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MathCAD.

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1.

1.1. MathCAD

1.2. MathCAD

12

1.3. MathCAD

16

1.4. .

20

1.5.

21

2. MATHCAD

23

2.1.

23

2.2.

23

2.3.

24

2.4.

24

2.5.

24

2.6.

26

2.7.

26

3. MATHCAD

27

3.1. MathCAD

27

3.2. MathCAD

29

3.3.

38

4. MATHCAD

48

4.1. MathCAD

48

4.2.

49

4.3.

61

5. MATHCAD

68

5.1.

68

5.2.

74

.., .
5.3. ,

6. MATHCAD

79

82

6.1.

82

6.2.

82

7.

89

7.1.

89

7.2.

92

7.3.

95

7.4.

99

7.5.

101

8. MATHCAD

102

8.1.

102

8.2.

112

9.
MATHCAD
118
9. 1.

118

9.2. MathCAD

119

9.3.

123

9.4.

127

9.5.

129

9.6.

133

9.7. MathCAD

135

10.

137

10.1.

137

10.2. MathCAD MS Excel

147

1. .

154

2. .

157

3. .

165

.., .

4. .

169

5. . 171
6. . 174
7.
.

177

8. .

179

9. .

181

187

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MathCAD ,
,
. MathCAD,
:
, MathCAD,
;
;
;
,
;
;
(
, );
;
;
;
.
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MathCAD
Excel, Matlab, Axum .
MathCAD
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1.
MathCAD .
,
.
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=,
(. . 1.1). ,
. 1.1. MathCAD 12
+
, - , * , / , ^ , \
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.
1.1.

.., .

1.1.
( z ,
x y ,
).

sin(z)
z
cos(z)
z
tan(z)
z
cot(z)
z
asin(z)
z
acos(z)
z
atan(z)
z
atan2(x,y)
,
x,y
acot(z)
z
sinh(z)
z
cosh(z)
z
tanh(z)
z
coth(z)
z
exp(z)
ez
ln(z)
z
log(z, a)
z a, a
, z.
MathCAD
(. 1.2).

. 1.2. MathCAD 12
()
View\Toolbars\Math.

Calculator (.
1.3),
, .
,
.
.
( =3.14159)
:

Crtl+G;
6

.., .

Greek Symbol (. 1.4),


. 1.3.
. 1.4.
Calculator
Greek Symbol
,
,
MathCAD.
MathCAD. ( ),
. Insert, ,
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( )
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Insert.
,
, ,
.
Delete , ;
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. Backspace
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Delete, Backspace.

.
1.1.

2.3

sin
4.78 21.687 11

MathCAD
. :
7

.., .

1. 2.3 ( MathCAD
Windows).
2. /.
3. 4.278, MathCAD
4. +.
5. 21.687
(. 1.5) .

. 1.5. MathCAD 2.3 / 4.278 + 21.687


( *)
. 21.687.
. :
6. , 4.278+21.687,

.
7.
.


sin
11

:
8. (*).
9. sin Calculator (
sin()).
10. Greek Symbol, ( p,
Ctrl+G).
11. (/).
12. 11.
13. =.
MathCAD (. 1.6).

. 1.6. 1.1 MathCAD


1.1. MathCAD
MathCAD ,
.
8

.., .


. ,
: ( : , :=)
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1.1.1. MathCAD

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This expression redefines a MathCAD build-it constant (
MathCAD).
MathCAD
. 1.2.

.., .

1.2.

Ctrl+Shift+p 3.1415926535897931 17

p Ctrl+G
e
2.7182818284590451 e 17
10307

Ctrl+Shift+z


TOL
0.001
,
,

%
0.01

X*%

i j
ORIGIN
0

PRNCOLW
8
,
IDTH
WRITEPRN
PRNPREC
4
,

ISION
WRITEPRN

TOL, ORIGIN, PRNCOLWIDTH, PRNPRECISION


Tools\WorksSheet Options
( Built-In Variables)
MathCAD .
(.). ,
xmin , , , min.

.
MathCAD .
, MathCAD , .
1.1.2. , MathCAD 12
MathCAD , , .
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() ;
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i j; , i,j
; 1i 1j, ,
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b, 101b;
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h, , 2b3h.
10

.., .

MathCAD .
MathCAD . ,
. 0.
MathCAD
.
1.2. ax2 bx c 0 . . 1.8
MathCAD .

. 1.8. MathCAD 12
a, b, c.
d. x1, x2.
x1 x2 , . 1 (
x 2) (.). , MathCAD
,
.
1.1.3.
,
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.
(, h, -3 2 0.25)
MathCAD :
( h) :
;
( -3);
(
,-2.75);
; ( ;2).
MathCAD
.

11

.., .

Enter. MathCAD ,
.
,
h= (. 1.9).
1,
, ;
. . 1.10.

. 1.9. h

. 1.10.
i, 2 7 1.
MathCAD
, .
1.3. 8x4 bx2 7 0, b=10,12,..,20
(. 1.11).
1.2. MathCAD
, MathCAD, :
;
;
. 1.3.
MathCAD
.
:
1.
2. Insert Function.
3. Ctrl+E.
12

.., .

. 1.11. MathCAD 12
,
. 1.12.

. 1.12. MathCAD.
. (Function
category) ,
( All MathCAD,
,
All). ,
(Function Name).
.
:

, OK, Insert, Cancel.

MathCAD, OK

13

.., .

, Insert ,
.
1.2.1.
MathCAD . 1.4.
. 1.4.

Re(z)
Im(z)
arg(z)
csng(z)

signum(z)


z
z
z ( arg( z) )
z;
0, z=0,
1, Re(z)>0 Re(z)=0 Im(z)>0,
-1, .

1, z=0,
z , .
z

MathCAD
. MathCAD
,

(. . 1.13).

