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Adobe PhotoShop CS (PS 8)

1. Adobe Photoshop screen parts: Drop down menu Option bar for the tool box File browser button

Palette well: Tabs for other pallets: 1 -Brush size -Tool presets -Layer comps

Palettes Image window

Tool box Image magnification File size

Left click hold and drag here to change the size of the image window

Status bar

-Drop down menus = Main menus for Photoshop -Options bar = Gives you the options for a selected tool

Hiding the Tool box and Palettes: Tab Key- hides and unhides the toolbox and the palettes Shift Tab hides and unhides the palettes

-File browser button = opens the file browser so you can browse to a file -Palette well = Other palettes that can be pulled into the pallet area

-Image magnification = gives you the current magnification of the selected image in the image window -File size = gives you the file size of the selected image in the image window -Status bar = tells you about the function of a selected tool or drop down menu item
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

A. Menu bar:

Menu Bar (part 2)


8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

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Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

4 B. Toolbox: Go to /www.adobeme.com Click on the arrow next to a tool to expands the box to show you different tools -Once you select a tool look at the status bar (at the bottom of the screen) to see notes on how to use the tool

The Options bar at the top of the page shows different buttons for a selected tool

Hand tool (H) = Moves the viewed part of a picture when the image view size is larger than the Image window size Zoom tool (Z) = magnifies the image view on the picture canvas when you click on the picture canvas (100% - 200% -300%) Magnify = Left click - Demagnify = Alt+Left click Switches the foreground color for the background color

Set foreground color = color put on an image by paint brushes and other tools Set background color = color behind an image that you see if you remove part of it Returns to default background and foreground colors Switches between Edit in Standard Mode and Edit in Quick Mask Mode (Q) Switches the screen view between Standard Screen Mode/ Full Screen Mode with Menu Bar Mode and Full Screen Mode without the menu bar (F)
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

Switches between Editing in Regular Mode and Edit in Image Ready Mode (Shift+CTRL+M)

Key board letter to switch the tool functions (Shift + the letter)

Left column tools


Marquee selection tool: makes
rectangular, elliptical, single row, and single column selections.

Lasso selection tool: makes


freehand, polygonal (straight-edged), and magnetic (snap-to) selections.

Crop tool: crops or trims


i

Pattern and color copying tools: These tools copy patterns or


colors to paste them over selected areas

The clone stamp tool paints with a


sample of an image.

The pattern stamp tool paints


with preset patterns. The eraser tool erases pixels and restores parts of an image to a previously saved state or a selected state of history The background eraser tool erases areas of a layer to transparency by dragging so you see the layer below. The magic eraser tool erases selected colors to transparency with a single click. The blur tool blurs hard edges in an image The sharpen tool sharpens soft edges in an image The smudge tool smudges data in an image.

The path selection tools selects path shapes or segments showing anchor points, direction lines, and direction points. The Pen tool lets you draw paths as if you were drawing with a pencil on paper but, the ends of line are connected and the area within is filled. Anchor points of the path can be added or modified. This allows you to make an object in a photograph a solid color. Paths can also be turned into selections.

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The notes tool lets you add written or Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill voice notes to pictures

- Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

Right column tools

Click on the arrow next to a tool box tool expands the box to show you different tools

The move tool moves a layer or selection

The magic wand selects similarly colored areas

The slice tool creates slices. The slice selection tool selects slices. Slices are parts of picture that will load independently from one another when a webpage loads and are used to reduce download times. The paintbrush tool paints brush strokes. The pencil tool draws with hard-edged strokes. The history brush tool paints a copy of the selected state or snapshot into the current image window. The art history brush tool paints with stylized strokes that simulate the look of different paint styles, using a selected state or snapshot. The gradient tools create straight-line, radial, angle, reflected, and diamond, blends between colors The paint bucket tool fills similarly colored areas with the foreground color The dodge tool lightens areas in an image. The burn tool darkens areas in an image. The sponge tool changes the color saturation of an area.

The type tools creates type on an image. The type mask tools creates mask type on an image.

The shapes and lines tools creates shapes or lines on an image and fills them with the foreground color. The eyedropper tool samples colors in an image to set the foreground or background color. The color sample tool samples specific colors in an image and records the information on the colors on the info pallet when you left click on the image Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson The measure tool measures distances, locations and angles

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Active palettes are bolded Click on a palette tab to activate it C. Working with palettes: I. Viewing palettes: >Window -Select palettes by clicking on them

Palette well: Click on the pallet tab to open the pallet

Selected palettes

Moving palettes on to the workspace --Left click hold and drag on tab title of a palette to move it to the workspace

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Photoshop CS8.0

Left click hold and drag here to increase the size Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill of the palette

- Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

8 II. Restoring pallets to their original location and size: >Window >Workspace >Reset Palette Locations D. Pallet details: I. Navigator palette: -Changes and magnifies the view Image window on the workspace Clicking on this arrow gives you addition options for the palette and gives you the option to move it to the palette well

Image magnification

Zoom magnification slider

Decrease magnification

Increase magnification

- The Hand Tool -Moves the view selection window -You can use the hand tool to move the red view selection square on the navigator palette or directly on the image wind II. Info palette: This palette gives you information on the color make up of pixels in a picture when you move the cursor over them with a tool on the image window Note, when you Left click on an image with the color sample tool the sampling point is marked on your image and the information on the color sampled is recorded on the at the bottom of the information palette.
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

9 III. Histogram palette: Gives you a histogram of all the colors in a photo

You can use the Expanded View or All Channels View to see more information about the colors in a photo IV. Color palette: The color palette sets the foreground and background colors

Color characteristics

Foreground color -Selected

Background color click here to select

V. Swatches palette: The swatches palette has preset colors for the foreground and background colors

Add a new swatch color


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Delete a swatch color

-New swatches created from Foreground color Photoshop CS8.0 Manual are Created by Jeffrey Hill the - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

10 VI. Styles palette: The styles palette has custom styles that can be inserted into a selection on a layer

Note styles can only be applied to new layers or selections not the background layer.

Clears a style from a selection

Delete a style Adds a new style

VII. History palette: Shows all the changes made to a picture

Creates a new document of a picture in the workspace from the viewed state

Delete deletes the selected state and all states after it First

Makes a copy (snapshot) of the viewed state of a picture

History brush selection: selects the state the history brush or art history brush will paint with

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Selected state: Selects the state seen in the image screen. If you move the selector up the list you will see earlier states of the picture

Last

Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

11 VIII. Actions palette: Shows the sequence of commands in an Action. Actions are sequences of saved commands. Action commands let you automate repetitive imaging tasks and apply them to many image files.

Toggle item on / off Toggle dialog on / off

Delete Create new action Create new set Play -Action Begin recording Stop playing / recording Default actions

Photoshop Actions palette A. Action or set with one excluded command B. Action or set with a modal control C. Included command (toggles command on or off) D. Modal control (toggles modal control on or off) E. Excluded command F. Set G. Action H. Recorded commands
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

12 a. Using actions: > Select the actions palette >Select the action you want by clicking so it is checked >Click on (play) on the action palette b. Making your own action: > Select the actions palette >Click on create new action >Type in a name for the action on the window > Click the record button >Click the sequence of steps you want in the action >Hit the (stop recording button) -Note, that some tools, like drawing tools do not work in actions. Actions are mostly used for modifications of the whole picture (Ex. Reducing the file size). IX. Layers palette: Shows the layers in a picture. Tools that can be applied to a layer

Opacity and fill control how transparent a selected layer is. -100% not transparent -1% is very transparent

Delete

Create a new layer Add a new fill or adjust. layer Create a layer set Add new layer mask Add a layer style

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Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

13 a. More about the layers palette: 1. You can only see layers with the small eye next to them 2. You can only work on the selected layer highlighted in blue 3. To move a masked object like a shape, the shape and its vector mask must be linked Link indicates they are linked 4. Layers linked to the selected layer have a link next to them and will and move and resize together using the move tool Click on the link to unlink the layers 5. Locked layers can not be modified in specific ways (Types of locks) Lock all Layer thumbnail Vector mask thumbnail Lock position Lock image pixels Lock transparent pixels

Selected layer in blue

Layer that drawing tools or masks are active on Invisible layer (has no eye) not seen on image Visible layer (has eye) seen on image

Linked layers or actions--click on/ off

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Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

14 b. About layers: In Photoshop as you add new things to a picture they are added in new layers. Layers allow you to work on one element of an image without disturbing the others. Where there is no image on a layer, you can see through to the layers below. You can change the composition of an image by changing the order and attributes of layers

-Illustration of how transparent areas on a layer let you see through to the layers below X. Channels palette: Shows the color channels in a picture. Channels are the basic colors used to make all the colors in a picture.

Clicking on the eye next to a channel makes it visible (with eye) or not visible (without eye)

Delete channel Create new channel Save selection as a channel Load channel selection
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

15 XI. Path palette: Shows created paths.

Delete path Create new path Make a work path from selection Load path as a selection Stroke path with brush (puts a line around the path) Fill path with foreground A path consists of one or more straight or curved segments. Anchor points mark the endpoints of the path segments. On curved segments, each selected anchor point displays one or two direction lines, ending in direction points. Text can be set to follow a path or a path can be an outline of an object that can be filled. A path can also be turned into a selection. XII. Palettes in the palette well: a. Brushes palette: Allows you to select brush characteristics and create brushes.

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Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

Create new brush

Delete brush

16 b. Tool presets palette: Allows you to use preset tools.

Create new tool

Delete tool

c. Layer comps palette: The layers comp palette shows composite layers .

