Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 192

..

I ,

. , .
, .
,


2010

22.14

..
58 : . . - .: ,
2010. 195 .

ISBN 978-5-209-02800-0

.
.

ISBN 978-5-209-02800-0

22.14

.., 2010
, , 2010
2

1.
1. .
1.1. .
= {1 , 2 , , n } n .
. n k , k , . , , .
Ank k.
. {3 , 2 , 5 }, {3 , 2 , 4 }, {2 , 3 , 4 } 3.
3 2 5 ;
3 2 4 ; 2 3 4 .
. n k () , k , . , , .
Cnk k.
. {1 , 2}, {1 , 3}, {1 , 4}, {2 , 3}, {2 , 4},
{3 , 4} 4 2.
1 2 , 1 3 ,
1 4 ..
. n .
Pn.
. {1, 2, 3}, {2, 3, 1}, {3, 1, 2},{2, 1, 3},
{3, 2, 1}, {1, 3, 2} .
1.1. Ank = ( -1)( 2)( k + 1).
k ( ,
k ).

k = 1. , An1 = , 1
, ,

, .
k - 1. m k-1
k 1
Am = m(m -1)(m 2)(m k + 2).
k. k :
1 2
k - 1 k .
k 1- ( ), k - 1 - m = n 1 (
Ank11 ). Ank = Ank11 Ank = Ank11 = n(n -1)(n 2)(n k + 1)= n! /(n k)! .

n
. Pn = An = n!
1.2. Cnk = n(n -1)(n 2)(n k + 1) / k! .
. k
k , ,
Ank = Cnk Pk Cnk = Ank / Pk = n(n -1)(n 2)(n k + 1) / k! =
= n! /((n k)! k!) .
1.3. ) Cn0 = Cnn = 1, ) Cnn k = Cnk ,
) Cnk11 = Cnk 1 + Cnk .
. .
1.3 ( , ).
) ,
.
) , k k ,
4

.
) + 1 k + 1
: k + 1
Cnk 1 , ( + 1)- ,
k
Cnk .

1.2. .
. (a + b) = Cn0 an + Cn1 an-1b + Cn2 an-2b2 ++ Cnn bn =
n

C a
k 0

k
n

nk

bk . .

( ).
= 1. : (a + b)1 = C10 a1 + C11 b1 = a + b.
1. .
(a + b)n = (a + b)(a + b)n-1 = (a + b)

n 1

C
k 0

n 1

n 1

k 0

n 1

= a + (Ckn-1 Ckn 11 )a n k bk + b
k 1

bk =

k 1 s n 1

= Ckn-1a n k b k + Ckn-1a n ( k 1)bk 1


k 0

k
n 1 k
n-1

k 0

.1.3, ,

Ckn-1a nk bk + Cs-1n-1a nsbs =


s 1

C a
k 0

k
n

nk

bk .

( , ).

(a + b)n = (a + b)(a + b) (a + b),
(1.1)
a b, .
, aababb ,
a, 2- a, 3- b, 4- a,
5- b, 6- b .. a , b ,
5

an-kbk. (1.1) () k
,
b ( , , a). n k. , Ckn a nk bk
.

1.4.
) Cn0 + Cn1 + Cn2 ++ Cnn = 2n,
) Cn0 + Cn2 + Cn4 += Cn1 + Cn3 + Cn5 += 2n-1
). a = b =1
(1 + 1)n = Cn0 + Cn1 + Cn2 ++ Cnn .
) , .
0
Cn + Cn1 + Cn2 ++ Cnn
, .
. ,
. , 2
, 2n
.
,
. , 2n .

. 1.4, )
a = 1, b = - 1.

2.
2.

N, Z, Q,
R.
. (a,b), a,b R.
.
= {(a,b), a,b R}.
I. :
1. (a,b)+ (,d) = (a+, b+d) ,
2. (a,b) (,d) = (a - bd, ad+bc)
,
3. R (a,b)= (ca, cb)
.
II. . :
1. (z1 + z2) + z3 = z1 +( z2 + z3) z1 , z2 , z3 C, z1 =(a1,b1),
z2 = (a2,b2), z3 =(a3,b3),
2. 0 = (0,0) C , 0+z = z + 0 = z zC.
0 C .
3. z C, z =(a ,b), z C , z+ z = 0 .
, z = (- a, - b). z - z
, z.
4. z1 + z2 = z2 + z1 z1 , z2 C,
5. (z1 z2) z3 = z1 ( z2 z3) z1 , z2 , z3 C,
6. 1 = (1,0) C , 1 z = z 1 = z zC.
1
.
7. z C, z 0 , z =(a ,b), z1 C , z z1 = 1 .
, z1 = ( a/(a2 + b2), - b/(a2 + b2)). z1
z-1 , z .
7

8. z1 z2 = z2 z1 z1 , z2 C,
9. (z1 +z2)z3 = z1 z3 + z2 z3 , z1(z2 + z3)= z1 z2+ z1z3 z1, z2, z3 C.
i. c(z1 + z2) = cz1 + cz2 z1, z2 C, c R,
ii. (c + d)z = cz + dz c, d R, z C,
iii. (c d)z = c(dz) c, d R, z C,
iv. 1 z = z z C.
, ,
.
. 1 9 i iv.
( ),
I. , + ,
II. 1 9, .
, Q R.
, .
(0, 1) C i. i
. , z C, z = (a ,b) = a (1, 0) +
+ b (0, 1)= a 1 + b i.
. z
z = a + b i, 1 , , 1.
, i2 = - 1.
z = a + b i a - b i z z . ,
) z1 z2 = z1 + z 2 , ) z1 z2 = z1 z 2 , ) z z = a2 + b2.
. z = a + b i
| z | = a 2 b2 .
z z = | z |2, |z1 z2|2 = z1z2 z1 z2 = z1z2 z1 z 2 = | z1|2| z2|2,
|z1 z2| = | z1| |z2|.
a + b i
(a , b)
(a , b). ,

(
). (. .),
a + b i = r cos +r sin i = r(cos +i sin).

r(cos +i sin)
. ( ).
, r = | z |.
, r1(cos1+i sin1) r2(cos2+i sin2)=
= r1r2(cos(1+2)+i sin(1+2)).
: (cos +i sin)n = cos n + i sin n ,
, |z1 z2| = r1r2 = |z1| |z2|.
.
1) a = 1, b = i
Cn0 + Cn4 + Cn8 +,
Cn1 + Cn5 + Cn9 +,
Cn2 + Cn6 + Cn10 +,
Cn3 + Cn7 + Cn11 +
2) sin 4
cos 5 .

3.
3. . . .

3.1. . . .
. , R, x, y X -

( - )
R .
.
() AB
A B.
AB = { (a, b), a A , b B}. 3-, 4- . AA A = An.
.
1. S A B S AB. , a A,
b B S,
(a, b) S aSb.
2. S1 S2 S1S2 S1U S2 . S1 S2. S1 S2
a S1b a S2b.
3. S1 AB S2 BC S1S2 A. ,
a A, a S1S2 b B
, a S1 b b S2 .
4. S AB
S -1 BA : bS -1a a S b.
5. A AA,
A={(a,a), a A}.
6. F A B
, A, B ( A B), a A ! b B , aFb.
aF = b , , Fa = b.
. aF1F2 = (aF1)F2 . F2 F1 , (F2 F1 )(a)= F2(F1 (a)). , F2 F1 = F1F2 .
10

7. F A B A1 A
F(A1)= {F(a)| a A1} B, B1 B
F -1(B1)= { a A | F(a) B1 } A .
8. F A B ,
a1 a2 Fa1 Fa2.
9. F A B ,
b B a A , Fa = b.
10. F A B , F .
11. ( )
.
12. R XX. , x, y X R, (x, y) R
xRy.
.
1. , AS = S, SB =S S AB.
2. ,
(S1S2)S3 = S1(S2S3) S1 AB, S2 BC, S3 CD.
3. , (S -1) -1 = S S AB.
4. , (S1S2) -1 = S2-1 S1-1 S1 AB, S2 BC.
5. , F1 A B F2 B C
, F2 F1 .
6. , F1 A B F2 B C
, F2 F1 .
7. , F1 A B F2 B C
, F2 F1 .
8. , F A B F -1
B A F .
F -1 - , F F -1 =A , F -1 F =B .
9. , F A B
Fx= b 1 b F ,
Fx= b 1 b F ,
11

Fx=b b F .
10. , F A B
F F -1 =A.
11. , F A B F -1 F =B.
S(X) .
I. f, g S(X) f g S(X) ( . 5),
II. 1. f, g, h S(X) (f g) h = f (g h) ( . 2),
2. X S(X) (, X X()=
X) f S(X) f X = X f = f ( .1).
X idX id.
3. f S(X) f -1 S(X) f -1 f = f f -1= X ( .6).
. , S(X) - .
3.2. .
, = {1, 2 ,, n }. S(X) Sn.
x1 x2 x3 .... xn
=
,
x
x
x
....
x
i
i
i
i
2
3
n
1
- .
, (1)= xi1 , (2)= xi2 , (3)= xi3
- , . - , . ,
. ,
, , n!, , ,
Sn
n! .
. ,
, - .
12

, = {1, 2, 3, , n }.

1 2 3 .... n
=
, i1, i2 ,, in -
i1 i2 i3 .... in
1, 2, 3, , .
1 2 2, 1, 12 1, 2 .
k = - k .
- , x Sn
{ kx | k N} , k m
, k x = m x. , k m, , ,
k-m x = x. s ,
sx = x. {x, x, 2x, 3x,, s-1x}
, , O(). , O() ,
O() s . , 0 = id, 0x= .
.
1. , , s+1x = x, s+2x = 2x, -1x = s-1x, ,
((x))=(), k(()) = (x), (x) =(), ( k) = (x),
() = { kx| k =0,1, 2,, s-1 } = { kx| k Z }.
2. , , .
,
.
= a1, x = a2 , 2x = a3 , 3x = a4 ,, s-1x = as ,
() ={a1, a2 ,.., as}. ((x))= (),
(x) ,
a a2 a3 .... as
1

a2 a3 a4 .... a1
: (a1, a2, a3,, as ). , a1= a2, a2= a3 ,, as-1= as , as= a1 . 13

,
. , ,

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
=

4 5 3 2 1 8 6 7
=(1, 4, 2, 5)(3)(6, 8, 7).
. tij , tij (i)= j , tij (j) = i , tij (k) = k k i, kj.
, tij-1 = tij , tij2 = tij , tij = tji .
. Sn , 2,
.
.
1. =2 , S2
: id t12 .
2. 1 . Sn .
() = q, 1 = tqn . 1 (n) = n, 1 {1, 2, 3, , n -1 } (-1)- .
, 1 , 1=1 2 r - . = tqn-1 1 = tqn 1 = tqn 1 2 r - .

, .

,
. , , ,
(1, 3, 7, 2, 4)(5, 6)(8) = t13 t37 t72 t24 t56 .
, i1, i2 ,..,in
ik il , ik il, ik 1 2 3 .... n
il . =
i1 i2 i3 .... in
,
, ,
14

.
. m, m .
. ik ik+1
.
1 2 ... k k 1 ... n
1= tik ,ik 1 =
, ik
... in
i1 i2 ... ik 1
1 m 1. , , 1 ,2 ,
,m , m m-1 1
, m m-1 1 = id.
m , m-1
1 , , i2= id, ,
= 1 2 m .

4.
3.3. .
.
1. R , xRx x .
2. R , x, xRy yRx.
3. R , x, , z xRy yRz xRz.
4. R
, ,
.
.
1. , R
R X .
2. , R R-1 R = R-1.
15

3. , R R2 R (
R2= RR) .
4. , .
5. ,
.
6. ,
R= XX , , , , .
7. ,
, , , -
.
8. ,
, . , .
9. , . , .
.
cl x = { y | y x }. , ,
cl x x .
. - .

1) cl x.
2) cl y, y cl x.
3) y cl x, cl y cl x.
4) y x, cl y = cl x.
1) , 2) , 3) , 4) 2), 3).
16

. ,
,
cl x , x, y X cl cl y = ,
X =
x X

cl = cl y. , ,
, = U i , i j = i j,
! , i i = cl i ,
i i .
.
cl x .
. 1. , cl x X =
x X

2. cl cl y , cl cl y z, 4) cl = cl z = cl y.
. = U i , i j = i j. , , i i = cl i , i ,
, ,
. i ,
, i . .
. , , i , , i . , , , .
cl , , i, .
.

. -
/. ,
17

/ .
.
.
1. 1 2 - .
1 2 .
2.
.
5.
4.
4.1. .
P .
m :
a11 x1 a12 x2 ... a1n xn b1
a x a x ... a x b
21 1 22 2
2n n
2
,
(4.1)

............................................

am1 x1 am 2 x2 ... amn xn bm


aij , bi P.
:
a11 a12 ...... a1n b1
a
a22 ...... a2 n b2
21

A
.... ..... ...... .... ...

am1 am 2 ...... amn bm


A .

18

a11 a12 ...... a1n


a a ...... a
2n
A = 21 22
.......................

am1 am 2 ...... amn


. . ,
.
(1,,n) P,
1 = 1, , = n :
a11 1 + + a1n n = b1, a21 1 + + a2n n = b2,
, . ,
. (1,,n), . , .

: (a1,, an)+ (b1,,bn) = (a1 + b1, , an + bn)
, (a1,,an)= (a1,,an)
.

. ,
,
.
, S S, S
S. : S S.
, S S , S S
S S. : S S. ,
S S , S S .

19

.
.
.
,
.

. .

, .
4.2. .
.
, S S
I

I- (S S ), i-
S i- S
j- S,
(j i).
S
S. I- -I , -I i-
j- . ,
S, i-, S, i-
(ai1+caj1, ai2+caj2,, ain+cajn,| bi+cbj).
II- S
i- j- ,
i- j- .
III- S
i- , 0, -

20

i- .
.

1. , S S , S S ,
- .

2. , S S , S S , ,
S S .

. S S, S

S : S S .
.
3. , .
4. , S S, S S, , , .
. mn
a11 a12 ...... a1n
a a ...... a
21 22
2n
A=
.......................

am1 am 2 ...... amn


c -I,II :
0 0 ... a1,k1 a1,k1 1 ................................. a1n

0 0 .....0 0 .... a2,k2 a2,k2 1 .................. a2 n


...............................................................

A = 0 0 .....0 0 ......0 0 .......ar ,kr ar ,kr 1....arn ,

0 0 .......................................0 0 ..... 0
................................................................

0 0 ........................................................0
21

r, r 0,
aiki 0, i = 1,,r.
m.
m = 1
.
m 1 . m.
1- , 2-
.. 1- , , , k1 , k1 1. ,
,
1- . ,
(1, k1), a1k1 , ,
(1, j), a1 j ,
(i, j)- (i 2) aij .
-I a1k1 .
j, j 2, 1-
a1k11 ajk1 .
.

m-1

,
. .

r A ( )
A rgA. 22

( A ) .
6.
4.3. .
(4.1).

0 0 ... a1,k1 a1,k1 1 ................................. a1n b1

0 0 .....0 0 .... a2,k2 a2,k2 1 .................. a2 n b2

............................................................... ..
0 0 .....0 0 ......0 0 .......ar ,k ar ,k 1....arn br .
(4.2)
r
r

0 0 .......................................0 0 ..... 0 br 1
................................................................

..

0 0 ........................................................0 0
rgA = r.
1. br 1 0, rg A = r+1,
(r+1)-
0 1 + + 0 n = br+1, . ,
.
2. br 1 = 0, rg A = rgA = r.
, . xki , i = 1,,r, ,
, (n r) .
, r-
,
: xkr a r,1kr (ar ,kr 1 xkr 1 ... arn xn br ) ,
xkr 1 a r11,kr 1 (ar 1,kr 1 1 xkr 1 1 ... ar 1,n xn br 1 ) .


23

xkr xkr1
. (r-2)- (4.2)
xkr2 xkr , xkr1 xkr2
. (r-3)-
(4.2) 1- .
r . , , , (4.1)
, ()
(). -, (4.1),

,
. , , .
(n r) t1, t2 ,,tn-r P, a
.
(4.1).
,
-. (4.1)
, rg A = rg A .
r = n, , , (4.2)
, (4.1) ,
. r n, , , . , r n
.
24

4.4. .

(4.1)
(4.2).
:
0 0 ... a1,k1 a1,k1 1 ................................. a1n b1

0 0 .....0 0 .... a2,k2 a2,k2 1 .................. a2 n b2


.................................................................. .. .

0 0 .....0 0 ......0 0 .......ar ,kr ar ,kr 1....arn br

, r- ,
(, ) .
-III r-
a r ,1kr . r- :

0 0 .....1 a

r , kr 1

br . -I, r- ....arn

, 1 r- kr-
. (r - 1)- . -III 1
(r 1, kr-1), -I
kr-1 . (r - 2)-
..

0 0...0 1 a1, k1 1....0................0..................0............. a1n b1

0 0 .................0 1 a2, k2 1 .....0..................0............. a2 n b2

............................................0..................0.................. ... .
0 0.....................................0 1 ar1,k 1 ....0.......... ar1,n b
r 1
r 1

0 0 ........................................................0 1 ar,k 1....arn b


r
r

,
. , ,
25

.
, (4.2) ,

, , , .
7.
5.
5.1. . .
( )- ( = 1,2,3,)
det
.
|A|
.
= 1 = (11)
detA = 11 .
, ( 1)( 1)-
det . ( )-
a11 a12 ...... a1n
a a ...... a
21 22
2n
A=
detA :
.......................

an1 an 2 ...... ann


detA = 11 M11 - 21 M21 + 31 M31 - +(-1)n+1n1 Mn1 , Mk1
( 1)( 1)-,
A 1- k- .
, . Mk1 , k1. -

26

( )- ,
|A|.
. |A| n = 2 3.
. detA A,
2 ij,
A .
i- i .
i = (i1 , i2 ,, in ). det
A: detA = det(1 , 2 ,, n ).
1.
det(1 ,,i+i ,,n)=det(1 ,,i ,,n)+det(1 ,,i,,n).
.
= 1 .
1. .
A , i- Ai = i+i .
| A |= 11 M11 -21 M 21 ++(-1)i+1(i1+i1)Mi1++
+(-1)n+1n1 M n1 , M k1 , k i, - A , Mi1
A . M k1 - n 1, 1 , k i M k1 = Mk1 + Mk1 , Mk1 det(1 ,,i ,,n), Mk1
det(1 ,,i,,n). ,
| A |= 11(M11+M11) -21(M21+M21)++(-1)i+1(i1+i1)Mi1++
+(-1)n+1n1 (Mn1+ Mn1) =
= (11M11 - 21M21++(-1)i+1i1 Mi1++(-1)n+1n1Mn1 )+
+ (11M11 - 21M21++(-1)i+1i1Mi1++(-1)n+1n1 Mn1) =
= det(1 ,,i ,,n) + det(1 ,,i,,n).

2.
det(1 ,, i ,, n) = det(1 ,, i ,, n).
.
= 1 .
27

1. .
A , i- Ai = i .
| A | = 11 M11 - 21 M 21 ++(-1)i+1i1Mi1++
+(-1)n+1n1 M n1 , M k1 , k i, - A , Mi1
A . M k1 - n 1, 2 , k i M k1 = Mk1 , Mk1 - det(1 ,, i ,, n). ,
| A |= 11M11 - 21M21 ++ (-1)i+1i1Mi1++ (-1)n+1n1Mn1 =
= det(1 ,,i ,,n) .

1, 2
i- .
i , i = 1 n, , - .
3.
det(1 ,, i , i ,, n) = 0 ,
, .
.
= 2 2- .
1. .
, i+1= i .
|| = 11M11 - 21M21++(-1)i+1i1Mi1 - (-1)i+1i1Mi1++
+(-1)n+1n1Mn1 , Mk1 , k i, i+1,
, Mk1 - n 1,
3 , k i, i+1 Mk1 =0.
(-1)i+1i1Mi1 - (-1)i+1i1Mi1= 0. , || = 0.