. 1.13.
MathCAD
.
,
. . 1.14 .

. 1.14.
14

.., .

1.2.2.
MathCAD . 1.5:
. 1.5.

combin(n,k)

k n

permut(n,k)

k n

Cnk

n!
k ! n k !

Ank

n!

n k !
gcd(a,b,c,d,) a, b, c, d.
lcm(a,b,c,d,) a, b, c, d
mod(x,y)
x y

1.2.3. if
MathCAD if
: if(, 1, 2)
if 1, ( 0),
2 .
if . 1.15.

. 1.15. if
1.2.4.
MathCAD . 1.6.
. 1.6.

concat(S1, S2, S3,)


error(S)
IsString(S)
num2str(z)
search(S, SubS, m)

str2num(S)

str2vec(S)
vec2str(v)

strlen(S)
substr(S,n,m)


, S1, S2, S3,
S ,
:1, S ;0, ;

z
:
SubS
S, m;
-1, SubS S
S ; S
, ,

, i- , ASCII
i- S
v, i-
vi; v
32255
S
, m
S, n
15

.., .

1.2.5. ,
MathCAD ,
. :
,
,
: .
,
g(x):=sin(x)+cos(x)
f(x,y,z):=sin(x)+cos(z.y2)

(. 1.16).

. 1.16.
1.3. MathCAD
. 1.3 (+, -, /,
MathCAD :
1. .
2. .
3. .

, ^, )

1.3.1.
1.3., MathCAD
:
! ( );
n ( n );
MathCAD
Calculator (. 1.3). .
. 1.17 .
16

.., .

. 1.17.
1.3.2.
Calculus (.
1.18), Math

. 1.18. Calculus
:
1.
(Shift+/)
.
( ), ( ).

Ctrl+., MathCAD
. . 1.35
.

. 1.19.
2. n-
(Ctrl+Shift+/)
. . 1.20
.
17

.., .

3. (Shift+7),
.
()
=, Ctrl+.. . 1.21
.

. 1.20.
. 1.21.


n-

4.
(Ctrl+I),

Ctrl+.. . 1.22
.

. 1.22.
5.
(Ctrl+Shift+4). . 1.23
.

. 1.23.
6.
(Shift+4).
. 1.24
.
7.
(Ctrl+Shift+3). . 1.25
.
8.
(Shift+3).
. 1.26
.

18

.., .

. 1.24.

. 1.25.

. 1.26.

9. (Ctrl+L). . 1.27.

. 1.27.
10.
(Ctrl+Shift+A). . 1.28.

. 1.28.
19

.., .

11.

(Ctrl+Shift+B). . 1.29.

. 1.29.
1.3.3.
Boolean (. 1.30),
,
.

. 1.30. Boolean
Boolean >, (
Ctrl+0), <,
(Ctrl+9), = (Ctrl+=), (Ctrl+3).
1 () 0 ().
MathCAD
(. 1.7):
(And) ^ (Ctrl+Shift+7);
(Or) (Ctrl+Shift+6);
(Exclusive or) (Ctrl+Shift+5);
(Not) ( Ctrl+Shift+1).
. 1.7. MathCAD
A
1
1
0
0

B
1
0
1
0

A
0
0
1
1

A^B
1
0
0
0

AB
1
1
1
0

AB
0
1
1
0

1.4. .

MathCAD
,
. MathCAD Format\Result,
.
. 1.31.
20

.., .

. 1.31.
Format\Result, (),
,
MathCAD.
1.4.1.
. 1.31 :
Number Format ( )
;
Display Options ( )
;
Unit Display ( )
;
Tolerance ( ) ,
0.
1.4.2.
MathCAD .
. Tools\ Calculate\ Automatic Calculation.

.
Tools \ Calculate \ Calculate
Now ( F9), Tools \
Calculate \ Calculate WorksSheet ( Ctrl+F9).
1.5.
MathCAD
. .
, .
:
Insert\Text Region;
;
, ,
.
21

.., .

. ,
,
. MathCAD 12 Cyr
(, Arial Cyr, Times New Roman Cyr) (. 1.32).

. 1.32. MathCAD

: , , ,
..
Format\Text.
.
. ,
Insert\Math
, = (
) Ctrl+(
). . 1.33
.

. 1.33.
View\Regions.
, MathCAD
, , ,
.

22

.., .

2. MathCAD
, .
, MathCAD .
2.1.
MathCAD
Untitled:1.
,
:
CTRL+N;
New () ;
File\New.

MathCAD.
Untitled:1, Untitled:2, Untitled:3 , ,
.
2.2.
MathCAD :
CTRL+S;
Save () ;
File\Save;
, Save
As ( ),
.
,
:
MathCAD XML Document (*.xmcd) ,
, XML,
;
MathCAD Compressed XML Document (*.xcmcdz) XML
, ;
MathCAD Worksheet (*. mcd)
MathCAD 12;
MathCAD 11 Worksheet (*. mcd) ;
HTML (*.html) Web;
Rich Text Format (*.rtf) ,
;
MathCAD Template (*.mct) MathCAD;
MathCAD XML Template (*.xmct) XML
;

23

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MathCAD 11 Worksheet (*. mcd), MathCAD 2001 Worksheet (*. mcd),


MathCAD 2001i Worksheet (*. mcd)
MathCAD.
2.3.
:
CTRL+O;
Open () ;
File\Open.
, ,
.
Windows
. MathCAD .
2.4.
:
CTRL+W;
File\Close;
, Windows;
MathCAD, ,
File\Exit.
, Save As ( ),
, (
) .
2.5.
MathCAD,
,
Windows.
2.5.1.
:
, ,
;
SHIFT , ,
, ;

CTRL;
Edit\Select All;
.
2.5.2.

: Del ,
CTRL+D .
24

.., .

