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. ..

..


2012

[512.581/.582+515.142](075.8)
22.14473+22.15273
80
..

E 80

: . : , 2012. 88 .
ISBN 978-5-9999-1223-7

- . : ,
, , ,
. .
,
. ,
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:
- , ..
.
..

[512.581/.582+515.142](075.8)
22.14473+22.15273
ISBN 978-5-9999-1223-7

c .. , 2012

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
2

. . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1
2.2
2.3
3

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9
13
22
33
54
57

. . . . . . . . . 57
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

3.1
3.2

.
.
.
.
.

79

1. - . 79
2. . . . . . . . . . . . 80



.

.
( ) .
. . ( ,
)
( ( . ), , ,
Computer Science, (. [1])).
 ,
, .
,  
.. [11]:   :
, .1
, . ,  , 
.2
1 ,   ,
. ,
, ,
, , .

1.3.

2 pattern (.)  , , .

, , , . ,
(
),

. , , .
.3
1. LG

() G,
S 1 G. LG G?
(Z), ,
, .4 , G (G),
,
g G, .
G := Hom((Z), (G))  (Z)
(G) . , G  LG
G, , LG
G [14].
, G .
(Z) (G)
1 Z,
G, G G. ,
F1 , F2 Hom((Z), (G))  , F1 (1) = g1 , F2 (1) = g2 G.
3 3 ; ,
,
.

4 ,  .

h G ,

g1 /

g2

h

/ ,

g2 = hg1 h1 , F1 F2 ,
G. , G ,
G .
.
, . [14].


2.

? . , , ( )
. 1 (XY )
= 1 (X)1 (Y )
.
( -) ,  .   ,
, , X.
2 (X)
= 1 (X), q (X), q 2. 
3. -

 ( ..)  (,
..).  , , K - . , , ,
, X Y , F , , ,
F (X) F (Y ) .
 [6].  ,
6

. ( R-) , k .
F k . ,
(
k ), ( )  ( k - k ,
k ). 

.
( , ).
, ,  .
, . , .
.
,
(
), , , .
, ,
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[10]. ,
7

.

,
: 20 [18], 13, 14 [8] 0 [16].
, ,
[10] ( ),
II [3]. (
3 ) 3 [6].
, , ,
.
, .
, .
..
.


1.1

1. C :

(i) ( ) Ob(C), C,
(ii) HomC (X, Y ), X, Y Ob(C),

X Y f : X Y X Y ,

(iii)

HomC (Y, Z) HomC (X, Y ) HomC (X, Z)


X, Y, Z.
f : X Y g : Y Z
X Z , gf
f g.
:
(a) f X, Y
Ob(C), f HomC (X, Y ), ,
HomC (X, Y ) ;
(b) X Ob(C) idX HomC (X, X), :
9

Y, Z Ob(C) f HomC (Y, X), g HomC (X, Z)


idX f = f, g idX = g;
(c) , .. W, X, Y, Z Ob(C) f : W X, g : X
Y, h : Y Z (h g) f h (g f )
W Z.
. 1) . (i) , -

,
(, , ).

Set   (. a)
1.2).
, . , , , , . , U X , X
X . U U , U
U .1
, - , . , , , , . , , 1 . ,
,  . , . ,
. , ,
, ,
. , .
,

U.

, , -

(
( )

), -

; ,

. ,

, ;

10

, .
Set , .  ,
, , , , . ,
, [2].
.. [11]: ...
. -,
, , .
2) X Ob(C) idX
. , idX , idX  (b), idX = idX idX = idX .
3) (c) , , ,
.
. A, B

f : A B, g, h : B A,

h


AW

f /

B.

g
,

A, idB : B B

idA : A

( ). ,

A, B .

2. a) f : X Y C

g : Y X , f g =
idY , g f = idX .
,

11

b) X, Y Ob(C),
, .
,  
Ob(C). f : X Y g : Y X , . a) , . f : X Y : g, g  ,

g = g idY = g (f g ) = (g f ) g = idX g = g .
, .
3. f : Y Z C -

g1 : X Y, g2 : X Y
C f g1 = f g2
g1 = g2 . ,  ,
. :

g1

X Y Z.
g2

(1.1)

f : X Y C ,
g1 : Y Z, g2 : Y Z C g1 f = g2 f
g1 = g2 . ,  ,
. :
g1

X Y Z.
g2

(1.2)

4. C D ,

(a) Ob(C) Ob(D);


(b) X, Y Ob(C)
HomC (X, Y ) HomD (X, Y );
(c) C D; X Ob(C) idX C idX

D.
12

5. C D , -

X, Y Ob(C) (b),

HomC (X, Y ) = HomD (X, Y )


.

1.2

,
 ,
(
b)  i)).
a) .

 (, , .
1) ) 
, Set . , Ob(Set) , HomSet (X, Y )
X Y
f : X Y. 
, , , , .. (c) 1. idX 
X X,
x X .
, Set 
. f : X Y g : Y X  , g f = idX , f g = idY . f . ,
g(f (x1 )) = x1 , g(f (x2 )) = x2 , x1 = x2 f (x1 ) = f (x2 ).
, f . , y Y x X (
x = g(y)) f (x) = y. , f . f g
, g  . , f : X Y 
, , g = f 1 , g f = idX , f g = idY .
, Set
, . , f : Y Z (1.1) . f g1 = f g2 ,
13

f (g1 (x)) = f (g2 (x)) x X,


f , g1 (x) = g2 (x) x X, g1 = g2 , f  . , f : Y Z (1.1) ,
y1 , y2 Y, y1 = y2 , f (y1 ) = f (y2 ).
X , gi : X Y, i = 1, 2  , gi (X) = yi , i = 1, 2.
, f g1 = f g2 , g1 = g2 . , f  .
. , Set
, .

(b)  h )) , ,
 , .  ,
, .
b) . T op

, ,  . T op  .
c) . Di -

, ,
 . Di .
d) . Gr , -

,  . Gr .
e) . Ab  ,

(=) ,
 .  Gr .
f ) . Ring , -

( ),
.
 .
g) . -

14

, k ,
k (, k - 1
k -, 1 1).
,
Alg k , ,
( ).
() R. ,
Z- Alg (,
).
h) k .

k Vect k , k ,  . , R  .
R Mod , R- (, R- M
, 1R x = x x M , 1R  R),
 R-. (,
Z Mod Ab.) R- Mod R .

h ) f
k . Vect k Vect k , k , (  Vect k ).
(,
k (  ), ( ), ( 3
: ,
15

, ;
,
) ..
. , Vect k
, . ,

Vect k

, -

. 3

, , .

, 4

T op ,

,
- .
i) . -

.. hT op .
, ,

f, g : X Y
X Y
,

: X I Y
( I  [0, 1] , X I ),

|X{0} = f, |X{1} = g,
2 , , (
) ,  ,
(
), ( ) ,
 . , , :
, , , (,

Z Q,

Ring ).