4.
det(1 ,, i , i+1 ,, n) = - det(1 ,, i+1 , i ,, n)

28


, .
. 3 1
0 =det(1 ,,i+i+1 ,i+i+1 ,,n) = det(1 ,, i , i ,, n)+
+ det(1 ,, i+1 , i ,, n) + det(1 ,, i , i+1 ,, n) +
+ det(1 ,, i+1 , i+1 ,, n) 1- 4- 3 0 ,
det(1 ,, i+1 , i ,, n)+ det(1 ,, i , i+1 ,, n)= 0
det(1 ,, i , i+1 ,, n) = - det(1 ,, i+1 , i ,, n).

5. i j i = j ,
|A|= 0 , , .
. j = i+1
3. j i+1. j-
(j -1)-, (j -2)-, (j -3)- ..
(i +1)-
3
.
4 .
, ,
, . , .

6.
det(1 ,, i ,,j ,, n) = - det(1 ,, j ,, i ,, n)
i- j- ,
.
4.
. 6.
5
( ) .
,
29

.
.
5.2. .
6, II-
.
7. I-
.
. det(1 ,, i+cj ,, j ,, n) =
= det(1 ,,i ,, j ,, n) + det(1 ,,cj ,, j ,, n)=
= det + det(1 ,,j ,, j ,, n) = det + 0 = det .

.4.2

A . t - -II.
rgA n, A .
- An = (0, 0,,0) = 0 An |A| = (-1)t| A | =
=(-1)tdet( A1 ,, An )=(-1)tdet( A1 ,,0 An )=(-1)t0det( A1 ,, An )=
= 0.
rgA = n, A
a11................ a1n
0 a ............ a
2n
A = 22
, | A | = a11 M11 = a11 a22 ann ,
0 0...................

0 0............0 ann
|A| = (-1)t| A | =(-1)t a11 a22 ann .
8.
5.3. .
, .
30

, . ,
. ,
. F(A) ()- . F(A)= |A|,
, = F(E), ,
1 0 0.............0
0 1 0.............0
.
=
...................

0 0.............0 1
.
1. F(A)
F(1,,n) 1,,n A. F i- .
i :
F(1 ,, i+i ,, n) = F(1 ,, i ,,n)+ F(1 ,,i ,, n),
F(1 ,, ci ,, n) =cF(1 ,, i ,,n).
F ,
i j
i = j , F(1 ,,i ,, j ,, n) = 0.
, 6
,
F(1 ,, i ,,j ,, n) = - F(1 ,, j ,, i ,, n),
-II F, det, .
-I F, det,
7.
2. A .
t - -II. rgA n, A
- An = (0, 0,,0) |A| = (-1)t| A | = 0.
F(A) = (-1)tF( A ) = (-1)tF( A1 ,, An ) = (-1)tF( A1 ,,0 An ) =
= (-1)t0F( A1 ,, An )= 0. , F(A) = c|A|.
3. rgA = n, A - ,
31

a11................ a1n
0 a ............ a
2n
A = 22
, |A| = (-1)t| A | =(-1)t a11 a22 ann 0.
0 0...................

0 0............0 ann
A -I : -
, ann
. ( 1)-

, an 1,n 1 .
, A
-I
a11 0............... 0
0 a ............. 0
22
= diag (a a ..., a ) .
=
A
11, 22,
nn
0 0...................

0 0............0 ann
A1 = ( a11 , 0,,0)= a11 (1, 0,,0),
A2 = (0, a22 , 0,,0)= a22 (0,1, 0,,0) ..,

F(A)=(-1)tF( A ) =(-1)tF( A )= (-1)t a11 a22 ann F(E)=F(E)|A|.

5.4. .
, i- j- ,
ij , aij A .

F(A) = 1i M1i - 2i M2i + 3i M3i - +(-1)n+1ni Mni .
16 5.1 ,
F(A) . , 32

, ij .
. F(A).
F(A) = |A|,
= F(E) = 0 M1i - 0M2i ++(-1)i+11Mi i + +(-1)n+1 0Mni =
= (-1)i+1Mi i =(-1)1+i, Mi i = 1 F(A)= (-1)1+i|A|
|A|=(-1)1+iF(A)=(-1)1+i1iM1i+(-1)2+i2i M2i++(-1)n+i ni Mni.
,
:

|A|= (1) j i a ji M ji .
j 1

. ji= (-1)j+iMji ji .
n

|A|= a ji Aji .
j 1

5.5. .
i- i, i=
a1i
... . |A|

ani
, |A|= det(1,2,, n).
.
i- i (, ,
).
. ,
det(1,,i+ i,,n)= det(1,,i,,n)+det(1,, i,, n)
det(1,,i,,n)= det(1,,i,,n).

|A| = 1i 1i+ 2i 2i ++ ni ni , Aji
i- . det(1,,i+ i,,n)=

33

(a ji a ji ) Aji = a ji Aji + aji Aji =


j 1

j 1

j 1

= det( ,, ,, ) + det( ,, i,, n),


1

det( ,, ,, ) =

ca
j 1

ji

Aji = a ji Aji =
j 1

= det( ,, ,, ).

.
.
. ,
i j i= j, det(1,,i,,j,,n) = 0.
=2 .
1. 3.
3, i= j k, k i, k j. |A| k-
: |A| =(-1)1+k1k M1k+(-1)2+k2k M2k++(-1)n+knk Mnk ,
Msk
. Msk -1,
,
Msk = 0 |A| =0.

9.
5.6. .
(mn)- C=(cij) i 1,..., m, j 1,..., n

(nm)- C t = (cji) i 1,...,m , , cji = cij.


j 1,..., n

. |A | =|A|.
t
. F(A) = |A |.
F(A) F(1,,n) 1,,n A. F(1,,n)
,
34

At, |At| - At.


F(A) = |A|, = F(E) = | t| = || = 1,
|At| =|A|.

5.7. .
n

|A|= (1)i j aij M ij =

. i

j 1

a A
j 1

ij

ij

. |AT| i- :
n

|AT| = aTji ATji =


j 1

a A
j 1

ij

ij

- -

|A| i- .

5.8. .
. :
a11 a12 ...... a1n
a a ...... a
A B
2n
21 22
=
, ()- A = ....................... ,
0
C

an1 an 2 ...... ann


(mm)-

c11 ...... c1m


C = ................ ,
cm1 ...... cmm

(nm)-

b11 ...... b1m


0 0 ........... 0
b ...... b
21
2
m
, (mn)- 0 = .................... .
B =

.................
0 0 ............0

bn1 ...... bnm


|H| = |A| |C|.
. |H| F(C) C. C. -

35

A B
F(C) = |C|, = F(E) = det
. 0 E
, F(E) =(-1)n+m++mMn+m,+m .
Mn+m,+m
m 1 , , =F(E)=|A|, |H|=|A||C|.

5.9. .
k-
k=(k1,k2,,kn )=k1(1,0,0,,0)+k2(0,1,0,,0)+kn(0,0,,1)=
n

= k1E1 + k2E2 ++ knEn =

a
ik 1

kik

Eik , k = 1,, n,

s = (0,..,0,1,0,,0) 1 s .
n

i1 1

in 1

|A| = det(1 ,, n) = det( a1i1 Ei1 ,, anin Ein ) =


=

a1i1 a2i2 ...anin det( Ei1 , Ei2 ,..., Ein ) , n -

i1 ,i2 ,...,in

,
ip= iq , ,
det(E i1 ,E i2 ,,E in ) E i p = E iq
. , ,
|A| =

i1 ,i2 ,...,in

a1i1 a2i2 ...anin det( Ei1 , Ei2 ,..., Ein ) = a1i1 a2i2 ...anin ( ) ,
S n

i1,,in , 1,,; , , !; () = det(E i1 ,E i2 ,, E in ),

1 2 ... n
=
- .
i1 i2 ... in
. ()=+1, - , () = - 1,
- .
. ,
36

E i1 ,E i2 ,, E in -

.
3.2, m, m
. , m ,

. , () = det(E i1 ,E i2 ,, E in )= (- 1 )m.
, m - , () = + 1, m - , () = - 1.

.
q , p q .
. , ()=det(E i1 ,E i2 ,,E in )=
= (- 1 )p =(- 1 )q p q .

,
.
1 2 ... n
|A| = a1i1 a2i2 ...anin ( ) , =
, () = + 1,
S n
i1 i2 ... in
- , () = - 1, - .
.
1. ,
,
() ()
, + .
2. , |A| =

S n

a ...ain n ( ) .

i1 1 i2 2

37

5.10. .
:
a11 x1 a12 x2 ... a1n xn b1
a x a x ... a x b
21 1 22 2
2n n
2
(5.1)

............................................

an1 x1 an 2 x2 ... ann xn bn


ik (5.1):
1- 1k, 2k, .., -
k. . k

a
i 1

s , s k,

a
i 1

is

ik

Aik = |A|.

Aik - -

, k- s-
,
k- s-, , ,
. , s , s k, .
n

b A
i 1

ik

- ,

k-
(5.1).
n

k = bi Aik . ,
i 1

|A| k= k . (5.1).
|A|= 0 k 0, |A| k= k
, , , (5.1) .
|A| 0, (5.1) - ,
38

|A| k= k ,
k = k / |A|. , k = k / |A|,
k = 1,,,
(5.1). .
|A|= 0 k= 0,
. , , . (5.1) ,
.
. |A|= 0, , , .
10.
5.11. .
s1 s2 sm t1 t2 tm M ts11,t,2s2,...,,...,tmsm () , s1, s2 ,, sm
t1, t2 ,, tm .
k1 k2 kp -
()- , kp+1 kp+2 kn
() .
.
k k ... k p i1 i2 ... i p
k , k2 ,..., k p
k p 1 ,k p 2 ,...,kn
M i11,i2 ,...,
|A| = (1) 1 2
(5.2)
i p M i p 1 ,i p 2 ,...,in ,
i1 i2 ...i p

i1 i2 ip () ,
, ip+1 ip+2 in -
.
. , Cnp .
k , k ,..., k p

2
M i11,i2 ,...,
ip

,k

! , -

,..., k

2
n
M i pp11,i pp2,...,
( )! .
in

Cnp 39

, Cnp !( )! = !
,
|A|. , , ,
k1, k2 ,, kp kp+1, kp+2,, kn , , ,
. , 1) , 2) ,
, |A| . , ,
(5.2) ,
|A|, ,
.
. k1=1, k2 =2,, kp= , , ,
kp+1= +1, kp+2=+2,,kn=. 1,2,..., p
p 1, p 2,..., n
(5.2) M 1,2,...,
p M p 1, p 2,..., n + .
1,2,..., p
p 1, p 2,..., n
, M 1,2,...,
p M p 1, p 2,..., n
.
.
1,2,..., p
2,..., n
M 1,2,..., p M pp1,1,pp2,...,
n

a1 j1 a2 j2 ...a pj p (1 )a p 1, j p1 a p 2, j p2 ...an, jn ( 2 ) ,
1 2 ... p
p 1 p 2 ... n
r
1=
, (1)= (- 1) , 2=
,
j p 2 ... jn
j1 j2 ... j p
j p 1
(2) = (- 1)s, r 1 , s -
2. ,
(5.2) a1 j1 a2 j2 ...a pj p a p 1, j p1 a p 2, j p2 ...an, jn
(- 1)r+s. (5.2) |A|
a1 j1 a2 j2 ...a pj p a p 1, j p1 a p 2, j p2 ...an, jn

()= (- 1)t,
40

1
=
j1

2 ...
j2 ...

p 1 p 2 ...
j p 1
j p 2 ...

p
jp

n
, t - jn

. , , t = r + s, j1, j2,, jp
j+1, j+2,, j , j1, j2,, jp j+1, j+2,, j ,
.
, (5.2) 1,2,..., p
p 1, p 2,..., n
a1 j1 a2 j2 ...a pj p a p 1, j p1 a p 2, j p2 ...an, jn M 1,2,...,
p M p 1, p 2,..., n
.
.
. ,
(5.2)
k k ... k p i1 i2 ... i p
k , k2 ,..., k p
k , k 2 ,..., kn
(1) 1 2
M i11,i2 ,...,
M i pp11,i pp2,...,

ip
in
. A k1- 1- ,
, (k11) ; k2- 2-
(k22) ..; , k- -
(k) . kp+1, kp+2,,kn
+1, +2,, .
:
i1, i2,, ip 1-
(i1 1)+(i2 - 2)++( ip ) . i+1, i+2,,i +1, +2,, .
.
k k ... k p i1 i2 ...i p
|A | = (1) 1 2
|A|.
1,2,..., p
p 1, p 2,..., n
M 1,2,..., p M p 1, p 2,...,n |A | .
k k2 ... k p i1 i2 ...i p

|A|= (1) 1

1,2,..., p
1 2
p
|A |, M 1,2,...,
p = M i1 , i2 ,..., i p ,

k , k ,..., k

2,..., n
p 1 p 2
n
M pp1,1,pp2,...,
n = M i p 1 , i p 2 ,..., in , ,

,k

k k2 ... k p i1 i2 ... i p

(1) 1

,..., k

k , k ,..., k

,k

,..., kn

2
p
2
M i11,i2 ,...,
M i pp11,i pp2,...,
ip
in


41

|A|.

.
1.
(5.2), ,
(5.2) .
2. (
)
(5.2) = 1.
3.
.
11.
6. , ,
6.1. , .
1. - ( ) : .
-
1,2,, . = 1 , = 2 ,
=3 . = 0 .
, .
.
a .
2. <A,>, , , -
.
a . ,
,
.
42

3. . = {},
<P,> , 1, 2, 3 (12)3= 1(23).
. - , 1, 2,, ( ) ,
, ,
.
. , 1, 2,,
,
, ,
.
(((12)3)) , .

, ..
,
,
.
.
= 3 .
1. .
w
w w1 w2:
w = w1w2. w1 ,
, w1 - . ) w2 1, w
. ) w2 1, ,
w2 , w2=w3. w = w1(w3)=(w1w3),
w1 w3
w4. w = w4 .

43

4. <,> ,

, , = = .
, ={, },
- , .
5. <G,> , gG
, g G,
gg = gg =. g g -1.

.
. G ,
I. G
II.
1. (g1g2)g3= g1(g2g3) g1, g2, g3 G ()
2. G , g = g = g gG. G .
3. gG g G , gg = gg =. g
g g -1.
,
= {, , (.)-1 }.
( ),
g1 g2 = g2 g1 g1, g2 G.
6. , ,
(-) <K,>
= {+, , -(.), 0K , 1K}, + () () , -(.) - , 0K , 1K - , :
1. <K, +, -( ), 0K > - (
).
2. <K, , 1K > - ( ).
3.
:
(a + b) c = ac + bc, c(a+b) = ca + cb a, b, K.

44


. K ,

I. K + () (),
II.
1. (a + b) + c = a + (b+ c) a, b, K,
2. 0K K , 0K + a = a+0K = a a K,
0K K
( ),
3. a K -a K ,
(-a) + a = a + (-a) = 0K . -a , a,
4. a + b = b + a a, b K,
5. (a b) c =a (b c) a, b, K,
6. 1K K , 1K a = a1K = a a K,
1K K
( ),
8. a b = b a a, b K,
9. (a + b) c = ac + bc, c(a+b) = ca + cb a, b, K.
- ,
7. a K\{0K} aK , aa= aa = 1K .
a , a, a -1.
5,
, 6, ,
8, .
, , , (-). a b, ,
ab ( ), 0K 1K, ,
0 1 . , K , , ,
.
45

.
1. Z,+, - - .
2. 2Z,+, - - .
3. nZ,+, - - , n,
nZ, n 1, n 0.
4. R[x] - -
.
5. [a,b] - - ,
[a,b].
6. 0K,+, - -, 1K= 0K.
7. K1 K2 .
K1K2 = {(a,b)| a K1, b K2}.
(a1,b1)+ (a2,b2) = (a1+a2, b1+b2), (a1,b1)(a2,b2) = (a1a2, b1b2).
K1K2 , , K1, K2 - -,
K1K2 -.
. ,
1 7 .
6.2. .
1. a K a0 = 0 a = 0.
. 0 + 0 = 0 a(0 + 0) = a0
a0 + a0= a0 -(a0)+ (a0 + a0)= -(a0)+ a0
(-(a0)+ a0) + a0= 0 0 + a0 = 0 a0 = 0.
, 0 a = 0.
2. 1 = 0, K = {0} .
. a K a = 1 a = 0 a = 0.
3. : m 1, n 1
m

i 1

j 1

( ai )( b j )= ai b j .
i 1 j 1

s = m + n.
m = n = 1 : a1b1 = a1b1.
m 2 n 2 s = m + n 1 m

m 1

n 1

i 1

j 1

i 1

j 1

. ( ai )( b j )=( ai +am)( b j +bn)=

46

n 1

m 1

n 1

m 1

n 1

m 1

i 1

j 1

i 1

=( ai )( b j +bn)+am( b j +bn)=( ai )( b j )+( ai )bn +


j 1

i 1

n 1

+ am( b j )+ am bn =
j 1

j 1

a b
i 1 j 1

4. . a, b K (- a)b = a(- b) = - (ab).


. 0=a(b+( b))=ab+ a(- b) a(- b)=- (ab).
, (- a)b = - (ab).
.
1) -(- )= , (-a)(-b) = - (a(-b)) = - (- (ab) = ab.
2) K 1, a(- 1) = (- 1)a = - (1 a) = - a.
5. .
a ...
a nN,
nZ na= a

na = 0K, n = 0, na = - ((-n)a) -nN.


.
1) , nZ -(na) = (-n)a = n(- a).
2) , m,nZ, a, b K
n(a+b)=na +nb,
(m+n)a = ma+na.
3) , m, nZ, a K m(na)=(mn)a.
4) , nZ, a, b K n(ab)=(na)b = a(nb).
5) , m,nZ, a, b K (ma)(nb)=(mn)(ab).
6) , K 1K, na = (n 1K)a.
. nZ, a K
na = na, 2), 3), 4), 6) ,
K Z.
6. - a, b K nN ( + b)n =

C a b
i 0

i
n

i n i

. K1 K
K, K1 K.
, K
K {0}.

47

6.3. .
. K a, b , ab = 0,
a 0, b 0, a , b
. ,
. a - , : a | 0.
,
, .
,
a | , b K , ab = c.
a | 1, .
K , a K, a 0, a |1.
.
1. Z Z (a,0) (0,a) a 0 (
) .
2. F[a,b] D(x)
1-D(x) , D(x)(1- D(x))= 0.
|sgn(x)|(1 - |sgn(x)|) = 0, (|x| - x)(|x| + x)= 0.
. a | 1, a | 0.
, b K , ab = 1,
b = a -1, c K, 0, , ac = 0, b(ac) = b0 = 0,
(ba)c =1 = = 0 - .

. .
12.
6.4. .
Z - , m Z. Z
: a, b Z
ab a b=km k Z.
m 0 , ab m |(a b).
. - Z.
48

- , Z a a = 0m a a.
- , a b, a b = km, k Z
b a =(-k)m, -k Z b a.
- , a b, b , a b = km,
k Z, b c = lm, l Z (a b) +(b c) = a c = (k+l)m,
k+l Z a .


cl a ( , ) cl a a . , cl a = {b Z | b a } =
= { b Z | b a = km k Z }=
= { b Z | b a mZ} = { b Z | b a + mZ} = a + mZ.
- Z, Z .
Z/, , Zm Z/(m).
b cl a, , b cl a.
, m = 0 a cl a = a, . ,
m = 0 Zm =Z.
, m 0.
a b, a b(mod m) a b(m),
, a b m.
m m. m m , ,
mN.
a b m . a = mq1 + r1,
b = mq2 + r2 , 0 r1 m, 0 r2 m. , a - r1= mq1,
m|(a r1) a = r1 . , b = r2 .
. a = b r1= r2 .
. . r1= r2 . a = r1 = r2 = b .
49

. a = b , r1 r2, , r1 r2. a = r1 = b = r2
r1 r2 m| (r1 - r2). 0 r1 - r2 m. , r1= r2.