, ,
Del.
2.5.3.

,
. , :
Edit\Copy () Edit\Cut ();
Copy Edit;
;
CTRL+C CTRL+X.
:
Edit\Paste ();
Paste;
;
CTRL+V.
,
.
.
,
CTRL .
2.5.4.

, .
Format\Align
Regions Align Across () Align Down ()
.
2.5.5.
,
, ,
. ,
View\Refresh (CTRL+R).
2.5.6.
MathCAD
, .
Edit\Check Spelling.
2.5.7.
MathCAD ,
Windows.
: Edit\Undo ; Undo
; CTRL+Z.
:
25

.., .

Edit\Redo ;
Redo ;
CTRL+Y.
2.5.8.

.
:
Page Setup ( ,
);
Print Preview ;
Print ,
.
2.6.
MathCAD
.
.
(, , , , ) ,
Text Format ( ) Format.
Paragraph Format (. 2.3),
Format .

.
,

. .
2.7.
MathCAD :
Tutorials MathCAD,
;
QuickSheets MathCAD
, ,
.
Reference Tables , ,
;
Users Guide MathCAD;
Release Notes MathCAD;
Ebook ,
.
Help.

, .
26

.., .

3. MathCAD

. ,
,
,
.
3.1. MathCAD
.
,
.
,
. , ,
.
,
,
, ,
. ,
, (
, ).
, ,
. ,
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,
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MathCAD
ORIGIN. 0.
.
MathCAD .

[, .
3.1 , X,
.
3.1.

X [ 1 Shift+: 5
X [ 2 Shift+: 8
X [ 3 Shift+: 10


X1:=5
X2:= 8
X3:= 10

27

.., .

.
, ,
3.2.
3.2.

A [ 1,1 Shift+: 0.1
A [ 1,2 Shift+: -2.5
A [ 2,1 Shift+: -1.0
A [ 2,2 Shift+: 5.2


A11 := 0.1
A12 := -2.5
A21 := -1.0
A22 := 5.2

3.1 MathCAD,
. ORIGIN ,
1. , .

3.1. , ORIGIN=1.
(. 3.2), ,
ORIGIN=0.

3.2. , ORIGIN=0.
!!! (
1) (
1), ,
. ,
,
.
28

.., .

3.2. MathCAD

,
.
(. 3.3),

.

3.3.
:
;
;
, : - , -1
;
: |A|=detA;
(
): V={vij}, f(V)={f(vij)} A={aij} B={bij}, AB={aijbij};
: <j> j- ;
: A={aij}, AT={aji;
: j=m..n;
: x(x1,x2,,xn)
y(y1,y2,...,yn), xy=x1y1+x2y2+...+xnyn;
: x(x1,x2,x3) y(y1,y2,y3),
xy=(x2y3-x3y2, x3y1-x1y3,x1y2-x2y1);

x=x1+x2+...+xn.

x(x1,x2,,xn),

, :
, , ;
,
, ..
29

.., .

,
. , ,


:
;

(. 3.4);
(Rows) (Columns)
;
, OK;
, ,
(. 3.5).

3.4.

3.5.

!!! ,
100 .

,
. ,

,
.
.
MathCAD, . 3.6,
. ,
, , ,
,
,
.

30

.., .

3.6.
MathCAD . ,
3.7,
.
!!! D (.3.7)
Absolute Value ( ),
Calculator, (.3.6)
Determinant ()
Matrix. , ,
, .
, ,
,
. ,
sin(M), M - , (. 3.8),
,
M.

M K (.3.8). , MK
31

.., .

,
,
.

3.7.

3.8.
32

.., .

!!! MathCAD ,
, , sin(M),

. . sin(M), M
, , .
,
(.3.8).
MathCAD .
(Transpose),
(Invert) (Determinant).
,
,
. MathCAD,
, . 3.9.

3.9.
,
MathCAD ,
: ,
,
, .
, .
:
matrix(m,n,f) A={aij} m
n, aij f(i,j),
.3.10;
diag(v) (.3.11),
v;
identity(n) (.3.12) n;
augment(A,B)
(.3.13), , ( );

33

.., .

3.10. ,

3.11.

3.12.

3.13. augment(A,B)
stack(A,B) (.3.14),
, -
( );
submatrix(A,l,k,p,r) (.3.15),
, l k
p r (l<k, p<r);
Re(A) ()
() (.3.16);
Im(A) ()
() (.3.16).

34

.., .

3.14. stack(A,B)

3.15.
submatrix(A,l,k,p,r)

3.16. Re(A) Im(A)


:
last(v) v;
length(v) v;
rows(A) ;
cols(A) ;
max(A) () ;
min(A) () ;
mean(A) () ;
median(A) () ;
tr(A) ( )
;
ranc(A) ;
norm1(A) ||A||1
={aij};
norm2(A) ||A||2
={aij};
norme(A) ||A||e
={aij};
normi(A) ||A||i
;
cond1(A) ,
||A||1;
35

.., .

cond2(A) ,
||A||2;
condi(A) ,
||A||i;
conde(A) ,
||A||e.
.3.17.

3.17.
,
:
rref(A)
;
eigenvals(A)
;
eigenvecs(A)
;
eigenvec(A,p) ,
p;
genvals(A,B) v
, Ax=vBx;
genvecs(A,B) ,
, ;
geninv(A) , ,
LA=E, nn, L
nm, mn;
36

.., .

lsolve(A,b)
Ax=b.
lu(A) : A=LU, L
U ,
;
qr(A) : A=QR, Q
, R ;
cholesky(A)
: =LLT, - , ,
, L ;
svd(A)
nm: A=USVT , U V mm
n n , S ,
;
svds(A) ,
nm, nm.
:
sort(v) v
;
reverse(v) v ;
csort(A,n) ,
n- ;
rsort(A,n) ,
n- .