3 , ,  ,
, .

4 , ,
?

16

|X{0} (. |X{1} ) X
{0} X I (. X {1})).
,
X Y   , , ,  . f [f ].
hT op  , .. Ob(hT op) = Ob(T op) (. c)),
Ob(T op):

HomhT op (X, Y ) = {
X Y }.
f1 , g1 : X Y f2 , g2 : Y Z , f2 f1 , g2 g1 : X Z ,
[f2 ] [f1 ] := [f2 f1 ]
.
.

f : X Y ,
hT op .

[f ]

( ) . ,
( ; ,
 ), ,
( )  . , x
x x, , ;
(c) 1, 
(.. (b) ).
17

( , ),
( ), . ( 
), , .
j) . X  ,

G. (., , [7]), , (g, x) G X gx X,


:
(1) (g2 g1 )x = g2 (g1 x) g1 , g2 G, x X
(2) ex = x x X, e  G.
C :

Ob(C) = {x | x X},

HomC (x, x ) = {g G | gx = x }.

, C X ,  (g, x), g G, x X, (g, x) HomC (x, gx).5


(g, x) (g , x ) ,
gx = x ,

(g , x ) (g, x) := (g g, x) HomC (x, g x )


g

( x x x ). idx (e, x). ,


(1), (2) ,
(g, x) 

g 1 (gx) = (g 1 g)x = ex = x, g(g 1 (gx)) = (gg 1 )(gx) = e(gx) = gx.


k) , .

X  , ,  . , X ,
5 ,

(g, x),

18

(a) 1.

x, y X x y
x y .
l) . Rel -

. Rel Set  (   . 1) . 10), HomRel (X, Y )


: X Y .6
: X Y : Y Z :

= {(x, z) X Z | y Y (x, y) , (y, z) }.


idX :

idX = {(x, x) | x X} X X.
m) . -

S . P(S),
S ,  . ,
. , : , .
n) . E B    -

.7 p : E B , b B V ,
p1 (V ) E p V .
g : E E 6 ,

S X X RS

X : S X X
xRS y (x, y) S ,

7   , , [12]. , ,
.

19

p : E B p : E B B

E @@

@@
@@
p @@

/ E
}
}}
}}
}
~}} p

.8
B
Cov (B) B .
.
o) . C  .

R C 
X, Y RX, Y HomC (X, Y ), . , f1 , f2 : X Y RX, Y , g1 , g2 : Y Z 
RY, Z , g1 f1 g2 f2 : X Z
RX, Z .
R C
C/R C , C
.

HomC/R (X, Y ) = HomC (X, Y )/RX, Y .


C/R , R 
.
,
. .
8 

p,



p g . 
p = p g . , 

, , ,
.
, .

20


i) hT op ( C T op ,
RX, Y 
X Y ).
p) .9 C  . -

S Ob(C) CS  S  . CS 
(X, ), X Ob(C), HomC (X, S). (X, ) Ob(CS )
(Y, ) Ob(CS )  f HomC (X, Y ) = f,
..
f

/Y
}
}
}

}}
 }~ }}

S
. .  C S , (X, ), HomC (X, S)
(X, ), HomC (S, X).
q) S . C  , -

f : S G, G 
( ). (G, f ). C (G, f )
(H, g)  : G H ,
f

/G
}
}
}}
g
}}
}
 }~

( g f S H ).
, S .
r) k U1 , . . . , Un

( ). C ,
9 - comma category.

21

(V, f ), V ( ) f : U1 . . . Un V .
(V, f ) (W, g) 
: V W,

U1 . . . Un
g


/V
pp
p
p
ppp
pp
p
p
pw pp

. g f U1 . . . Un W. U1 , . . . , Un .

, ,
.

1.3

,
, (
), ( ) .
,
,
g f = f g .
X Z

X
g


f
/

g
f / 
Z.

, ( n), p), q), r) ).


22

10
( ). .

X Y X Y ( ).
, , X Y
X + Y X Y . X + Y iX : X X + Y iY : Y X + Y .
Z  , u : X Z, v : Y Z.

h : X + Y Z,

o iY Y
v
HH
vv
HH
vv
v
H
h
u HHH  vvv v
zv
$

X HH X / X + Y

(1.3)

(.. h iX = u, h iY = v ). , h
:

t X

u(t), t X ;
h(t) =
v(t), t Y .

, X, Y X Y (
(x, y), x X, y Y ). X Y X : X Y X, (x, y) 7 x, Y : X
Y Y, (x, y) 7 y. X Y : Z

u : Z X, v : Z Y
h : Z X Y,

Y /
Y
v:
vv
v
h vvvv
v
vv

X dHo H X X O Y
HH
HH
u HHHH

(1.4)

10  ,
.

23

(.. X h = u, Y h = v ). ,
h : h(z) = (u(z), v(z)) z
Z.
,
(1.3)
(1.4), C .11 ,
.

6. X, Y Ob(C)

C , X + Y , iX : X
X + Y, iY : Y X + Y, :
, Z Ob(C)
u : X Z, v : Y Z
h : X + Y Z, (1.3) .
(1.4).12
, Set
.
. a) , T op -

(. b) 1.2)
. , (X, OX ), (Y, OY )  OX , OY . [9], X Y OXY (
U V, U OX , V OY ). , X : X Y X, Y : X Y Y
1
. , U X X
(U ) =
U Y X Y,
Y : X Y Y . , , (X Y, OXY ) 11 , (1.3) (1.4) ,
 . .

12 , .

24

(X, OX ), (Y, OY ), ,
(Z, OZ ) u : Z X, v : Z Y, h : Z
X Y, h(z) = (u(z), v(z)) ( h
, h  Z X Y X h = u, Y h = v ).
, h1 (U V ) = u1 (U ) v 1 (V ), Z
U X, V Y . , , X Y, Z ,
h .
T op
, .

a )  .
PT op T op : PT op
 ,
(X, x0 ), x0 X. f HomPT op ((X, x0 ), (Y, y0 )) 
f : X Y, f (x0 ) = y0 (
). ,
(X, x0 ) (Y, y0 )  (X Y, (x0 , y0 )), (X, x0 ) + (Y, y0 ) 
(X, x0 ) (Y, y0 ), (,

X Y z w
z = w z = x0 , w = y0 ). , 
 .
b) Ab 13 (. e) 1.2)

A B
i

A
B
A
A B, a 7 (a, 0), B
A B, b 7 (0, b),

A
B
AB
A, (a, b) 7 a, A B
B, (a, b) 7 b.