,
m , m, m
, Zm = { 0 , 1 , 2 ,, m 1 }.
, m = 0 , 1 = m 1 , 2 = m 2 , 2m 1 = 1 .
Zm .
I. :
a + b = a b , a b = a b .
, .
a1 a , b1 b , a1 = a , b1 = b .
a1= a + km, b1= b + lm, a1+ b1= a + b + (k + l)m,
a1 b1= ab +(kb + al + klm)m (a1+ b1) (a + b), (a1 b1)(a b)

a1 b1 = a b , a1b1 = ab . .
II. .
1.( a + b )+ c = a b + c = (a b) c = a (b c) = a + b c =
= a +( b + c ) Zm
Z.
2. a Zm
.

a + 0 = a , Zm

a + a = 0 , a Zm : - a = a .
4, 5, 8, 9
, 1.
3. a Zm

. 4, 5, 8, 9.
6. a Zm a 1 = a , Zm
50

.
, , Zm - -.
. Z6.

2 3 = 0 , 2 3 Z6 .
5 5 = 1 , 5 - Z6 .
. a Zm
(a,m)= 1.
.
. b Zm , a b = 1 (ab) 1 ab = 1+ km
ab - km = 1, d|a, d|m, d|1.

. (a,m) = 1. c , d Zm , c d ,
a c a d . , a c = a d , ac = ad
(ac)(ad) m|(ac - ad) m|a(c - d). (a,m) = 1
m|(c - d) c d c = d - . ,
a Zm a Zm = Zm b Zm
, a b = 1 .

51

. Zm m .
. . m = p ,

a {1,2, , p - 1} (a,p)= 1 a - , Zm .
. Zm , m , m = kl, k 1,
l 1. (k, m) 1, k Zm , k 0 , Zm - . ,
m .

6.5. .

Q,+, , -( ), 0 , 1 , R,+, , -( ), 0 , 1 , C,+, , -( ), 0 , 1 .
, p Z Zp ,+, , -( ), 0 , 1 .
. P = P, +, , -( ), 0K , 1K - ,
F P F = F,+, , -( ), 0K , 1K - , F
P, P F F. , , , F P, P
F.
. 1, 2 ,
: 1 2 , - , x,y 1 (x+y) = x + y, (xy) = x y.
1 2 , ,
1 2 1 2.
.
1. , id: 1 1 ,
1 1.
2. , :12 , -1:21
, 1 2, 2 1.
3. , :1 2 , :2 3 ,
52

:1 3 , 1 2 2 3 ,
1 3.
4. , :1 2 ,

(0 P ) = 0 P , (1 P ) = 1 P , (-)= - 1,
1

( -1)= ( )-1 1, 0 P .
1

P - .
ab-1 = b-1a
ad = bc,

a
a c
. = ab-1 = cd -1
b
b d

a c
+ = ab-1+cd -1 =( ab-1+cd -1)bd( bd) -1 =
b d

= (ad + bc)( bd) -1=

ad bc a c
ac
,
= ab-1cd -1 =ac(bd) -1=
.
bd
b d
bd

P 0, 1, 1 + 1 = 2(1),
1 + 1 +1 =3(1),, m(1) m N. :
1) m(1), m N, .
2) , N m n
, m(1)= n(1) (
). m n. (m n)(1)= 0 ,
t N, t(1)= 0 .
. t , t(1)= 0 . ( 1), ,
0 .
char P.
, char Q = char R = char C = 0, char Zp = p.
. = char P 0, .
. , p = kl, k, l 1.
53

0 = p(1)= (kl)(1) = k(1) l(1), k(1) 0, l(1) 0.


(. 6.3),
. , .

. ,
, .
. Q .
. Q . 0, 1,
1
1
1+1=2, 2+1=3,, n (n N), - n (n N), (n N), m
n
n
(n N, m Z), Q = Q.
Q .

. Zp .
. Zp . 0 , 1 ,
1 + 1 = 2 , 2 + 1 = 3 , , p 1 , Zp = Zp .
Zp .

. , char P = 0.
1) P ( ) 0 ,
2) 0 ,
3) 0 Q.
. ,
, -, , -,
( )
, -, , () .
1- 2- .
. P
1. 1 0, 1, 1+1=2(1), 2(1)+1 =3(1),,
n(1) (n N), (- n)(1) (n N), (n(1))- 1 (n N),
m(1)(n(1))- 1 (n N, m Z).

54

0={m(1)(n(1))- 1| n N, m Z}= {

m(1P )
| m Z, n N}. n(1P )

0 - ,
I.

m(1P ) m(1P ) (mn nm)(1P )


+
=
0
n(1P ) n(1P )
(nn)(1P )

(*)

m(1P ) m(1P ) (mm)(1P )


m(1P ) m(1P )
=
0
,
0 , (**)
n(1P ) n(1P ) (nn)(1P )
n(1P ) n(1P )

II.2. m = 0, n = 1 , 0P 0 ,
3. -

m(1P ) (m)(1P )
=
0 ,
n(1P )
n(1P )

6. m = 1, n = 1 , 1P 0 ,
1

m(1P )
n(1P )
=
7. m 0
0 - m 0 m(1P )
n(1P )
6.2.
0
.

0 - ,
1 0. , 0 - ,
() .
, 0 Q.
m
: Q 0 :
Q n
m
m(1P )
( )=
0 . - . ,
n
n(1P )
m
m
m(1P ) m(1P )
( )=(
),
=
m(1)n(1) =
n
n
n(1P ) n(1P )
= m(1)n (1) (mn)(1) =(mn)(1) (mn - mn)(1))=0

55

m
m
=
. n
n
. , - .
(*) (**). , .

mn - mn = 0 ( char P = 0)

. , char P = .
1) P ( ) 0 ,
2) 0 ,
3) 0 Zp.

.
. .
13.
7.
7.1. , .
.
. L (
) ,
I. L ,
+,
, a, b L
a+bL, aL, P aL,
II. 8 :
1. (a + b)+ c = a + (b + c) a, b, c L.
2. 0L L , a + 0L= 0L +a = a
56

a L.

0L L
( ). , , 0 L.
3. a L a L , a + a = a + a = 0L .
a , a, -a.
4. a + b = b + a a, b L,
5. (a+b) = a + b a, b L P,
6. (+) a = a+ a, a L , P,
7. ( ) a = ( a) a L , P,
8. 1P a = a a L.
.
,
= {+,-(.), 0L ,|P }.
. L1 L L, L1
.
.
1. , L1 - L , L1 I II.2
, a, b L1
a + b L1;
aL1, P aL1 ; 0L L1.
2. , L {0L} L () .
.
1. .
2.
.
3. C[a,b]
[a,b] R R.
57

4. F(M) .
5. [x]
.
.
1. , .
2. , L 0L=0L P,
0Pa = 0L , (-1)a = - a aL.
. L = n ={(1,,n)| iP}
.
. I.
n (1,,n)+ (1,, n)= (1+1,,n+ n),
(1,,n)= (1,, n).
II. 1. P ,
((1,,n)+(1,, n))+(1,, n)=((1+1)+1,,(n+ n)+
+n)= (1+(1+1),,n+( n+n)) =(1,,n)+((1,, n) +
+(1,, n)).
2. , (1,,n)+(0,,0)= (0,,0) + (1,,n) =
= (1,,n) (1,,n) n. (0,,0)= 0 P n - n
.
3. , (1,,n)+ (-1,,-n)= (0,,0), n
(1,,n) .
. 4 8 .
.
1. a1,,ak L, 1,,k .
1a1++kak
a1,,ak.
2. , a1,,ak L ,
1,,k , , ,
1a1++kak = 0L. , a1,,ak L
,
1a1++kak = 0L , i = 0.
58

3. , L
, L ,
+1 . L dim L.
4. , L , L
.
5. dim L = , L L.
, , .
7.2. .
1. 1,,
L. L
= 11++ 1,, .
. L. dim L = , +1
,1,, , ,1,,,
, , +11++=0L , 0, 1,, . = (- -11)1++(- -1) = 11++,
1=(- -11),, = (- -1) .
. = 11++ =
=11++ (1 -1 )1++( -)= 0L 1 - 1 =0,,
-= 0, 1,,
1 = 1 ,, = .

2 (). 1,, L, L
1,, = 11++
1,, . 1,, L.
. 1. 1,, L, 11 ++ = 0L =
= 01 ++ 0 , 1= 0,, = 0. , L .
59

2. , L +1 .
1,,+1 L. 1 = 111++1 ,,
+1 =+1,11+++1, . ,
1,,+1 , , ,
11+++1 +1 = 0. 11+++1 +1 =
= (11 1+++1,1+1)1++(1 1+++1,+1) , +1
11 x1 ... n 1,1 xn 1 0

...................................... (.4.3).
x ... x 0
n 1, n n 1
1n 1
, dim L = n, 1,, L.

3. 1,,
L, 1,,
L,
.
. 1,, , dim L = n,
, +1 .

4 (). 1,, L, 1,,


L.
. L. +1
, 1,, , , 1,
1,, . 1,, , 1, , 1,, . 2
, 1,, L.

5. dim P n = n.
. 1 =(1,0,0,,0), 2 =(0,1,0,,0),,
60

n =(0,0,0,,1). (1,2,,n) n
(1,2,,n)= (1,0,,0)+ (0,2,,0)+ +(0,0,,n)=
=1(1,0,,0)+ 2(0,1,,0)+ +n(0,0,,1)= 11 ++
. , 2
1,, P n, dim P n = n.

14.
6. L L.
. 1,,k
L. , 1,,k L 4.
,
k+1 , 1,,k ,k+1 -
L. ,
, 1,,k+1 L, ,
k+2 ..
, .

1,, L L.
= 11 ++ , (1,,) 1,, .
. , (1,,)
, (1,,) 1,, ,
+ (1+1,,+),
, , ( 1,, ).
7.3. .
. : L1 L2
,
1) - ,
61

2) - ,
(+)= + , ( ) = ,L1, .
, L1 L2 ,
L1 L2 .
. , :L1 L2 -
, (0L 1 )= 0L 2 , (- a)=- (a) a L1.
. L1 L2 , L2 L1 ( ).
. :L1 L2 - . - , -1, -1 . , -1- . -1 = , -1 = b. = ,
b = ( + b)= + -1( + )= + b = -1+ -1,
( ) = -1( )= = -1.

.
1. , L1 L1 ( ).
2. , L1 L2 L2 L3 , L1 L3 ( ).
, , . , .
. L1 L2 , dim L1 = dim L2.
. : L1 L2 - , 1,,
L1. , 1,,
L2. , L2 , -1 L1 ,
-1=11 ++ = 11 ++ . ,
1,, ,
11 ++ = 0, (11 ++) = 0 = (0)
11 ++ = 0 ( ) 1 == = 0.
, L2 1,, , 62

, (. 1). 2 , 1,,
L2 .

. dim L = n, L P n.
. dim L = n, 1,, L .
: L P n , = 11 ++ L
= (1 ,,) P n. = 11 ++ , .
. 7.2.

. . ,
, . ,
.

. , P n.
.
7.4. .
L - -
( L P n, , , , L = P n).
. L .
. Li ,i I, - L,
Li . ,
I , L =
iI

L - L.
I. , L , Li i I + , Li i I,
P + , Li = L.
iI

63

II.2. 0L Li i I 0L

Li = L.
iI

. L1, L2 , L1 L2 .
dimL1 dimL2 , dimL1= dimL2 , L1= L2 .
. L1 L2. L1
L2 , L2 . , L2 , L1,
dimL1 dimL2. dimL1= dimL2 ,
L1 L2 ,
L2 , , L1. , L2 L1
L2= L1.

L.
. 1,,mL. {1,,m} 3)
1)
L , 2) 1,,m.
<1,,m>.

: 1) <1,,m> - ,
2) 1,,m,
3)
( ) , ,
1), 2).
, .
.
{1,,m} L, .
. , , L. , 1)
64

, 2) {1,,m}. , 3) - ,
.

. <1,,m>= {1a1 ++mam|1,,m P},


{1,,m}

{1,,m}.
. 1),
V = {1a1 ++mam|1,,m P} .
I. , V, x = 1a1 ++mam , y = 1a1 ++mam
x+y=(1+1)a1++(m+m)am , x= (1)a1++(m)am V.
II.2. 0 = 0a1 ++0am V.
2)
, 1 = 11 + 02 ++ 0m V. ,
2,, m V.
3)
W 1, 2 ,, m
1a1 ++mam W V W.
, V , 1, 2 ,, m V = <1,,m>.

. V = <1,,m>, 1,,m
V.
V
.
1,,m , ,
V.
15.
. {1,,m} rg {1,,m} = dim<1,,m>.

65

(.4.2) ()
S = {1,,m}.
. , S
S I

I- (S S), i- S i- S j-
S, (j i).
S S.
II- S
i- j- .
III-
S i- , 0.
, .

. , S S, S S, - .
, ,

, , S S, <S>=< S>
rg S = rg S.

. S S, < S> <S>.


. S <S>, <S>- , S - <S>, < S> <S>.

. S S, < S> <S>, S S,


< S> <S>, , <S>=< S>, rg S = rg S.
, S.
S = {1,,m}, ai = (ai1,,ain), i =1,,m.
66

S A,
(. 4.2),
0 0 ... a1,k1 a1,k1 1 ................................. a1n

0 0 .....0 0 .... a2,k2 a2,k2 1 .................. a2 n


...............................................................

A = 0 0 .....0 0 ......0 0 .......ar ,kr ar ,kr 1....arn ,

0 0 .......................................0 0 ..... 0
................................................................

0 0 ........................................................0
r, r 0, aiki 0, i =1,,r.

S = { a1 ,..., am }, ar 1 ... am 0 . , <S> = < S >=


= < a1 ,..., ar ,0,...,0 >= { 1a1 ... r ar r 1 0 ... m 0 |iP}=
= < a1 ,..., ar >. , a1 ,..., ar . 1a1 ... r ar 0 .
k1 ,
1a1,k = 0 1= 0.
1

k2 2 a2,k2 = 0

2= 0. k3 .. , , 1==r = 0,
a1 ,..., ar ,
< S > <S>. , dim<S>= dim< S >= rg S = rg S = r.
4.2
r = dim<S>, r
.
7.5. -.
(4.1)
67

a11
a12
a1n
b1
a1i



a21
a22
a2 n
b2
i a2 i

x
x ...
x
. =

... 1 ... 2
... n ...
...



am1
am 2
amn
bm
ami
b1

b
i- - , i = 1,,n, B = 2 - ...

bm
.

11 + 22 ++ = . , , 1,,
<1,, > <, 1,, > <1,, >
<,1,,>=<1,,> dim<, 1,,>= dim<1,,>
rg{,1,,} = rg{1,,} rg A = rg A - (4.1) .
( 4.3) -.
, .
7.6. .
L
.
. = {e1,,n}
L, 1,, P.
.
L1 = {x = x1e1++ xnn L |1x1 ++nxn = 0}
L.
. I. x = x1e1++ xnn, = 1e1++
+ nn L1 1x1 ++nxn = 0, 11 ++nn = 0
1(x1+1)++n(x+)=0, 1x1++nxn=0 +, xL1.
68

II. 2. , 0L= 0e1++ 0n L1, 10 ++n0= 0.

. , L {x= x1e1++xnnL |1x1++nxn=1}.


Li={x=x1e1++xnnL|i1x1++inxn=0}, i =1,,m.
Li

11 x1 12 x2 ... 1n xn 0
x x ... x 0
21 1
22 2
2n n
.
(7.1)

............................................

m1 x1 m 2 x2 ... mn xn 0
L.
L=Pn. (7.1) P .
. (7.1) .
, x1,, xr ,
xr+1,, xn , :
1112 .................................1n 0

0 22 23 ............................ 2 n 0 .
(7.2)
.................................................... ..

0 0 0............. rr r ,r 1....... rn 0
( r) (1,0,0,...,0,0), (0,1,0,,0,0),,(0,0,0,,1,0), (0,0,0,,0,1).
,
( r)
f1 = (*,*,,*,1,0,0,...,0,0), f2 = (*,*,,*,0,1,0,...,0,0),,
fn-r= (*,*,,*,0,0,...,0,0,1), * . , f1, f2 ,,fn-r (7.1). -,
f1, f2,,fn-r . ,
69

A 7.4. , (7.1) f1, f2 ,, fn-r . ,


f = (1,,r+1,..., n), f0 = f - r+1 f1 - ... - n fn-r , f0 = (*,,*,0,,0), f0
. , (7.2), ,
f0 ,
f0 = 0, f - r+1 f1 - ...- n fn-r = 0 f = r+1 f1 +...+n fn-r .
, f1, f2 ,,fn-r -
(7.1), ( r).
.

( ).
, . ,
f1, f2 ,,fn-r (7.1).
( r) .
16.
8.
()
8.1. .
. , (m,n)-
rk A=r, r ,
, r+1 .
.
1. , rk A= r, s s,
s r+1, ( s min(m,n) ).
2. , rk A = 0 A = 0.
3. , rk A = 1 ,
.
, rk A = rg A.
70

. (m,n)-, ,
rk A rk A .
. rk A= r. ,
r+1 r+1 . .
I

, i- i- j- ,
(j i). r+1 r+1 .
i- r+1 , r+1
r+1 : r+1= r+1= 0.
r+1 i- j- ,
r+1 r+1 -I, r+1= r+1= 0. i- r+1 , j-
r+1, r+1= r+1 0r+1,= 0 0 = 0, r+1 0r+1
.
II

, -II i- j- . i- j-
r+1 , r+1= r+1= 0. i- j- r+1 , r+1= - r+1= - 0 = 0. i- r+1, j- r+1, r+1= 0r+1 = 0, 0r+1 .
III

, , -III i-
, 0. i-
r+1, r+1= r+1= 0. i- r+1, r+1= r+1= 0 = 0.

. , rk A = rk A .

. , ,

71

- (. 1 4.2). , rk A rk A, rk A rk A, rk A = rk A.

( 4.2)

0 0 ... a1,k1 a1,k1 1 ................................. a1n

0 0 .....0 0 .... a2,k2 a2,k2 1 .................. a2 n


...............................................................

A = 0 0 .....0 0 ......0 0 .......ar ,kr ar ,kr 1....arn .

0 0 .......................................0 0 ..... 0
................................................................

0 0 ........................................................0
rk A = rk A .
. rk A = r = rg A = rg A.
. A r , r+1
. , ,
r- , r
k1, k2,, kr ,
a1,k1 a2,k2 ar ,kr 0.

, , rk A = rg A. rg A.
. rg At = rg A.
.
, rk At = rk A,
rg At = rk At = rk A = rg A.

,
, 72


.
8.2. ().
(4.1)
F1 a11 x1 a12 x2 ... a1n xn b1 0
F a x a x ... a x b 0

21 1
22 2
2n n
2
S: 2
.
..........................................................

Fm am1 x1 am 2 x2 ... amn xn bm 0



F1 a11 x1 a12 x2 ... a1n xn b1 0
F a x a x ... a x b 0
2
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

S : .......................................................... .
F a x a x ... a x b 0
m1 1
m2 2
mn n
m
m
F

a
x

a
x

...

a
x

b
0

1 1
2 2
n n

, S S, F = 0 S, S S, S S. , S S
, F = 0
S. , S
S , S, S
S . , ,
.
. F = 1F1+2F2++mFm , F = 0 S, S S.
: S 0 F1 , F2 ,, Fm , , 0 F, 10 +20++m0 = 0.