. , ,
,
.
.3.19 , , ,

.
, MathCAD ,
. .
, ,
, , .3.29.
, ,
:
Result Format,
;
Display Options;
Matrix display style
Automatic ( ), Matrix (
37

.., .

), Table ( )
OK.

3.18.

3.19.

3.3.
MathCAD
.
.
3.3.1.
.
3.1. ,
: ()=() (+) =+. .3.20.
3.2. -3+210,
.
3.21 , ,
MathCAD.
3.3. , (=).
.3.22.
3.4. , ( |A|=detA0
=-1).

, , .
.
, ,
. (.3.23).
3.5. , (2=).
, =2-, , (2=,
).
, , ,
.
,
identity(n). ,
, , .
. 3.24.

38

.., .

3.20. 3.1

3.21. 3.2

39

.., .

3.22. 3.3

3.23. 3.4
!!!
,
: 0=,
1=, 2=, 3=,
3.6. = A=B,
.
- = =, -
. ,
, : -1 =-1 -1= -1. -1 = -1=,
==, : =-1 = 1
. , ,
40

.., .

n- , .
MathCAD, .3.25.

3.24. 3.5

3.25. 3.6

3.3.2.

.
.
3.7.
:
2x1+ x25x3+ x4=8,
x13x2
6x4=9,
2x2 x3+2x4=-5,
x1+4x27x3+6x4=0.
. =detA
n n Ax=b ,
x1, x2,..., xn,
xi=i/, i ,
i b. ,
:
,
b;
;
(
b)
i;
41

.., .

i;
xi=i/.
3.26 ,
.

3.26.
3.8. 3.7
.
: n n
Ax=b, , ,
x=A-1b ( .
3.6). , ,
, :

;
,
,
(.3.27).

42

.., .

3.27.
3.9. 3.7 .

, ,
, .
. - ,

( ,
, ) .
( ) ,
n . , n+1,
.
, MathCAD (. 3.28)
:

;

augment(A,b);
rref(A),
;
, ,
;
Ax-B,
, .

43

.., .

3.28.
3.10. , ,
:
x1+2x2+5x3=-9,
x1x2+3x3=2,
3x16x2x3=25.

3.29. 3.10
, .3.29.
,
44

.., .

, .
.

r(A|b)=r(A)=3, , .

lsolve(A,b),
, , , .
3.11. , ,
:
x15x28x3+ x4=3,
3x1+x23x35x4=1,
x17x3+2x4=-5,
11x2+20x39x4=2.
.3.30.
,
r(A|b)>r(A),
. ,
lsolve(A,b) .

3.30. 3.11
3.12. , ,
:
4x1+x23x3 x4=0,
2x1+3x2+x35x4=0,
x12x22x3+3x4=0.
(.3.39) ,
r(A|b)=r(A)=3, ,
r(A|b)=r(A)<4. , ,
45

.., .

, lsolve(A,b)
.

3.31. 3.12
,
MathCAD, ,
lsolve(A,b).
,
3.11 3.12, ,
.
3.13. :
x12x2+4x3+5x4=0,
3x1x23x3+5x4=0,
x1+3x211x35x4=0.
3.32,
.
, ,

. , .
.
, , ,
, .
.
, 1 2,
3 4 .
.
Given (),
.
. ,
Ctrl+=
46

.., .

Boolean.
Find(x1,x2,xn) (), ,
.
Symbolic
Ctrl+..
.
, , ,
, 1 2
3 4.
. ,
,
3 4. ,
.

3.32. 3.13

47

.., .

4. MathCAD
,

. MathCAD.
4.1. MathCAD
,
. ,
MathCAD, , Insert
Graph.
, Graph
(. 4.1).
.

. 4.1.
, Graph,
:
XY Plot @ (
;

Polar Plot (

) ;

Surface Plot (
();
Contour Plot (
;
3D Scatter Plot (
;

)
)
)

3D Bar Chart (
)
;
Vector Field Plot (
;
48

.., .

Plot Wizard ( )
.
, , ,
,
.
.
.
. 4.2. ,

. 4.2.
,
, , .
,
. .
, ,
. ,
MathCAD, , ,
, .
4.2.
MathCAD
, , ,
, .
4.2.1.

.
4.1. 4.1. .
4.1 y=f(x)

0
66,7

4
71,0

10
76,3

15
80,6

21
85,7

29
92,9

36
99,4

51
113,6

68
125,1

,
.
:
X Y (
);

49

.., .


Graph (
Insert\Graph\XY Plot @),
;
,
, ,
,
Y;
ENTER .
. 4.3 . ,
.

. 4.3. ,
. 4.4,
. , ,
, . ,
,
, ,
(. 2).

. 4.4.
. 4.5 , ,
(
3).
50

.., .

. 4.5. ,
4.2. y=|x|/2.
, ,
,
. , . 4.6 ,
:

(
Graph
Insert\Graph\XY Plot @));
;
;
.

. 4.6.
MathCAD
-10 10. . 4.6 ,
, .
,
. ,
, .
, . 4.6, ,
, 0 20.
4.3. y=cos(x/2)+cos(5x)/5.
[-15;15].
,
(. 2),
,
51

.., .

.
:
, ;
();
(
Insert\Graph\XY
Plot @));
() ;
ENTER , .

. 4.7.
: -15, -14, 0, 1, 2,14, 15 (
1). ( 0.2)
,
.

. 4.7.
!!!
.
,
,
52

.., .

, ,
, MathCAD . ,
. 4.7 , .
4.4. sin(x/2), sin(2x), sin(x)/2.
, ,
. ,
,
. . 4.8.

. 4.8.
!!! ,
, ,
(. 4.8).
4.2.3.
,

Graph
Insert\Graph\Polar Plot.
. ,
, - . . 4.9
.

. 4.9.
53

.., .