, (A B, iA , iB )  A B Ab . C  , u : A C, v : B
13

25

C  .
w : A B C , , (1.3), . :
w(a, b) = w((a, 0) + (0, b)) = w(a, 0) + w(0, b) =
w(iA (a)) + w(iB (b)) = u(a) + v(b).
, w(a, b) = u(a) + v(b)  w,
. , w :

w((a1 , b1 ) + (a2 , b2 )) = w(a1 + a2 , b1 + b2 ) = u(a1 + a2 ) + v(b1 + b2 ) =


u(a1 ) + u(a2 ) + v(b1 ) + v(b2 ) = (u(a1 ) + v(b1 )) + (u(a2 ) + v(b2 )) =
w(a1 , b1 ) + w(a2 , b2 ).
. , (A B, A , B ) 

A B Ab . (: ,
w : C A B, w(c) = (u(c), v(c)) 

, (1.4), .)

, A B ,
(1.3), (1.4). ,
Ab .

b )  Gr (. d) 1.2) -. G H
G H G G H H, , (1.4).
f : G G H g : H G H , , (1.3), . ,
K , , G H ,
, ( ,
G = {e}, H = {e}  . ), u
v  G H .

26

G H f (), G g(), H , h
f /
g
G H o vH
HH
vv
HH
vv
HH
v
h
v
u HH  vv v
$
zv

G HH

. (,
G, H u()v()u()1 v()1 = e.
f ()g()f ()1 g()1 = e G H, h ,

e = h(e) = h(f ()g()f ()1 g()1 ) =


h(f ())h(g())h(f ())1 h(g())1 = u()v()u()1 v()1 = e
 .)
Gr G H G H .
, G H ,
G H , ,
G H ( iG iH 
G G H, H G H, G H
). ,
Z  F2 .14 .. ZZ ZZ = F2 (,
), , ,
Ab Gr .
, , Z2 Z3 . 
, -

z 7

az + b
, a, b, c, d Z
cz + d

14 .

27

H = {z | Im(z) > 0}. ,

= SL2 (Z)/{E},

SL2 (Z)  2 2-
1. S, S(z) = 1/z
T, T (z) = z +1, () S T . D 
H , z , |z| 1 |Re(z)| 1/2.
D ( )

{1, T, T S, ST 1 S, ST 1 , S, ST, ST S, T 1 S, T 1 }
( = e2i/3 ).

S T : S 2 = e
(ST )3 = e. ,  ; ,
:

= S, T | S 2 = e, (ST )3 = e.
S ST S T , , Z2 Z3
28

Z2 Z3 . , ,
Z2 Z3
= Z6  Z2 Z3 Ab .
c) .

15 k 16 ,
k , .17 A B A : A B A
B : A B B ,
(1.4). , ,
k - C u : C A, v : C B

h : C A B,

h(c) = (u(c), v(c))

 , ,
(1.4), .
f : A A B, f (a) = (a, 0)
g : B A B, g(b) = (0, b), ,
(1.3) : , a A
b B A B f (a)g(b) = 0,
C , A B ,
A B , a b = 0 a A , b B ,
h : AB C ,
u A A A C ,
v  B B B C .
, a A b B u(a) = a , v(b) =
b . , h , ,
,

h(f (a)g(b)) = h(0) = 0,




h(f (a)g(b)) = h(f (a))h(g(b)) = u(a)v(b) = a b = 0


 .
A = B = k[t], C =
k[x, y] u : A C, v : B C,
15 .
16 .
17 .

29

u(t) = x, v(t) = y , k[t]


k[x] k[x, y] k[y] k[x, y] .
AB k
k

iA : A AB, iA (a) = a 1B

iB : B AB, iB (b) = 1A b,
k

1A 1B  A B . ,
AB k


A B ,

(a b)(a b ) = aa bb ,

(1.5)

a, a A, b, b B. AB 1A 1B . (1.5)
k
:

iA (a)iB (b) = (a1B )(1A b) = ab = (1A b)(a1B ) = iB (b)iA (a). (1.6)


. ,

k[t] k[s]

k[x, y].

, (AB, iA , iB ) A B .
k

f : A C g : B C  C . ,
h : AB C h iA = f h iB = g .
k

h
AB C , , .
k


(. f) ). ,

: A B AB, (a, b) = a b,
k

,
: A B C C (
30

h : AB C ,
k

AB

u
uu

uu
u
 uz uuu h

AB
k

C
. : (a, b) = f (a)g(b) a A, b B. , h(a b) = h( (a, b)) = f (a)g(b).
(1.6), h (
)
h(a b) = h(iA (a)iB (b)) = h(iA (a))h(iB (b)) = f (a)g(b),
. . , h
. a b :

h(a b)h(a b ) = f (a)g(b)f (a )g(b ) =


f (a)f (a )g(b)g(b ) = f (aa )g(bb ) = h(aa bb ).
h ,
A B a b. h f g .
d) , , P(S),

m) 19. ,
, .. X, Y S,
X Y X Y S ,

X : X Y X,

Y : X Y Y

X Y . , X Y 
X Y X Y S,

iX : X X Y,

31

iY : Y X Y

 . .18
f

. Vect k (:
).

7. X, Y

X + Y, iX , iY

X Y, X , Y

(,

, ), 19

, , (R, iX , iY ) (S, iX , iY ) 
X Y. h : S
R, k : R S,

RO o

X BBX

iY

BB
}}
BB h k }}}
B
}
iX B!  ~}} iY

S.

iX = h iX , iX = k iX , .. iX = (h k) iX ,
iY = (h k) iY . , h k
i

X AAX

AA
AA
AA
i
X

Ro

iY

~
~~
~
hk~~
 ~~ iY

. , h k idR . h
(1.3) , h k = idR . , k h = idS . , R, iX , iY
S, iX , iY X Y h : S R k : R S, iX = h iX , iY = h iY
iX = k iX , iY = k iY . 

. 
18 m) ,  , . ,
.

19 9.

32

1.4

8. X C (

Y Ob(C) HomC (X, Y )


.
X C ( ),
Y Ob(C) HomC (Y, X)
.

.

),

, (.. ), ,
.
9. () , .
.

,
. X, Y 
C.
f : X Y HomC (X, Y ) g : Y X
HomC (Y, X). gf HomC (X, X) ( (b) 1) idX , f g  HomC (Y, Y ),
idY .
. 
. X  C , . ,

X +Y
= Y.

. X, Y Ob(C)

X +Y
= Y + X.

X, Y, Z Ob(C) (X + Y ) + Z
= X + (Y + Z).

( ).

. a) Set -


33

(), . ,
. 20 P(S) (. m)) . 19)
S,  S . CS , p) . 21, (S, idS ),
C S ( )  (S, idS ).
. , , ,
.


, .
( ), .
b) . -

.

. .
{X }A  C.
CA , . CA (Y, {f }A ), Y Ob(C), f
HomC (X , Y ) A. CA (Y, {f }A ) (Z, {g }A ) h : Y Z
C , A

X C

f |||
|
||
~||

CC g
CC
CC
C!
h
/ Z.

, CA
(X, {i }A ) ( , ). X {X }A , i : X X  X .
20 , , .

