 19
= 0,551015 = 550 .
min = / h=
min ?
34
6, 62 10

: min = 550 .
4.
:
:
= 400 = 4 107 h = eU U = h / e =
U?
ch 3 108 / 6, 62 10 34
=
=
=
e
4 10 7 1, 6 10 19

= 0,82 .
: U = 0,82 B.
5.
:
d, N, , A ?
?

104

:
.

c = U e = Ned / 0 e.
, ,
, .
Ne 2 d / 0 = hv A ) = 0 (hv A ) / e 2 Nd = (hc / A) / e2Nd.

75.

1. ,
; .
2. -
, .
3. ,
( ) .
, .
.
4. ,
. , .
5.
, .

76.

1. :
- , .
:

= h / p,
.
2.
, , , .
3.
asin 1 = .
py = h / a.
py h / a.
105

: ypy h.
Ey = mvyy, py = mvy, y = vyt.
:
Eyt h.
5.
, .
.

77.

1. -,
.
- ,
, .
,
. , .
2. .
3.
Ek = kZe 2e / r.
R < 2k Ze2 / Ek = 2,3 1014 .
4. , ,
.
, .
5.
.

78.

1. ,
,
.

106

2.
n = h / mev, .
2r / = n.
3. :
r1 = 0,53 1010 ,
r2 = 4r1, r3 = 9r1, r4 = 16r1, r5 = 25r1 .
En = k2mee4 / 2 2n2, n = 1, 2, 3, .
E1 = 13,6 .
5. ,
.
.
,
.
.

79.

1. , , , .
,
.
2.
.
3. kn = k2mee4(1 / n2 1 / k2), 43
4. 1) (
).
2) ( , , , , ).
5.

.
(, ).

107


1.
:
:
=13,6
3 108 / 6, 62 10 34 1, 6 10 19
max=ch/=
=
max ?
13, 6
= 91,2 .
: max = 91,2 .
2.
:
k=4
n=2
?

: = 500 .
3.
:
k=1
n=2
?

:
c
= =
v

: mix = 365 .

k me e 4

= 500 -

4h '3 (1 / n 2 1 / k 2 )
.

:
c
= =
v

c
2

k me e 4

= 121

4h '3 (1 / n 2 1 / k 2 )

: = 121 .
4.
:
mix ?

c
2

:
min =

c
c
=
= 365 ,
vmax k 2 me e 4

4h '3
1 / n = 1, 1 / k = 0.

5.
: :
Z = 3e = k 2 m e 4 /(2h 2 n 2 ) = 122 . .
e
n=1
8
34
1, 6 10 19
E; ? = ch = 3 10 / 6, 62 10
=

122
= 10 .
: E = 122 ; = 10 .

108

80.

1. , .
2. ,
.
3. ,
,
.
, , .
4. - . , ,
, .
. . .
.
.
.
5. , ,
, CD ,
..

109

81.

1. , , .
mn = 1,6749286 1027 .
, , = 1,6 1019 , mp = 1,6726231 1027 .
-
.
, . ,
.
2.
+ .
3. ,

, .
4. , Z N 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126. ( , )
5. , . r 4/3R3 = (4/3r3)A. R = rA1/3 ( ).

1.
:
15
7N
np; nn ?

110

:
np = ne = 7.
nn = A np = 8.
: np = 7; nn = 8.

2.
:
15
O
nn ?

:
O , .
np = 8. nn = A np = 7.
: np = 7.
3.
:

210
202
105
87 X; 82Y; 47 Z

210
210
87 X = 87 Fr
202
202
82Y = 82 Pb
105
105
47 Z = 47 Ag

:
X, Y, Z ?

n p = 123
n p = 120
n = 58

: , , .
4.
:
108
47 Ag

:
1

r0 = 1,2 = 1,2 10
r?
: r = 5,71 .
5.
:
238
16
92 U; 8 O

r2
?
r1

15

15
3
(108) 3 =
R = r0 A = 1, 2 10
= 5,71 .

:
1

r2 238 3
=
= 2, 46 .
r1 16

: 2,46 .

82.

1. , .
. , .
2.
. 2R = 1014 .
p h / x h / 2 R.

111


min = (p)2/2mp h2 / 2mp(2R)2 = 8,6 .
3. , .
12 (A = 12):
E = 92,16 .
E = m c;
= / = 92,16 / 12 =
= 7,68 /.
4.
. ,

.
5. , .

1.
:
A = 16 = 2,66 1026
m1 = 15,994915 ...
m2 = 15,003076 ... =
= 2,49 1026
E?

:
2
mc 2 ( m2 m1 ) c
=
= 15, 7 .
A
A
: = 15,7 .

E=

2.
:

14
7N

E = mc 2 = ( ma m ) c 2 = 93,1 .

ma = 14003242 ...