, 1, 2, ,m ,

73

1F1+2F2++mFm=F. 1,2, ,m ,
, 1 , 2 ,,
, , 1, 2, ,m
+1 :

Q:

.
, 1, 2 , , m - ,
1F1+2F2++mFm = F. , F = 1F1++mFm
Q ( -)

, ,
S S S.
, (4.1),

r ( ). ,
Mr r
74

. ,
(r+1)- -, r , , .
r , (r+1)- - . r

not

a
x

a
x

...

a
x

a
x

...

a
x
b1
11
1
12
2
1
r
r
1
1,
r

1
r

1
1
n
n

not

a21 x1 a22 x2 ... a2 r xr b2 a2, r 1 xr 1 ... a2 n xn b2


.

....................................................................................

not

a
x

a
x

...

a
x

a
x

...

a
x
br
r
1
1
r
2
2
rr
r
r
r
,
r

1
r

1
rn
n


Mr 0, , , i= i /Mr ,
i= 1,,r, i - , j, j= r+1,,n.
, i-
, : i =i + i,r+1 r+1++ i,nn, i=1,,r. i= i /Mr , .
17.
8.3.
.
. (,)-.
:
1. det A = 0,
2. rg A n,
3. ,
4. ,
5. .
75

. rk 1 2.
det A 0, , ,
A. , det A = 0, rg A = r n, n r (. 4.3),
, , . 1 3.
,
-
(. 7.5), 3 4. det A = det A,
1 5.

8.4.
.
1 = (a1, a2, , am)
b1

b
1
= 2 11 = a1b1+ a2b2+ + ambm .
...

bm
(m,n)- A (n,k) . 1, 2,, , 1,
2,,k . = ,
- (m,k)-, ij = ij.
.
1. ,
()= (), (+)= + , (+)= + , = ,
= , (.5.3). ,
. ( . 9.1).
2. , ,
, .
.
, = . , = .
76

.
, = .
.
() = (). = .
= . , = .

, det A 0.
=
-1.
(4.1)
= , (,n)-, ;
x1
b1


x2
b

=
- (n,1)-, ; = 2 ...
...


xn
bm
(,1)-, .

, = , 0 = 0, 0 = 0
( 0 ). (+0) =
= + 0 = + 0 = , 1 = + 0
. , 1 , 1 = .
(1 - )= 1 - = = 0, 0 = 1 - - , 1 = + 0. , . rg A = r,
= 0 n r,

f1, f2 ,, fn-r (.7.6). 0
77

: 0 = 1 f1 ++ n-rfn-r , 1,,n-r P.
1f1++ n-r fn-r 1,,n-r .
1,,n-r
1,,n-r. + 1 f1 ++ n-r fn-r,
1,,n-r - , = , f1 ,, fn-r , .
-
1 ,, n-r 1,,n-r P.
.
1. (4.1)
= . (,)- -1 .
, , = -1 , , = -1.
,
.
, -1 . .
2. 7.6
, ( r) (1,0,0,...,0,0), (0,1,0,,0,0),,(0,0,0,,1,0), (0,0,0,,0,1).
, , ( r)( r)
, .
( r) () .
, . , ( r) , ,
( r). (. 8.1),
( r).
()
78

: ( r)
( r) ( r)( r)-
, , , .
. ,
.
18.
9.
9.1. , .
,() - (,)- . ,()
.
I. , ,(), = (i,j)i=1,,m; j=1,,n, = (bi,j)i=1,,m; j=1,,n ,
+ = ,(), = (i,j)i=1,,m; j=1,,n,
i,j= i,j+ bi,j. .

. ,(), = (i,j)i=1,,m; j=1,,n,
= (i,j)i=1,,m; j=1,,n .
II. . ,
8 .
. ,
( ).
,

().
( ) ,
7.1.
. ,
, (,)-
, . 7.2 (. 5) 79

Ei,j , i=1,,m; j=1,,n,


Ei,j - , (i,j)- 1, 0.
() (,). , () 2. , () -.
I. .
II. 4 (
) , ,
( ) . 5, 6, 9
(. 1 8.4).
. , , (), () = () = ().
. ,
, , , ()b = a(b) =
= (ab) a, b , .
9.1, ,
. ()
- .
9.2. .
I-, II- III-
I-, II- III .
. I- (,)- i,j() = + Ei,j , i j.
II- (,)-
i,j= E1,1+E2,2++ Ei-1,i-1+ Ei,j+ Ei+1,i+1++Ej-1,j-1+Ej,i+Ej+1,j+1+
++ En,n = E - Ei,i - Ej,j + Ei,j + Ej,i , i j.
III- (,)- i (c) = diag(1,1,,c,,1) =
80

= E1,1 + E2,2 + + cEi,i + + En,n = + ( 1)Ei,i , 0.


.
1. , (,)- (,)- i,j() i- j-
, i,j i- j- , i () i- 0. ,
s-
(s = I, II, III) s- .
2. , (,)- (,)- i,j() j- i- , i,j i- j- ,
i () i- . ,
s-
s- .
9.3. .
. , (). |AB| = |A| |B|.
. I- II- (.

4.2) : A .

. ,
1, 2,,Pk , Pk21 = A . ,
| A | = (-1)s|A|, s II-
1, 2 ,,Pk . .
1. |A| = 0. A - ,
, A . -

81

, 0 = | A | = |Pk21B| = (-1)s|AB| |AB| = 0 =


=|A| |B|. .
2. |A| 0. A - , A - . 4.4,
, -I
,
D = diag(d1,,dn):
I

A D. ,

I- Q1, Q2,,Qt , QtQ2Q1 A = D,


QtQ2Q1Pk21= D, |A|= (-1)s| A |= (-1)s|D|=(-1)sd1,,dn.
D 1-
d1, 2- d2
.., |DB| =d1,,dn|B| =|D||B|. ,
|AB|=(-1)s|QtQ2Q1Pk21B|=(-1)s|DB|=(-1)s|D||B| =|A||B|.
, 2 .

19.
9.4. .
. - (,)-, - (,k)-.
() t = t t.
. , tt , t - (k,)-, t - (,)-.
() t t t .
, (i,j)- ()t (()t)i,j=
=()j,i = ji = (j- )(i- ) = ( t)i( t)j = (i- t)(j-
t) = ( t t)i,j.

8.4 , (,)- , .
. -1 |A| 0.

82

. . -1= . =
|| =|||| = |E| = 1 |A| 0.
. |A| 0. , = . 1, 2,,,
1, 2,,. = , X E , ( 1, 2,,) = (1, 2,,),
(1, 2,, ) = (1, 2,,) i = i i .
|A| 0, i i
. , ,
.
.
. |A t| = |A| 0, At
Y,
AtY = (AtY) t = t= Y tAtt= Y tA= Y t
.

, .
i- i = i .
0
x1i
...
x
0
2i
i
i
= 1 - 1 i- , =
...
0

...
xni
0
ki = k / |A|, k = 1,,, k - , |A| k- i. k k- ,
k=ik (i,k)- |A|.
, ki = ik/|A|, i, k = 1,,. * = (ki),
ki = ik, .
,
. |A| 0, -1 , -1=(1/|A|)*.
83

. , *=* = |A|E |A|.


9.5. .
= , (,) |A| 0, - (,)-, (,). ,
.
1. 0 , 0= . -10=-1
0 = -1 - .
2. 0 = -1 .
(-1) = -1 = = , 0 = -1 . .
,
. 9.3 |A| 0 1, 2,,r , PrP2P1A = D =
=diag(d1,,dn). III- P1(d1 -1), P2(d2 -1),,P(d -1),
P1(d1 -1)P2(d2 -1)P(d -1)PrP2P1A = . ,
, 1, 2,,q
, PqP2P1A = E. , PqP2P1 = -1.
.
1. -1= PqP2P1E,
,
. : (|),
, .
-1.
2. = 0 = -1 =
=PqP2P1. , 0
, .
(|) , . -1.
YA = ,
84

(,)- |A| 0, - (,n)-, Y


(,n)-. , ,
Y= BA-1 .
.
1- :
(YA)t = AtY t = t, , ,
X
At = t, Y = t.
2- . |A| 0
, .
1, 2,,t ,
AP1P2Pt = E. , P1P2Pt = -1,
-1= EP1P2Pt ,
,
. : A
,
E
,
. -1.
YA = Y = BA-1 =
=P1P2Pt ,
.
A
: ,
B
,
.
-1.
9.6. .
. (,)-, - (,k)-.
rg(AB) min(rgA, rgB).
. 1, 2,, ,
85

= (1, 2,,). rgA = dim<1, 2,,>. = 1 (,1)- -, =

1=11+22++ - (,1)- -,
1 <1, 2,,>.
(,k)- ,
, =(1,2,,k), = (1,, k).
i <1, 2,,>, <1,, k> <1, 2,,>,
dim<1,, k> dim <1, 2,,>, rg() rg A.
rg() rg , .
:
rg()= rg()T = rg(BTAT) rgBT = rgB.

20.
10.
10.1. .
.
.
(0,1,2,3,),
0,1,2,3, P i ( ,
) 0. P[x].
I. P[x] :
f = (0,1,2,), g = (0, 1, 2,) P[x], P
f = (0, 1, 2,),
f + g = (0 +0, 1 +1, 2 +2,), fg =(0, 1, 2,),
0 =00 , 1 = 01+10 , 2 =02+11 +20 , k 0

k =0k+1k-1+2k-2 + +k0 =


i 0

k i

i j k

. -

, f, f + g , fg
, f, f + g , fg P[x].
86

II. , - (. 11):
1. (f + g) + h = f + (g + h) f, g, h P[x],
2. 0[x] P[x], 0[x] = (0,0,0,) ,
0[x]+ f = f + 0[x] = f
f P[x],
3. f P[x] - f P[x] , (- f)+f = 0[x],
4. f + g = g + f f, g P[x],
5. (fg)h = f(gh) f, g, h P[x],
6. 1[x] P[x], 1[x] = (1,0,0,) ,
1[x]f = f1[x] = f
f P[x],
8. fg = g f f, g P[x],
9. (f + g)h = fh +gh
f, g, h P[x],
:
v. (f+g) = f+g f, g P[x], P,
vi. (+)f = f+ f f P[x], , P,
vii. ()f = ( f) f P[x], , P,
viii. 1f = f f P[x],
(fg) = (f)g = f(g) f, g P[x], P.
, , 5. f = (0,1,2,),
g = (0, 1, 2,), h = (0, 1, 2,), fg =(0, 1, 2,).

i j k

k ms

, s- (fg)h

i j ms

( i j ) m

i j ms

i ( j m ) ,

s- f(gh) s. (fg)h = f(gh).


. .
, , P[x] ,
(. 18, .9.1).
. f = (0,1,2,), k 0, m k
m = 0. , f k .f = k deg.f = k.
, .0[x] = - .
87

(0,1,0,0,0,) .
, 2=(0,0,1,0,0,), 3= (0,0,0,1,0,),, ,
f = (0,1,2,)= (0,0,0,0,)+(0,1,0,0,)+(0,0,2,0,)+=
= 0(1,0,0,0,) + 1(0,1,0,0,) + 2(0,0,1 ,0,) + = 01[x]+
+1 +22+
1[x], f = 0 + 1 + 22+ +kk,
k = .f.
. .(fg) = .f + .g.
. f = 0[x] g = 0[x] ,
-,
. .f 0, f=kk + k-1k-1++ 1 + 0, k 0,
.g 0, g= mm + m-1m-1++ 1 + 0 , m 0,
fg = kmk+m+, km 0 .(fg) = k + m = .f + .g.

. [x] .
. - [x] . , ,
= Z, Z[x] . = [x1], [x2] = [x1][x2] =
=[x1,x2]
.
[x]
.
, [] 0 1.
.
1. , [x1][x2] [2][x1] ( ,
. 12, 6.5).
2. P[x1,,xn] .
3. f = kk +k-1k-1++1 +0 P[x]
f(a) P
88

f(a) =kak +k-1ak-1++1a +0 . f P Ff


P: Ff (a) = f(a) a P . P ={a1, a2,, an} , , , g(x) = (x - a1)(x - a2)(x - an) P Fg ( 0[x] ):
Fg=F0 =0. f Ff .
. ,
P f Ff .
10.2. . .
1. P[x]
, f(x), g(x) P[x], g(x) 0, q(x), r(x) P[x] , f(x) = g(x)q(x)+ r(x)
.r(x) .g(x). (r(x) f g).

f.
f = kk + k-1k-1 ++ 1 + 0,
g = mm + m-1m-1 ++ 1 + 0 .
1. .f .g, f = g0+ f, q, r ,
q= 0, r = f.
2. .f .g, f1 = f - k(m)-1 x k-mg.
, .f1 .f, , f1 g , q1,
r1 P[x] , f1 = gq1 + r1 , .r1 .g.
f = f1 + k(m)-1x k-mg = gq1 + r1 + k(m)-1x k-mg =
= g(q1+k(m)-1x k-m)+r1= gq + r, q = q1+k(m)-1x k-m, r = r1,
.r1 .g. , P[x] .
. f = gq + r = gq1 + r1,
.r .g, .r1 .g. g(q q1)= r1 - r, q q1,
.g(q q1) .g, .(r1 r) .g - . , q = q1, r = r1.
P[x].

. f P[x], a P. r
f ( ), r = f(a).
89

. f =(x a)q +r, .r .( )=1


r P, =
f() =( a)q() +r r = f().
.
1. f(x) , f(a) = 0,
( ) | f(x), f(x) = ( )q(x).
2. f(x) 1,2,, k,
f(x) = ( 1)( 2) ( k)h(x).
. , f(x) 1,
f(x) = ( 1)f1(x). , f(2) = 0,
f(2) = (2 1)f1(2) = 0 f1(2) = 0 f1(x) = ( 2)f2(x)
f(x) = ( 1)( 2) f2(x). .
3. f(x) k , k .f.
21.
10.3. .
. F f, f |F. F
f g, f |F, g |F.
f g, 0
f g.
, fg f g,
f g , ,
.
. - f g, - , | M.
. : =q+ r,
.r . r = M mq , f g
, f | r, g |r, r f
g. f g, .r .
r = 0 | M.

. 1 2
f g, 1|2 2|1 2 = a1, 1 = b2 2 = ab2
90

2(1 ab) = 0 1 ab = 0 ab = 1 a, b P. -

, f g
. ,
f g , , 0,
- f g, ,
{am | , 0} f g.
.
1. D f g , D f g f g.
2. f g >0 , 1 .
. 1) f
g, D =(fg)/m . 2) d f g, D
, d |D.
. , D | f, f / D = m /g =
=hP[x]. , D | g. , D - f g. d f
g , M = (fg)/d f g , / f =
= g / d P[x] / g P[x]. | M, = qm (fg)/d = q(fg) / D D =qd
d |D .D .d D
f g.
D f g, .D = .D, D |D D = aD,
d |D.

.
1. D f
g, {aD | a P, a 0} f g .
2. f g , fg .
91

. , N. q r, m = nq + r, 0 r n .
. N
, 10.3 , 10.2, 10.3.
. , 10.2, 10.3, N.
10.4. .
f, g P[x], g 0. f g
r1. g r1 c
r2. r1 r2 c
r3 .. . :
f = gq1 + r1, .r1 .g,
g = r1q2 + r2, .r2 .r1,
r1= r2q3 + r3, .r3 .r2,
.g .r1 .r2 -,
:
rk-3= rk-2qk-1 + rk-1, .rk-1 .rk-2,
rk-2= rk-1qk + rk, .rk .rk-1,
rk-1= rkqk+1, rk+1 = 0.
. f g
g r1.
. , d | f , d | g ,
d | g , d | r1, r1= f gq1. , d | g , d | r1,
d | f , d | g.

.
1. f g r1 r2 , r2
r3 , , rk-1 rk , rk .
2. f g

rk, rk - f g.
92

, .
rk f g D,
: D= rk= rk-2 rk-1qk. , rk-1 rk-3 rk-2 D. D = 1rk-3+v1rk-2
1, v1 P[x]. , rk-2 rk-4 rk-3
D. D= 2rk-4+v2rk-3
2, v2 P[x]. . D f g : D= uf + vg, u, v P[x].
,
1. D -
f, g P[x], u, v P[x] , D = uf + vg .
2. D = uf + vg
u, v , . .g, .v .f.
. g c : = gq+ r1,
. r1 .g.
D = uf + vg = (gq + r1) f + vg =r1f + (qf+ v)g = r1f + vg ,
v= (qf+ v), .(vg) .(r1f) .v .f.

. N, N ,
, 10.4.
10.5. P[x] N.
. K ,
= rs, r, s K, , r |1
s |1. P[x] .
. ,
, K, 0,

93

= 12k = q1q2qs ( i , qj
K) , k = s, , , i = q ic i i, c i | 1.
. P[x] .
. P[x]
. , f P[x],
.
, f (
f ). f , f = 12 , 1, 2 P[x],
.1 0, .2 0, 1, 2
.
1. ,
.f .1, 1 - 1 = b1b2 , b1, b2 P[x],
.b1 0, .b2 0, b1, b2
.
b1 .a1 .b1, b1 - b1 = c1c2 ..
,
.f .1 .b1,
. .

. h f - ,
h | (fg). h | g.
. h f - , hf
, fg -
. 10.3 (hf) |(fg),
h | g.

. P[x] .
. f P[x]
f = 12k = q1q2qs ( i , qj
P[x]). , 1| q1(q2qs), 1
q1 , 1| (q2qs).
94

, 1 q2 , 1| (q3qs),
.. , i ,
1 qi , qi = 11, 1 P.
12k = q1q2qs 1,
2k = 1q1q2 q qs ( qi , qi ). 2. , , 2 qj , qj = 22, 2 P.
2 3, ..
1, 2,, k, , k = s 1 = 12k .

.
N.
22.
10.6. .
f() P[x], .f = n. f(+) P[x, ]. F(x,y)= f(+) f() = () + -1() -1 ++ 0().
F(x,0)= f() f() = 0, 0()= 0[x] | F(x,y)
F(x,y) = yF1(x,y), F1(x,y) P[x, ].
. f()
f()= F1(x,0).
f ( x y ) f ( x)
, f() = F1(x,)|y=0 =
,
y
y 0
R , lim F1 ( x, y) =
y 0

= F1(x,0).
.
1. f() = , P, f() = 0.
2. f() = , f() = 1.
. 1,2.
3. (f()+g()) = f()+g().

95

. h(x)= f()+g(). : f(+) f() = yF1(x,y) g(+) g() = yG1(x,y).


: h(+) h() = yH1(x,y), h() = H1(x,0)= F1(x,0)+
+G1(x,0), (f()+g()) = f()+g().

.
4. (f()g()) = f()g()+ f()g().
. h(x)= f()g().
: f(+) = f() + yF1(x,y) g(+) = g() + yG1(x,y).
: f(+)g(+)=f()g()+yF1(x,y)g()+yG1(x,y)f()+
2
+ y F1(x,y)G1(x,y) H1(x,y) = (h(x+y) h(x)) y = F1(x,y)g()+
+G1(x,y)f() + yF1(x,y)G1(x,y) h(x) = F1(x,0)g()+ G1(x,0)f()
(f()g()) = f()g()+ f()g().
5. k N (f()k) = k f()k-1f().
k.
k = 1 .
k. k+1.
(f()k+1) = (f(x)f()k) = f(x) f()k + f(x)(f()k) = f(x) f()k +
+ f(x) k f()k-1f() = (k+1) f()k f().
.
1. (k) = k k-1 k N.
2. ( + -1 -1++ 0)= n -1+(n 1)-1 -2++ 1.
.
1. kb = b+b++b k
.
2. , .
, charP 0, 0. , charP = ,
() = 0.
10.7. .
10.7 , charP = 0.
. f(x)= p(x)kg(x), p(x) -
P[x], p(x) g(x). k
p(x) f(x). k 2,
96

p(x) . () = ,
f(x)= (x )kg(x), ( ) g(x), k f(x). k 2,
, k = 1, .
. p(x) f(x) k, p(x) f(x)
k 1.
. f(x)=kp(x)k-1p(x)g(x)+p(x)kg(x)=
= p(x)k-1(kp(x)g(x)+p(x)g(x)), p(x)k-1| f(x). ,
p(x) (kp(x)g(x)+p(x)g(x)). ,
, p(x)| (kp(x)g(x)+p(x)g(x)), ,
p(x)| (kp(x)g(x)). p(x) g(x)
p(x)| p(x) - , .p(x) = .p(x) 1.