34

, C 
C .
P X
HomC (P, X ) . ,
C  C .
()  ( ). ,
() ,
. , . , ,
.
: ,
, ( Vect k Ab  ).
 . ,
T op (

CT op 
).
c) , . -

k S . C ( k S ), (V, f ), V 
k , f : S V  S V . C
(V, f ) (W, g)  : V W,

35

S
g


/V
|
|
||
||
|
|~

W
. (VS , iS )
, S .
, ,
. VS ,
{es }sS ( es
s S ). VS

s s es , s k , s = 0
s. iS : S VS iS (s) = es .
, (VS , iS ) C . :
(W, g)
: VS W,
iS

/V
S
}
}}
g
}
}
 }~ }

.
es
:

(es ) = (iS (s)) = g(s).


v VS
: v = s s es

(v) = (

s es ) =

s (es ) =

s g(s).

es : v VS

v = s s es .
: v VS v = s s es .
.
36

, 9 , (VS , iS )
= (VS , iS ).
.
es , ,

e
=
0

s
s
s
s s g(s) = 0 g(s) W (
g : S W ). , {es }sS ( VS ),
.
d) . ,

q) . 21, , () S . (FS , iS ). , iS : S FS :
g : S G G
: FS G ,
iS /
FS
}
}
}
g
}}
 }~ }}

(1.7)

.
FS . S S 1 , , s1 , s S . T = S S 1 .
S T . , S = {s1 , . . . , sn } 
1
, T = {s1 , s1
1 , . . . , sn , sn }, S si s1
j , , s1 s2 s2 s1
1 s3 ( n 3).
e, , ,
s s1 . ,
s s1 . A B , , B A
s s1 ,
37

( , ). ,
: 1 1 1
, s1
3 s1 s2 s2 s1 ,
e. S FS .
iS : S FS , iS (s) 
s.
, (FS , iS ) , (1.7). g : S G
: FS G, (1.7) ( (FS , iS ) (FS , iS ))
. (s) = g(s) s S
(, ). . ,
G (s1 ) = (s)1 . ,
FS
S (-, ).21
, 9 (FS , iS ) (FS , iS ).
, S = {s1 , . . . , sn } FS n Fn (, F1
= Z). , , ,
Fn
n .22 , FS1 S2
= FS1 FS2 (.

23
b ) 1.3).
21 , , . , , .

FS

S.

, -

, .

22 , - ,

a )

1.3.

, .

23 , :
(  ).

38

, FS 
, S . , ,
, S G G
(=). , FS S ,
.
,
.
, S . .
e) . S  . C -

, (A, f ), A Alg k
f : S A S A ( A). C
(A, f ) Ob(C) (B, g) Ob(C) 
h : A B
f

/A
~
~
~~
g
~~
 ~ ~ h

(, h
 24 A B ). C k -, S .

. k{S}  , si1 . . . sip S , .

(si1 . . . sip )(sip+1 . . . sin ) = si1 . . . sip sip+1 . . . sin


k{S}. k{S} : 1 = . , iS : S k{S}.
24 , .

39

, (k{S}, iS )
. f : S A k - A.
f: k{S} A,

iS /

k{S}

yy
yy
f
y
 y| yy f

. f() = 1A , 1A  A,
si1 . . . sip f(si1 . . . sip ) = f (si1 ) . . . f (sip ).
, f k{S},
. ,
f S
.
,
.
, k{S}
, S (
  ).
k[S]
. , Alg k
k -.
. S = {s1 , . . . , sn }  n .

k[S]
= k[s1 , . . . , sn ]  n .

f ) . , -

r) . 21
U1 , . . . , Un . .
k  U1 , . . . , Un 
k . , (V, f ), V f : U1 . . . Un V . (V, f )
(W, g)  : V W, -

40

U1 . . . Un
g


/
pV
p
p
p
ppp
pp
p
p
pw pp

W
. U1 , . . . , Un
(U1 . . . Un , ).
: U1 . . . Un U1 . . . Un
. (U1 . . . Un , ) ,
k - V f : U1 . . .
Un V : U1 . . .
Un V ,

U1 . . . Un

U1k
kk
k
k
k
kk
f
k
k
k

 kkkkkk
ku

. . . Un

.

(., , [8]),
.

.
g) .

. k  ;
V k . C ,
(A, ),
A k : V
A. (A, ) (B, )  k : A B,
/
A
~
~~
~

~~
 ~~

41

.
T (V )  V, iV : V T (V )
 ( V T 1 (V )
T (V ) ). , (T (V ), iV )  .
: C V
, A. iV : V S(V ), S(V )  V , iV  . .
[6].
. I  ,

V.

T (V )
k[I].

k{I}.

S(V )

h) . , -

X , , X/ . , : X X/, x X
.
, C, X . C (Y, ), Y  : X Y  ,
xy (x) = (y) (.. ). C (Y, ) (Z, )
: Y Z,

/
Y
}}
}

}}
 }~ }}

(1.8)

. , (X/, )  C.
42

,
X  . , X/ : X X/, .. , .
Ctop . Ctop
(Y, ), Y
: X Y , xy (x) = (y).
Ctop (Y, ) (Z, )
: Y Z,
(1.8) . ,
(X/, )  Ctop .
, ,
, . .
i) , , . -

.
( ) , .
.
G  H G  ; , G/H ,
: G G/H . (G/H, )
: : G K
H ker
: G/H K = ,

/ G/H
yy

yy
y
 y| yy

. .
. .

R  I R  ; , R/I ,
43

: R R/I . (R/I, ) : : R S
I ker
: R/I S = ,

R/I

{{

{{
{
 {} {{

. .
. .

. () .

j) . -

. k  V 
k , Q. C 
k j : V C 
 , j(v)2 = Q(v) 1C v V
(1C  C ). ,
j(v), v V  C , 1C ( Q(v)). (C, j),
.
k - A : V A , (v)2 = Q(v) 1A
: C A,
j

/C
~
~
~

~~
 ~~ ~~

.
C(V, Q),
, . (. ). , : V A
44

: T (V ) A,

iV
/

T (V )

yy
yy

y
y
 y| yy

.
(v)2 = Q(v) 1A ,

v v Q(v) 1T (V ) T (V ), v V
0, I(Q) T (V ), , . , B := T (V )/I(Q), (=)
: B A. ,
j := iV : V B, : T (V ) T (V )/I(Q)  , j(v)2 = Q(v) 1B . , (B, j)
, B = C(V, Q). ,
.
., , [5], . 153-155 [13], 13.
, , (
, K -), ,
, . ,
( Q = 0)
.
. .
k) . -

k - A
, a, b A
[a, b] [a, b] = ab ba ( ab 
A).
AL . , -

45

: A B L : AL BL .25
L k
(U (L), iL ), U (L) k iL : L U (L)L , . A k
: L AL : U (L) A , L i = ,

AL

iL /
U (L)L
w
w
ww
ww L
w
w{ w

.