Delete layer comp Create a new comp layer Update layer comp
Layer Comps palette: A. Apply layer comp icon B. Last document state C. Selected comps D. Layer comp cannot be fully restored icon

Next Back

A layer comp is a snapshot of a state of the Layers palette. Layer comps record three types of layer options: -Layer visibility--whether a layer in the Layers palette is showing or hidden -Layer position in the document -Layer appearance--whether a layer style is applied to the layer
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

17 2. Picture properties and theory: A. Pixels and resolution: I. Definitions: -Pixel = the small dots that make up a digital picture -ppi = pixels per inch or the number of pixels per inch in a picture. Another similar measure of this is dpi = dots per inch, which is used with printers. -Resolution = the number of pixels per inch (ppi) or the size of dots (i.e., pixels) that make up a picture. As the ppi increase the size of the pixels that make up a picture gets smaller and the detail in the picture increases. Higher resolution pictures have more pixels per inch and can be made larger without pixilation occurring. 1 inch

-8 ppi -smaller pixels -more detail in the picture

-4 ppi larger pixels


-less detail in the picture
-Pixilation = when the pixels in a picture are enlarged to the point that they are visible on the picture. This reduces the detail visible in the image and the quality of the image.

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Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

18 II. Image enlargement or magnification and pixel size: When a picture is made larger in dimension you can lose resolution as the effective pixel size increases. As you enlarge or magnify an image Photoshop it creates new pixels because it maintains a constant ppi for the image.

4 IMAGE PIXELS

4 SCREEN PIXELS (1:1 RATIO)

-This is the ideal situation. For every screen pixel there is one image pixel. This is the biggest size the image can be magnified to without becoming distorted.

16 SCREEN PIXELS (1:4 RATIO) 4 IMAGE PIXELS


Enlarged or Magnified

-What has happened now is that the image lost resolution because in effect the pixels have gotten larger. The ppi of the image has not changed, but to make the picture large one pixel has to been made into four. The resolution of the picture has gone down because the size of the color dots making up the picture has increased. III. Resolution and printing: Resolution also controls how large you can print an image without pixilation occurring. The higher the resolution the larger you can print an image without pixilation occurring.

Example: Printing the same low-resolution image at different sizes A. Small print size B. Medium print size C. Large print size
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

19 IV. Standard resolutions: Note, always keep image resolution high while you are working on it in Photoshop. Only reduce the resolution when you need to reduce file size for the specific use of the image. a Photoshop: 1.0 -9,999 ppi -When you create a new document it will be 72 ppi unless you change the resolution setting. -This is the standard resolution used for web images. b. Monitor resolutions: 72-96 ppi -Most older monitors are 800 x 600 pixels for a standard 11 inch by 8 inch display which is 72 ppi -Most newer monitors are 1024 x 768 pixels for a standard 11 inch by 8 inch display which is 96 ppi ***If you are making images for the web you should to reduce their file size to reduce their load time. You should save images for the web at no more than 96 ppi, unless you want the user to be able to magnify the image. c. Mega pixels and digital cameras: The term megapixel means one million pixels. The megapixel number for a camera equals the number of pixels it uses to make a picture. The number of magapixels required for a camera depends on the size you want to view or print pictures at. At least 4* megapixels is genrally recommended for amateur photographs and a minimum of 6 megapixels for advanced photographers. It takes about 8** megapixels for a digital camera to begin to approach the picture quality of a regular 35 mm film camera. Example: Maximum picture size with a 2 megapixel camera at 300 ppi - (5.8 inches x 3.8 inches) 5.8 x 300 ppi = 1740 pixels in length 3.8 x 300 ppi = 1140 pixels in width 1740 ppi length x 1140 ppi width = 1,983,600 or almost 2 megapixels

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Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

20 Numer of Megapixels of Camera 2 3 4* 5 6 8** 12 16 22 Maximum Print Size for 3:2 ratio picture Viewed at 300 PPI: 5.8" x 3.8" 7.1" x 4.7" 8.2" x 5.4" 9.1" x 6.1" 10.0" x 6.7" 11.5" x 7.7" 14.1" x 9.4" 16.3" x 10.9" 19.1" x 12.8" Viewed at 200 PPI: 8.7" x 5.8" 10.6" x 7.1" 12.2" x 8.2" 13.7" x 9.1" 15.0" x 10.0" 17.3" x 11.5" 21.2" x 14.1" 24.5" x 16.3" 28.7" x 19.1"

d. Printers resolutions: 300 -600 dpi -Economy printers have a resolution of 300 dpi -Standard quality printers have a resolution of 600 dpi. -High resolution photograph printers have a resolution of 1200 dpi -Ink jet prints have a resolution of 300-600 dpi Printer resolution related definitions: Pixel = the small dots that make up a printed picture Pixels per inch (ppi) = the number of pixels per inch in a picture. Dots per inch (dpi) = the small dots used to make a grey scale or color images by printers. Halftoning (or screening) = the process of using multiple dots to represent a single pixel in a printed image. Dither (dithering) = number and pattern of halftone dots used to create pixels in a printed picture. Lines per inch (lpi) = the number of halftone dots a printer can print per inch of paper. Lines per inch is a measure of printer quality.
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

21 More information on printer resolution: Printers print specific dots on the page to make pictures, so their resolution is measured in dpi (dots per inch). For simple printers, that print only in black and white, each character is made up of a number of black dots and the dpi (dots pre inch) equals the ppi (pixels pre inch). Most printers cant print continuous color tones whether it's the many shades of gray in a grayscale image or the millions of colors in a color photograph. In order to make shades of gray or colors, most printers uses a concept called halftoning (or screening) and use multiple dots to represent a single pixel in the image. Each dot is either on or off, but the array of dots looks lighter or darker depending on how many dots are in it. With theses printers there is not always a direct relationship between dpi (dots pre inch) and ppi (pixels pre inch). The printer can use multiple tiny dots to express the content of one pixel. Therefore, your printer resolution can be set at 1440 dpi, but your printed image will only have a resolution of 300 ppi. For color images the printer uses four colors of halftone dots: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. Every individual pixel in your image will be represented by a random pattern of these smaller, various-sized printer dots. Dither or dither pattern refers to number and pattern of halftone dots used to create pixels in a printed picture. Different dither patterns can result in differences in image quality. Dithering matches colors more closely. If no dithering is used the program just uses solid color dots of the color closest to the original color in the picture.
GIF image with 0% dither (worse), and with 100% dither (better)

The number of halftone dots a printer can print per inch of paper is know as the lines per inch (lpi). Lines per inch is a measure of printer quality. The lines per inch determines the size and spacing of the dots that make up pixels. If the lines per inch is high it means halftone spots (i.e. dots) are small and close together so less discernible to the eye. The higher the lpi of a printer the better quality image it can print. Lines per inch is also known as the line frequency or screen ruling. e. Recommended scanner resolutions for scanning materials: The scanner resolution you use depends on the material you are scanning and how you plan to use it. For materials you plan to modify in Photoshop or increase in size it is best to scan at a very high ppi for working with the materials in Photoshop and then reduce the ppi when saving the materials for their specific use.

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Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

22 If your final output process is printing to Laser printer Newspaper Quick Print shop, Copy shop Newsprint magazines Glossy magazines Coffee table books Museum quality art books Its linescreen (lpi) is 85 85 to 120 100 to 120 100 or 120 150 175 200 Scan at this resolution (2 x lpi) 170 ppi 170 to 240 ppi 200 to 240 ppi 200 or 240 ppi 300 ppi 350 ppi 400 ppi

f. Making posters: The resolution of images used on posters depends on the size of the poster and the enlargement of the pictures, but for standard sized posters where an image will be blown up to approximately 8 x 12 (20cm x 30cm) resolution of the original image should be no less than 200 ppi and preferably 300 ppi. Note, most images from the web (72 ppi) will be come pixilated if used on a poster.

Standard poster board sizes


Measurements in cm Measurements in inches 11.6 in x 16.5 in 29.5 cm x 42 cm (A3 paper) 27.5 in x 39.3 in Metric 70 cm x 100 cm 91.4 cm x 121.9 cm English 36 in x 48 in 106.6 cm x 182.8 cm English 42 in x 72 in Text size for posters should not be less than 18 pt to be read at 2 meters. g. Maximum pixel dimensions allowed in Photoshop: 300,000 by 300,000 pixels per image. 300,000 x 300,000 @ 300 ppi = 83 ft x 83 ft or 25 m x 25 m 300,000 x 300,000 @ 200 ppi = 125 ft x 125 ft or 38 m x 38 m -Note, that your computer probably does not have enough scratch memory to handle a document this size. -Older versions of Photoshop limited the pixel dimensions to 30,000 x 30,000 for images
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

Type Metric

23 B Types of images used by Photoshop: I. Raster = Raster images are made up of small dots. This type of image will distort (pixilate) if enlarged enough. Photographs are raster images. II. Vector = Vector images are made by mathematical equations so they do not distort (i.e., pixilate) when they are enlarged or reduced. An example of this is the equation for a circle. C. Colors and color models: I. Bit color and number of colors: -Each bit is binary either on or of

Bit color depth


1 Bit 4 Bit 8 Bit 16 Bit 24 Bit

# of actual colors
Two colors (black or white) 16 colors = 2 4 256 colors = 28

Maximum color depth for file types


Bitmap -GIF -Greyscale

16 Possible combinations for 4 bit color 0000 1000 0001 1001 0010 1010 0011 1011 0100 1100 0101 1101 0110 1110 0111 1111

65,536 colors = 216 16.7 million colors = 224 (True color) -JPEG* -Tiff* * JPEG and Tiff files can support even high color depths

-1 BIT IMAGE: A BIT is a single on/off signal. The pixel will either be black or white. Each pixel is recorded on 1 bit of memory. -4 BIT COLOR: Here we have 24 or 16 possible values. Each sequence of zeros and ones is assigned to 1 color, so it takes 4 times the memory of 1 bit color. -Note, that color depth can go up to 64 bit color for certain file types II. Color models: A color model determines the model used to display and print images. Photoshop bases its color modes on established models for describing and reproducing color. In addition to determining the number of colors that can be displayed in an image, color models affect the number of channels and the file size of an image. a. HSB model (Hue, Saturation and Brightness Model): This model is based on the human perception of color and describes a color based on three fundamental characteristics of color: 1. Hue: This is the actual color. It is measured as a location on the standard color wheel, expressed as a degree between 0 and 360. In common use, hue is identified by the name of the color such as red, orange, or green.