. f(x) , f f .
. f(x)= 1 k1 2 k2 s ks - f
. f(x)= 1 k1 1 2 k2 1 s ks 1 h(x),
h(x) i i. , D=1 k1 1 2 k2 1 s ks 1
f f.
, f f , D 1 ki 1.

f(x)= 0,
f(x) ,

. D f f. f D:
f D = 12s . , f D = 0
, .
f D = 0
.

97

10.8. .
. K , f(x) K[x], .f 0, K , f( )= 0.
.
.
., , 23 .. .
. f(x) C[x], . f(x)= 0, 1
, f(1)= 0, f()= ( 1)g(x).
.g(x) 0, 2 , g(2)= 0,
g()= ( 2)h(x) f()= ( 1)( 2)h(x) ..
, f() = ( 1)( 2)( ),
= - f.
, C[x]
( ) 1- .
10.9. . f(x) = + -1 -1++ 0
P[x], .f(x) = n, 1, 2,, f(x) ( ,
).
f(x) = ( 1)( 2)( ).
, , -1 = 1 2 = - 1,
-2 = ci c j = 2, -3= - ci c j ck = -3 ,, 0 = (-1)12 =
i j

i jk

=(-1) , 1= 1+ 2++ , 2=

c c
i j

, 3 =

c c c

i jk

j k

,,

= 12 - 1, 2,, . .
10.10.
[x] R[x].
f(x)= + -1-1++ 0 [x] f ( x) = an + an 1 -1++ a0 , as -
, s . , f ( x) = f(x) f(x) R[x];
98

zC
=
.
1. f(x) C[x], . f(x)= .
f(x) 1- , , 1 f(x)
. , [x]
1- , , 1- .
2. f(x) R[x] [x], . f(x) 0, f(z) =0, z C.
=
= f( )= = 0 z
f, - f. , f . z = + i, = - i,
f(x)= ( z)(x )g(x), ( z)(x )= 2 2 + (2 +2)
R[x], ( 42) 0.
, . f(x) 2, f(x) , , , 1- ,
, ,
2- R[x]. ,
R[x] 1- , 2-
.
. f(x)R[x], .f(x)= , 1,c2,,ck
, z1, ,,zm,
- f(x), k+2m = n, , 1) , k 0,
f(x) ; 2) k n (mod2), k n
.
23.
11.
11.1. .
- .
= {(a, b)| a, b A, b 0 }.
99

: (a, b) (, d) (ad = bc).


. , - .
K= M . K cl(a, b), (a, b) .
ac a
a
a
cl(a, b) . ,
0
= ,
b
b
bc b
(ac,bc)(,b) bc 0.
I. K . cl(a, b) + cl(, d)= cl(ad+bc,bd),
a c ad bc

+ =
, cl(a, b) cl(, d)= cl(ac, bd),
b d
bd
ac
a c

=
. , bd 0, (ad+bc,bd),
b d bd
(ac, bd) , , cl(ad+bc,bd) cl(ac, bd) .
. , . , (a,b)(a1,b1), (c,d)(c1,d1),
, (ad+bc,bd) (a1d1+b1c1,b1d1)
(ac, bd) (a1c1, b1d1).
II. , K 9
.
0
2. , b 0 (0, b) (0, 1),
= 0K
1
K (!).
a
a
3. ,
=
.
b
b
b 1
1
6. , b 0 (b, b)(1, 1), = = 1K
b 1
1
K .

100

b
a b ab
a
7. , 0 = , =
=1K.
a
b a ba
b
. 1, 4, 5, 8, 9 .
K
. K .
: K , A
a a
a
()= . , (1)= (2) 1 = 2 (1,1)(2,1)
1
1 1
1= 2, . ,
K ,
a

K 1
1
a
a a 1
a b
, A K. K
= = =
b
b 1 b
1 1
-1
= b .
. , (+b)=()+(b), (b)=()(b).
.
1. - = Z, K Q.
2. A = , K = P.
3. - = P[x],
K , P(x). f ( x)
P(x)
,
g ( x)
f ( x) f1 ( x)

=
f(x)g1(x) = f1(x)g(x).
g ( x) g1 ( x)
11.2. .
f ( x)
.
, kN, p( x)k
, ()
101

.f() .().
, () = ,

b
- ( x a)k

.
. w() ()
fij ( x)
w()= F(x)+
,
j
i , j pi ( x )
F(x), fij P[x], i() , .fij cm.pi .
.
1. .
f ( x)
w()=
, g(x)= p1(x) k1 pr(x) kr -
g ( x)
, pi(x) pj(x) i j, h(x) = p2(x) k2 pr(x) kr .
f ( x)
w()=
. w()
p1 ( x)k1 h( x)
f1 ( x)
f1(x):
p1 ( x) k1
f ( x)
f ( x) f1 ( x)h( x)
w() - 1 k1 =
. ,
p1 ( x) k1 h( x)
p1 ( x)
f1(x) , f(x) f1(x)h(x)
1(). , h(x) p1(x) , 1 10.4
u(x) v(x) , h(x)u(x) + p1(x)v(x)= 1.
f f = fuh + p1vf.
f1 fu, , .f .1. , .f .1,
fu 1 : f = q1+ r1, .r1 .1 .
f = fuh+ p1vf = (q1+r1)h + p1vf = r1h+ p1(qh+ vf)= r1h+ p1 f ,
f1 = r1. f(x) f1(x)h(x) 1(),
f ( x)
f ( x) f1 ( x)h( x)
.f1.1. , w()= 1 k1 +
=
p1 ( x)k1 h( x)
p1 ( x)

102

f ( x)
f1 ( x)
+
.
k1
p1 ( x) k1 1 h( x)
p1 ( x)

f ( x)
,
p1 ( x) k1 1 h( x)
.
.
2. .
fij ( x)
f ( x)
R( x)
w()=
= F(x)+
= F(x)+
f = Fg + R,
j
g ( x)
g ( x)
i , j pi ( x )
.R .g. f g , F R .
fij ( x)
fij( x)
=
- .

j
j
i , j pi ( x )
i , j pi ( x )
fij ( x) f ij( x)
fij( x)

=
= 0, fij = fij - fij.
j
j
pi ( x)
i, j
i , j pi ( x )
f1k
k11 , f1k1 0, -
p1
1 , fij( x)

p1k1 h , h
j
i , j pi ( x )
fij( x)
1 .
= 0
j
i , j pi ( x )
. : f1k1 h +( -

, 1) = 0, f1k1 h +1 = 0.
f1k1 h 1. .

.

103

24.
12.
. L1, L2 L.

L1 + L2 = {x + y | x L1, y L2}.
, L1 ++ L = {x1 ++ | x1 L1,, L}.
.
1. , L1 + L2 - .
2. , L1 + L2 - 3) 1)2)
, L1 L2 .
3. , (L1 + L2)+ L3 = L1 +( L2+ L3 ).
. L1 + L2 L1 L2
L1 L2 ( L1 L2),
L1 + L2 = 1 + 2 , 1 L1, 2L2 , .
, L1++ L = L1 L
, L1 ++ L
= 1 ++ , i Li, .
1. L1 + L2 = L1 L2 L1 L2 = {0}.
.
. L1 L2 , 0 = + 0, L1, 0L2 ,
= 0 + , 0 L1, L2 . ,
, .
. L1 L2 = {0}, L1+ L2 = 1 + 2 = 1 + 2 , 1 , 1 L1, 2, 2 L2 .
1 1 = 2 2 L1 L2 = {0} 1 = 1 , 2 = 2 . , , .

. , L1 ++Lk = L1 Lk
(L1 ++Li ) Li+1 = {0} i =1,2,,k-1.

104

2. {e1 ,,ek} L1,


{ek+1 ,,em} L2 .
L1 + L2 = L1 L2 {e1 ,,ek} {ek+1 ,,em} L1 + L2.
.
. L1 + L2 = L1 L2. L1 + L2
= 1 + 2 , 1 L1, 2L2 , . 1 , 2 : 1 = 11++kk , 2 = k+1k+1++mm . , = 11++kk+k+1k+1++mm
{e1 ,,ek ,ek+1 ,,em}
L1 + L2.
. {e1 ,,ek ,ek+1 ,,em} L1 + L2,
L1+ L2 = 11++kk+k+1k+1++mm
. 1 = 11++kk L1,
2 = k+1k+1++mm L2 = 1 + 2 , L1 + L2 = L1 L2.

. dim(L1 L2) = dim L1 + dim L2.


. , L1++Lk = L1Lk
Li L1 ++Lk .
3. dim(L1 + L2) + dim(L1 L2)= dimL1 + dim L2 .
. {e1 ,,ed} L1 L2 . {e1 ,,ed , f1 ,, fk } L1
{e1 ,,ed ,g1 ,,gm} L2. , {e1 ,,ed , f1 ,, fk , g1 ,,gm}
L1+ L2 . , L1 + L2, = 1 + 2 , 1 L1, 2L2,
1 <1,,d , f1,, fk >, 2 <1,,d , g1,, gm >
1 + 2 <1,,d , f1,, fk , g1,, gm>. ,
{1,,d , f1,, fk , g1,, gm } .
11++dd +1f1++kfk +1g1++mgm = 0.
11++dd +1f1++kfk = -(1g1++mgm ) L1 L2
1==k = 0 11++dd +1g1++mgm = 0
105

1==d=1==m=0, {e1 ,,ed ,g1 ,,gm}


L2. , L1 + L2
{1,,d , f1,, fk , g1,, gm } , dim(L1 + L2) =
= d +k +m = d + m + k + d d =dimL1 + dim L2 - dim(L1 L2).

13.
13.1. .
L, L - P.
. : L L ,
1. a, b L (a+b) = a + b,
2. a L P (a) = a.
, 1-2 3:
3. a, b L , P (a+b) = a + b.
, 3 1 2: (a+b)=(a)+(b) =
=a + b, 2 3 = 0, 1 3
1.
,
, - L L.
.
1. pr: E3 E2 - E3
i, j, k
E2 = i, j k ( Oz ).
2. : E3 E3, x E3 x = [a, x] a E3.
d
3. =
: Pn[x] Pn-1[x] dx
.
4. : Pn[x] P, f Pn[x]
(f) = f(16).
5. : P[x] P+1[x], f P[x]
(f) = f.
. , , 1
106

pr E3 E3, 3 : Pn[x] Pn[x].


. 1-5.
.
1. (0L)= 0L , -1(0L) 0L ,
-1(0L) 0L . 1- 4.
2. (-a) = - a a L.
k

3. ( i ai )=
i 1

a .
i 1

, (0L) = (00L) = 0(0L) = 0L' ,


(-a)= ((-1)a)= (-1) a = - a, 3
k.
. -1(0L ) 1-5.
.
Ln, Lm - P,
: Ln Lm - , e={e1,,en} - Ln.
1. : Ln Lm

e1 ,, en .
n

. x Ln, x = xi ei .
i 1

i 1

i 1

x = ( xi ei )= xi ei xLn x e1 ,, en .

: L L - , e={e1,,en}
Ln, e={e1,,em} Lm. ej
n

e. ej = aij ei , j=1,,n.
i 1

(aij) i 1,...,m , mn
j 1,..., n

107

e e A , [ ] ,
e , e

e ,e

[], , . ,
Aj = [ e j ], j- A -
e ,e

e ,e

ej e.
e
e 1
.
.
1-5.
. [x] = [ x ] =

x e. , = , L,
:
= e11++enn = (e1,,en)[] = e[],
(13.1)
(e1,,en) = (e1,,em)[] =[].
2. e={e1,,en} Ln, {a1,,an} Lm. : Ln Lm , ei= ai, i=1,,n.
.
1. . .
x=

j 1

j 1

j 1

j 1

x j e j x = ( x j e j )= x je j = x j a j -

.
n

2. . x =

x e
j 1

j 1

j 1

x = ( x j e j )= x j a j . ( .1 ,
).
108

- , x =

x e Ln,
j

j 1

e Ln
j 1

,
n

( x + ) = ( x j e j + j e j )=( ( x j j )e j ) =
j 1

j 1

j 1

j 1

j 1

j 1

= ( x j j )a j = x j a j + j a j = x + .
, i=(01++1i++0n)=0a1++1ai++0an= ai.

.
: {e1,,en} Lm , ei= ai, i=1,,n.
. 1. ()- ! : Ln Lm , [ ] =
e , e

a1,,an, ,
, , 2.
2. Ln Lm [ ] e , e

Ln Lm ()-.
x Ln , y = x Lm. x e y = x e. x =

x e
j 1

j 1

j 1

i 1

i 1

j 1

y= x= ( x j e j )= x j e j = x j ( aij ei )= ( aij x j ) ei=


j 1

= yi ei , yi =
i 1

a
j 1

ij

x j . [ y ]= A [ x ]
e

e ,e

[ x ] = [ ] [ x ].
e

e , e

109

, (13.1),
: = ([x]) = ()[x] = e [][x] = y =e [y]
[y] = [x] = [][x].
.
: Ln Ln , e Ln , Ln = Lm , n = m,
e = e. (..)
Ln. A (e ,e

, [ ] ) A (, [ ] )
e ,e

e. , .. - (nn)-, j- Aj =[ e j ], [ x ]= A [ x ] = [ ] [ x ].
e

.
m=1, Lm= L1 = P, : Ln P, e Ln,
e={1} L1 = P. Ln, (1 n)--.
25.
13.2. .
Ln, Lm, Ls - P
e, e, e , : Ln Lm - m n- [ ] : Lm Ls -
e , e

s m- [ ] .
e , e

. : L Ls -
s n- [ ] = [ ] [ ] .
n

e , e

e , e

e , e

. 1. a, b Ln, , P :
( a+ b)=( ( a+ b))=( a+ b)=( a)+
+( b)= a+ b .

110

2. x Ln, y = x, (y Lm), z = y = ( x), (z Ls).


[ y ] = [][ x ], [ z ] = [][ y ] [ z ] = []([][ x ])=
e

= ([][])[ x ] = [ ][ x ] [ ] =[][]
e


.
.
1. Ln= Lm= Ls, e= e= e,
[ ] = [ ] [ ] .
e

2. = id, [][] = [id] = [] = [] -1


[ -1] = [] -1.
13.3. .
, : Ln Lm - . + : Ln Lm : x Ln
( +)(x) = x + x. :
1. + - , x,y Ln, , P
( +)( x+ y)= ( x+ y)+( x+ y)=
= x+ y+ x+ y =(+)(x)+( +)(y).
2. ( +)ej = ej + ej Aj =[ ( )e j ] =[ e j ] + [ e j ] =
e

e ,e

= A + A A = A + A , [ +] = [] +[] .
j

e , e

e , e

e ,e

e ,e

e , e

13.4.
.
: Ln Lm - , r P. r : Ln Lm : x Ln
(r)x = r(x). :
1. r - , (r)( x+ y) =
=r(( x+ y))= r( x+ y)=r x+r y =(r)x+(r)y.
2. (r)ej = r( ej ) Arj =[ ( r )e j ] =r[ e j ] = r Aj
e ,e

e , e

Ar = r A , [r] = r[].
e ,e

e ,e

111

13.5.
.
L= Ln - P, (Ln)
: Ln Ln.
.13.2-13.4 , < (Ln),+, , P > - .
. < (Ln),+,-( ), 0(Ln) , , id, |P > - -.
:
1. (Ln,Lm)={: Ln Lm} Ln Lm P.
2. (Ln)
()
.
3. (Ln) - P .1,2.
.
. A=<A, A >, B=<B, B > - A, B
A, B . : A B
, :
1. : A B ,
2. : A B , n-
A ()=B n-,
a1,,an (a1an)=((a1)(an)),
a1an - a1,,an.
.
1. Ln. : (Ln) n(), n()
n n- . (Ln) =[ ].
e

, - .
2. : < (Ln),+, ,|P > <n(),+,, |P >

112

,
.13.2-13.4
= []= [] [] = ,
[ ] = [][] = ,
rp [rp] = r p[] = r p .
3. <n(),+, ,|P> - , <(Ln),+, ,|P> , - .
(Ln): , , (Ln)
() () = ( ) = =
= ( ) ( ) = ( )
( ) = ( ).

.
.
1. dim (Ln) = dim n() = n2.
2. .. (Ln) , (Ln)
= , , = id Ln -
.
. ,
B = {ij (Ln), i,j =1,,nij ej = ei, ijek= 0L k j} - (Ln).
, ijek=kjei, [ij] = Eij
n().
26.
14.

14.1. .
e={e1,,en} e = {e1,,en} -
L = Ln. x Ln n

i 1

i 1

x= xi ei = xiei

113

i i x .
[ x ]=[x], [ ]=[x] ej =

t e , j = 1,,n, tij P i 1

ij i

e e. T = T=(tij)i,j=1,,n,
e e

=[ e j ].
j

j 1

j 1

e e. , x = xj ej = xj

t e =
i 1

ij i

n
n n

= tij xj i i = t ij xj - i-
j 1
i 1 j 1

T= (tij ) [x], [ x ]= T [ x ]

e e

[x] = [x].
(13.1),
: = , = [x] = [x] = [x] [x] = [x].
, j, j=1,,n, -
( e1,,en). detT 0 T -1
[x] = T -1[x], T -1= T .
e e

14.2.
.
e={e1,,en} e = {e1,,en} Ln, u={u1,,um} u = {u1,,um}
Lm, 1 = T , 2 = T - ,
e e

u u

: L L - .
[ ] = [] [ ] = [] n

e ,u

e ,u

, , .
y = , , [y] = [][x],
, [y] = [] [x]. [x] = 1 [x],
[y]=2[y], 2[y]=[]1[x] [y]=2-1[]1[x]= [][x].
114

[] = 2-1[]1 [ ] = T

u u

e ,u

-1

[ ] T .
e ,u

e e

Ln = Lm, = , =
: Ln L [ ] = T 1 [ ] T , []= -1[],
ee

e e

[] = [ ], []= [ ], = T .

e e

. : Ln L

det[ ]

.
. det = det[] = det -1det[]det =

= det ( )det[] = det det[] = det[] = det[ ].


-1

. det
: Ln L det[ ] -

.
, .
14.3. .
() : , , ()
() , |T| 0
= -1.
. ()
.
.
) () , = = 1,
.
) () , = -1 = -1=
= ( -1)-1 -1=1-1 1, 1 = -1, ,
.
) 1,2 () , =1-11
=2-12 = 1-12-121= (21 )-1(21) =3-13,
3 = 21, .
, 115


. , () () , |T| 0
= -1.
, () .
- ().
: Ln L,
Ln. ,
. ,
,
( , ) . , ,
, , ,
, .
.

-
(), , - (, ) . , ,
,
, . , 116

, ,
, ,
, .
. , , detA = detB
rgA = rgB.
15.
: L L - .
.
1.
Im = {y L | x L: y = x}, Im = {x| x L} =
= L L.
2.
Ker = {x L| x = 0}, Ker = -1(0L) L.
1.
1. Im - L.
2. Ker - L.
2.
2. : L L - , V
L, W L. V L, -1W L (
).
.
1. y1, y2V 1, 2 V , y1=1, y2=2.
1+2, 0L , 1V , V
(1+ 2) = 1+ 2= 1+ 2 V, 0L =(0L)V,
(1)= 1=y1V V - .
2. 1, 2 -1W 1, 2 W
1+2= (1+2)W, (0L)= 0LW, (1)= 1W
W 1 + 2 , 1 , 0L -1W
-1W - .