4.2.4. ,
x=f(t) y=g(t), g(t) f(t)
, , t
. , ,
, : a2x3y2=0 (a>0).
: x=t2, y=at3, <t<. . 4.10
( a=3).
.
( : (x+a)a2+(x-a)y2=0, a>0)
a=1. ,
.

. 4.10. ,
4.2.5.
.
Format\Graph\XY Plot
.
. ,
. 4.11.
:
XY Axes ( XY) ;
Traces () ;
Labels () ;
Defaults ( ) .
!!!
.
XY Axes,
,
. , (. 4.11),
.

54

.., .

. 4.11.
Axis Style ( ) ,
:
Boxed () (
);
Crossed () ;
None () .
Equal scales, ,
.
Axis X ( X) Axis Y ( Y), Primary Y ( Y)
Secondary Y ( Y) MathCAD,
X Y:
Log Scale ;
Crid Lines ;
Numbered ;
Autoscale ;
Show Markers ;
Auto Grid ;
Number of Grids (
, Auto Grid).
(Crid Lines) (Show
Markers) .
, ,
, .
.
,
, , ,
. 4. 12.
55

.., .

. 4.12.
, XY Axes Enable Secondary Y axis
( MathCAD 12).
Secondary Y .
,
. . 4.13
.

. 4.13.
Equal scales,
.
(
, ) Traces (. 4.
14), ,
. ,
.
Traces :
Label , trace1,
trace2, trace16,
,
, Hide legend
;
Symbol , ;
Line , solid (), dot (), dash
(), dadot ();
56

.., .

Color , red (), blu (), grn


(), cya (), brn (), blk (), wht ();
Weight ;
Type , lines (), points (), error (), bar
(), step (), draw (), stem (), solid bar
();
Yaxis ,
.

. 4.14.
!!!

.
Labels.
Title . Axis Labels
.
Above () Below ().
Show Title ,
. , , ,
.
, , Default
:
Change to Default
, ;
Use for Default
.
4.2.6.
Trace
. (
57

.., .

), Format\Graph\Trace

Graph.
.

Y Trace, , ,
. . 4.15
. .
XValue YValue
Y Trace. Copy X Copy Y
, ,
. Track
Data Points ,
, .
. MathCAD
Y Zoom,
, Zoom,
Format\Graph\ Zoom

Graph. Y Zoom
, ,
. 4.16.

. 4. 15.

. 4. 16.

(),

.
( )
,
.
4.2.7.

.
4.5. y=(x2+1)\(x24)1\2.
, ,
, [-2;2],
58

.., .

.
.
. MathCAD 12
. . 4.17 ,
, .

. 4. 17. 4.5
4.6. y=x\(x29).
. 4. 18 ,
3 3.

@. 4. 18. 4.6
4.7. , :
x=3at/(1+t3) =3at2/(1+t3), < t <1 -1< t <+. ,
, ,
. . 4. 19 ,
MathCAD 12.

. 4. 19.
59

.., .

4.8. : 5x2+3y215=0.
, 15.
, : x2/3+y2/5=1.
:
;
, ,
Simbolics\Variable\Solve, ;
,
;

(
);
, ;
.
. 4.20.

. 4. 20.

,
, ,
.
60

.., .

4.9. , :
x
,x 0

y ( x) 2 x 2
.

1 x, x 0

. 4. 21 , , if.

. 4. 21. 4.9
4.3.
MathCAD ,
.
4.3.1.
.
4.10. , (. 4. 22).

. 4. 22.
!!!
Insert\Data\Table,
.
, ,

.
.
, .
,
:
61

.., .

, , , . 4. 22;
,
Insert\Graph\Surface Plot,

Graph;
;
ENTER
(. 4.23).

. 4. 23.
. 4. 24.
,
,
. 4. 24 ,
() ().
,

, -

Graph. (
( ) , . 4. 25.

. 4. 25.
. 4. 26.

z(x,y)=y2x2
4.11. z(x,y)=y2x2.
, ,
, . 4. 26:
;

62

.., .

,
Insert\Graph\Surface Plot,
Graph;
;
ENTER .
,

.
4.3.2.

. , MathCAD
.
3D Plot Format

Format\Graph\3D Plot . ,
,
:
General ;
Axes (, , ,
, , );
Appearance ( , ,
);
Backplanes ;
Lighting ;
Special ( );
Title ;
Advanced (,
, );
QuickPlot Data .
General.
View () :
Rotation ( 0 360 );
Tilt ( 0 180);
Twist ( 0 360 );
Zoom ( ).
Axes Style ( ) :
Perimeter ;
Corner ;
None ;
Equal Scales .
Framers :
Show Border ;
Show Box .
63

.., .

View, Plot 1 Display As:


,
.
Axes ()
(XAxes, YAxes, ZAxes) .

Grids:
Draw Lines ;
Draw Tics ;
Auto Grid ;
Line Color ;
Number ;
Line Weight .
Axis Format:
Show Number ;
Axis Color ;
Axis Weight .
Axis Scale:
Auto Scale ;
Minimum Value ;
Maximum Value ;
Auto Scale.
Appearance.
:
Fill Options ;
Line Options ;
Point Options .
, ,
(Colormap , Solid Color ).
Title, (
Graph Title) (, , ).
Lighting .
Enable Lighting.
(XYBackplanes, YZBackplanes, XZ
Backplanes) Backplanes,
:
Fill Backplanes ;
Backplanes Border .
Grid Subgrid
.
Special
. :
Contour Options ;
Bar Plot Layout ();
64

.., .

Interpolated Mesh
, 21;
Connectivity
.
.
Advanced. Advanced
View Options :
Enable Fog ;
Perspective ;
Vertical Scale ;
Viewing Distance , .
Printing ,
, Colormap
.
3D
Quick Plot Data, :
Range 1 (start ,
end , # of Grids ,
);
Range 2 ;
Coordinates System
(, , ).
4.3.3.