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Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

24 2. Saturation: This is how intense the color is and refers to the amount of grey in a color. Saturation is sometimes called chroma and is the strength or purity of the color. On the standard color wheel, saturation increases from the center to the edge.
More saturation

-The Sponge tool can saturate or de-saturate colors as well as <Image <Adjustments <Hue/Saturation. 3. Brightness: This is how light or dark the image is. Brightness is also know as luminosity . Brightness is the relative lightness or darkness of the color, usually measured as a percentage from 0% (black) to 100% (white). -The Dodge tool makes an image liter and Burn tool makes an image darker. The darkness of an image can also be adjusted by <Image <Adjustments <Brightness/Contrast.

A=Saturation B=Hue C=Brightness D=All hues b. RGB model (Red, Green Blue model): Most of the visible spectrum can be represented by mixing red, green, and blue (RGB) colored light in various proportions and intensities. Where the colors overlap, they create cyan, magenta, yellow, and white. -Because the RGB colors combine to create white, they are also called additive colors. -Computer monitors use RGB color

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Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

25 -Photoshop's RGB mode assigns an intensity value to each pixel ranging from 0 (black) to 255 (white) for each of the RGB components in a color image. -For example, a bright red color might have: -R value of 246, -G value of 20 -B value of 50. -When the values of all three components are equal and midrange values (i.e., about 125), the result is a shade of neutral gray. When the value of all components is 255, the result is pure white; when the value is 0, pure black. Try this on the color palette. -RGB images use three colors, or channels, to reproduce up to 16.7 million colors on-screen. Def. Channels = a channel is the color information for a base color or transparency information for layers, for all the pixels in a picture. For example, the RGB color model uses 3 channels to describe the base 3 colors (i.e., RGB) that combine are combined to form the colors for pixels in the image. Additional channels called alpha channels can be added that control how transparent layers are. Def: Alpha channel = An alpha channel is really a type of mask. It specifies how the pixel's colors should be merged when the two color layers are overlaid, one on top of the another. It defines how transparent to make one layer when it is laid over another. c. CMYK model (cyan (C), magenta (M), yellow (Y) and Black (K) model): The CMYK model is based on the light-absorbing quality of ink printed on paper. As white light strikes translucent inks, part of the spectrum is absorbed and part is reflected back to your eyes. -In theory, pure cyan (C), magenta (M), and yellow (Y) pigments should combine to absorb all color and produce black. For this reason these colors are called subtractive colors. Because all printing inks contain some impurities, these three inks actually produce a muddy brown and must be combined with black (K) ink to produce a true black. (K is used instead of B to avoid confusion with blue.) Combining these inks to reproduce color is called the four-color process printing. -This is the process used by color computer printers.
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

26 -The subtractive (CMYK) and additive (RGB) colors are complementary colors. Each pair of subtractive colors creates an additive color, and vice versa.

Subtractive colors (CMYK)


-In Photoshop's CMYK mode, each pixel is assigned a percentage value for each of the process inks. The lightest (highlight) colors are assigned small percentages of process ink colors and the darker (shadow) colors higher percentages. For example, a bright red might contain; - 2% cyan - 93% magenta - 90% yellow -0% black -In CMYK images, pure white is generated when all four components have values of 0%.

d. Grayscale mode: This mode uses up to 256 shades of gray. Every pixel of a grayscale image has a brightness value ranging from 0 (black) to 255 (white). Grayscale values can also be measured as percentages of black ink coverage (0% is equal to white, 100% to black). Images produced using black-and-white or grayscale scanners typically are displayed in Grayscale mode. -You can convert both Bitmap-mode and color images to grayscale. To convert a color image to a high-quality grayscale image, Photoshop discards all color information in the original image. The gray levels (shades) of the converted pixels represent the luminosity (i.e., brightness) of the original pixels.

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Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

27 III. The color wheel: . When working with color, there are numerous ways to achieve similar results in color balance. To adjusting color components, it helps to keep a diagram of the standard color wheel on hand. Colors on the wheel can be identified by the degrees they are off red (red = 0). -You can use the color wheel to predict how a change in one color component affects other colors and also how changes translate between RGB and CMYK color models.

R=Red Y=Yellow G=Green C=Cyan B=Blue M=Magenta -For example, you can decrease the amount of any color in an image by increasing the amount of its opposite on the color wheel and vice versa. Def. Complementary colors: Colors that lie opposite each other on the standard color wheel. How would you decrease red in an image? -You can increase and decrease a color by adjusting the two adjacent colors on the wheel, or even by adjusting the two colors adjacent to its opposite. How would you increase or decrease yellow by adjusting adjacent colors? Note, as the amount of adjacent colors go up the amount of yellow goes up. -In a CMYK image, you can decrease magenta either by decreasing the amount of magenta or by increasing its complement (by adding cyan and yellow). You can even combine these two corrections, minimizing their effect on overall lightness. -In an RGB image, you can decrease magenta by removing red and blue or by adding green. All of these adjustments result in an overall color balance containing less magenta.
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

28 D. File size and compression: I. Measures of file size: -1 Bit = a single piece of information in a computer designated by a 0 or 1 -1 Byte = 8 bits -1 Kilobyte (KB) = 1,000 bytes (thousands of bytes) -1 Megabytes (MB) = 1,000,000 bytes (millions of bytes) -1 Gigabytes (GB) = 1,000,000,000 bytes (billions of bytes) II. What determines file size: -Five main factors determine the size of a picture file: -Resolution (ppi) -Picture dimensions -Bit color depth (e.g., 4 bit, 8 bit, 16 bit etc.) -Number of channels and number of layers -Type of file compression used Example: you have a picture that is 4 inches by 6 inches with 100 ppi and 8 bit color. 4 inches x 100 ppi = 400 pixels long 6 inches x 100 ppi = 600 pixels wide 400 pixels x 600 pixels = 2400 pixels 2400 pixels x 8 bit color = 19,200 bits 19,200 bits / 8 bits per byte = 2400 bytes or 2.4 KB before any file compression Note, the same picture with 16 bit color would be twice as large (4.8 KB) Why is file size important? Larger files take more memory in you computer and make WebPages take longer to load. -As a rule of thumb you want no more than 50-75 KB of pictures on a webpage
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

29 III. Types of file compression: Compression uses algorithms to reduce the amount of memory it takes to store the color information in pictures. There are two main types of compression: a. Compression that results in NO loss of pixel information. Compression that results in no loss of pixel information is called lossless compression. An example of this is a TIF file which uses RUN LENGTH ENCODING (RLE). Instead of storing full information for each pixel it will group pixels that are beside each other and have the same colors together. Something like this, the first 7 pixels are (code desc.pixel); the next 34 are (code..), the next 12 are (code..) and so on. From this information the computer can group together the original picture without any loss of color information. GIF and PDF files also use lossless compression. Lemple-Zif-Welch (LZW), ZIP and PackBits are other common types of lossless compression. b. Compression that results in a loss of pixel information: Compression that results in a loss of pixel information is called LOSSEY. Jpeg compression is a type of lossey compression. Jpegs reduce the file size by looking at the differences between adjacent pixels. Pixel one -101010001 Pixel two -101010110 E. Comparison of file types: I. BMP: BMP is a standard Windows image format on DOS and Windowscompatible computers. BMP format supports RGB, Indexed Color, Grayscale, and Bitmap color modes, and does not support alpha channels. You can specify either Microsoft Windows or OS/2 format and a bit depth for the image. For 4-bit and 8-bit images using Windows format, you can also specify RLE compression. II. GIF: Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is the file format commonly used to display indexed-color graphics and images in hypertext markup language (HTML) documents over the World Wide Web and other online services. GIF is an LZW-compressed format designed to minimize file size and electronic transfer time. GIF format preserves transparency in indexed-color images; however, it does not support alpha channels. III. JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format is commonly used to display photographs and other continuous-tone images in hypertext markup language (HTML) documents over the World Wide Web and other online services. JPEG format supports CMYK, RGB, and Grayscale color modes, and does not support alpha channels. Unlike GIF format, JPEG retains all color information in an RGB image, but compresses file size by selectively discarding data.
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- Difference

30 A JPEG image is automatically decompressed when opened. A higher level of compression results in lower image quality, and a lower level of compression results in better image quality. In most cases, the Maximum quality option produces a result indistinguishable from the original. Note: Artifacts, such as wave-like patterns or blocky areas of banding, are created each time you save an image in JPEG format. These artifacts accumulate each time you resave the image to the same JPEG file; therefore, you should always save JPEG files from the original image, not from a previously saved JPEG. IV. PICT File: PICT format is widely used among Mac OS graphics and pagelayout applications as an intermediary file format for transferring images between applications. PICT format supports RGB images with a single alpha channel, and indexed-color, grayscale, and Bitmap-mode images without alpha channels. PICT format is especially effective at compressing images with large areas of solid color. This compression can be dramatic for alpha channels with their large areas of white and black. When saving an RGB image in PICT format, you can choose either a 16-bit or 32-bit pixel resolution. For a grayscale image, you can choose from 2, 4, or 8 bits per pixel. In Mac OS with QuickTime installed, four JPEG compression options are available. V. Photoshop (PSD) format: Photoshop format (PSD) is the default file format for newly created images--and the only format supporting all available image modes (Bitmap, Grayscale, Duotone, Indexed Color, RGB, CMYK, Lab, and Multi-channel), guides, alpha channels, spot channels, and layers (including adjustment layers, type layers, and layer effects). VI. TIFF: Tagged-Image File Format (TIFF) is used to exchange files between applications and computer platforms. TIFF is a flexible bitmap image format supported by virtually all paint, image-editing, and page-layout applications. Also, virtually all desktop scanners can produce TIFF images. TIFF format supports CMYK, RGB, Lab, indexed-color, and grayscale images with alpha channels and Bitmap-mode images without alpha channels. Photoshop can save layers in a TIFF file; however, if you open the file in another application, only the flattened image is visible. Photoshop can also save annotations, transparency, and multi-resolution pyramid data in TIFF format. VII. PDF : Portable Document Format (PDF) is a flexible, cross-platform, crossapplication file format. Based on the PostScript imaging model, PDF files accurately display and preserve fonts, page layouts, and both vector and bitmap graphics. In addition, PDF files can contain electronic document search and navigation features such as electronic links. Photoshop and Image Ready recognize two types of PDF files: Photoshop PDF files and Generic PDF files. You can open both types of PDF files; however, you can only save images to Photoshop PDF format. Photoshop PDF files are created using the Photoshop Save As command. Photoshop PDF files can contain only a single image. Photoshop PDF format supports all of the color modes and features that are supported in standard Photoshop format. Photoshop PDF also supports JPEG and ZIP compression, except for Bitmap-mode images, which use CCITT Group 4 compression.
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

