Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 33

Telecommunications Concepts

The Circuit Switched Telephone Network


By, Prof.Shailesh Hajare Dept.of E&TC Engg.
172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Contents
The traditional Telephone Network
Overall

structure Trunk lines Plesiochronous Data Hierarchy Synchronous Data Hierarchy Exchanges and signaling General purpose SDH networks

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Contents
The traditional Telephone Network
Overall

structure Trunk lines Plesiochronous Data Hierarchy Synchronous Data Hierarchy Exchanges and signaling General purpose SDH networks

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

The Telephone Network


Analog / Digital
SW

SW SW SW SW SW

PABX

PABX SW

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

The Telephone Network


Some details : Analog telephones on analog switch

Analog switch

twisted pair, average length 2.5 Km

Line circuit
11/12/2012

172.16.2.77/moodle

The Telephone Network


Some details : Analog telephone on digital switch

Digital switch

Digital Analog
twisted pair, average length 2.5 Km

Line circuit
11/12/2012

172.16.2.77/moodle

The Telephone Network


Some details : ISDN Basic Access

Digital switch

S bus
144Kb/s modem

twisted pair, average length 2.5 Km 2 * 64 Kb/s + 16 Kb/s

144Kb/s modem

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Contents
The traditional Telephone Network
Overall

structure Trunk lines Plesiochronous Data Hierarchy Synchronous Data Hierarchy Exchanges and signaling General purpose SDH networks

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Time Domain Multiplexing

Synchronous multiplexing

0 1

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

The Telephone Network


Trunk Network (CEPT30)

Digital switch

Digital switch

n*30*64 Kb/s n*2048 Kb/s

172.16.2.77/moodle

Optical Fiber or Microwave Link

11/12/2012

The Telephone Network


Trunk Network (Bell D2)

Digital switch

Digital switch

n*23*64 Kb/s n* 1544 Kb/s

Optical Fiber or Microwave Link


172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

The Telephone Network


Some details : ISDN Primary Rate

Digital switch

PABX

Optical Fiber or Microwave Link 2048 Kb/s (CEPT30)


11/12/2012

172.16.2.77/moodle

The Telephone Network


Trunk Network

Analog switch

n*2048 Kb/s
Optical Fiber or Microwave Link

Analog Digital

n*30*64 Kb/s
172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

The Telephone Network


Trunk Network Digital switch Digital switch

Optical Fiber or Microwave Link


172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Contents
The traditional Telephone Network
Overall

structure Trunk lines Plesiochronous Data Hierarchy Synchronous Data Hierarchy Exchanges and signaling General purpose SDH networks

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Synchronous Multiplexing
of almost synchronous data flows

A TFSE

1 Frame
D10RCQBPA

fout > n * MAX(fin)


172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy


Each multiplexed section has its own clock Each level of multiplexing has its own clock Frame structure from multiplexed signals is not explicitly present in the multiplexed stream > Full demultiplexing required at each node !

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Contents
The traditional Telephone Network
Overall

structure Trunk lines Plesiochronous Data Hierarchy Synchronous Data Hierarchy Exchanges and signaling General purpose SDH networks

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy


The entire trunk network has one clock Multiplexed stream based on 125 S frames Different channels can each have their own asynchronous clock. Add-drop multiplexers
STM-1 STM-1

172.16.2.77/moodle

Up to 63 channels at 2 Mb/s

11/12/2012

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy


SDH - SONET Data rate 51.84 155.52 466.56 622.08 933.12 1244.16 1866.24 2488.32
172.16.2.77/moodle

CCITT STM-1 STM-3 STM-4 STM-6 STM-8 STM-12 STM-16

USA-Elec. STS-1 STS-3 STS-9 STS-12 STS-18 STS-24 STS-36 STS-48

USA-Opt. OC-1 OC-3 OC-9 OC-12 OC-18 OC-24 OC-36 OC-48


11/12/2012

SDH Rings

34 Mb/s

2 Mb/s

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

SDH Rings

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

SDH Rings

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

SDH Rings
The Worldcom Belgian Network

059 058

050

WCOM POP

03
015

014

051
WCOM POP

09
WCOM POP

011
052 053 013 089

016 02
067
WCOM POP

WCOM POP

057

056
069

055 054 068


WCOM POP

012 019
WCOM POP

010

WCOM POP

065

064

081
WCOM POP

085

04
086

087

071
082

083

080

084 060 061


WCOM POP LUXEMBOURG

063

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

SDH Rings

CUT !
172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Contents
The traditional Telephone Network
Overall

structure Trunk lines Plesiochronous Data Hierarchy Synchronous Data Hierarchy Exchanges and signaling General purpose SDH networks

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Telephone Exchange
(Conceptual Model)
trunk lines + Inter-office signaling
Line Circuit

Register
Line Circuit Line Circuit Line Circuit Line Circuit

Switching Matrix

Register Register Register

Control Computer
172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Signaling system generations


SS1 - SS5 : Analog call forwarding between

exchanges SS6 : First digital signaling system


monolithic communications system (no layers) Full mesh of virtual circuits, based on 2400 b/s links uses any digital links, satellites included layered, OSI inspired, network architecture supports "intelligent network" applications Non-geographic numbers (800) CLIP, Call forwarding, Conference calls, etc... Number portability Carrier selection Mobility & roaming
11/12/2012

SS7 : Signaling system for the intelligent network


IP ???
172.16.2.77/moodle

The Telephone Network


Non-geographic Numbering
6234567 4776970
477

database 0800

62X 538 673

6736476
629 643 64X

172.16.2.77/moodle

6292905

6433180 0800 12345

11/12/2012

The Telephone Network


Number portability Ported numbers

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

The Telephone Network


Carrier selection through prefix through preselection

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

Contents
The traditional Telephone Network

structure Trunk lines Plesiochronous Data Hierarchy Synchronous Data Hierarchy Exchanges and signaling General purpose SDH networks

Overall

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012

General Purpose SDH Networks

PABX

PABX

172.16.2.77/moodle

11/12/2012