.
12. z(x,y)=(x2+y2)-1.

. , ,
,

.
. 4. 27.
13. , .
. 4. 28 ()
(). , ,
, .
14. ,
.
. 4. 29
,
.

65

.., .

. 4. 27.

. 4. 28. ,

. 4. 29. ,

15. z(x,y)=sin(x)+cos(y).

MathCAD:
CreateMesh(F, x0, x1, y0, y1, sgrid, tgrid, fmap).
,
x, y, z F,
66

.., .

sgrid, tgrid. x0, x1, y0, y1


. fmap ,
. CreateMesh
. . 4. 30
,
, .

. 4. 30. z(x,y)=sin(x)+cos(y)
16. , .

CreateMesh. ,
,
.
CreateMesh.

. 4. 31. ,
67

.., .

5. MathCAD

MathCAD.
5.1.
f(x)=0
.
. :
, .. ,
.
, ,
, ,
f(x) [a,b] ,
f(a)f(b)<0, a b ;
, ..
.
5.1.1.
P(x)=0, P(x) - , ,
() x.
x
a0xn+a1xn1++an1x+an=0,
a00, n1 ai n .
, - ,
, .
MathCAD
:
root(F(x), x) x,
F(x) ,
,
x, ;
polyroots(v) ( ,
) n ,
v, n+1.
.
5.1. 2x48x3+8x21=0.
polyroots(v).
, ,
( . 5.2 5.3).
, x .
, .
. 5. 1.

68

.., .

. 5. 1.
.
F(x), x
, .
. . 5. 2 ,
.

. 5. 2.
5.2. x3+0.4x2+0.6x1.6=0.
.

polyroots(v). .
,
Polynomial Coefficient, Symbolics.
,
.

, .
. 5. 3.
5.3. y(x)=0, y(x)=x418x2+6.
, 5. 2,
. Coeffs,
Symbolic. . 5. 4 ,
. , -
, .
. 5. 5 .
69

.., .

. 5. 3.

. 5. 4.

. 5. 5.
70

.., .

5.4. y(x)=0, y(x)=x5x3+1.


root(F(x), x).
:
(x) ;
,
(x);
x
, ;
root(y(x),x) .
. 5. 6 .

. 5. 6.
. 5. 7
polyroots(v). , .

. 5. 7.
root(F(x), x)
.
5.1.2.
,
( ,
,

,
,
. .), .
root(F(x),
x)
.
71

.., .

5.5. : 3 ( x 1) 2 3 x 2 0 .
, ,
f(x)g(x)=0, f ( x) 3 ( x 1) 2 , g ( x) 3 x 2 .
, f(x)=g(x), ,
, . ,
(. 5.8)
:
f(x) g(x);
;
;
root(f(x)g(x), x).

. 5. 8.
5.6. f(x)=0.
. 5. 9 , f(x) ,
. ,
root(f(x), x) :
root(F(x), x, a, b)
x, F(x) , a b
.
,
x, [a,b].
root . 5. 11.
MathCAD :
. ,
. ,
.

72

.., .

. 5. 9.
5.7. 1/tg(x)x/2=0.
. 5. 10 .
1/tg(x) x/2 (0;/2),
(/2;3/2), (3/2;5/2) . ,
: ((k-1) ;k+/2),
k .

. 5. 10. 1/tg(x)x/2=0
73

.., .

1/tg(x)x/2=0 . 5. 10 .
, .
1/tg(x) (k-1) ,
.
5.2.
, m n
n ,
m , .
MathCAD
. Given
:

Given


,
:

;

( Boolean)
;

( Boolean),
;
,
: Find, Minerr,
Maximize, Minimize, Odesolve, Pdesolve.
Find Minerr:
Find (x1,x2, ,xn)
x1,x2, ,xn ;
Minerr(x1,x2, ,xn)
x1,x2, ,xn
.
, ,
F(x1,x2, ,xn)=0 ,
x1,x2, ,xn, F(x1,x2,
,xn) . ,
F(x1,x2, ,xn) , Find
, , Minerr
x1,x2, ,xn, .
.
74

.., .

5.9. , : (26;4),
(9;21) (17,17).
: (xx0)2+(yy0)2=R2, M(x;y)
, , O(x0;y0) , R
. , x0;y0,
R.
x0,y0, R: (26x0)2+(4y0)2=R2, (9x0)2+(21y0)2=R2, (17x0)2+(17y0)2=R2.
. 5. 11 Find.

. 5. 11. Find
,
, , (. 5. 12).
:
;
;
,
Symbolic\Variable\Solve ( 4, 4.3);
, ;
;
.
. 5. 13
Minerr. ,
Find (. 5. 11).
. 5. 14 .
R ,
, .
Find MathCAD . Minerr
,
. ,
, Minerr ,
.

75

.., .

. 5. 12. 5.9

. 5. 13. Minerr
5.10. :
x2+y2+3x2y=17,
x2+y2+xy=12.
. 5. 14.
, ,
.

. . 5. 15 ,
.
76

.., .

. 5. 14. Find Minerr

. 5. 14. 5. 10.
5.11. :
x2+y2+3x2y=4,
x+2y=5.

(. 5.16).
, , ,
Symbolic\Variable\Solve .
(Symbolic\Variable\Collect).
,
, . 5.17.
,
.
77

.., .

.

.

. 5. 15. 5. 10.

. 5. 16. 5. 11 .

. 5. 17. .
78

.., .

5.3. ,
root Find.
.
5. 12. x2 x 1 0 .
. 5. 18
Symbolic Evolution Symbolic root.
.

. 5. 18. 5.12
,
.
( )
.
5. 13. .
. 5. 19,
.