31 F. Comparison of file types table: File type Extension Image type: Raster or vector Raster Bit Color depth -1 bit -4 bit -8 bit -24 bit -1 to 8 bit Color models Type of file used compression -Black/white -Greyscale -RGB -Black/white -Greyscale -RGB -Greyscale -RGB -CMYK -Greyscale -RGB -Bitmap -Greyscale -RGB -CMYK -Bitmap -Greyscale -RGB -CMYK -Bitmap -Greyscale -RGB -CMYK RLE for 4 and 8 bit Lossey vs lossless compression Lossless Supports layers NO Channel support NO

-BMP or Bitmap

.bmp

-GIF

.gif

Raster

LZW

Lossless

NO

NO

-JPEG

-PICT (Macintosh) PSD (Photoshop)

.jpg .jpeg .jif .jfif .pic .pct .psd

Raster

-8 bit -24 bit

Lossey JPEG

NO

NO

Raster

2 bit to 32 bit

RLE JPEG RLE

Lossless Lossey Lossless

NO

Raster or vector

2 bit to 64 bit

Yes

-Tiff

.tif .tiff

Raster

PDF

.pdf

Raster or vector

-1 bit -4 bit -8 bit -up to 64 bit -4 bit -8 bit -up to 64 bit

LZW RLE JPEG LZW

Lossless Lossey Lossless

Yes

Yes 1 alpha channel Yes ( up to 56) -Alpha -Spot Yes -Alpha

NO

NO

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32 G. GIF and Jpeg are the best file formats for WebPages: Below is a comparison of these two formats

3. Opening images and creating new images: A. Create a new image: >File >New Match new image size to menu Set width and height Set resolution Set color mode and depth Set background color or set transparent

Preset image sizes: -Choose custom to make your own image size -Choose clipboard to match a new image size to the size of an copied item on the clipboard -Choose one of the file names at the bottom of the list to match a new image size to the size of an image you have opened in Photoshop

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33 B. Open existing files: I. Opening a recently used file: >File >Open Recent -Choose the file you want from the list II. Browsing to a file to open it: >File >Open -Browse to the file you want to open Or >File >Browse -opens Photoshops file browser Or -Click on the browser icon on the near the palette well

4. Viewing files: A. Views of files: -Select the hand tool from the tool box - The Hand Tool

-The hand tool options menu (below) will appear in the options bar at the top of the screen

View the image based on its pixel dimensions

View the print size of the image

Fits the whole image on the screen


8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

34 B. Zooming in and out on images: -Look at the navigator palette

Part of the image seen in the image window. Use the hand tool to move the red box to change the part of the image viewed

Current magnification of image

Decrease Magnification

Increase Magnification

Zoom slider to zoom in and out

C. Adding rulers, gridlines and guides to the view: I. Rulers >View >Rulers

-Right click on the ruler to change it from Inches to Centimeters II. Gridlines : This makes a grid over the image to help you align items >View >Show >Grid a. To modify the grid go to: > Edit >Preferences >Guides, Grid & Slices

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35 III. Guides: Guides are vertical or horizontal lines across you document that you can move with the move tool. They are used to help align items and are not seen on the printed image. a. Making guides: 1. Make sure rulers are turned on: >View >Rulers 2. Making guides: Horizontal Guides: -Left click hold on the top ruler and drag to the picture Vertical Guides: -Left click hold on the left ruler and drag to the picture Moving guides: -Select the move tool -Left click/ hold and drag the guide where you want it Locking guides so they can not be moved: >View >Lock Guides b. Showing or hiding guides: >View >Show >Guides -Select Guides so it is checked to see view guides on the image IV. Using Snap To" grid/guides: The Snap To function causes shapes or selections near a grid or guide line to align with them. -Turn Snap To on: >View >Snap -Choosing what to Snap To >View >Snap To -Choose what you want items to snap to

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36 5. Displaying file and image information: A. To display file information in the document window: Left click the triangle in the bottom border of the application window on the status bar.

I. Selecting a view option: Document Size to display information on the amount of data in the image. The number on the left represents the printing size of the image--approximately the size of the saved, flattened file in Adobe Photoshop format. The number on the right indicates the file's approximate size including layers and channels. Document Profile to display the name of the color model used by the image. Document Dimensions to display the dimensions of the image. Scratch Sizes to display information on the amount of RAM and scratch disk used to process the image. The number on the left represents the amount of memory that is currently being used by the program to display all open images. The number on the right represents the total amount of RAM available for processing images. Efficiency to display the percentage of time actually doing an operation instead of reading or writing the scratch disk. If the value is below 100%, Photoshop is using the scratch disk and, therefore, is operating more slowly. Timing to display the amount of time it took to complete the last operation. Current Tool to view the name of the active tool.

B. Viewing image size and resolution information: >Image >Image Size Pixel dimensions

Print dimensions Resolution

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37 C. Viewing the color model and color depth of an image: >Image >Mode

Color model in use

Color depth per channel

6. Saving files: A. Saving a copy of a file: >File >Save B. Changing the type of a file as you save it: >File >Save As File name

Choose file type here Color model used

* Remember, jpeg files should be saved as few times as possible. Because they use lossey compression, artifacts accumulate each time you resave the image to the same JPEG file.
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

38 C. Saving images for the web: >File >Save for Web I. Jpeg options: -Select the image you want by clicking on it and hit Save Click the tabs here to display different options Chose the type of file here : Jpeg or gif

Choose the image quality here. Lower quality will have smaller file sizes

-Change the image size (in pixels) or as a percent here -Uncheck Constrain Proportions to change the width and height independently Click here to preview the selected image in a browser Choose the resampling method for a resized picture here -Bicubic is the best resampling method to use

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39 II. gif options: -Most of the options are the same as for Jpegs Choose the number of color here

Choose the number of colors and whether the image is dithered here. Dithering improves colors, but take more memory Choose the amount of loss in picture compression here (0 = best quality) Choose the dither pattern here

Choose the percent dither here. Higher percentages improve the colors in pictures

7. Closing files: I. Closing the active file: >File >Close II. Closing all open files: >File >Close All

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40 8. Printing files: I. Previewing and printing files: >File >Print Preview II. Printing files: >File >Print III. Selecting paper size and orientation for printing: >File >Page Setup 9. Using Help: Photoshop has a built in help system that can help you accomplish tasks. >Help >Photoshop Help >Choose Search to search for a specific topic Or >Choose Index to get an alphabetical list of help topics 10. Correcting mistakes: A. Undo and redo: I. Undo the last change to image: >Edit > Undo name of last item done Or Ctrl+Z -This moves you up one state in the history removing the last thing done to an image II. Redo something that was undone to an image: >Edit > Redo name of last item undone -Redoes what was undone with the Undo command Or Ctrl+Z
8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

41 B. Modify changes using the history palette: -The history palette save the last 20 operations you have done on a picture. -You can change the number of items saved on the history palette >Edit > Preferences >General - Change History States

-Left click and drag on the history selector to move to a different history state -The view shows all thing done to a picture before the selected history state

The delete icon (Trash can) deletes all operations below the selected state and the selected state

I. Step backward and step forward in history: a. Step backward: moves you one step back (up) on the history palette >Edit > Step Backward Or Alt+Ctrl+Z b. Step forward: moves you one step forward (down) on the history palette >Edit > Step forward Or Shift+Ctrl+Z

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42 C. History brush: The history brush allows you to paint with a previous state of history I. Select the state of history by clicking on it in the history palette II. Click on the history paintbrush tool in the toolbox

III. History paintbrush toolbar:

Enables air brush mode

Sets brush diameter

Gives additional functions for the brush

Sets the Flow how quickly a brush paints as a % (100% = fast)

Sets the opacity ( i.e., how transparent a layer is): % = the percent of the previous state removed.

Def. Opacity = specifies the maximum amount of paint coverage applied by the brush or how transparent it is. Opacity can be set for the Paint Brush, Pencil, Clone Stamp, Pattern Stamp, History Brush, Art History Brush, Gradient, and Paint Bucket tools. Opacity ranges from 1-100%: -1% = very low coverage or affect (transparent) -100% = high coverage or high effect (not transparent) Def. Flow = specifies how quickly paint is applied by the Brush tool. A low setting produces a lighter stroke.

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43 D. Eraser tools: -Be sure to select the layer you want to work on before you start to work with theses tools I. The eraser tool erases pixels and restores parts of an image to a previously saved state or to the state of history select on the history palette. Sets air brush mode

Sets brush diameter

Gives additional functions for the brush

Sets the Flow how quickly a brush paints as a % (100% = fast)

Erases an area to the last saved state or selected state on the history palette

Sets the opacity ( i.e., how transparent a layer is): % = the percent of the current state removed.