. , T (L)  L. I(L) T (L)
 ,

a b b a [a, b], a, b L.
iL := i, i : L T (L) 
: T (L) T (L)/I(L)  . ,
iL : L U (L)L  . (U (L), iL )
T (L) .
., , [13], 5.
l) .

. . , A 
(, 
). , Quot(A),
( A = Z  Q,
25 ,

Alg k

Lie k .

46

A = k[X]  k(X)). a/b, a, b A, b = 0


:

(a/b a /b ) (b a ba = 0).
Quot(A)
:

a/b + a /b = (b a + ba )/bb , (a/b) (a /b ) = (aa /bb ).


, Quot(A)

jA : A Quot(A), a 7 a/1.
,
(K, f ), K  , f : A K  A K . (K, f ) (L, g) 
(.. ) : K L,

f /
K
~~
~
g
~~
 ~~ ~~

A
L

. (Quot(A), jA )
.
m) . G  , G  . , G  ,

[g1 , g2 ] := g1 g2 g11 g21 , g1 , g2 G.


, G .
, : G H  , (G ) H ,
(G) = H, (G ) = H . ,
,
. , G/G , G Gab .
. , (Gab , ), : G Gab  , -

47

: G A

: Gab A

= ,

/ Gab
{
{
{{

{
{
 {} {{

G
A

n) . G k

, k[G], ( k )
G, g1 , g2 G
g1 g2 .
k[G]
G.
k[G]

a=

ag g (ag k, ag = 0 g G).

gG

(1.9)
G k[G]. , (1.9) k[G]
a : G k, a(g) := ag . a b a, b k[G]
:

a(h)b(h1 g)

(a b)(g) =

hG

a b G. ,  e e G ( e (e) = 1 e (g) = 0 g = e)
k[G].
A Ob(Alg k ) : G A ,

(g1 g2 ) = (g1 )(g2 ) g1 , g2 G.


,  ,
48

G A , A  A26 , A A.
(k[G], ), : G k[G]  , (,
, )
:
: G A : k[G] A
, = , , , ,
G

k[G]

{
{{

{
{
 {} {{

.
, : -,
27
, -,
, .
o) . , -

, , ,
, , .
,
(, , , f : M N f (xy) = f (x)f (y) x, y M
f ,
).
, M 
(S(M ), M ) S(M )
M : M S(M ), , : A
f : M A
fe: S(M ) A ,
26 ,

27

49

0.

M /

S(M )

w
ww
f
ww
w
 w{ ww fe

.
, , ,
, ( )  .
, , , .
, S(M ) F(M ), [m], m M , ,
[m + n] [m] [n] F(M ) ( m + n M ), M (m) [m].
(S(M ), M )
. .,
, [5].
p) . (X, d)  -

iX ),
d),
. ((X,
28
d)
(X,
, d)
iX : (X, d) (X,
: (Y, ) : (X, d) (Y, ) (Y, ),
d)
: (X,
iX /
X
~~
~
~

~~
 ~~ ~

X
Y

. ,
 ,
28 ,
,

((x1 ), (x2 )) = d(x1 , x2 ) x1 , x2 X .

50

: (X, d) (Y, ) -

.
, iX (X) X
., , [16].
q) -. X 

. (X, iX ), X iX : X X -, :
f : X K K f : X K ,

iX /
X
{
{
{
f
{{
 {} {{ f

.
, - X X.
X   ,  X
X X
( ).
, 
N
( , N 2 ,  ).
r) . .

M, ..  , ..
(Y, ), Y  ,  ( , .., , ).
f : (Y, ) (Z, ) , , .. f (ab) = f (a)f (b) a, b Y. ,
Y
: Y Y Y .
X  . X ,
((M (X), ), iX ), (M (X), )  , iX : X M (X)
51

 , Y
: X Y
: M (X) Y ,

iX /

M (X)

ww
ww

w
w
 w{ ww

.
, .. , .
n
n . ,
5
a

@


@

@

@
@
@

AA
A

(1.10)

( , ): ((ab)c)(de);
. n Jn (
Jn ). , (Y, ) T Jn
T : Y n Y (, T (1.10)
: T (y1 , y2 , y3 , y4 , y5 ) = ((y1 y2 )y3 )(y4 y5 )).
. l(T ) 
T.

M (Y ) :=
{T } Y l(T ) .
T

(Y, )
e : M (Y ) Y,
52

(T ; y1 , . . . , yl(T ) ) T (y1 , . . . , yl(T ) ).29


X  ( ).

{T } X l(T ) .
M (X) :=
T

, M (X) ,
(T , T ) 7 T T :
a

@
@
@
@
@

d
@
@

e
@
@
@

@


@

@

@
@
@

AA
A

,
, , l(T T ) = l(T ) + l(T ). ,

(T ; x1 , . . . , xl(T ) ) (T ; x1 , . . . , xl(T ) ) = (T T ; x1 , . . . , xl(T )+l(T ) ),


xi = xi 1 i l(T ) xl(T )+j = xj 1 j l(T ).
, (M (X), )  .
iX : X M (X) :
J1 ; x X
(, x) M (X)). , :

(T ; x1 , . . . , xl(T ) ) = T ((x1 ), . . . , (xl(T ) )).


((M (X), ), iX )
(. [4]).
(
)
( ).
29 , , .

53

1.5

, ( ,
, ) , , , . , (1.3) (1.4) . (1.1) (1.2)
- . ,
.
10. C  . -

C : Ob(C ) = Ob(C) ( X Ob(C)


X ); HomC (X , Y ) = HomC (Y, X) (
: Y X C : X Y
C ). , :

1) ( ) = , ..
/
Y
}}
}
}

}}
 }~ }

ZO o
=()

X
C ;
2) (idX ) = idX .
54

>Y
}}
}
}
}}
}}

, C C
.
, (C ) = C.
. , G

, .
G
(opposite -) G , G,
g1 g2 := g2 g1 ,  
G. g 7 g 1 G
G . ,
30 .
. , , (. m)

1.2).

, C, C 
,  . , , X Ob(C)  ()
C, X Ob(C )  (. )
C . , X + Y  X, Y C, (X + Y )  X , Y C ,
.31 ,
(1.3) (1.4),
. , (. )
C C (. ).
 ,
. ,
C, C  .

Ob(C C ) = Ob(C) Ob(C ),


30 , .
31 .
,  ..
.

55

HomCC ((X, X ), (Y, Y )) = HomC (X, Y ) HomC (X , Y ),


(, ) (, ) = ( , ),

id(X, X ) = (idX , idX ).

, C C .
. , (C C ) = C C .

56

2.1

11. C

D (: F : C D) :
a) Ob(C) Ob(D), X 7 F (X);
b) X, Y Ob(C)

HomC (X, Y ) HomD (F (X), F (Y )),


{f : X Y } 7 {F (f ) : F (X) F (Y )},

(i) : F (idX ) = idF (X) ,


(ii) : X, Y, Z
Ob(C) f HomC (X, Y ), g HomC (Y, Z)
F (g f ) = F (g) F (f ).
F

, - C
G
GF
D E C E . -

57

idC . .1
, C D ,
( ), -, ,  , .
,
(
).
 - ( ).