: = 93,1 .

m = 14me

E?
3.
:
:
A=7
E ma m 2
c =
ma = 7,017601 ... E = A =
A
m = 7 me
7, 017601 1, 66 10 27 7 9,1 10 31
E?
=

7
9 1016 2 / 2 = 35 1013 = 5,6

: = 5,6 .
112

4.
:
m 2 = 2, 0141 a.e..
1H

m3

= 3, 01605 a.e..

m4

= 4, 0026 a.e..

1H

2 He

:
E = mc 2 = m 2 + m 3 m 4 m 1 c 2 =
1H
2 He
0n
1H
= 17, 6 .
: = 17,6 .

E?
5.
:
mU = 235,0439 ...
mCe = 139,9054 ...
mZn = 93,9036 ...
E?
: = 208 .

:
E = mc 2 = (mU + mn mCe mZn
6me 2 4mn )c 2 = 208 .

83.

1. , . .
2.
.
3. - -.
.
4. ()- . .
5. ,
. , -
.
. .

84.

1. , . 113

,
.
2.
N0 , 2 . N0/22. n N0/2n.
, n = t/T1/2. N = N 0
.
3.

T
2 1/ 2

N
N0

N 0/2

0 T

1/ 2

T1/ 2

4.
. (1).
5.
4,47 109 . Pb Z = 82 N = 124.

235
92 U

238
92 U

1.
:


238
206
92 U; 82 Pb;
t

T1/2 = 4, 5 10 9 : N = N 2 T1 / 2 , ,
0
N=

t?

1
N0
2

t = T1/2 = 4,5 109 .


: t = 4,5 109 .
114

t
1
N 0 = N 0 2 T1/2 ; 2 1 = 2 T1/2 ; 1 =
;
2
T1/2

2.
:
N / N0 ?

:
: N = N 0 2
t

t
T1 / 2

3600

N
= 2 T1 / 2 = 2 70,8 4, 93 10 16.
N0

3.
:

: 4,93 1016.

32
15 P;

T1/2 = 14, 3 = 1235520


N = 5 1016
?

: N = N 0 2

t
T1 / 2

3600

N
T1 / 2
=2
= 2 70,8 4, 93 10 16.
N0

: 4,93 1016.
4.
:

:
:
t = 1,44 T1/2 = 1,44 3,82 5,5 .
: 5,5 .

222
88 Pa;

T1/2 = 3, 82
t?

5.
238
92
U:
238

U 234 Th
234 Pa
234 U 230 Th

218

226 Ra 222 Rn
Po 214 Pb
214 Bi

210

214

Tl

2100

Pb
210 Bi
210 Po
206 Pb

Po

, 8 - 6 -.
: 8; 6.

115

85.

1. - .
1
235
236
144
89
1
0 n + 92 U 92 U* 56 Ba + 36 Kr + 30 n .
2. ,
. 235 7,6 , 8,5 .
(8,5 7,6) = 0,9 ( ). 235,
Q = 0,9
235 210 3,2 1011 .
3. k
. k 1.
4. ,

l.
5. V =R2l.
N .
n.
v = nV = nR2l = 1.
l= 1/nR2 0,12 .
m = l3 =33,2 .

86. .


1. ,
. 1942 .
2. 1- ( );
2- ( );
3- ( );
4- ( );
5- ( ).

116

3.
235
92 U

. .
4.
. , . , .
5. .
, .
, , .

87.

1. ,
.
2.

. .
r = 1014 .
W = ke2/r = 2,3 1014 = 0,14 .
E = (3/2) kT.

E W ; T 2W / 3k .
, 109 .
3.
, 107 .
, .
4.
, ,
.
5.
,

.
117

88.

1. . k > 1.
2. ( ), .
3. . 20 .
4.
, .
5. LiD,
. 20 .

89.


1. , , .
(1 = 1 / ).
2.
.
3.
. (1 ).
4.
. , , 2 .
5. 55%, 11%, 11%, 8%,
8%, . 4%,
3%, 1%.

118

90.

1.

,
.
,
.
2.
, ,
.
3.
:
.
, 1, s = 1/2. , s = 0 s = 1.
1/2 3/2.
4.
: .
.
, . , , .
.
5.
, - ()
.

119

91.

1.
: ()
().
2.
12 ( 6 6 ): , , , , , .
L ( ) 1, L = 0,
L = 1.
3.
.
,
.
, .
+ + .
4.
,
() 1956 .
m0 = / Rc 3 1025 .
5.
W,
W .

92.

1.
: (s = 0, 1,
) (s = 1/2, 3/2, ). (s =1/2) (s =
1/2, 3/2).
2. , .

, 20 .

120

, , ,
.
3.
Q q .
0 = Q + 2q; e = 2Q + q.


Q = +2/3e ( u-); q = 1/3e (d-).
4.
, .
:
.
. 1/3, ( ) = 1 ( ). -

1 = 1 + 0 + 0.
5.
.
()
q
B
s = 1/2
u, c, t
+2/3e
1/3
d, s, b
1/3e
1/3

93.

1.
() : , . .
.
2.
0. , . . , . ,
.

121

3.
- , 6 6 . 48 .
, .
4.
(
1), ( ) , , .
5.
, .

122