II. The background eraser tool erases areas of a layer to transparency by dragging, so you see the layer below. -It samples the colors beneath the brush and erases them

Sets brush diameter

Limits: How far the eraser spreads The tolerance controls how many colors it will erase -Low (10%) = only colors close to the selected color -High (100%) = all colors

Sampling sets when the color is sampled

Note, it is often useful to change the opacity of the layer you are erasing on, so you can see the layer you are erasing to. See changing layer opacities on 8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 page 68

Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

44 Useful settings: a. Settings to erasing along edges of objects: -Limits: Find edges -Tolerance: High (100%) -Sampling: Continuous b. Removing only certain colors: (this is also useful for working along edges) -Limits: Contiguous -Tolerance: Low (30%) -Sampling: Once -Left click once to choose the color you want to erase and Left click /hold while you erase so you do not select another color

III. The magic eraser tool erases selected colors to transparency with a single click.

Used merged data from all layers to determine the areas to erase

Smoothes edges The tolerance controls how many colors it will erase 1 = a single color 255 = all colors

Samples only contiguous areas if checked Sets the opacity ( i.e., how transparent a layer is): % = the percent of the layer removed

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45 11. Modifying image size and resolution: >Image > Image Size Image size in pixels or percent

Image print size Resolution Constrain proportions keeps the height and width of an image in the same proportion as you change the size

Change the measurement units here

Always: Resample Image -Bicubic sampling is best When you change the size or resolution of an image, you change the number of pixels making up the image and you need to resample pixel colors to get the best image -Note, if only reduce resolution on an image when you are saving it for a specific use. Always use the resolution of the original image when you are working on images. -Note changing the resolution of an image changes its pixel dimensions, but not its print size. Increasing the image canvas larger than the picture size: >Image >Canvas Size increase the canvas dimensions so it is larger than the image

12. Cropping images: Cropping cuts out unwanted areas of an image -Left click on the cropping tool -Left click / hold and drag to select the area to be cropped (The area outside of the selection box will be cut)

Hit the Esc. key to deselect a crop area

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46 -Left click the cropping tool again and select Crop to crop the image A. Cropping tool bar before you select an area to be cropped:

Shows the image size and resolution of the selected image

Click here to display information

Clears the information display

B. Cropping tool bar after you select an area to be cropped:

Select delete Turns on the shield color that covers the area to be cropped out

Selects the shield color Sets the opacity of the shield Allows you to move the corners of the selected crop area to correct perspective

Rotate selection arrow appear when you move the cursor outside the selected area I. Cropping to correct perspective -After selecting an area to be cropped select the Perspective box on the tool bar -Left click /hold and drag on the corners of the selected area (Note, after cropping the image will be made square) Building Note, this crop corrected the shape of the building

Crop

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Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

47 II. Enlarging or reducing a crop area: -Left click /hold and drag on the squares around the crop area III. Moving the crop area: -Move the cursor inside the crop box -Left click /hold and drag to move the crop area Or -Use the arrow keys on the keyboard IV. Rotating a selected crop area: -Move the cursor outside the selected area and the rotate selection arrow appears -Left click / hold and drag to rotate the selection 13. Moving rotating and flipping images: A. Rotating images: >Image > Rotate Canvas B. Flipping images: >Image > Rotate Canvas Note, that rotate commands rotate all layers. Flipping the canvas horizontally makes a mirror image of an image. If you want to flip or rotate a single layer of an image see free transformations on page 61. 14. Text tools, drawing tools, the eye dropper and paint bucket: A. Adding text to an image: Left click on the horizontal Modifying text in a text box after you have created other layers: -Double left click on the text box icon on the layers palette Use Arbitrary to rotate the canvas by amounts you select

OR vertical text tool

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Text tool bar:

Note, you can select the text and then click on the Font type and use the scroll wheel to see how different fonts look

48

Font types Change between vertical and horizontal text Font style -Bold or Italics

Font size

Test alignment

Text color Text direction

Character and paragraph

Anti-aliasing method -Controls how text edges look

Warps and bends text into shapes

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49 I. Adding text: -Left click on the horizontal or vertical text tool a text box will appear on the screen -Left click /hold and drag on the image to make the text box -Type in the text you want II. Enlarging or reducing the text box: -Left click /hold and drag on the squares around the text box -Note, to enlarge or reduce the size of a text box after you have switched to another layer. Make sure Show Bounding Box is checked on the move toolbar. III. Moving the text box: -Move the cursor outside and away from the text box till the 4 way arrow appears -Left click /hold and drag to move the text box IV. Rotating the text box: -Move the cursor outside the text box and the rotate selection arrow appears -Left click / hold and drag to rotate the text box B. Choosing colors with the I-Dropper Tool: I. The I-Dropper tool can be used to choose colors for: -Foreground and Background -Pencil and Paintbrush tools which use the foreground color -Shape or selection fill colors which use the foreground color II. The I-Dropper toolbar: Note, if the text size is larger than the text box you will not see the text

Sample area size for sampling colors in images


8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

50 III. Colors can be chosen from any of the following: -Click on colors in the image to choose colors in the image -Click on Color Palette to adjust RGB to make a color -Click on the Swatches Palette to select a preset color IV. Selecting a color: -Select the foreground or background color on the tool bar -Click on the I-dropper tool -Select the color you want from the image or swatches palette *Note, the foreground or background color can also be selected directly by making a color on the Color Palette Foreground color -Selected Background color click here to select

The I-dropper will select for the foreground or background color depending on which is selected on the color palette

Color characteristics

-A cube appears above the left side of the color ramp when you choose a color that is not Web-safe. -In Photoshop, an exclamation point inside a triangle appears above the left side of the color ramp when you choose a color that cannot be printed using CMYK inks. C. Use the painting/drawing tools: Left click on the paint brush, pencil tool or pattern stamp tool

I. The paint brush tool or pencil tool: Paints or draws lines a. Use the I-Dropper to select the color (foreground color) for the brush

b. Left click/ hold and drag to draw


8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

51 II. Paint brush toolbar: Paints with soft edged lines Airbrush mode on

Modes Brush diameter and hardness -Hardness controls how sharp edges are (100% = sharp edges)

Sets the Flow how quickly a brush paints as a % (100% = fast)

Sets the opacity (i.e., how transparent the paint layer is): -100% = not transparent at all -10% = very transparent

Brush patterns below

Auto erase paints over the foreground color with the background color depending on where the cursor is. -If the cursor starts on the foreground color it will be painted over with the background color. -If the cursor starts on an area without foreground color it will paint with the foreground color

III. Pencil tool bar: Draws with hard edged lines

Gives additional modes for the brush Sets the opacity (i.e., how transparent the paint layer is): -100% = not transparent at all -10% = very transparent
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IV. Pattern stamp tool: Paints with patterns

Impressionist uses random patterns

52

Gives additional modes for the brush Sets brush diameter, hardness and gives brush options

Sets the Flow how quickly a brush paints as a % (100% = fast)

Aligns the pattern of each stroke, if Impressionist is not checked Pattern for brush

Sets the opacity (i.e., how transparent the paint layer is): -100% = not transparent at all -10% = very transparent

D. Adding shapes: -Left click on one of the add shape tools When the link is selected if you change the styles or color with the color button, the color of the last shape you made will change. If the link is not selected the color of the last shape you created will not change.

I. Left click/ hold and drag to create the size shape you want -Note, shapes are filled with the foreground color II. Shapes toolbar: Fill Options for specific tools Remove intersection of shapes

Add styles

Chosen shape Shape layer

Make path

Preset shapes Pen tools for drawing shapes or paths

Shape options

Intersection of shapes Subtract from shape Add to shape Create a new shape

Change color

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53 III. Enlarging or reducing shapes: -Select the move tool -Left click /hold and drag on the squares around the shape area IV. Moving the shapes area: -Select the proper layer -Select the move tool Move toolbar:

Allows you to click on an object on any layer to move it. The layer is selected automatically.

Show a box around a shape or layer

These tools allow you to arrange multiple objects or shapes. To select multiple objects -Shift/ hold +left click

-Left click /hold and drag to move the shape area Or -Use the arrow keys on the keyboard V. Rotating shapes: -Select the proper layer -Select the move tool -Make sure Show Bounding Box is checked on the move tool bar -Move the cursor outside the shape and the rotate selection arrow appears -Left click / hold and drag to rotate the shape VI. Editing shapes (i.e., changing shapes): -Click on the direct selection tool -Left click/ hold and drag on the small squares that surround a shape to alter the shape -Note you can use the Add Anchor Point Tool to add anchor points
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Anchor point

54 a. Moving and resizing shape parts when you are adding or subtracting from a shape Moving or resizing shape parts : Use the Path Selection Tool. Be sure the show bounding box is checked on the toolbar to resize the shape. Left click with the path selection tool on the part of the shape you want to work with . Moving shape parts: -Left click/ hold and drag or use the arrow keys to move the shape part. Changing the size of a shape parts: Left click/ hold and drag on the small boxes surrounding the shape E. Paint bucket: The paint bucket tool fills shapes or selections with the foreground color or patterns. -Use the eyedropper to select the color you want fill with

Subtract from shape

-Left click on the paint bucket tool -Left click on the shape, selection or a color in a image you want to fill with the foreground color Tolerance sets the range of colors selected when you fill colors in an image 1 = a single color 255 = all colors I. Paint bucket toolbar:

Choose the fill pattern here Selects between filling with the foreground color or a pattern

Makes edges smoother

Fills all layers at once

Fills only contiguous areas Sets the opacity (i.e., how transparent the color is): -100% = not transparent at all -10% = very transparent

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55 15. Selecting items: A. Select the whole image: >Select > All B. Deselecting selected items: >Select > Deselect Or Ctrl+D

C. Using the marquee selection tools: I. Left click on one of the marquee selection tools Feathering Note, you can set the feathering after you make a selection by : -Right click the selection -Choose Feather