117

3. - Ker = {0}.
.
. Ker 0, = 0 = 0 - .
. 1= 2, 1 - 2= (1 2)= 0
1 2 Ker = {0} 1 2= 0 1 = 2 - .

. Ker -
: y = , -1y = + Ker .
.
1. ( + Ker)= +(Ker)= + 0 = -1y + Ker.
2. -1y, = = ( - ) = 0
- Ker + Ker -1y + Ker.

4 ( Im). : L L -
, = {1,, n} L, = {1,, m} L, [] - , . :
1. Im = < 1,, n>,
2. dim Im = rg[].
.
n

i 1

i 1

i 1

1. xL, x= xi ei , = ( xi ei )= xi ei < 1,, n>

Im = < 1,, n>, {1,, n}


Im .
2. dim Im - { 1,, n},


[ e1 ],,[ en ], [].

dim Im = rg[].

. dim Im = rg[]
, rg[]
.
. : Ln Lm - .
dim Im = rg[],
118

rg.
dim Ker, def.
5. rg + def = n = dimLn.
. {1,,d} Ker {1,, d, d+1,, n} Ln. Im =< 1,, d, d+1,, n>=
= < d+1,, n>, 1== d= 0. ,
{ d+1,, n} Im. , { d+1,, n} . d+1 d+1 ++ n n = 0
(d+1d+1++nn) = 0
d+1 d+1 ++ n n Ker = <1,, d>
d+1d+1 ++ nn=11++d d
11++d d - d+1 d+1 --nn= 0. {1,,n} . , i= 0. , {d+1,, n}
Im, dim Im = n d = n dim Ker
rg + def = n = dimLn.

. Ln=<1,, d, d+1,, n>=<1,, d>


<d+1,, n>=Ker<d+1,, n>, : <d+1,, n> Im
- .
27.
6. : Ln Ln 10 :
1. Ker = {0},
2. def = 0,
3. rg = n,
4. Im = Ln,
5. - ,
6. - ,
7. - ,
119

8. -1,
9. []-1,
10. det 0.
.
, 12 346 , 23 5, 15 3, 567 .
rg = rg [], det = det [],
310, 109. 98 , []-1= [ -1]. 78 : 87 ,
7, , , -1,
. -1 = u,
-1y = v u = , v = y ( u+ v) = + y
-1( + y) = u+ v = -1 + -1y -1 .

. , 6.
.
16.
. : L L V L
( -), V V (V V).
.
1. {0} L : L L. .
2. pr<i,j>: 3 3-
< i , j >. pr<i,j>(xi+ yj+ zk)= xi+ yj.
V1 = < i, j > V2 = < k > - , 3= V1 V2.
3. : 3 3 < k >.
V1 = < i , j > V2 = < k > - ,
120

3= V1 V2.
4. d/dx : Pn[x] Pn[x]. k = 0,,n
Pk[x] , Pn[x] .
. : L L L , f(t)= kt k+ k-1t k-1++
+1t +0 P[t]. f()= k k++1+
+ 0 id.
16.1. .
.
1. - -.
2. - -.
3. V - -
f(t) P[t]. V
f( ).
.
1. V1 V2 - - ,
V1 V1, V2 V2. (V1 + V2) = V1 + V2 V1 + V2 .
2. V1 V2 - - ,
V1 V2 . V1, V2 , V1, V2 ,
V1 V2 .
3. V V 2 = ( ) V, , n V,
V ,
f( ) = 0 idL x +1 x + + n n V V - f( )- .

,

[].
: Ln Ln - , Ln Lm - - (1 m< n), {1,, m} Lm .
Lm = {1,, m, m+1,, n}
121

Ln. :

,
[ ]= 1
(16.1)
0

1 (m m)-, 2 (n-m)(n- m)-, 0 (n-m) m-. , j =1,,m j Lm ,


j =1j1++ mjm + 0m+1++0n .
, ={1,, m, m+1,,n}
Ln (16.1), <1,, m >= Lm - - . , j =1,,m j Lm ( j
1,, m ) Lm,
= 11++ mm, = 1 1++ m m Lm.
.
1. .. Ln , [] - .
2. Lm - - (, ) {1,, m } Lm
j Lm
j =1,,m.
: L L - , LV - - . |V : V V
: x V |V(x)= x.
. , |V .
. |V : V V
V, ,
V .
, |V , V =|V .
. , |V
V- .
, 2 |V1 =id, |V2 = 0,
3

122

|V ,
1

|V = id.
2

(16.1), , {1,, m}
[ Lm ]= 1 .
16.2. .
: Ln Ln - , Ln=L1 L2 - - L1 L2 ,
= {1,,m} L1, = {m+1,,n} L2,
dimL1= m, dimL2= n - m. = {1,,m,m+1,,n}
Ln, L1
[] (16.1).
. L2 -, j =m+1,,n
j L2, j = 01++0m + m+1,j m+1++nj n
(16.1) = 0,
0 .
12 = diag(A1,A2) [ ]= 1
(16.2)
0

- . 1
m, 2 - n m, 1 = L , 2 = L .
1
2
e

, [ ]

(16.2), L =L1L2 - - L1 L2 , L1= <1,,m>, L2= <m+1,, n>.


: Ln - [ ]
n

- (16.2).
16.3. .
Ln=L1Lk i=1,,k
i : Li Li c [ i ] i={1 i,, eni i }
i

Li.
. ! : Ln Ln ,
L=i.
i

123

.
1. . .. .
Ln, = 1++ k , i Li, = 1++ k =
= 1 1++ k k .. .
2. . : Ln Ln
: Ln, = 1++ k ( i Li) ,
def

1 1++ k k ( 1 , .. ).
i=(0++ i++0)=10++ii++k0= i i, i
|L = i . i
.
. .
i

. 1,,k 1 k 1k .
Ln,
1,,k, [ ]=[ 1 ][ k ]=diag([1 ],,[ k ]).

, , (Li) (. .13.5) (Ln),


(Ln) :

(Ln) (L1) (Lk), 1 k (L1) (Lk).


- Ln=L1 L2 =

.
16.4.
.
, .. : L L
, L.
, L - . ,
L - ,
124

, .. .
, L
- .
- .
, - . V , V = <s >, s 0 V= { s| P }. , V
- V V s V
P , s = s .
. L , : L L . s L .. , s 0 ,
s = s. ( ) .
0L ,
0L = 0L = 0L .
. L = (-, +) -
, .. = d/dx : (-, +) (-, +) kx
k .
, - .
, .
: Ln Ln - , = {1,, n } - Ln.
,
= , 0 (id - ) = 0, 0 Ker(id - ),
0. ,
Ker(id - ) ,
.
6 .15 Ker(id - ) {0} det(id - ) = 0
det [id - ] = det(E - [ ]) = 0.
e

125

(t)= det[tid -]= det(tE - [ ]) -


e

t n c . ,
(id - ) = 0 (E [])[x] = [0], - (t).
, .14.2. det(tid - ) e.
. (t)= (t) [],
(t) = 0 .
,
:
1. 1,, k
(t) , .
2. i , i = 1,,k,
(iE - [])[x] = [0].
i .
. ,
, , , ,
. , .
, (t)
, , , L
.
. .
. ~ : = -1
(t)= |tE A| = |tE - -1|=| -1(tE )|=| -1||(tE )|||=
= |(tE )|= (t).

,
126

t a11 a12
a21 t a22
A(t)= |tE A| = a31 a32
...
...
an1 an 2

a13
a23
t a33
...
an 3

... a1n
... a2 n
... a3n =
...
...
... t ann

= (t a11)(t a22) (t ann)+ (n-2) =


= tn - (a11+ a22++ ann) tn-1 + + (-1)ndetA.
. =(ij) n
tr A = 11+22++ nn .
, , trA=tr, (t)= (t),
trA .
, ,
, . , , , trA tr, .
28.
16.5. .
: A()=0.
. , =(bij)
tE A: B = (tE A)* (.
9.4). bij tE A, ( ) (-1)-
tE A. , bij t
-1. bij bij = b(0)ij+ b(1)ijt + + b(-1)ijt-1,
b(k)ij . (k) :
(k) = ( b(k)ij), k = 0, 1,, - 1. = (0)+ t(1) )++ t-1(-1).

(tE A) = |tE A|.
(16.3)
-1

A(t)= |tE A|= 0 + 1t++ -1 t + t .


(16.3) :
127

((0)+ t(1) ++ t-1(-1))(tE A) = (0 + 1t++ -1 t-1+ t).


t :
t0:
-(0)
= 0
0 =
1
(1)
(0)
t :
- +
= 1

t2:
-(2)+ (1)
= 2
2
....... ..........
...... .....
t-1: -(-1)+ (-2) = -1 -1
t:
(-1) =

,
, . :
0 = 0+ 1++ -1 -1+ =A()

. [( )] = []([])= 0 ( )= 0.
16.6.
.
L , : L L
.
.
1. , f P[t] , f() = 0.
2. , f P[t] , f() = 0.
3. ..
Ann = {f P[t] | f() = 0 }. ,

Ann = {f P[t] | f() = 0 }.
, Ann 0,
Ann 0.
[f()] = f([]), Ann = Ann [].
.
f Ann ,
.
fA A.
128

. .. (, )
.
. f1 , f2 - . .f1 = . f2 .( f1 - f2 ) .f1 ,
f1 - f2 Ann f1 - f2 = 0 f1 = f2 .

. f Ann , f | f.
. f f :
f = q f +r, . r . f r() = f() - q() f()= 0 r= 0.

16.7. , R
.
. Ln ,
>1, : Ln Ln - . Ln
- .
.16.4 ,
.
. Ln R,
>1, : Ln Ln - . Ln
- 1 2.
. (t)=1(t)2(t)m(t) -
R. i(t)
1 2. ( )=0
1( )2( )m( ) = 0 det(1( )2( )m( )) = 0
det 1( )det 2( )det m( )= 0 i: det i( )= 0.
) . i(t) = 1. , i(t) = t - 0
i( )= - 0 id, det ( - 0 id) = 0 Ker ( - 0 id) 0
Ker ( - 0 id) s 0, s , <s > - - .
) . i(t) = 2. , i(t) = t 2 + t + b,
i()= 2 + + b id. det i( )= 0, Ker i( ) 0
Ker i( ) 0 ( 2 + + b id) = 0
129

2 = - - bu. v = , V = < , v >. V - - , = v V,


v = 2 = - bu = - v - bu V (. 2
.16.1), dimV 2.

. , ) dimV = 2.
17.
. : Ln Ln
, Ln ,
[ ] - , [ ] = diag(1,,).

1 ( ). : Ln Ln [ ]= diag(1,,)

.. , 1,,
.
.
. = {1,,n } [ ] = diag(1,,).

i=1,, i= i i .. , 1,, .
. = {1,, n } .. , 1,, , i=1,,
i= i i [ ] = diag(1,,).

, Ln
.. .
. .. ,
, .
. s1,, sk
.. 1,,k.
k .
130

k = 1 s1 , s1 0.
k - 1 , s1,, sk-1 . , s1,, sk-1, sk
. ,
1s1++ k-1sk-1+ k sk = 0.
(17.1)
.. .
:
11s1++ k-1 k-1sk-1+ kksk = 0.
(17.2)
(17.1) k
(17.2). 1(1 -k)s1++ k-1( k-1 -k)sk-1= 0. s1,,
sk-1 1(1 -k)== k-1( k-1 -k)= 0
1== k-1=0, 1 -k 0,, k-1 -k 0.
(17.1) , k sk = 0 k= 0 ( sk 0)
s1,,sk - .

. L = (-, +)
.. = d/dx: (-, +) (-, +) (.
.16.4) x , { x,bx,,x} ,
b,, .
2 ( ).
(t) : Ln Ln ,
Ln (
[ ] ).
. ,
Ln .. , ( 1 [ ] ).

. 2 , : .. id : Ln Ln 1 =1, Ln
.. id.
131

, .. : Ln Ln . -, - ,
,
(t) , . ,

t2+1 , , , . , 0 (t) k >1
, k (. 1 1
3). , .. [ ]=
0
1

= {1, 2 }, , 1,2 =1- (t)


2, 1.
3. Ln
, : Ln Ln - , 0 (t) k 1. 0 k .
. dim Ker(0 id - )= m, {s1,,sm}
Ker(0 id - ) (m
0 ). {s1,, sm} Ln:


= {s1,, sm, m+1,, }. [ ]= = 0 m
,

0
m (m m)-, 0 (n m) m, m(n m)-, -
(n m) (n m)-.
(t 0 ) m
m
(t)= det(t - [ ])=det
=(t -0) g(t),
0
t

g(t) t. k m, 132

0
0 .

29.
18.
18.1. , .
. R , , R, ,
(, ),
1. ( + , z) = (, z) + (, z) , , z ,
2. (x, y) = (x, y) , , R,
3. (x, y) = (y, x) , ,
4. (x, x) 0 , x 0.
1, 2 , 3 , 4
.
.
1. (, + z) = (+ z, )= (, )+ (z, )= (, )+ (, z) , , z .
2. (y, x) = (x, y) = (x, y)= (y, x) , , R.
,
.
3. (0, ) = (0R 0 ,x) = 0R(0 ,x) = 0R (0 , 0) = 0.
n

4. = {1,, n } , x xi ei , y y j e j .
i 1

(x,y)= ( xi ei ,
i 1

j 1

y e )= x y (e , e ) = x y
j 1

i , j 1

i , j 1

j i, j

i,j = (ei,j), = = (i,j)

133

i , j 1

i 1

j 1

. , (x, y) = xi i , j y j = xi i , j y j = [ x ] t [ y ],
e

= .
5. , .
.
1.

, , (, ) = ||||cos , -
.
2. Rn
: = (1,,),
= (1,,) (, ) = 11 ++ .
,
.
3. C[a,b]
b

[a,b] (f,g)= f ( x) g ( x)dx f,g C[a,b].


a

. , 1-3 1-4
, .
.
1. |x| = ( x, x) .
(x, x) 0 , .
2. , , , ,
(, ) = 0.
18.2. .
. , |x + |2 = | x |2 + | |2 .
. |x+|2 =(+, +)= (, )+ (, )+2(,) =
= | x |2 + | |2.

134

. , |x + |2 | x |2, |x + | | x |,
|x + |2 = | x |2 = 0.
2. , , 0. R ,
= + z, z x.
. z = - , z x ( - , x) = 0
(, ) - (, x) = 0 = (, ) / (, x).

( -). |(x, y)| |x|||.


. = 0 . 0, 2 = + z,
| | | | = | || | =
| ( y, x) |
| ( y , x) |
=
| | =
|x||| |(x, y)|,
2
| x|
| x|
z = 0, = .

.
1. -1 (, ) /|x||y| 1,
( x, y)
: = arccos
.
| x || y |
(, ) = |x||y|cos .
2. (11 ++ )2 (12++ 2)(12++ 2) -
- = Rn.
b

3. ( f ( x) g ( x)dx )2
a

f 2 ( x)dx

( x)dx .

4. : |x + y| |x| + |y|.
. |x + y|2 =(+, +) =(,)+(,)+2(,)
|x|2 + |y|2 + 2|x||y| = (|x| + |y|)2 .

4. 1,,k E ,
i j i j, 1,,k .
. 11 ++kk = 0.
(11 ++kk , i )= i (i , i )= 0 i = 0 = i.

135

, < > = L, L = { x E| (x, ) = 0 }.


5. L - , = L L.
. , , L, (x, ) = 0,
(, ) = 0 (x + , ) = (x, ) + (, )= 0 + 0 = 0, R
(x, ) = (x, ) = 0 = 0 + , x L. ,
, 0 L. , L - .
2 = + z, L, z L
= L +L. L L , ( , ) = 0 = 0
L L= {0} = L L.

6. dimE = n. {e1,,en }, , (ei ,ej)= 0


i j.
. = 1
. 1. ,
0. 1= , L = <1>. , , L , dim L= n 1. , L
{e2,,en} . {e1,e2,,en} 5 .

7. dimE = n. {1,,n}, ,
1 i j ,
(i, j)= ij =
0 i j.
.

{e1,,en}. i = i
, i =1,,n, | ei 1 |
.

,
, = .
. : 1 2
136

, - , , ( , ) = (, )
, 1. 1 2
, : 1 2.
8. dim E= ,
Rn.
. {1,,n}
n

i 1

j 1

, x xi ui , y y j u j . (,)= 11++ .
, : Rn ,
=(1,,), , .7.3 , ( , ) = (, ) = 11++ .

. 8 ,
. , , . ,
.
. ,
Rn. .
n- .
30.
EL , L={x |(x, y)=0 yL}=
= {x | x L}.
. , L - .
. L L.
137

9. = L L.
. L L, (, )= 0
=0 L
L = 0 L + L = L L.
, L + L = . . ,
= + b, L, b L.
L {1,,k}.
= 11++kk , 1,,k ,
b = ( ) L, i (x a, i )= 0 (a, i )= (x, i )
(11++kk , i )= (x, i ) (ii , i )= (x, i ) i = (x, i ).
, , i !,
, , b.
=L+L, , = L L.

10. L1 L2= (L1 + L2).


. L1 L2, (, ) = 0 L1,
(, b) = 0 bL2 (, a+b)= 0 x (L1+ L2), (L1+ L2).
(L1+ L2), (, +b) = 0 L1, bL2
b=0
(, ) = 0 L1 L1. , = 0
, L2. , L1
L2.

. , L2 L1, L2 L1, b L2, L1,


(, b) = 0 .
.
1. , L2 L1 L2 L1.
2. , ( L1) = L1.
3. , L1 + L2= (L1 L2).
19.
19.1. . .
. : , ( , ) = (, ) , .
138

1. - , .
. Ker , (, ) = (, ) = 0
= 0 Ker = 0.
2. - ,
-1
- .
. -1 = , -1 = b. (, b) =
= (a, b) = (x, y) (x, y)= (, b) = ( -1, -1).
,
(
).
1. : n n
15 :
1. ( , ) = (, ) , n.
2. ( , ) = (, ) ( | | = | | ) n.
3. ( s, et) = (s, et) s, t ( )
= {1,..,en} n.
4. ( us , ut) = (us, ut) = st s, t ( )
= {1,..,n} n.
5. { u1 ,, un } .
6. ais (ei , e j )a jt = ais ij a jt = s,t , i,j = (i, ej)
i, j

i, j

, (ai,j) = [ ].
7.

b b

= s,t , (bi,j) = [ ].

is it

8. [ ] [ ] = .
t

9. [ ] [ ] = .
t

10. [ ] t = [ ]-1.
u

11. [ ][ ] t = .
u

12.

b b

si ti

= s,t.

139

13. [ ]
u

R .
14. [ ]
u

R.
15. [ ] t .
u

. , 1 2,3,4 (
), 6 8, 7 9 1011121315, 4 5 7 14.
2 1, 2(,)=(+,+) - (,x) - (y,y)=
= |(+)|2 - | |2 - | y |2 =| + |2 - | |2 - | y |2 = 2(, ).
n

3 1, (, ) = (( xi ei ), ( y j e j )) =
j 1

i 1

= xi y j ( ei , e j ) =
i , j 1

i , j 1

i 1

j 1

xi y j (ei , e j ) = ( xi ei , y j e j )= (, ).