. C D  , (. m) . 19).

. , C ,
, -,
. 1)

C Vect ?

C Set ? 2) -

. .

. a) .

:
, .
 :

T op, Di , Gr , Ab, Vect k , Alg k Set,


Di T op, PT op T op,

R Mod

Ab, Alg k Vect k

..

, ..
(, 1 ,    ( ), .. 2-.

58

!),  ,  M Ob(R Mod )


,
n1R , n Z, M Z-,
.. ,  k 
( ). ,
, .
b) .

, .
37 d) , S . , S 7 FS
( ) F : Set Gr
(.. ).
: S S  Set , iS : S
FS , iS : S FS  . (FS , iS ),
(1.7), iS : S FS , , : FS FS ,
(. (1.7))

S
iS


FS

iS /
FS
{
{
{{
{{
{
{}

. F : S S
F () := : FS FS . , F ()  ,

/ S

iS

FS F ()/ FS

iS

(2.1)

.
, F : Set Gr . = idS ( , S =
59

S, FS = FS ), iS = iS = idFS (2.1) .
F (idS ) = idFS . F ( ) = F () F ()
: S S , : S S . :

S
iS

/ S
iS

FS

F ()
/

FS

F ()
/

S


iS
 F () 
/ F .
FS
S

iS

iS

FS

/
S

, (.. F ()) F ()F (),


. F ( ) = F () F ().
, , F , . Set Ab , Set Vect k

Set Alg k
(.
r) 1.4): X 7 (M (X), )
F : Set M M.
, , , , . F : Set
T op, S
F (S), S ( ).
. , S 7 F (S)

F : Set T op.

c) . r -

k (. f) 1.4)
Vect k . . . Vect k Vect k . -

{z

T r : Vect k Vect k r- , Vect k Vect k . . . Vect k -

.
60

{z

, V  k .
(. f) 1.4),

. . V} =: T r (V )
V
. . V} V
| .{z
| .{z
r

T r (V )  r- . , V 7
T r (V ) T r : Vect k Vect k . ,
T r :
f : V W 
T r (f ) : T r (V ) T r (W ). (T r (V ), ),
W (f . . . f ) : V . . . V T r (W ):
V

V ... V
f ...f


W ... W

W /

T r (V )


T r (f )

T r (W ),

T r (f ). , , T r (f )(v1 . . .vr ) = f (v1 ). . .f (vr )


v1 . . .vr ,
T r (f ) (
). , , T r , Vect k
.
, V 7 T (V )
(. g) 1.4) Vect k Alg k
k .
d) .. C , -

(X, ), X
. (X, ) (Y, )  f : X Y , xx f (x)f (x )

x, x X.
. , (X, ) 7 X/ (X, )

61

X/

C Set.

(. h), i)

1.4).

e) . (. j) 1.4)

(V, Q). , f : V V 
k - , Q (f (v)) =
Q(v), Q ( Q )  V ( V ), f C(f ) : C(V, Q)
C(V , Q ) C(g f ) = C(g) C(f ), C(idV ) =

idC(V ) .
, C , (V, Q),
(V, Q) (V , Q )  f : V V ,
Q (f (v)) = Q(v), Alg k .2
f ) . ,

(. k) 1.4) Lie k Alg k Lie k k


Alg k .
g) . C  , -

,  3
. D  (, ). , A Ob(C) Quot(A) D (. l) 1.4) Q : C D. , ,
: A B Q() : Quot(A) Quot(B),
A Quot(A), B Quot(B) , , ,
2 , , , 

k - (Z/2-

Z/2-

). , , : ,

C(V V , Q Q )

Z/2-

b
C(V, Q)C(V
, Q ),

, . [5].

3 , (: ,
).

62

 -

.
h) . G 7 Gab (. m) 1.4)

F : Gr Ab. , , ,
: G H F () : Gab H ab .
. , F
,

F : Gr Ab .
i) . A Ob(Alg k )  -

k , A 
(
A). , A 7 A Alg k Gr . , ,
A B A
B , A B .
j) . (. n) 1.4) -

Gr Alg k .
k) .

(. o) 1.4) S : Mon Ab , Mon  . , M  ,


S(M )
M : M S(M ), .
S(M ) M : : M N  ,

S() : S(M ) S(N ),

M
M


S(M )

S()

63

N


S(N )

(
N : M S(N )). , S( ) = S() S()
S(idM ) = idS(M ) . , S Mon
Ab .
l) . -

(. p) 1.4) Met
Commet Met (
)
Commet ( ).
m) -. -

(. q) 1.4) : T op CHaus
T op
CHaus (
).
n) . , o)

. 20 C
R C/R.
F : C C/R,
C . ,
F : T op hT op (2.4).
o) . Last but not least,

. C  X Ob(C)
 . hX : C Set ,
:

hX (Y ) = HomC (X, Y ),
hX (f )() = f HomC (X, Y ),

HomC (X, Y ), f : Y Y .

, Y Ob(C)
HomC (X, Y ) Ob(Set), f HomC (Y, Y ) 
hX (f ) : HomC (X, Y ) HomC (X, Y ), HomC (X, Y ) f HomC (X, Y ).
, hX  , .
64

12. F : C D ,

X, Y Ob(C)

F : HomC (X, Y ) HomD (F (X), F (Y ))


, , .
, C D
. , ,
. , F Ab Set . ,
, . F ,
. ,
Z2 , F (Z2 ) = {0, 1}  , {0, 1} ,
0 1, 1 0, F ,
.
T op, Gr , Ring ,
Set .
13. (C, U ), -

C U : C Set.
( T op, Di , Gr ,
Ab, Ring , Alg k , Vect k ) ,
U Set.4
. (C, U )  ,  C .

U ()  ,  ,
U ()  ,  .

,
 (C, U ), U ()  . . (C, U ) 4 , : ,
.

65

, U ()  ,
,  .
, (T op, U ) , (CHT op, U )  (
.. ). .

. ?

. ,
: S  V , S W
W ( ) V W , S  V .
14. (C, U )  , X 

C . S U (X) X ,
Y Ob(C) : S U (Y ) : X Y C ,

i
/

U (X)

uu
uu
u
uu
uz u U ()

U (Y ),
i  S , .
C , , .
. ( )

Vect k , Gr , Ab, Alg k , T op.

15. F : Set C , (C, U )  -

, , S Set
F (S) S , : S T  F () : F (S) F (T ),

66

U F O (S)
iS

U F ()
/ U F (T )
O
iT

(2.2)

Set , iS , iT  , .
. , ,

S.

( )

: ,

F ()

  , a) ,
, . , Alg k Vect k 
 Vect k Alg k (. c)
). ,
,
.