II. Left click/ drag to create a selection area III. The marquee toolbar:

Feathering blurs the edge of a selection with surrounding pixels Feather width = 1-250 pixels --- Set feathering before you make your selection -Note, feathering is only seen after you paste a selection that was feathered Anti-aliased = smoothes the edge of a selection

Intersection of selections = +x Subtract from selection = +Add to selection = ++ New selection = +

Select by selection dimensions

IV. Moving the area of the selection box: -Use the arrow keys

on the keyboard

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56 D. Using lasso, polygonal lasso, and magnetic lasso tools: -Left click on the tool lasso tool you want to select it I. Lasso selection tool: allows you to select irregular shapes by drawing around them -Left click/ hold and drag till the ends of the selection meet *The lasso selection toolbar works similar to the marquee toolbar II. Polygonal selection tool: allows you select items with straight line edges -Left click/ hold and drag - till the ends of the selection meet -Left click again to change the direction of the line *The polygonal selection toolbar works similar to the marquee toolbar III. Magnetic lasso selection tool: selects along edges of high contrast -Left click/ hold and drag along high contrast edges till the ends of the selection area meet -Left click to add points along the selection path -Hit the Esc key to delete your selection line and start over -Hit the enter key when you have finished the selection -The Magnetic lasso toolbar: Uses tablet pressure to set the pen width

Feathering Note, you can set the feathering after you make a selection by : -Right click the selection -Choose Feather

Feathering blurs the edge of a selection with surrounding pixels Feather width = 1-250 pixels --- Set feathering before you make your selection -Note, feathering is only seen after you paste a selection that was feathered Anti-aliased = smoothes the edge of a selection

Intersection of selections = +x Subtract from selection = +Add to selection = ++ New selection = +


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Distance from edge for path in pixels

Sets frequency at which points will be added to the selection path. A high frequency follows an edge more accurately.

Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill

Contrast of edge to from follow - Parts of this manual came John Burt and Grant Anderson

57 E. Using the magic wand tool (color selection tool): The magic wand selects colors in an image. -Left click on the magic wand tool to select it -Left click on the color you want to select in the picture The magic wand selection toolbar: New selection = + Add to selection = ++ Subtract from selection = +Intersection of selections = +x

Tolerance sets the range of colors selected 1 = a single color 255 = all colors

Samples contiguous areas only

Select on all layers at once

Anti-aliased = smoothes the edge of a selection F. Inverse selection: Change the selection area from the area inside the selection to the area outside of it. This is useful for selecting backgrounds or deleting the background around an object in an image. >Select > Inverse Or Shift+Ctrl+I

G. Copying and pasting selections: I. Copying selections: -Make a selection with one of the selection tools >Edit >Copy Or Ctrl+C

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II. Pasting selections: -Select the layer you want to paste the selection on >Edit Note, you can use the selection tools to >Paste Or Ctrl+V select the area a copied item will be pasted into on a layer. Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

58 H. Deleting selections: -Make a selection with one of the selection tools -Hit the delete key I. Moving items pasted into a layer: -Select the proper layer -Note, you can not move the background layer -Select the move tool Move tool bar:

Allow you to click on a object on any layer to move it. The layer is selected automatically.

Show a box around a shape or layer

These tools allow you to arrange multiple objects or shapes. To select multiple objects -Shift/ hold +left click

-Left click /hold and drag to move selection Or -Use the arrow keys J. Rotating selections: -Select the proper layer -Select the move tool -Make sure Show Bounding Box is checked on the move tool bar -Move the cursor outside the selection and the rotate selection arrow appears -Left click / hold and drag to rotate the selection

on the keyboard

Note, items on linked layers move together -See about linking layers

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59 K. Enlarging or reducing selections: -Select the move tool -Make sure Show Bounding Box is checked on the move tool bar -Left click /hold and drag on the squares around the selection area L. Filling selections: I. Paint bucket: The paint bucket tool fills selections or layers with the foreground color or patterns. -Use the eyedropper to select the color you want fill with

-Left click on the paint bucket tool -Left click on the shape, selection or a color in a image you want to fill with the foreground color Tolerance sets the range of colors selected when you fill colors in an image 1 = a single color 255 = all colors II. Paint bucket toolbar:

Choose the fill pattern here Selects between filling with the foreground color or a pattern

Makes edges smoother

Fills all layers at once

Fills only contiguous areas Sets the opacity (i.e., how transparent the color is): -100% = not transparent at all -10% = very transparent

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60 III. Gradient tool: The gradient tool creates a pattern gradient between the foreground and the background color in selections or layers. It is very useful for creating blue sky gradient when the sky is not blue, making sun sets or adding fog to an image. -Select the layer you want to work with -Use the eyedropper to select the foreground and background colors you want to use with gradient tool -Use a selection tool to make a selection -Left click on the gradient tool

-Left click/ hold and drag across the selection in the direction you want the gradient to run Sets the opacity (i.e., how transparent the pattern is): -100% = not transparent at all -10% = very transparent

IV. Gradient toolbar:

Select modes

Choose the style of gradient here

Reverse pattern

Draw with gradient mask Dither on

Note, if you use the gradient tool on a vector mask it will create a opacity gradient on the layer (See page 72) M. Putting a line around selected objects: -Select the layer you want to work with -Use a selection tool to make a selection >Edit >Stroke -Choose the line color and width you want Note , for most shapes you must use styles button at the bottom of the layers palette to stroke a selection See page 70

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61 N. Free Transformations and other Right Mouse click options on selections: -Right click on the selection Note, this sometimes does not work with complex selections. In this case make a simple square selection with the marquee tool and then right click on it

Allows you to move the area of selection on the image

2nd Right click on the selection after selecting Free Transform

Note, when you have transformed the selection the way you want hit Enter to apply the changes and hit Control+D to deselect the selection

Move/ resize the selection Rotates the selection

Perspective allows you to correct perspective

Note, you can cancel any free transformations and go back to your selection by hitting the Escape key

Skew and Distort allow you to left click and drag on the anchor points around a selection to skew or distort its shape

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62 16. Using masks to select items: A. Apply a layer mask to make a selection: Masks help you make selections. Once the selection is made it can be modified without modifying the rest of the image. I. Set the Foreground color to white and the Background color to black II. Use any selection tool to make a selection III. Hit the Edit in quick mask mode button on the tool bar or Shift+Q

-The select area looks bright and the unselected area is covered with a masking color

IV. Use drawing tools (paint brush or pencil) to add to or subtract from your selection. -Painting or drawing with black removes areas from the selection area (Bright area) -Painting or drawing with white adds areas to the selection area (Bright area) Use the switch foreground and background color button to switch between black and white -Painting with grey or another color creates a semitransparent area used for feathering or anti-aliased effects. V. Once you have modified the selection as you want hit the Edit in standard mode button or Shift+Q -Now you will see your selected area and be able to modify it with other tools or filters B. Changing the color and opacity of the quick mask mode mask: -Double left click on the Edit in quick mask mode button

Choose the mask color here Change the mask opacity here
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63 C. Text mask tool: Makes a text mask on a layer -Left click on the horizontal or vertical text mask tool

-Type in the text you want -Click on any other tool in the tool box and the text becomes a selection Text mask toolbar: Similar to the text toolbar Cancel text mask

Font types Change between vertical and horizontal text Font style -Bold or Italics

Font size

Test alignment

Text color

Character and paragraph panes

Anti-aliasing method -Controls how text edges look

Text direction Bend or warp text

D. Using text masks: I. Modifying the selected text area: After making the text mask you can make the text area darker by using the Burn tool or use other tools or filters modify the text area in different ways. II. Making text that sees through to the layer below: Hit the delete key after making a text mask on a layer you will see the layer below or background color III. Text made from a picture: Invert the selection (>Select >Inverse) after making a text mask on a image and then hit the delete key 17. Removing objects from their background by Extraction: Extraction allows you to remove objects from their back ground by highlighting around them. The extraction program finds the edges of objects within the highlighted area. -Select the layer you want to extract an object from >Filter >Extract Steps: -1. Highlight around the object -Use the eraser to correct high lightening mistakes -2. Use the paint bucket to fill the object -3. Hit Preview -4 Use the Cleanup tool to erase unwanted background from around the object -5. Use the Edge touch up tool to replace parts of the object erased in the extraction
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64 -6. Hit OK to complete the extraction 1.Highlight around the object: Left click/ hold and drag 2. Fill the object: Select the paint bucket and left click on the object Erases high lightening mistakes 3. Hit Preview Highlighter and brush width Magnifies image (Click image) -Alt+Click = reduces image Moves the image Highlighter color Fill color

Shows high lightening Show the fill

Note, when highlighting around the object (step 1), use a narrow brush for areas that are well defined and a wide brush for areas that are not so well defined like a persons hair.