. 5. 19. 5.13
,
. . 5. 20, ,
, ,
.
,
, (. 5. 20, ).
,
, , ,
.
79

.., .

. 5. 20.

5. 14. :
x2+y2=5,
xy=2.
. 5.
21. , Find
( Symbolic),
.

. 5. 21.
MathCAD root.

solve Symbolic (. 5.22)
Symbolic\Variable\Solve,
.

80

.., .

. 5. 22. solve
, . 5. 23,
:
solve (. 5. 22);
, , ,
;
.

. 5. 23.
!!!
=, , ,<,> Boolean.

81

.., .

6. MathCAD
, .

.
6.1.
, MathCAD
,
, .
MathCAD .
, .

. . 6.1
.

. 6.1.
,
, . 6.2.

. 6.2. ,

. 6.3.

6.2.
MathCAD

Programming (. 6.3),
.
Programming :
Add Line , MathCAD;
;
if ;
82

.., .

otherwise ,
;
for ;
while ;
break ;
continue ;
return ;
on error .
.
6.2.1.
Add Line ,
. 6.4. ,
.
, , Add
Line, .
, , ,
. 6.5.

. 6.4.
. 6.5.


,
.
if, , .
,
, Add Line.
, ,
.
6.2.2.
, Programming ,
. , ,
, .
.
83

.., .

, ,
. . 6.1 , ,
, ,
.
,
,
.
6.2.3.
,
, .
:
if ,
, ,
. , if
.
.6.6 .
b, ,
12 .

. 6.6.
6.2.4.
,

1 if
2 otherwise.

. 6.7.
84

.., .

, , 1,
2.
. 6.7. ,
.
. 6.8 ,
a=b.

. 6.8.
6.2.5.
for
, .
:
for , ..
.

, ,
,
.
. 6.9
.

. 6.9.

85

.., .

,
, . ,
. . 6.10.

. 6.10.
. 6.11 ,
. ,
1 n, .

. 6.11.
6.2.6.
While ,
,
. :
while
.
, ,
.
, for .
, . 6.12.
While
.

, . . 6.13 ,
.
86

.., .

. 6.12.
. 6.13.


, .6. 14, ,

, .

. 6.14.
6.2.7.
.
break.
. 6.15.

. , ,
.
.
6.2.8.
continue , break,
, .
,
continue . 6.16.

87

.., .

. 6.15.

. 6.16.
6.2.9.
return
, ,
.
. 6.17 .
, .
.

. 6.17.
6.2.10.
,
(, ),
on error .
:
1 on error 2,
2
, 1 ,
2, .
88

.., .

7.
MathCAD
, , .
7.1.


Minerr(x1,x2,,xn) Minimize(f,x1,x2,.,xn), f
, , x1,x2,,xn ,
. Minimize
Maximize, 1, f
() , ,
.
7.1.1.

( - ) (
). MathCAD Minimize Maximize
.
7.1. g ( x) x4 0.5x3 28x2 140 .
(. 8.1).

. 7.1. g ( x) x4 0.5x3 28x2 140


, ,
MathCAD . 7.27.4. ,
, ,
,
.

Minimize Maximize ,
( ),
( ), n- n .
89

.., .

. 7.2. g(x)

. 7.3. g(x)

. 7.4. g(x)
. , Minimize Maximize
,
(.
. 7.5).

90

.., .

. 7.5.

f ( x) x4 3x3 13x2 6 x 26

[-5;3]

7.1.2.

.
7.2. f ( x, y) x2 y2 6 y 2x 11 .
. 7.6.

. 7.6. f ( x, y) x2 y2 6 y 2x 11

.

91

.., .

7.2.
(
)
.
.
.
: 1, 2, 3, 4. 1, 2, 3,
4. ,
b1 , b2 , b3
. , 1 a11
, a12 a13 ..
.7.1.
7.1.

1
a11
a12
a13
2
a21
a22
a23
3
a31
a32
a33
4
a41
a42
a43
,
. x1, x2, x3, x4 1, 2, 3,
4, .
4

L c1x1 c2 x2 c3 x3 c4 x4 ci xi

(7.1)

i 1

. 1
a11 , x1 a11x1; x2 2
a21x2 ..
b1. , :
a11x1 a21x2 a31x3 a41x4 b1 ,

(7.2)

:
a12 x1 a22 x2 a32 x3 a42 x4 b2
a13 x1 a23 x2 a33 x3 a43 x4 b3

.3)

, x1,x2,x3,x4 ,
4 :
x1 0
x2 0
x3 0
x4 0

92

(7.4)

.., .

, :
x1, x2, x3, x4, (7.2) (7.4),
(7.1) .
L .

.

.
7.3. MathCAD
L x1 x2 x3 x4 max
3x1 x2 7

x2 2 x3 1

4 x3 x4 3
5 x 2 x 14
4
1

(7.5)

MathCAD ,
.

(. 7.7) .
1. (
x1, x2, x3 , x4 ).
,
.

. 7.7.
93

.., .

, L( x1, x2 , x3, x 4 ) x1 x2 x3 x4 .
Given.
,
xi.
5. Minimize
(Maximize).

. , ,
-1. 8.5
2.
3.
4.

L Cx max
Mx v,
x 0,
x1
1
3 1 0 0
7

x
1
0 1 2 0
1

C
,M
,v
,x 2
x3
1
0 0 4 1
3

1
5 0 0 2
14
x4

(7.6)

(.
7.8) :
1. M, C v.

. 7.8.
2. x.
3. L C .
4. Mx v, x 0 .
94

.., .

5. Maximize ( Minimize),
L x.
7.3.

.
7.4. .
250, 275 225 .
100, 200, 50, 275 125 .
. 8.2.
8.2.

