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SOLAR REFRIGERATION

Submitted by: AMIT PRAJAPATI Presented by:

ABOUT REFRIGERATION TYPES OF REFRIGERATION ABOUT SOLAR REFRIGERATION WORKING CYCLES

- V.C.R CYCLE - V.A.R CYCLE - SOLID ABSORPTION CYCLE


ADVANTAGES APPLICATIONS

Refrigeration is the removal of heat from a space at a

temperature lower than the surrounding temperature.


In other word Refrigeration is the science of providing and

maintaining temperature below that of surrounding atmosphere.

There are many types of refrigeration like. 1. Ice Refrigeration 2. Evaporative Refrigeration 3. Air Refrigeration 4. Vapour Refrigeration 5. Steam-jet Refrigeration 6. Solar Refrigeration 7. Liquid Gases Refrigeration

In the solar refrigeration system we take a solar energy

from sun and to convert solar energy into electrical energy. This Electrical energy we use in Refrigerator.
The solar energy is used for many purpose as Drying,

Power Generation, Melting in Addition to Heating & Cooling.

Solar energy needs no conversion & on the other hand, it

helps to conserve non renewable energy sources like oil, gas, coal and Nuclear fuels.
Solar energy may be collected either as heat or as electricity. There are different methods of cooling using solar energy are

represented on following block diagram,

The solar energy can be used either in VAPOUR

COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION or VAPOUR ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION system.

Solar energy could be converted directly into mechanical

work for operating conventional compressor of a conventional vapour compression refrigeration system.
The shaft work to the compression was provided by a

steam turbine supplied with a steam which was generated by a steam generator placed at the focus of a large parabolic mirror.
The COP of the system was found to be about 30% of the

values for an idle system for the temperature values considered.

Rankine cycle conversion of solar energy into

mechanical power is more complex than absorption cycle directly driven by solar heat. There fore, not much work has been done in developing the rankine cycle for the use of vapour compression system.
In this system cooling tower are not generally acceptable

because of lack of water.


Air cooled condensers are an alternative but the ambient

temperature rises to 50c and therefore the condenser designed becomes critical.

COP falls considerably as high compression ratio is

essential to carry out the condensation above 50c.


The refrigerant vapours are formed using the heat

collected by solar concentrators and passed through a high speed turbines which runs a centrifugal compressor of the conventional refrigeration cycle.
A small electric motor is mounted on the same shaft to

provide stand by compressor power and to serve as a alternator when the compressor is idle but the sun is shining.

CIRCUIT 1.

This provides the hot water which is collected from the

solar collector. This water is used for generating


refrigerant vapour in the refrigerant boiler. An auxiliary hot water boiler is provided to compensate the heat required when solar energy is not sufficient or not available due to cloudy sun or during rains.

CIRCUIT 2.

This circuit is used to generate mechanical power which is use to run the compressor of refrigeration circuit. This power generating circuit consist of generator, turbine, condenser and a pump.
The hot water from the collector is used to vaporise the organic fluid in the refrigerant generator. The vaporised fluid drives the turbine which drives the compressor of the refrigeration cycle. The vapour coming out at lower pressure from turbine is condensed in the condenser and pumped back to the refrigerant boiler.

CIRCUIT 3.

This is conventional vapour compression refrigeration cycle which works on reversed rankine cycle. This circuit consist of compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator. An advantage of using refrigerant in the power cycle is low grad heat which can be used to generate the vapour. But the disadvantage is thermal effinciency is very poor.

Since we can convert solar energy more efficiently to heat

than the mechanical or electrical energy the use of


absorption refrigeration system with solar energy seem to be the best solution at present time.

A generator contains an ammonia water mixture with strong concentration of refrigerant.

A generator may be consider as a heat exchanger with heat


transport liquid on one side and boiling two phase flow

on the other. In the generator, ammonia and water


vapour are boiled off from the strong mixture in the upper part of the generator. This vapour leaving the generator may contain from 5 to 10% of water vapour.

The vapour coming out of generator is liquefied in the

condenser and led to the refrigerant storage. The conveying of warm condensate from the condenser into

the evaporator through throttling valve causes a


reduction in refrigeration effect. Therefore a heat exchanger is inserted between the storage and evaporator to decrease the temperature of the liquid refrigerant.there by the refrigeration effect by recovering heat which would otherwise be lost.

The refrigerant which is at low temperature , low

pressure is evaporated by absorbing the heat from the air or water which is circulated in the evaporator. This cooled air or water is further used either for refrigeration or air conditioning according to requirement.

The absorber is considered as an indirect heat exchanger

with cooling water flowing on one side and weak mixture flowing from the generator on the other side.

A pressure reduction valve between the generator and

absorber reduces the pressure from high generator pressure to a lower one in the absorber.

A liquid to liquid heat exchanger is used in the circuit in

between absorber and generator which transfer energy from the weak hot liquid coming out from generator to the strong cooled liquid coming out of absorber.

The basic philosophy behind the development of the

cycle has been that the system should not be dependent

on energy sources other than solar radiation and it


should be simple so that there would be virtually no

need for service or maintenance during the life time of


the plant. in addition to this, it would be also desirable if the operation of the system is made fully automatic.

The solid absorption cycle is the answer to all the above

mentioned requirement.
The pumps and blowers are also ruled out as well as no

electrical control devices are required.


An intermittent absorption cycle is very well suited to

the diurnal cycle of the sun.


A solid absorption cycle with NH3 as refrigerant and

calcium chloride as the absorbent came out as the best solution for the requirements.

The solid absorption cycle is based on the ability of metal

halides to form complexes with certain gases, especially NH3. For refrigeration, chloride of calcium is well suited. It absorbs 8 moles of NH3 of which 6 can be driven off at temperature around 100*c.
For condensing temperature of 40*c the dotted lines to the

right indicate equilibrium deabsorption temperature of 94*c & 106*c respectively.

The heats of reaction are nearly equal for the above

mentioned two steps and almost twice the latent heat of vaporization. This states that the COP of the cycle can not be more than 0.5.
Another absorbent used in chloride of strontium from

which 7 moles of NH3 out of 8 can be driven off which is an advantage over calcium chloride but it is very costly compared with calcium chloride.

It has no moving parts so it does not require any

maintenance.
It has no problem to obtain evaporation temperature -10

to -15 oC.
The efficiency of the cycle is not very sensitive to high

condensing temperature like other system. A gravity driven evaporation/condensation loop is the only feasible solution that will lend itself easily to an automatic operation. This is only possible with this cycle.

This system is well suitabled for freezing of ice in the form of

block ice or in an ice bank tank.


The former can be used in crushed form for preservation of

agricultural produce, meat and fish.