18. Covering over unwanted objects in images: A. Clone stamp: The clone stamp paints with a sampling point a short distance away. It is useful for covering small items in picture, like car tracks you dont want. -Left click on the on the clone stamp tool -Alt + left click to select a sampling point near what you want to cover -Move the cursor to what you want to cover and left click /hold and drag to paint Note, the
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+ show where the brush is sampling

Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

65 Clone stamp toolbar: Airbrush mode on

Modes Brush diameter and hardness -Hardness controls how sharp edges are (100% = sharp edges) Sets the Flow how quickly a brush paints as a % (100% = fast) Sets the opacity (i.e., how transparent the paint layer is): -100% = not transparent at all -10% = very transparent

Uses all layer for the selection

Sets the same offset from the selection area for each stroke

B. Healing brush tool: The Healing Brush tool lets you correct imperfections, causing them to disappear into the surrounding image. Like the cloning tools, you use the Healing Brush tool to paint with sampled pixels from an image or pattern. However, the Healing Brush tool also matches the texture, lighting, transparency, and shading of the source pixels to the surrounding destination pixels. As a result, the repaired pixels blend seamlessly into the rest of the image. -Left click on the on the healing brush tool -Alt + left click to select a sampling point near what you want to cover -Move the cursor to what you want to cover and left click /hold and drag to paint Note, the

+ show where the brush is sampling

Healing brush toolbar: the healing brush toolbar is like brush toolbars

Choose sampling the image or using a pattern


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66 C. Patch tool: The Patch tool lets you copy one part of an image to cover another part. Like the Healing Brush tool, the Patch tool matches the texture, lighting, and shading of the source pixels to that of the destination pixels. -Left click on the on the patch tool -Click to select the source button on the tool bar

-Left click/hold and drag to select the area you want to copy -Click the destination button on the tool bar -Left click/hold and drag on the selected area to move it where you want it -Hit Crtl+D (i.e., deselect) D. Color replacement tool: The color replacement tool is useful for removing redeye from images, changing eye color or removing blemishes. -Left click on the on the Color replacement tool -On the toolbar select: Sampling = Once Limits = Contiguous Tolerance = 10% -Select the foreground color (color you will replace with) -Left click on colors to replace them Keep clicking on colors until you have replaced all the colors you want to replace Color replacement toolbar: Smoothes replacement edges

Brush characteristics

Replacement mode

Color sampling method

Spread of replacement

Sampling methods: -Continuous to sample colors continuously as you drag -Once to replace the targeted color only in areas containing the color that you first click -Background Swatch to erase only areas containing the 8/31/2006 Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson current background color

Tolerance for choosing related colors for replacement Low tolerance only replaces colors close to the replaced color

67 19. Layers; A. What are layers: In Photoshop as you add new things to a picture they are added in new layers. Layers allow you to work on one element of an image without disturbing the others. Where there is no image on a layer, you can see through to the layers below. You can change the composition of an image by changing the order and attributes of layers.

-Illustration of how transparent areas on a layer let you see through to the layers below B. Layers pallets (viewing and selecting layers): 1. You can only see layers with the small eye next to them 2. You can only work on the selected layer highlighted in blue 3. To move a masked object like a shape, the shape and its vector mask must be linked Link indicates they are linked 4. Layers linked to the selected layer have a link next to them and will and resize and move together using the move tool Click on the link to unlink the layers 5. Locked layers can not be modified in specific ways Renaming layers: -Double left click on the layer name on the layers palette -Type the name you want OR -Right click on the layer on the layers palette -Choose Layer properties -Change the name and hit OK Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

Layer thumbnail

Vector mask thumbnail

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Photoshop CS8.0 Manual

(Types of locks) Lock all Lock position Lock image pixels Lock transparent pixels 68

Selected layer in blue

Top layer

Layer that drawing tools or masks are active on Invisible layer (has no eye) not seen on image Visible layer (has eye) seen on image C. Deleting layers: -Select the layer you want to delete by left clicking on it -Click on the trash can Or -Left click/ hold on the layer and drag it to the trash can Or >Layer >Delete >Layer D. Changing the opacity of a layer: -Select the layer you want to change the opacity of by left clicking on it -Change the opacity here Opacity controls how transparent a layer is -100% = not transparent, 10% = very transparent
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Bottom layer

Linked layers or actions--click on/ off -Shows layers lined to the selected layer

Note, Fill is similar to Opacity but, lowering Fill does not affect blending options or layer styles - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

Name the layer here

69

E. Create a new layer: >Layer >New layer F. Duplicate layers: -Select the layer you want to duplicate by left clicking on it >Layer >Duplicate Layer G. Pasting one selection into another on a layer: -Copy the part of the image you want to paste into another layer -Select the layer you want to paste the item into and use a selection tool to select the area you want to paste it into >Edit >Paste Into H. Merging layers: Merging layers makes two layers into one. -Select the upper of the two layers you want to merge >Layer >Merge down I. Change the stacking order of layers: -Select the layer you want to move by left clicking on it >Layer >Arrange -Select on of the following: Renaming layers: -Double left click on the layer name on the layers palette -Type the name you want OR -Right click on the layer on the layers palette -Choose Layer properties -Change the name -hit OK

Or -On the layers palette, left click/hold and drag the layer to the location you want it J. Flattening layers: Make all layers into a single layer >Layer >Flatten

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70 K. Coloring layers or creating gradients in layers: You can use the paint bucket tool or gradient tool to fill layers in the same way you fill selections. L. Applying styles to a layer: Styles change how a layer looks. They are particularly useful with text. Layer affect symbol -Select the layer you want to add the style to by left clicking on it -Click on the Styles button

Note you can left click/hold and drag a layer affect from one layer to another. If the layer affect name is not showing below the layer click on next to the layer affect symbol.

Style characteristic adjustment pane

Ex. Outer glow Click on the name of a style to adjust its characteristics Add additional styles by clicking on the check boxes here

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71 M. Creating adjustment layers: An adjustment layer stores color and tonal changes in a layer rather than having them permanently applied to you image. -Click the Create new fill or adjustment layer button on the layers palette -Select the kind of fill or adjustment layer you want create -A window will open for the adjustment you chose allowing you to set its characteristics

N. Layer masks: Add masks to layers to show or hide a layer or parts of a layer. I. Using a mask to hide or show a whole layer: -Select the layer you want -Hit Ctrl+D to cancel any selections -To show a whole layer: -On the layers palette click the New layer mask button -To hide a whole layer: On the layers palette click Alt +New layer mask button II. Using a mask to hide part of a layer: -Select the layer you want -Use a selection tool to make the selection you want -Hit the New layer mask button
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Full layer mask

Note, you cant put masks on the background layer

72 III. Editing a layer mask: -Set the foreground color to white and the background color to black

-Left click on the mask thumbnail on the layers palette

-Use drawing tools (paint brush or pencil) to add to or subtract from your selection. -Painting or drawing with black adds to the masked area OR hides areas of the image -Painting or drawing with white removes areas from the masked area OR add to what can be seen on the image Use the switch foreground and background color button to switch between black and white -Painting with grey or another color creates a semitransparent areas IV. Deleting a layer mask: -If the layer mask is linked to the layer left click on the link symbol between them to unlink them on the layers palette -Right click on the mask on the layers pallet and choose Discard Layer Mask O. Creating opacity gradients on layers: -Create a layer mask that hides all or part of a layer. -Make the foreground color white and the background color black -Use grey for the background color to increase opacity -Reduce the opacity on the gradient tool to make the layer more transparent -Make a gradient on the mask using the Gradient tool

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73 P. Blending Layers: Blending layers determines how its pixels are blened with the pixles of underling layer of your image -Select the layer you want to move by left clicking on it >Layer >Layer style >Blending options -As you make changes on the Layers Style pane you will be able to see those changes on your image Turn color channels off or on here You can choose special blending modes here Opacity

Choose the channel you want to adjust on the two layers here

20. Modifying picture properties: brightness/contrast and hue: A. Brightness and contrast:

Adjust the upper and lower layers for the channel chosen here

Brightness = How light or dark the image is. Brightness is also know as luminosity. Brightness is the relative lightness or darkness of the color, usually measured as a percentage from 0% (black) to 100% (white). Contrast = Is a measure of difference between the lightest and darkest values appearing in an image. High-contrast images contain mainly dark values and white values with few tones in between in the image .
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74 B. Manual adjustment of brightness and contrast: >Image >Adjustments > Brightness/ Contrast

C. Using tools to adjust brightness: I. The dodge tool lightens areas in an image (increases brightness).

-Left click/ hold and drag to lighten areas Dodge toolbar:

Brush width

Selects the tones that will be lightened

Air brush mode on

How fast the brush lightens 10 % = slow 100% = fast II. The burn tool darkens areas in an image (decreases brightness).

-Left click/ hold and drag to darken areas Burn toolbar: Works like the dodge toolbar above

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75 D. Using the auto-contrast command: Auto contrast automatically increases the contrast of an image making the highlights appear lighter and shadows appear darker. >Image >Adjustments > Auto Contrast E. Adjusting brightness in each channel (RGB): Adjusting Levels: >Image >Adjustments > Levels Choose the channel (i.e., Red, blue or Green) here

Average color value

Move to increase brightness (reduce black tones)

Move to decrease brightness (reduce white tones)

Note, moving both of these selectors toward the middle reduces the contrast of the image. Moving them away from the middle increases contrast. F. Using Auto Levels to adjust contrast: The Auto Levels command automatically adjusts the black point and white point in an image. Auto Levels analyzes each color channel independently and makes the darkest color in each channel black and lightest color white. The intermediate pixel values are redistributed proportionately. As a result, using Auto Levels increases the contrast in an image because the pixel values are expanded (as opposed to being compressed, as in lower contrast images). Because Auto Levels adjusts each color channel individually, it may remove color or introduce color casts. >Image >Adjustments > Auto Levels

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76 G. Auto colors adjustment: The Auto Color command adjusts the contrast and color of an image by searching the actual image to identify shadows, midtones, and highlights. By default, Auto Color neutralizes the midtones using a target color of RGB 128 gray, and clips the shadows and highlight pixels by 0.5 Auto Color deepens shadows and lightens highlights on a channel by channel basis. It increase contrast while doing a better job of maintaining the orginal colors in and image than either Auto Contrast or Auto Levels do. >Image >Adjustments >Auto Color H. Adjusting Shadows: This command allows you to adjust the amount of shadow and highlights in an image. >Image >Adjustments >Shadow/ Highlight -Adjust the amount of shadow and highlights 21. Adjusting colors : A. Changing the color model: >Image >Mode -Choose the color mode you want by left clicking on it

B. Desaturating to make grayscale images: The Desaturate command converts a color image to a grayscale image in the same color mode. For example, it assigns equal red, green, and blue values to each pixel in an RGB image to make it appear grayscale. The lightness value of each pixel does not change. >Image >Adjustments > Desaturate
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77 C. Adjusting color balance (changes the color hue): Color balance is very useful to adjust if you have a image with too much of a color in it. For example, peoples faces look red. >Image >Adjustments >Color Balance

Move the selector towards a color to increase that color and away from a color to decrease a color