2.2

a) . X 

. X , ,
x y , x y 
f : I X I = [0, 1] X , f (0) = x, f (1) = y ( , x
y   f ). ,
.
0 (X). 0 (X) 5
0- X .
5

67

0 (X)

: X Y  .
0- X 0- Y (, f x y X ,
f : I Y (x) (y) Y ) , , 0 () : 0 (X) 0 (Y ). ,
0 (idX ) = id0 (X) 0 ( ) = 0 () 0 ()
: Y Z. , 0

T op Set.
0 (X).
, . ,

HomhT op (, X) 0 (X),

(2.3)

[] 7 {0- ()}, []
HomhT op (, X)  .6 ,
: X X , 7 (). X
, () ()
X .
HomhT op (, X) X : X Y
HomhT op (, X) HomhT op (, Y ),
.
, X Y
0 (X) 0 (Y ), .. 0
0h : hT op Set .
0 0h . -, F : T op hT op ,
: X Y F () = []  (. n)
). 0

6 ,
.

68

hT op

 -

0h
T op H

HH
HH 0
HH
HH

$
/
hT op h Set.
0

(2.4)

, 0 ( ) 0h : hT op Set , 0
, , , .
. ,

X 0 (X)

 

. , 0 ,

0 (X Y )
= 0 (X) 0 (Y ).

, a ) 1.3
PT op T op  . hPT op hT op , . ,
, : (X, x0 ) (Y, y0 ) PT op 8
hPT op , : X I Y,

|X{0} = , |X{1} = |{x0 }I = 0 ,


0  0 : I Y, 0 (t) = y0 t I.
0 PT op , 0
( , ( ) 0 ).
 Set ,
 PSet  ( , , ). 0 (X, x0 ) , ,
7 .
8 , 

69

, : X Y

(x0 ) = y0 = (x0 ).

x0 . , 0 : PT op PSet.
(2.3) 0- S 0 , 9 , (, 1)
s0 .

HomhPT op ((S 0 , s0 ), (X, x0 )) 0 (X, x0 )

(2.5)

(. (2.3)).
b) . X Y  -

, X Y f : Y X , - . - X Y :
M (K, U ) := {f X Y | f (K) U }, K Y , U  X . ,
X Y , Ki Y Ui X .
- 1.
X  x0 . P X X
x0 X X I ,
f : I X I = [0, 1] X , f (0) = x0
(..  (I, 0) (X, x0 ) PT op ,
0 I ). , P X - . P X 0 : I X ,
I x0 . HomPT op ((X, x0 ), (Y, y0 ))
f : (I, 0) (X, x0 ) f : (I, 0) (Y, y0 ), 9 n-

Rn+1 x21 +x22 +. . .+x2n+1 = 1, 0- S 0 


2
x = 1, x = 1.

70

P : (P X, 0 ) (P Y, 0 ),

P (f ) = f

( 0  y0 ), , , . , P : (X, x0 ) 7 (P X, 0 ) 
PT op .
X P X,
f : I X, f (0) = f (1) = x0 (, , f : (S 1 , s0 ) (X, x0 ) PT op,
(S 1 , s0 )  ), . : (X, x0 ) 7 (X, 0 )
PT op .
P hPT op .
X ,
, : X X X , :
(g, f ) = g f,  2 . , g f  ,

(g f )(s) =

f (2s),

0 s 1/2;

g(2s 1), 1/2 s 1.

16. .

m : X X I X , m(g, f, s) = (g f )(s). m1  m
X X [0, 1/2], m2  X X [1/2, 1]. m1 (g, f, s) = f (2s) m2 (g, f, s) = g(2s 1)
. a) 18 1, X X {1/2},
m. b) 18
m
b : X X X I , m(g,
b
f )(s) = m(g, f, s) = (g f )(s). ,
m
b X X I ,
X , , , . 
.

71

c) .

, . 0 ,
PT op PSet . ,
PSet, Gr ,
0 (X, 0 ) . , ,
X 
. 0 : PT op Gr
1 .
, ,
X
x0 , 2, HomhPT op ((S 1 , s0 ), (X, x0 ))
( , ).
.
(2.5) X 10

HomhPT op ((S 0 , s0 ), (X, 0 )) HomhPT op ((S 1 , s0 ), (X, x0 )).

(2.6)

-, , - (S 0 , s0 ) (X, 0 ) (S 1 , s0 ) (X, x0 ) (,
(S 0 , s0 ) (X, 0 ) X ,
X , 1 S 0 , 1 S 0 PT op 0 ). , . f, g : S 1 X, f (s0 ) = g(s0 ) = x0 
10 , , .

72

H : S 1 I X
H|S 1 {0} = f, H|S 1 {1} = g H({s0 } I) = x0 .

(2.7)

, . b) 18 1, H : S 1 I X b : I X S 1 , H(t)(s)
b
H
= H(s, t) . ,
b
(2.7) H(t)(s
0 ) = x0 t I, b X X S 1 .
H
b X,
H
f g , S 0 X ,
(2.6).
PT op ,
. . . .
(n ) n n (X, x0 ) := 0 (n X,
e0 ) (

e0  n X ), n-
. n N, 0 PT op PSet ,
1  PT op Gr , n 2 n
PT op Ab .
.  ,
. [12], [17] [15].
, n X = (n1 X)

0 (n X,
e0 ) = 1 (n1 X,
e0 ) = . . . = n (X, x0 ).

(2.8)

, (2.6) n n 0 :

HomhPT op ((S n , s0 ), (X, x0 )) n (X, x0 ),

(2.9)

( S n  n- s0 ).
. b) 18 (
 ), . [17].
73

d) . (X)

X  , X , x y  x y (. 2). ,
11 x
1 (X, x). , T op GP .
e) . T op (

-) , ., [17], [12].

2.3

F : C D, , . ( !)
,  .
17. C -

D (: F : C D )
:
a) Ob(C) Ob(D), X 7 F (X);
b) X, Y Ob(C)

HomC (X, Y ) HomD (F (Y ), F (X)),


{f : X Y } 7 {F (f ) : F (Y ) F (X)},
F (idX ) = idF (X) X, Y, Z Ob(C) f
HomC (X, Y ), g HomD (Y, Z) F (g f ) =
F (f ) F (g).
.. f : X Y C F F (f ) : F (Y ) F (X) D
11 ,  .

74

F (f )

X Y Z C  F (X)
F (g)

F (Y ) F (Z) D.
(). , 
Rev : C C ( C  ), , .. Rev(f ) = f .
F : C D
G = F Rev : C D ( F Rev  ).
.