, 4 1.
n

i 1

j 1

, 3 6, (s, et) = ( ais ei , a jt e j )=


=

is

(ei , e j )a jt =

i, j

is ij

a jt .

i, j

. - ,
det = 1.
. [ ] t [ ] = det ([ ] t [ ]) =
u

= det [ ] det[ ] = (det[ ]) = det = 1.


t

. , - , ,
1 7,
9, 10, 11, 12, 13 14.
19.2. .
(n)
140

n. O(n) -, SO(n)= {A (n)| detA=1},


S(n) = { (n)| det = 1}.
2.
1. (n) , 2. O(n) , 3. (n) O(n),
4. S(n) (n), 5. SO(n) O(n).
.
1. I. , (n) , n ((), ()) =
= ((), ()) = ( ,) = (, ) (n).
II. 1. , .
2. , (idx, idy)=(x, y) , n, (n) id
.
3. (n). -1 (n) . 2
.19.1.
, (n) .
2. I. A, B (n) A t = A -1, B t = B -1 (AB)t = B tAt=
= B-1A-1 = (AB)-1 AB (n).
II. 1. , (, ).
2. t = -1 (n) .
3. A (n), | A | = 1 A-1 (A-1)t = (At)t = A =
=(A-1) -1 A -1 (n).
, () .
3. , [ ] (n) (n) ( - u

)
( [] = [][] , [ -1] = [] -1, [id] = E ).
. 4, 5 2.
19.3. .
. : - , L - . L - -
.
. L, y L ( x, y) = (x, y) = 0

(L ) L . L = L ( |L 141

) (L) L (L) L ( ,
(L) = L, L - ).

: - .
. 16.7 L1 - -
1 2. L1 - -
, = L1 L1. L1 - , L1 L2 - - 1 2, L L2 L1 -. ,
= L1L2L, L L3 - - 1 2, . ,
= L1L2Lq , Li
-, , ,
dimL1 = dimL2 == dimLs = 2, dimLs+1 == dimLq = 1.
L 1, L = <e>,
: L L - , = ,
( , ) = (,) 2(,) = (,) 2=1, = 1 = id.
L 2,
L = <1, 2>, {1, 2} L,
: L L - , | 1| = | 1| = 1
1= cos 1+ sin 2 ; | 2|= | 2|=1, ( 2, 1)=(2, 1)=
= 0 2 = (-sin 1 + cos 2).
cos sin
a) 2= -sin 1+ cos 2, [ ] =
,
u
sin cos
- L .
cos sin
) 2= sin 1 - cos 2, [ ] =
,
u
sin cos
(t)= t2 1. t1,2 = 1 1, 2 .
( 1, 2)= (+1, - 2)= (1, 2), (1, 2) = 0, 1 2.
L = <e1>, L = <e2>. L = L L -

142

-
, |L = id, |L = - id.
= L1L2Lq Li
. . -
[ ] = diag ((1),,(s), -1,,-1,1,,1),
u

cos i sin i
1 0
(i) =
. , 0 1 = (),

sin i cos i
1 0

= (0). ,
0 1
.
: , :

[ ] =

(19.1)

-1 1 , , , .
: [ ] (19.1), u

.
:

(
) , -1 (19.1).
, (19.1) .

143

31.
20.
20.1. .
L =Ln . L* L (. .13.1,
). (Ln,Lm)={: Ln Lm}
Ln Lm
P (. .13.5)
(Ln,Lm) ,(), L*= (Ln,) , L* 1,()= n dimL*=n= dimL.
, L* L,
L L*.

1 . = {e1,,e} L, = 1e1++e , f L*.
f(x) = 1f(e1)++f(en) = 11++n , i P,
i = f(ei) = i1 , f [ f ] = (1,,n ) n.
e ,1P

(0,0,,0, 1 ,0,,0) n L* i

, i()= 01++1i++0n= i .
, *= {1,,n} L*, f = 11++.
1 i j ,
, i(j)= ij =
0 i j.
. L*
( , ) L. * ( , ) .
L= , fa()= (a, x), a, x .
. , fa ()*.
i

144

. : ()* ,
() = fa ()*.
. .
(+b)= fa+b= ()+(b) = fa+ fb , fa+b()= (+b, x) =
= (, x)+ (b, x) = fa()+ fb() =( fa+ fb)(). ()= fa= ()=
= fa , fa() = (, ) = (, ) = (fa()) = ( fa)().
Ker. Ker () = fa = 0
fa() = 0 fa() = (, ) = 0 = 0 Ker = 0
, , (. 6 .15)
.

.
1. , .
2. ()* (fa , fb) = (a, b). , ()* , .
20.2. .
: - .
f(x) = (a, x).
. , f ,
f ()*, , f = fb b .
, b = *a, * : -
. * ,
(a, x) = (b, x) = (*a, x) ( x, ) = (, *a ).
. * : .
. x (, *(a+b))= ( x, a+b)= ( x, a)+
+ ( x, b) = (, *a) + (, *b) = (, *a + *b) *(a+b) =
= *a+*b (. . 20.1). , x
(, *(a)) = ( x, a) = ( x, a)= (, *a) = (, *a)
*(a) = *a .

145

. *: .
, ** = , ( , ) = (, *) = (**, ).
, : fa :
(a, x) = (*a, x), fa( x) = *( fa )(x) *( fa )= fa .
. 5 (
= *, = * ) :
1. ( x, ) = (, ) , .
2. ( i ,j)= (i , j) i, j ( ) .
3. ( i ,j)= (i , j) i, j ( ) .
4. [ ] t = [ ], [ ]= -1[ ] t , - e

. (,
5. [ ] = [ ] t.

-1

- . .24.3).

. , 1 2 ( ), 2 1 . , 1 3. , 2 4. , [ ] = (ks), [ ] = (bks), ( i ,j) = ( aki ek ,j) =


e

a
k

kj = ([ ] )ij (i,j)- [ ] t .
t

ki

(i , j)= (i , bkj ek ) = ik bkj = ( [ ])ij (i,j)- k

[ ]. 2 4. e

, 3 5.

20.3. .
. : , * = , ,
( ,) = (, ).
. 5 (
146

= *) :
1. ( x, ) = (, ) , .
2. ( i ,j)= (i , j) i, j ( ) .
3. ( i ,j)= (i , j) i, j ( ) .
4. [ ] t = [ ], - .
e

5. [ ] = [ ], [ ] .
t

. 20.2.
20.4. .
. : - ,

L - - . L - - .
. L, y L ( x, y) = 0 = (x, y)
(L) L (L) L .

: - . . 16.7 L1 - -
1 2. L1 - -
, = L1 L1. L1 - , L1 L2 - - 1 2, L L2 L1 -. ,
= L1L2L, L L3 - - 1 2, . ,
= L1L2Lq , Li 1 2, -
.
L 2,
L = <1, 2>, {1, 2} L,
a b
: L L - , [ ] =
,
u
b c
(t)= t2- (a+c)t + ac - b2.
(+)2 4( - b2) = ( )2 + b2 0 L
147

, - L
- .
, = L1L2Lq
, Li 1, -. , n = q,
= L1L2L .
L 1, L = <e>,
: L L - , = , R.
= L1L2Ln Li
i . . :
[ ] = diag(1,2,,n). , u

.
: , :
[ ] = diag(1,2,,n), s R. ,
u

[ ] = diag(1,,n), s R, - .
u

:

(
) , -1 = diag(1,2,,n),
s R.
32.
21.
21.1. , .
. H C
( ) ,
148


, ,
, (, ),
1. ( + , z) = (, z) + (, z) , , z ,
2. (x, y) = (x, y) , , ,
3. (x, y) = ( y, x)
, (
) ,
4. (x, x) 0 , x 0.
, 3 (x, x) , (x, ) = ( x, x) ,
4 .
1, 2 , 3 , 4 .
.
1. (,+z)= ( y z, x) = ( y, x) + ( z, x) = (, )+ (, z) , , z .
2. (, ) = ( y, x) = ( y, x) = (, ) , , .
1 ,

. 2 , .

.
3. (0, ) = (00 , x) = 0(0 , x) = 0 (0 , 0) = 0C.
n

4. = {1,, n } , x xi ei , y y j e j .
i 1

(x, y) = ( xi ei ,
i 1

y e )=x y
j 1

i , j 1

j 1

(ei , e j ) = xi y j i , j ,
i , j 1

i,j = (ei,j), = = (i,j)

i , j 1

i 1

j 1

. , (x,y)= xi i , j y j = xi i , j y j =[ x ] t [ y ] ,
e

149

t = . .
.
1. n
: = (1,,),
= (1,,) (, ) = 1 y1 ++ yn .
2. C[a,b] [a,b] ( f1()+ if2(),
f1(), f2() [a,b])
b

def b

( f1 ( x) if2 ( x))dx f1 ( x)dx i f 2 ( x)dx a

(f, g)= f ( x) g ( x)dx f, g C[a,b].


a

. , 1, 2 1-4 , .
.
1. | x | = ( x, x) .
(x, x) 0 , .
2. , , , ,
(, ) = 0.
. , , ,
, ,
.18.2 ,
, .
22.
22.1. . .
. : ,
150

( , ) = (, ) , .
1. - , - .
. Ker , ( , ) = (, ) = 0
= 0 Ker = 0.
2. - ,
-1
- .
. -1 = , -1 = b. (, b) =
= ( a, b) = (x, y) (x, y)= (, b) = ( -1, -1).
,
( ).
1. : n n 14 :
1. ( , ) = (, ) , n.
2. ( s, et) = (s, et) s, t ( )
= {1,..,en} n.
3. ( us , ut) = (us, ut) = st s, t ( )
= {1,..,n} n.
4. { u1 ,, un } .
5. ais (ei , e j )a jt = ais ij a jt = s,t , i,j = (i, ej)
i, j

i, j

, (ai,j) = [ ].
6.

b = s,t , (bs,t) = [ ].

ks kt

7. [ ] [ ] = .
t

8. [ ] [ ] = [ ] t [ ] = .
t

9.

[ ] = [ ] .
-1

10. [ ] [ ] = .
t

11.

b = s,t.

sk tk

151

12. [ ]
u

C .
13. [ ]
u

C.
14. [ ]t .
u


1 .19.1.
. 1.
. - , |det | = 1,
det - , 1.
. [ ] [ ] t = , det det =
u

= det = 1 |det | = 1 |det | = 1 .


. , , , 1 6, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12 13.
22.2. .
U(Hn)
n. U(n)
-, SU(n)= {A U(n)| detA=1},
SU(Hn) = { U(Hn)| det = 1}.
2.
1. U(Hn) , 2. U(n) , 3. U(Hn) U(n),
4. SU(Hn) U(Hn), 5. SU(n) U(n).

2 .19.2.
. 2.
22.3. .
. : - , L - . L - -
.
2

152


.19.3.
: - .
. 16.7 L1 - - 1. L1 - - , = L1 L1. L1 -
, L1 L2 - -
1, L L2 L1
-. , = L1L2L, L L3 - 1, . , = L1L,
Li -, , .
L 1, L = <e>,
: L L - , = c, c C,
( , )= (,) |c|2(,) = (,) |c|2=1, c = cos + isin .
H = L1L2Ln Li
.
.
:
[ ] = diag(1 ,2 ,...,n), s = cos s + isin s .
u

,
. :
,
:
[ ] = diag(1 ,2 ,...,n), s = coss + isins.
(22.1)
u

: [ ] (22.1),
u

- .
:

(
) , -1 (22.1).
153

, (22.1) .
, (22.1).
. , (22.1)
.
33.
23.
.20.
23.1. .
fa() = (, ), .
. , fa ()*.
: ()* ,
() = fa .
, (+b) = fa+b = () + (b) = fa + fb ,
fa+b() = (x, +b) = (, ) + (x, b) = fa() + fb() = ( fa + fb)().
() = fa = () = fa , fa()=(, )= (, )=
= (fa()) = ( fa)().
, . .
. (a1, 2,,). , * () = fa ( a1 , a2 ,, an ). , .
,
()*. ,
. : ()* ,
() = fa ()*.
. ,
.

154

23.2. .
: - .
f(x) = ( x, a).
. , f ,
f ()*, , f = fb b .
, b = *a, * : - . * ,
( x, a) = (x, b) = (x, *a) ( x, ) = (, *a ).
. * : .
. .
. *: .
, ** = , ( , ) = (, *) = (**, ).
. 5 (
= *, = *):
1. ( x, ) = (, ) , .
2. ( i ,j)= (i , j) i, j ( ) .
3. ( i ,j) = (i , j) i, j ( ) .
4. [ ] t = [ ] , [ ] = -1 [ ] t , - e

(, - . .26.1).
5. [ ] = [ ] t.
-1

. .
23.3. .
. : , * = , ,
( ,) = (, ).
. 5 (
= *) :
1. ( x, ) = (, ) , .
2. ( i ,j)= (i , j) i, j ( ) .
155

3. ( i ,j) = (i , j) i, j ( ) .
4. [ ]t = [ ] , - .
e

5. [ ] = [ ] - .
t

. .
. , det At= det A=
= det A = det A det A R.
23.4. .
. : - , L
- . L - -
.
. L, y L ( x, y) = 0 = (x, y)
(L) L (L) L .

.22.3 =L1L2L , Li
1, -
.
L 1, L= <e>,
: L L - , = ,
( ,) = ( ,)= (,)= (, )= (, )= ( ,) =
R.
= L1L2Ln Li
i . . : [ ] = diag(1,,,n),
u

s R . ,
. :
,
: [ ] = diag(1,2,,n),
u

s R. , [ ] = diag(1,,n), s R,
u

- .
156

:

( )
, -1 = diag(1,2,,n), s R .
.
,
* = *.
,
, * = * = id,
, * = .

, , ,
, , , , .
34.
24.
24.1. . .
. f L P f: L L P, (x, y) f(x, y) P, :
1. f(x+y, z) = f(x, z)+ f(y, z) x, y, z L, , P,
2. f(x, y+z) = f(x, y)+ f(x, z) x, y, zL, ,P .
. f

x, y L.

1. f(0L , y) = f(x, 0L ) = 0
m

i 1

j 1

i 1 j 1

2. f ( i ui , j v j ) i j f (ui , v j )

m, n N,

i, j P, ui, vj L.

. .
157

.
1. (x,y)
.
2. f1, f2 - L, f(x, y)= f1()f2()
L.
24.2. .
f - n-
L=Ln P, e={e1,,en} - L.
n

i 1

j 1

x, y L x xi ei , y y j e j , xi ,yj P.

n
n
n
f(x, y) = f xi ei , y j e j xi y j f (ei , e j ) .
(24.1)
i

1
j

1
i
,
j

(24.1) , f(x, y)
, ,
.
( ) ,
( ) ,
. .
, f(x,y) x, y L n2
f(ei,ej) ei, ej.
[ f ] = ( fij ) n,
e

fij = f(ei, ej ), i,j = 1,,n. [ f ]


e

f e.
n

(24.1) f(x, y)= xi y j f (ei , e j ) =


i , j 1

i 1

j 1

xy

i , j 1

xi ( fi j y j ) = [ x]t [ f ][ y] .
e

. :

158

f =

j ij

xy

f f(x, y)=

i , j 1

f , f -

j ij

, [ f ] = ( fij ).
e

24.3. . .
e = {e1,,en} L, T = T =
e e

= ( tij ) - e e:
n

e j t ij ei . x, y L [ x] T [ x], [ y] T [ y] ,
e

i 1

f(x ,y) = [ x] [ f ][ y] (T[ x]) [ f ](T[ y]) = [ x] T [ f ] T [ y] =


t

= [ x ] [ f ][ y ] . ,
t

, [ f ] = T t [ f ]T .
e

. det [ f ] = det [ f ] (det T)2.


e

. f(x, y) - L.
f
- L: rg f = rg [ f ] .
e

, :
rg [ f ] = rg [ f ] e e,
e

[ f ] T t T
e


.
24.4. . . .
. f - L P. F: L P,

159

F(x) = f(x, x) x L,
, f .
n

i , j 1

i , j 1

f(x, y)= xi y j fi j , F(x) = xi x j fi j - ,


, , . , F(x) .
. , f F .
. () f
, f(x, y) = f(y, x) x, y L.
. , f f(ei, ej) =
= f(ej, ei) i, j ( ) e [ f ] = [ f ] t .
e

. charP 2, f F

.
. f -
, f F. x, y L F(x + y) = f(x + y, + )=
= f(x, ) + f(y, ) + f(x, y)+ f(y, x) = F(x) + F(y) + 2 f(x, y)
1
f(x, y)= (F(x + y) - F(x) - F(y)).
(24.2)
2
, f F,
, f F .

.
1. F (,
,
g). , f , F (24.2) .
2. , f ,
f F.
160

, f F
, , .
. [ F ] F

f : [ F ] = [ f ] .

, [F] t = [F],
[ F ] = T t [ F ] T . , F(x) = [ x]t [ F ] [ x] ,

e e

e e

rg F = rg f.
24.5. .
: L L - ,
g(x, y) - L. g(x, y)= g( x, y).
G(x) = G( x).
. , 1. g - ,
1
2. (g ) = g , 3. g id = g, 4. f = g , g = f .
, f g L (, F G)
~ (f ~ g, F ~ G), : L L , f = g
(, F = G).
- (
), , f g (F G)
.
. , ~
(, ) .
. f g (, F G) , f ~ g (F ~ G).
f g (F G) ( ),
f g (F G).
161

g(x, y) = g( x, y) = [ x] t[g][ y] =
= [x]t []t [g][][ y] = [x]t([]t[g][])[y] = [x]t[g][y],
[ g ] = [] t [ g ] [] = [ g ] = [ g ] , = . ,
e

[G ] = [] [G ] [] = [G ] = [G ] .

, f ~ g
[f] = T t[g]T, T .
f g
[ f ] = T t[g]T, T (
L = ) . , = [].
.
1. f ~ g L e e , [ f ] [ g ] . , f g L - e

e e , [ f ] [ g ] .
e

2. f ~ g, rg f = rg g, .
, rg f = rg [ f ] rg [ g ] = rg g.
e

~ () , L P,
. : , ,
, L
.

.

162

35.
24.6.
.
L - , char P 2, f(x, y)
L, F(x) .
. , , L f ( f-), f(x, y)= 0.
: f .
. L f- .
.
1. F(x) = 0 x L, (24.2) f(x, y) = 0 x,
L f-.
2. L , F() 0, = 1,
L1 = <1>, L2 = {x L | f(1, x) = 0}. , L2
. L2
L1 f L1 f . ,

L = L1 L1 f .
a) L1

L1 f . = 1 f(1,1)= f(1, 1) =

= F(1) = 0 = 0 x = 0 L1 L1 f = 0.
) , L , = 1 + ,

L1 f . , L1 f ( - 1)f 1
f( - 1, 1) = 0 = f(, 1)/ f(1, 1) ( f(1, 1)=
=F(1) 0).

, L = L1 L1 f , dim L1 f = n 1, L1 f
,

, L1 f f-
{2,3,,n}. , , {1,2,,n} - f- L.

163

, e = {1,,n} , f(i, j) = 0
i j. f(i, i) = i .
[ f ] = diag(1,, n); f(x, y) = i xi y i , F(x) = i xi2 ,
e

. , . , ( )
.
f(i, i) = i 0 i = 1,,r f(i, i) = 0
i = r+1,,. r = rg f, r .
= . i ,
2
i = i i = 1,,r, i = 1 i = r+1,,. zi = ix i F(x)= z12++zr2 .
,
. F e={e1,,e},
, = zi ei
F(x) = z12++zr2. f = z1 w1++zr wr.
. r. , . r+1 .
= R. ,
F F(x) = 112++sxs2
- s+1s+12-- s+t s+t2, i 0, s+t = r. i = i
i = 1,,r, i = 1 i = r+1,,.
zi= ix i F(x)= z12++zs2 zs+12--zs+t2
- R .
,
164

. L R
F ,
F(z) = z12++zs2 zs+12--zs+t2.
f
f(z, w) = z1 w1++zs ws zs+1ws+1-- zs+tws+t.
.
1. F (F 0), x 0 F(x) 0.
f , f 0.
, F
F(z) = z12++z2, s = n, t = 0.
2. , F - (F 0), x 0 F(x) 0. f 0.
F
F(z) = - z12-- z2, s = 0, t = .
3. , F
(F 0), x 0 F(x) 0, x 0: F(x)=0. f 0.
, F
F(z) = z12++zs2, s n, t = 0.
4. F - (F 0),
x 0 F(x) 0 x 0: F(x)=0. f 0, F
F(z) = - z12-- zt2, s = 0, t n .
5. , F - , x , F(x) 0,
, F() 0. f , F
F(z) = z12++zs2 zs+12-- zs+t2,
s 0, t 0 .
24.7. .
( ). F F(z) = z12++zs2 zs+12--zs+t2,
s t , ,
F , s t
.
. , s
L, F 0.
s . , 165

= {1,2,,n}, L1 = <1,2,,s> , F L 0. , 1

s, F 0.
, s, F 0. :
L2 , F 0, dimL2 s.
L3 = <s+1,,n>. ,
F L 0 F L <0. 3 .12 dimL2 L3 = dimL2+
3

+ dimL3 dim(L2+L3) s + (n s) n = 0 L2 L3 ,
0, F() 0 F() 0 - , L2
, s .
F. t s , t L, F 0. t .