D. Using the variations command to choose color (Hue) corrections: >Image >Adjustments >Variations Once you have the image the way you want it hit OK

Click on the colors or lighter or darker to adjust the image

Complementary colors

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78 E. Adjusting hue, saturation and brightness of colors: Saturation is how intense the color is and refers to the amount of grey in a color. High saturation colors have less grey in them. >Image >Adjustments >Hue/Saturation Color hue (color you see) Saturation Brightness Original color spectrum Modified color Move the slider bars to make the color the way you want Adds color to a grayscale image

F. Sponge tool (Adjusting saturation) : The sponge tool changes the color saturation of an area. -Left click/ hold and drag to increase or decrease the color saturation of areas -Increasing saturation reduces the amount of grey in the color -Decreasing saturation increases the amount of grey in a color Air brush mode on Sponge toolbar:

Brush size

Change between saturate and desaturate mode

How quickly the brush paints 100% = fast

G. Using selection tools before modifying colors: It is often useful to use selection tools to select just the parts of a picture that need color modification before you modify colors. The magic wand is very useful for selecting specific colors for modification.
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79 22. Sharpness and blur tools: A. Use the sharpen tool: The sharpen tool sharpens soft edges in an image

-Left click/ hold and drag to sharpen areas

Sharpen toolbar:

Brush size

Controls speed of painting

Works on all layers at once

B. Use the blur tool: The blur tool blurs hard edges in an image

-Left click/ hold and drag to blur areas Blur toolbar: works similar to sharpen toolbar

C. Use the smudge tool: The smudge tool smudges data in an image. Smudging can be useful in giving the illusion of motion.

-Left click/ hold and drag to smudge areas Smudge toolbar: works similar to sharpen toolbar

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Finger paints with the foreground color

80 23. Using filters: Filters modify the characteristics of pixels in various ways >Filter Allows you to stretch the colors in an image as if they were liquid

-Gaussian blur is useful for creating background blur -Motion blur gives the appearance of motion B. Filter gallery: The filter gallery gives many examples of artistic filters >Filter Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson 8/31/2006 >Gallery

81 24. Running actions on batches of files: Running batch files allows you to run actions on many files at once. A. Setting up Actions palette: Shows the sequence of commands in an Action. Actions are sequences of saved commands. Action commands let you automate repetitive imaging tasks and apply them to many image files.

Toggle item on / off Toggle dialog on / off

Delete Create new action Create new set Play -Action Begin recording Stop playing / recording Default actions

Photoshop Actions palette A. Action or set with one excluded command B. Action or set with a modal control C. Included command (toggles command on or off) D. Modal control (toggles modal control on or off) E. Excluded command F. Set G. Action H. Recorded commands
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82 a. Using actions: > Select the actions palette >Select the action you want by clicking so it is checked >Click on (play) on the action palette b. Making your own action: > Select the actions palette >Click on create new action >Type in a name for the action on the window > Click the record button >Click the sequence of steps you want in the action >Hit the (stop recording button) -Note, that some tools, like drawing tools do not work in actions. Actions are mostly used for modifications of the whole picture (Ex. Reducing the file size). B. Running actions on a batch of files: >File >Automate >Batch

Hit OK after making selections

Select the action you want here

Choose the files you want to apply the action to here

Select here to select a different destination folder for the modified files None = the current folder

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83 25. Printing thumbnail pages and picture packages: A. Creating multi-image contact sheets: Makes a page of thumbnails of images for printing. >File >Automate >Contact Sheet II

Source of pictures for contact sheet Size of the contact sheet page

Arrangement of image thumbnails on the page

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84 B. Creating a picture package: A picture package is a set of images of different sizes arranged to print on one page. >File >Automate >Picture Package

Source of image for the picture package Choose the printed page size here Choose the layout of images in the picture package here

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85 26. Index:

Topic
1. Adobe Photoshop screen parts: A. Menu bar: B. Toolbox: -Left column of tool box -Right column of tool box C. Working with palettes: I. Viewing palettes: II. Restoring pallets to their original location and size: D. Pallet details: I. Navigator palette: II. Info palette: III. Histogram palette: IV. Color palette: V. Swatches palette: VI. Styles palette: VII. History palette: VIII. Actions palette: a. Using actions: b. Making your own action: IX. Layers palette: a. More about the layers palette: b. About layers: X. Channels palette: XI. Path palette: XII. Palettes in the palette well: a. Brushes palette: b. Tool presets palette: c. Layer comps palette: 2. Picture properties and theory: A. Pixels and resolution: I. Definitions: II. Image enlargement or magnification and pixel size: III. Resolution and printing: IV. Standard resolutions: a Photoshop: b. Monitor resolutions: c. Mega pixels and digital cameras: d. Printers resolutions: e. Recommended scanner resolutions for scanning materials:
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Topic
f. Making posters: g. Maximum pixel dimensions allowed in Photoshop: B Types of images used by Photoshop: Raster vs Vector C. Colors and color models: I. Bit color and number of colors: II. Color models: a. HSB model b. RGB model Defs: channels and alpha channels c. CMYK model d. Grayscale mode: III. The color wheel: Def: complementary colors D. File size and compression: I. Measures of file size: II. What determines file size: III. Types of file compression: Def: Lossless vs lossey compression E. Comparison of file types: F. Comparison of file types table: G. GIF and Jpeg are the best file formats for WebPages: 3. Opening images and creating new images: A. Create a new image: B. Open existing files 4. Viewing files: A. Views of files: B. Zooming in and out on images: C. Adding rulers, gridlines and guides to the view: III. Guides How to use guides *** 5. Displaying file and image information: A. To display file information in the document window: B. Viewing image size and resolution information: C. Viewing the color model and color depth of an image: 6. Saving files: A. Saving a copy of a file: B. Changing the type of a file as you save it: C. Saving images for the web: 7. Closing files: 8. Printing files: 9. Using Help: 10. Correcting mistakes:
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A. Undo and redo: B. Modify changes using the history palette: I. Step backward and step forward in history: C. History brush: D. Eraser tools: I. The eraser tool II. The background eraser tool III. The magic eraser tool 11. Modifying image size and resolution: **** Increasing the canvas size**** 12. Cropping images: I. Cropping to correct perspective II. Enlarging or reducing a crop area: III. Moving the crop area: IV. Rotating a selected crop area: 13. Moving rotating and flipping images: A. Rotating images: B. Flipping images: 14. Text tools, drawing tools, the eye dropper and paint bucket: A. Adding text to an image: I. Adding text: II. Enlarging or reducing the text box: III. Moving the text box: IV. Rotating the text box: B. Choosing colors with the I-Dropper Tool: C. Use the painting/drawing tools: I. The paint brush tool or pencil tool: II. Paint brush toolbar: III. Pencil tool bar: IV. Pattern stamp tool: Paints with patterns D. Adding shapes: II. Shapes toolbar: III. Enlarging or reducing shapes: IV. Moving the shapes area: (Move tool) V. Rotating shapes: VI. Editing shapes (i.e., changing shapes): a. Moving and resizing shape parts when you are adding or subtracting from a shape E. Paint bucket: 15. Selecting items: A. Select the whole image: B. Deselecting selected items:
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C. Using the marquee selection tools: D. Using lasso, polygonal lasso, and magnetic lasso tools: I. Lasso selection tool: II. Polygonal selection tool: III. Magnetic lasso selection tool: E. Using the magic wand tool (color selection tool): F. Inverse selection: G. Copying and pasting selections: H. Deleting selections: I. Moving items pasted into a layer: (move tool) J. Rotating selections: K. Enlarging or reducing selections: L. Filling selections: I. Paint bucket: II. Paint bucket toolbar: III. Gradient tool: M. Putting a line around selected objects: N. Free Transformations and other Right Mouse click options on selections: perspective, skew and distort 16. Using masks to select items: A. Apply a layer mask to make a selection: B. Changing the color and opacity of the quick mask mode mask: C. Text mask tool: D. Using text masks: 17. Removing objects from their background by Extraction: 18. Covering over unwanted objects in images: A. Clone stamp: B. Healing brush tool: C. Patch tool: D. Color replacement tool: 19. Layers; A. What are layers: B. Layers pallets (viewing and selecting layers): C. Deleting layers: D. Changing the opacity of a layer: E. Create a new layer: F. Duplicate layers: G. Pasting one selection into another on a layer: H. Merging layers: I. Change the stacking order of layers: J. Flattening layers:
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K. Coloring layers or creating gradients in layers: L. Applying styles to a layer: M. Creating adjustment layers: N. Layer masks: I. Using a mask to hide or show a whole layer: II. Using a mask to hide part of a layer: III. Editing a layer mask: IV. Deleting a layer mask: O. Creating opacity gradients on layers: P. Blending layers 20. Modifying picture properties: brightness/contrast and hue: A. Brightness and contrast: B. Manual adjustment of brightness and contrast: C. Using tools to adjust brightness: (dodge and burn tools) D. Using the auto-contrast command: E. Adjusting brightness in each channel (RGB): Adjusting Levels: F. Using Auto Levels to adjust contrast: G. Auto colors adjustment: H. Adjusting Shadows: 21. Adjusting colors : A. Changing the color model: B. Desaturating to make grayscale images: C. Adjusting color balance (changes the color hue): D. Using the variations command to choose color (Hue) corrections: E. Adjusting hue, saturation and brightness of colors: F. Sponge tool (Adjusting saturation) : G. Using selection tools before modifying colors: 22. Sharpness and blur tools: A. Use the sharpen tool: B. Use the blur tool C. Use the smudge tool: 23. Using filters: 24. Running actions on batches of files: A. Setting up Actions palette a. Using actions: b. Making your own action: B. Running actions on a batch of files: 25. Printing thumbnail pages and picture packages: A. Creating multi-image contact sheets: B. Creating a picture package: 26. Index
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Photoshop CS8.0 Manual Created by Jeffrey Hill - Parts of this manual came from John Burt and Grant Anderson

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