P(S)

(. m) . 19)

. a) k  , S Ob(C)  ,

F (S)  () S k , ,
, S k. , f : S k 
, f (s) f s S.
:
(f + g)(s) = f (s) + g(s) s S,
(af )(s) = a(f (s)) a k, s S.
, F (S)
k . S =
{1, . . . , n}, F (S) k n 12 : f
{f (1), . . . , f (n)}. ,
S 7 F (S)
F : Set Vect k (.. , S 7 F (S)
; ).
: : S T Set
F () : F (T ) F (S),
, :

(f ) = f ,
12 ,

: S T, f : T k.

F (X)
= xX k .

75

. , .

Y)
= F (X) F (Y ). (:

X Y  Set , X Y k 
, f : X k, g : Y k ).
b) X Y X
Y (, X Y  )?
. a) , F (X

, ,
, : (f g)(s) = f (s)g(s).
F (S) k -
( ,
, 1 k ) S 7 F (S)
Set Alg k .
b) , S = T

, k  (.. ,
,
, R C),
F (T )
f : T k. F HomT op (T , T ) , :

F ()(f ) = (f ) = f f F (T )
( : T T  ,
T
T ).
c) : Vect k Vect k ,

V 7 V := L(V, k), L(V, k)  , (= ) V


( V ),
: V W  7 , : W V 
(,
f W (f ) V , (f )(v) = f ((v)) v V ).
. ,

Vect k Vect k .
76

d) LCAb  , -

() , 
. G
Ob(LCAb) (= ) U(1).13 G b
G
b -
. G
, .

b | |(g) t| < }
M (K; t, ) := { G
,
K G, t U(1) > 0. ,
b , G 7 G
b G
LCAb .
: f : G H
b G
b, fb()(g) = (f (g))
fb: H
b g G.
H
e) T op(T ) P(S), -

m) . 19 , S = T 
. , T op(T ) 
U T , 
V U. F : T op(T ) Ab ( Ring
Gr , . . .) T ( ,
, . . .). ,
V U (.. T op(T )) F F (V U ) : F (U ) F (V ),
F
. U, V . ,
, U U
T op(T ) FU, U = idF (U )
Ab, W V U : FU, W = FV, W FU, V .
13 ,

U(1)

77

. k (, k = R C) F : F (U )
f : U k, FU, V  U V.
, , .. .
f ) - -

, , , .
g) , o) . 64

hX : C Set  Y 7 HomC (X, Y ) .


, HomC (Y, X) hX : C Set, Y Ob(C)
hX (Y ) = HomC (Y, X),
f : Y Y C 
hX (f ) : HomC (Y, X) HomC (Y , X)
Set,
HomC (Y, X) hX (f )() = f HomC (Y , X).

h) HomC -

( ). (. 1.5): HomC : C C Set.

78

3.1

1.


18. Y ,
1

a)

e(f, y) = f (y),

e : XY Y X,

b)

fb(z)(y) = f (y, z).

f : Y Z X
fb: Z X Y ,

a) (f, y) X Y Y
U X  f (y).
f : Y X , Y  , y Y
K Y , f (K) U. , M (K, U ) := {g X Y | g(K) U }
, - X Y .
M (K, U ) K  (f, y), e U , e
(f, y). (f, y) e .
b) -, f . fb , fb1 (M (K, U )) =
.

1 - evaluation map.

79

{z Z | f (K {z}) U } Z . z fb1 (M (K, U )) , fb1 (M (K, U )). K {z} f 1 (U ), K {z} V Y, W Z


K {z} V W f 1 (U ). W  z
fb1 (M (K, U )).
, fb. ,
idY fb

Y Z Y X Y X
f . fb ( ,
 a). 
19. ( ) Y ,

X Y Z (X Y )Z , f 7 fb,

 ,

,
, M (A B, U ), A B Y Z , U  X , - X Y Z ,
M (B, M (A, U ))  (X Y )Z . X Y Z (X Y )Z
M (A B, U ) M (B, M (A, U )),
. ., , [17].

3.2

2.

[12], -
1 : PT op Gr , .
X  . f, g : I X x
y (x, y X ) (: f g ),
x y . ,
h : I I X ,

h(s, 0) = f (s),

h(s, 1) = g(s),
80

h(0, t) = x h(1, t) = y

s, t I.2 f [f ].
f , f (0) = f (1) ( x = y ).
1 (X, x)  x X .
g f f : x y g : y z  ,
f , g :

(g f )(s) =

f (2s),

0 s 1/2;

g(2s 1), 1/2 s 1.

f 1 , f , f 1 (s) = f (1 s). cx x: cx (s) = x s I. ,


, : [g][f ]
[g] [f ] [g f ]. ,
( , ).
,

f : x y,

g : y z h : z w.

, [h]([g][f ]) = ([h][g])[f ] ,
h (g f ) (h g) f .
X , : h (g f )
f 1/4, g 1/4 h 1/2
, (h g) f f 1/2,
g 1/4 h 1/4 . H : I I X
,
:

g h




















cx

f g

cw

2 ,

81

(3.1)
x

y.

h (g f ), 
(hg)f , , .
cy cz .
:

4s

f ( t+1 ),

H(s, t) =

0 s

g(4s t 1)),

4st2
h( 2t ),

t+1
4
t+2
4

t+1
4 ;
t+2
4 ;

s 1.

[f ][cx ] = [f ], [cy ][f ] = [f ]


f cx f, cy f f .
:

f
A
A
A
A
A
cx

cx

cy

cx






cy

cy

(3.2)

f ( 2s ), 0 s t+1 ;
t+1
2
H(s, t) =
t+1
y,
2 s 1.

, [f 1 f ] = [cx ] [f f 1 ] = [cy ].
:

f 1

A
 A

A

A
cx 
c
ft cf (t) Aft1 x

A

A

A
A

cx

(3.3)

ft = f |[0, t] ft1 = f 1 |[1t, 1] .


:

0 s t/2;

f (2s),

H(s, t) =

f (t),

t/2 s 1 t/2;

f (2 2s), 1 t/2 s 1.
82

, , 1 (X, x) 
e = [cx ] [f ]1 = [f 1 ]. X .
, : (X, x0 ) (Y, y0 )
PT op 1 () : 1 (X, x0 ) 1 (Y, y0 ),
, 1
PT op Gr .
, f : I X, f (0) = x0 = f (1)  , fe: (S 1 , s0 ) (X, x0 ),
.
. , 1 (X Y, (x0 , y0 ))
= 1 (X, x0 ) 1 (Y, y0 ),
, ,

PT op

Gr .

. , X Y

1 ((X, x0 ) (Y, y0 ))
= 1 (X, x0 ) 1 (Y, y0 ),

, ,

Gr .3

3 ,  -
( , ,
 ).
.

83

PT op


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www.math.uchicago.edu/ may/CONCISE/ConciseRevised.pdf
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The Baby Version of Freed-Hopkins-Teleman.


http://golem.ph.utexas.edu/category/2006/11/the_baby_version_of_
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30.03.2012. 6084 1/16. .


Times New Roman. RISO. 5,5 . .
100 . 135.

410600, . , . , 117, . 50
-

.. 3117
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