. s F I+(F). t F I -(F).
.
. 2 I+ = s, I - = t,
, .
,
(s, t).
. .
24.8. .
L
R. F k
k [F] :
166

f11 ...

f1k

k = ... ... ... .


f k1 ... f kk
( ). F 0 k 0.
.
. F 0. F
, [ F ] = . = T , [ F ] = t [ F ] T =
e e

= = , det[F] = | | = |T| 0. Lk= <1,2,,k>. , F


F L 0 det [ F L ] = k 0 k.
t

. k 0. det[F] = 0.

L-1 = <1,,-1>. , f- L-1.


= - 11 -- -1-1, , i =1,, -1
f( , i)= 0 . f( - 11 -- -1-1, i)= 0
f(11 ++ -1-1, i) = f(e , i). f ,
(-1)- (-1) 1,,-1:
1f(1,i)++-1f(-1, i)= f(e , i), i =1,, -1. -1 0.
, ,
, . ,
= {1,,-1,u} , L.
0
f11 ... f1, 1
... ...
...
0

[f ]
, det [ f ] = -1 > 0.
f1, 1 ... f 1, 1 0
e
e

...
0

0

167

-1>0, > 0. -1 -1, f- L-2, -1> 0, .. , [ f ] = diag(1,, n),


u

F(y) = 1y12++nyn2. i 0, F > 0.

36.
25.

25.1. .

, F(x)
F f(x,) u

= F . u

= F . F u

, - ,
* = . ,
:
= diag(1,2,,n). = T . u u

( ), , ,
t
-1= t . F = F = -1 = = diag(1,2,,n).
u

, v
(y1,y2,,yn), F ,
F(v)=1y12+2y22++ nyn2. , w = (z1,,zn ), f(v,w)=1y1z1+2y2z2++nynzn .
,
168

. F(x) , F . ,
u, F :
t
F = F = diag(1,2,,n). F
u

1,2,,n .
1. F , (. .24.5).
2.
,
1,2,,n , ,
.
3. ,

.
1,,n F , ,
= F ,
u

det( F -E) = 0.

= {1,, n} , i ,
( F - iE)[x]= [0]. u


, , dim Ker( F - iE) = 1, u

, . , i
, dim Ker( F - iE) 1, u

169

( F - iE)[x] = [0] u

, , -.
25.2. .
L R . F, G , G 0,
f, g .
g , , g , g(x,y)= (x,y)g , L - : L = .
.25.1, ( g) u,
F ( G , , ).
v =(y1,y2,,yn), G(v)= y12+ y22 ++yn2 ( g), F(v) = 1y12 +2y22 ++nyn2.
, w = (z1, z2,,zn ),
g(v,w)=y1z1+ y2z2++ynzn , f(v,w)=1y1z1+2y2z2++nynzn.
,
. F G,
G 0, L R
, F , G
, F ,
u

G = E. , = T eu

, F = diag(1,2,,n),
t

G =.
t

1,,n F = F ,
u

,
() = F ,
u

170

det( F -E) = 0. F = F , = G ,
t

det( F -E) = det( ( F - G ))= 0 det( F - G )= 0


t

()
F G . F ,G ( ) = det( F - G )
e

F, G (G >0),
F ,G ( ) =0 . , 1,,n F .
= {1,, n}
, i , ( F - iE) [ x] = [0]
u

( F ).
u

( F - iE) [ x] = ( F - i G ) [ x] = ( F - i G ) [ x] = [0]
t

( F - i G ) [ x] = [0] e

F , G . e

g- , ,
dim Ker( F - iE) = dim Ker( F - i G ) = 1, u

x ( g),
G( x) .
, i , dim Ker( F - iE) 1,
u


( F - i G ) [ x] = [0]
e

g, , -.
171

37.
26.
26.1.
.
. f(,) L C ,
:
1. f(+, z) = f(, z)+ f(, z), x, y, z L,
2. f( , ) = f(, y), x, y L, C,
3. f(x,y) = f ( y, x) x, y L.
.
1. f(, + z) = f(, )+ f(, z), x, y, z L,
2. f(, ) = f(, y), x,y L, C,
3. f(0L , y) = f(x, 0L ) = 0 x, y L.
m

s 1

t 1

4. f ( s us , t vt ) s t f (us , vt )

m, n N,

s 1 t 1

s, t C, us, vt L.
.
1. , 1, 2 1, 2
( ). , - .
2. ,
,
.
.
f - n- L = Ln , e = {e1,,en}

172

L. x, y L, x xs es , y yt et ,
s 1

t 1

n
xs, yt , f(x,y) = f xs es , yt et xs yt f (es , et ) .
t 1
s 1
s ,t 1
, f(x, y) x, y L n2 fst = f(es,et) f
es, et.
[ f ]=( fst )s,t=1,,n n

f e.
n

t 1

s ,t 1

y yt et . f(x,y)= xs f st yt = [ x]t [ f ][ y ] ,
e

f(x, y) ,
y .
,
. ,
, .
f
t
fts = f(et,es)= f (es , t ) = f st s,t, [ f ] = [ f ] (
e

)
[ f ] ( ) .
e

. f -
L . F: L , F(x) = f(x, x) x L, , f.
f , F .
n

, f(x, y) = xs yt f st , F(x) =
s ,t 1

x x f

s ,t 1

s t

st


173

.
F f: [ F ]= [ f ].
e

F(x) = [ x] [ F ] [ x ] .
t

. , f
F
1
f(x, y)= (F(x+y) - F(x - y) + iF(x+iy) - iF(x - iy)). (26.1)
4
e = {e1,,en} - L, = T = (tks ) e e

e e,
t
t
f ( x, y ) [ x] [ f ][ y ] (T [ x])t [ f ](T [ y ]) [ x] T t [ f ]T [ y ] . e

[ f ] T [ f ]T ,

[ f ] T [ f ] T ,

e e

e e

T ( tks ) - e -

e e

e e ,
n

es tks ek , s=1,,n. , [ F ] T t [ F ]T .
e

k 1

.
1. det [ f ] = det [ f ] |detT|2.
e

2. det [ f ] R,
e

sign(det [ f ] )= sign(det [ f ] ).
e

. f - L.
f -
: rg f = rg [ f ] . , rg F = rg [ F ] = rg f.
e

, rg [ f ]
e

e .
. f , f F L
174

, x L
F(x) = f(x, x) R.
. f - , x, y L
f(x,y)= f ( y, x), x L F(x)=f(x,x)= f ( x, x) F ( x),
F(x) R x L .
, x L F(x) = f(x, x) R. , x, yL f(x, y)= f ( y, x), f . (26.1): x, y L
1
f(x, y) = (F(x + y) F(x - y)+ iF(x + iy) iF(x - iy)),
4
x, y L
F(x+y)= F(y+x) R,
F(x - y)= f(x - y, x - y)= (-1)2f(y - x, y - x)= F(y x) R,
F(x + iy)= i i f(x + iy, x + iy)= f(- y+ ix,- y+ ix)=
= (-1)2f(y - ix, y - ix)= F(y ix) R,
F(x - iy)= F(y + ix) R.
(26.1), :
1
f(x, y)= (F(y+ x) - F(y x) + i F(y ix) - i F(y + ix))= f ( y, x) .
4
, f - .

26.2. .
f(x, y)
L , F(x) .
. L f- .
.24.6.
e = {1,,n} - f- ,
f(k, k) = k k. [ f ] = diag(1,,n),
k R, f(x, y) =

x y
k

, F(x) = k | xk |2 ,

f F . , . , 175

( )
.
f(k, k) = k 0 k =1,,r f(k, k)= 0
k = r+1,,. r = rg f = rgF, r .
, F
F(x) = 1|1|2++s|xs|2 s+1|s+1|2s+t |s+t|2,
k 0, s + t = r. k = k k = 1,,r, k = 1
k = r+1,,. zk = kxk k
F(x)= |z1|2++|zs|2|zs+1|2--|zs+t|2 - .
,
. L
F ,
F(z) = |z1|2++|zs|2|zs+1|2 - -|zs+t|2.
f f(z,w) = z1w1++zsws zs+1ws+1 --zs+tws+t.
.24.6 F
(F 0), (F 0), (F 0), (F 0),
. s
t , .24.6.
.24.7 , I+(F)= s I -(F) = t.
2
I+ = s, I - = t,
.
.24.8
. , ,
k R.
176

38.
27.

27.1. .
(. .25).

, F(x)
F f(x,) u

f = F . u

= F . F u

, - , * = .
, : = diag(1,2,,n), i R.
u

= T . (
u u

), , , -1= T t . T T T .
1= T . = diag(1,2,,n) =
u

u u

-1

u u
t

= T F =
u

= T F T1 = F - , u - t
1

. , u (y1,,yn), F F()=1|y1|2+2|y2|2++n|yn|2, i R.
, z = (z1,,zn),
f(y, z) =1y1 + 2y2 ++nyn . ,
177


.
F(x) u , F
F() = 1|y1|2+ 2|y2|2++ n|yn|2, i R.
, 1
u , F :
T1t F T1 = F = diag(1,1,,n), i R.
u

1. F f , (. .24.5).
2. ,
1,2,,n , ,
.
3. ,
.
1,,n F , ,
= F ,
u

det( F -E) = 0.

= {1,, n} , i ,
( F - iE)[x]= [0]. u


, , dim Ker( F - iE) = 1, u

, . , i
, dim Ker( F - iE) 1, u

178

( F - iE)[x] = [0] u

, , -.
,
u , 1,, n .
27.2. .
L . F, G , G 0, f, g . g , , g
, g(x, y)= (x, y)g , L - : L = .
.27.1, ( g) u, F
( G , , ).
=(y1,y2,,yn), G()= |y1|2+|y2|2 ++|yn|2 (
g),
F()= 1|y1|2+2|y2|2++ n|yn|2. ,
z =(z1,z2,,zn ), g(,z)= y1 + y2 ++yn ,
f(y, z) = 1y1 + 2y2 ++nyn .
,
.
F G, G 0, L
, F , G ,
F = diag(1,1,,n) ,
u

iR, G =E. , = T

eu

,
t
t
F T = diag(1,1,,n), G T = .
e

179

1,,n F = F ,
u

,
() = F ,
u

det( F -E) = 0. F = F T , =
t

G T ,

det( F -E) = det( ( F G ) T )= 0 det( F - G )=0


t

()

G .

F
e

F ,G ( ) = det( F - G ) -

F, G (G > 0),
F ,G ( ) =0

. , 1,,n F .
= {1,, n},
, ( F - iE) [ x] = [0] (
u

F ). ,
u

i
t
(0,0,,0, 1 ,0,,0). , ( F -iE) [ x] = ( F -i G ) T [ x] =
i

= ( F - i G )[x]= [0] ( F - i G )[x]= [0]


t

F , G , [x]= T [ x] .
e

u .
,
i ( F -i G )[x]= [0].
e

180

i g-
, , dim Ker( F - i G )= 1,
e

x (
g), G( x) .
i F ,G ( ) =0,
dim Ker( F - i G ) 1,
e


g, , -. u .
,
u .
39.
28.
, ,
G ( G ), - G.
28.1. .
G , H G. G : g1, g2 G
, g1 g2 g1g2-1 .
g1g2-1 .
, g1g2-1= h g1= h g2.
. G.
. , - ,
g G g g , g g -1 = H. ,
- , g1 g2,
g1g2-1= h h -1H, h -1= g2g1-1 H g2 g1 . ,
- , g1 g2, g2 g3,
181

g1g2-1= h1 , g2g3-1= h2 h1h2 = g1g3-1 g1 g3.

, G
. cl g1 = {g G| g g1} = {g G| g = hg1, h } = Hg1 .
Hg1 g1
. , g1 g1H.
. G / ,
H = G H = {}.
G , G
: |G| = n . . G, |H| = m.
. m | n, n = km, k
G .
. H = { h1,, hm}.
Hg ={ h1g,, hmg }, h1g,,hmg , hig = hjg , higg -1 = hjgg -1 hi = hj . , |Hg| = m = |H|,
. k,
G, n = mk m = n / k.


G .
n / k = .
. (
) G
G (G:H).

: |G| / |H| = (G:H).
28.2. .
G , .
. a, b G (ab)(b -1a -1)= a(bb-1)a -1 =
= aa -1 = , (ab) -1 = b -1a -1.
182

. H G 4 :
1. h H, g G g -1hg H;
2. g G g -1Hg H;
3. g G g -1Hg = H;
4. g G Hg = gH .
. , 1 2 , 1 , 2 .
, 3 2. , 2 3.
2 g g-1. gHg -1 H.
g -1 g. H g-1Hg.
2 3.
, 2 3. , 4
3 g , 3 4 g -1 . 3 4.
. H G
( ) G,
(, , ).
,
.
G/
G/H.
,
. g
g .
, {} G .
G. G/H .
I. g1 , g 2 G/H g1 g 2 = g1 g 2 .
. G/H , g1
g2 .
183

. g1 g1 , g2 g 2 - . , g1g2 g1 g 2 ,
g1g2 g1g2. , g1 g1 , g2 g2 g1 = h1g1,
g2= h2g2 g1g2= h1g1h2g2=h1g1h2(g1-1g1)g2= h1(g1h2g1-1)g1g2=
= h1hg1g2 = hg1g2, h H g1g2 g1g2, g1 g 2 = g1 g 2 .

II. .
1. ( g1 g 2 ) g3 = g1 g 2 g3 = ( g1 g2 ) g3 = g1 ( g2 g3 ) = g1 ( g 2 g3 )
G/H .
2. g = g = g = g , G/H .
3. , g g 1 = gg 1 = = g 1 g , G / H
g g -1 = g 1 .
, G/H
, .
.
1. , G , G/H .
2. , G/{} G, G/G {}.
: g1Hg2H = { g1hg2h | h, h H}. , g1Hg2H =
= g1(g2g2-1)Hg2H = g1g2(g2-1Hg2)H = g1g2H = g1g2H (
, = , , = ).
, (gH) -1= {(gh) -1| h H} = -1g -1= g -1= (g -1g)Hg -1=
= g -1(gHg -1) = g -1H (, -1 = , = = ).
,
G / H
: g1Hg2H = g1g2H.
G/H .
28.3. .
G1 , G2
184

.
.
1. : G1 G2 (
) , a, b G1 (ab) = a b.
2. - , .
3. - , .
4. - , .
5. : G1 G1, .
6. : G1 G1 - , .
.
1. : G1 G2 , : G2 G3 - .
, : G1 G3 - .
2. AutG G. , AutG .
: G1 G2 - , 1 G1,
2 G2 .
1. 1 = 2 , (g -1) = (g) -1 g G1.
. 1 = . (11) = 11 =
=1 = -1 = -1 2 = 2 = 2 .
(gg -1) =(g)(g -1) = 1 = 2 (g -1) = (g) -1.

. : G1 G2 Ker = -12 = {g G1| g = 2}.


2. Ker - G1.
. a, b Ker. a = b = 2
(ab) = ab = 22= 2 ab Ker. ( -1)= () -1 =
= 2-1 = 2 a -1 Ker. , 1 = 2 1 Ker.
, Ker - G1.

185

gG1, aKer. (g -1g)= (g)-1g=


= (g)-12g = 2 g -1g Ker.
, Ker - G1.

. , Im - G2 .
3. - Ker = {1}.
. . - , Ker
= 1= 2 = 1 Ker = {1}.
. Ker = {1}, = b. (b-1) =(b)-1=
= 2 b-1 Ker b-1= 1 a = b - .

40.
28.4. .
- G, G/
. : G G/ , g G (g) = g .
. - , Ker = H.
. a, b G (ab) = ab = a b =
= (a)(b), - . , - , - . . , g Ker
g = g g. , Ker = Ker =H.

. ,
. , ,
, . , ,
.
: G1 G2 - , = Ker,
G1/ , : G1 G1 / .
: G1 / G2
186

: ( g ) = g g G1/.
, g = gH, (gH)=
=g(H) = g2 = g. , a , b G1 /

( a b ) = ( ab ) = (ab) =ab = ( a ) ( b ), . g Ker , ( g ) = g = 2


g Ker = H g = 1 Ker = { 1 } -
(. .28.3, 3). , - . ,
G1/ G2, G1/
Im = (G1), , . , : G1 / Im - .
Im G2, i
i : Im G2, i(g) = g g Im . , i
, . ,
g G1 (i can)(g) = i( (can(g)))= i( ( g )) = i(g)= g
i can = . ,
. : G1 G2 , :

G1

G2
i , i

can

can = ,

G1 / Ker Im
, - , i - .
. , G/H
G
G , Ker = H.
G/H Im .
. G = * - () , =Un= {z C| zn= 1}
- 1.
187

. , Un - * ( , ).
G/H = */Un . : * * , z C* z = zn. ,
1. - ( C*), (z1z2)=
= (z1z2)n = z1nz2n = z1 z2 .
2. Ker = H = Un. , , .
3. Im = C*, C* z C* , = zn= z.
, */ Un *.
28.5. .
G , g G. , n Z g n = g g ... g n N, g n = ,
n

n = 0, g = (g ) -nN.
. , g ng m = g n+m, (g n)-1= g -n
n, m Z.
. g 3) 1) G, 2) g.
g <g>. g
<g>.
= {g n | Z}.
. = <g>.
.
0. G , g A.
, gg = g 2 A, g g 2 = g 3 A,, g A N
Z .
1. g s, g t g sg t = g s+t, (g s)-1= g -s, = g 0
G.
2. g = g 1 .
3. g , ( .0)
, g = <g>.
<g> = {g n | Z }.
n

188

-n -1

:
1. g n - . |<g>| = , <g> - .
2. m n , g = g n. ,
> n. g - = , N. d
, g d = . d
g: .g = d ( 1 .g =).
.g = d < . , Z, , d , : = dq + r, 0 r < d,
g n = g dq+r = (g d)qg r = g r = g r <g> = {g r | r = 0,1,,d-1}
|<g>| = d -
.
. g n = d | n .
.
1. , Z ()
.
.
2. , Z ()
.
.
3. Z .
4. , .
g G. : Z G , () = g n Z. , - ,
(+) = g + = g g = . ,
Im = <g>, Ker = {n Z | g = }. Ker = { 0 },
Im = <g> Z / Ker =
= Z / { 0 } Z , < g > -
. Ker { 0 }, Ker = dZ, Im = <g>
Z / Ker = Z / dZ Zd , < g > - . ,
Z,
Zd .
189

, :
1. .. , .1.- .: -
, 2006
2. .., ..
.- .: - , 2003

190


1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
6. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
8. () . . . . . . . . . 70
17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
191

24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
14. . . . . . . .113
15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
17. . . . . . . . . . . .130
29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
20. . . . . . . . . . . . .144
32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
25. . . . .168
37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
27. . . . . . . . . 177
39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186

192