1
2
3
4
5
1.75 2.25 2.25
1 1.5 2
1.75 1
1.5
2 2.5 2
1.5 1.5 1.75 1.75
3 2


.
:
, ,

;
,

,
.
,

, 0.
. xij
i- j- .
3 5
z cij xij , cij
i 1 j 1

i- j- . xij
:
(xij0);
n

xij ai ,
j 1

i 1..3 ,

ai

i- ;

n

xij b j ,

i 1

j 1..5 ,

bj j- .

, .
X (xij), (7.7)
95

.., .

3 5

cij xij

(7.7)

i 1 j 1

,
xi, j 0,
5

xij ai , i 1..3

j 1

.8)

xij b j , j 1..5

i 1

MathCAD
:
1. C a b.
2. z.
3. x.
4. (7.8),
3

i 1

j 1

, xi, j xi, j
5. Minimize.
. 7.97.10 7.4.

. 7.9.
96

.., .

. 7.10.

. 7.11.
.
97

.., .

7.5. .
250, 275 235 .
100, 200, 50, 275 125 .

.
7.5, 7.4, ,
.
,
,
( 10).
0.
,
. 7.9-7.10 . . 7.11
7.5.
7.6. .
250, 275 225 .
100, 200, 50, 275 150 .

.
7.6 .
,
. 0. . 7.12
7.6 .

. 7.12.
98

.., .

7.4.

.
.
7.7. . C
(cij i-
j- ).
1 4 6 3

8 10 7 9

C
1 5 11 2

8 7 8 5

(7.9)

,
.
, .

( )
.
(xij=1, i-
j- , xij=0, ).
: xij,
z
z

cij xij

i 1 j 1

(7.10)

:
xi, j 0, xi, j {0,1}
4

xij 1, i 1..4

j 1

(7.11)

xij 1, j 1..4

i 1

MathCAD
. 7.13.

99

.., .

. 7.13.
, Minimize Maximize
,
(. 7.14).

. 7.14.
MathCAD
(Linear), ,
.

100

.., .

7.5.
MathCAD
. ,
Minimize Maximize.
Minimize MathCAD
.
n n .
f1 x1, x2 ,

f 2 x1, x2 ,

f n x1, x2 ,

xn 0

xn 0

(7.12)

xn 0

(7.12)
x1, x2 ,

x1, x2 ,

xn

xn f12 x1, x2 ,

xn f 22 x1, x2 ,

xn .... f n2 x1, x2 ,

xn

(7.13)

, 0,

f1 x1, x2 , xn , f2 x1, x2 , xn ,..., fn x1, x2 ,


(7.12).
.
7.8.

xn 0,

sin( y 0,5) x 1 0

, Minimize.
cos( x 2) y 0.

. 7. 15 7.8

. 7.15.
Minimize
101

.., .

8. MathCAD

,
, , , ..
.
8.1.

,
.
8.1.1.
,
(. 8.1).
8.1.
xi x1
x2
x3
x4
x5
x6
x7

xn
yi y1
y2
y3
y4
y5
y6
y7

yn
,
.
,
Y = f(x, a0 a1, ..., ak)
,
yi Yi (. . 8.1):
n

S [ yi f ( xi , a0 , a1 ,..., ak )]2 min

(8.1)

i 1

Y=f(x, a0 a1, ..., ak)

Y0

y0

yn
Yn

x0

x1

x2

...

... x
n

. 8.1.

102

.., .

ai (8.1).

S

0,
a0

S
0,
a1
.
...

0.
ak

(8.2)

ai Y = f(x, a0 a1, ..., ak) ,


k+1 k+1 :

f
0
a0
i 1

f
0
2( yi f ( xi , a0 , a1 ,..., a k ))

a1
i 1

...

n
f
0
2( yi f ( xi , a0 , a1 ,..., a k ))

a k
i 1

2( yi f ( xi , a0 , a1 ,..., a k ))

(8.3)


, y = a0 + a1x,
y x. a0 a1
.
, x y,
:
n

( x M )( y M )
i

i 1

(x M ) ( y M )
2

i 1

, Mx

i 1

x
i 1

, My

y
i 1

(8.4)

:
1 r 1.
r ,
.
, , x y
, ,
.
,
, .
:
t r

n2
.
1 r 2

103

.., .

t ,
p
k=n2. t ,
.
r
, :
n

(y

i 1
n

(y
i 1

Yi ) 2

,
My)

(8.5)

y , Y ,
, My y.

0 1. 1.
R = 0. r
,
, .
: r .
8.1.2. .

MathCAD

.
8.1. . .
NaNO3 .
100 (. 8.2)
NaNO3 :
8.2. NaNO3
0
4
10
15
21
29
36
51
68
66,7 71,0 76,3 80,6 85,7 92,9 99,4 113,6 125,1
,
t = 32 ,
.
a0, a1 MathCAD
:
line(x,y)

a0
a
a1

intercept(x,y) a0;
slope(x,y) a1.
MathCAD
corr(x,y).
104

.., .

x , y
.
. 8.2 8.1 MathCAD .

. 8.2.

105

.., .

8.1.3. .


.
8.2. y (. 8.3).
8.3. y x

x
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

y
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.8
10.9
11
11.1
11.4
12.2
13.3

24
36
26
45
34
37
55
51
75
84

x
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

y
13.8
14
14.4
14.5
15
15.6
15.8
17
18.1
19

74
91
85
87
94
92
96
97
98
99


y a0 a1x a2 x2 , y b0 b1x b2 x2 b3x3 y=c0+c1x2+c2x3,
.
. 8.3. y x.

. 8.3.

MathCAD regress interp.
regress(x,y,k) k-
,
(x , y ).
106

.., .

2.

interp.
interp(s,x,y,t) t, x ,
y , s
, regress.
regress interp
.
!!! regress
, interp,
,
interp, .

. 8.4.
2

y b0 b1x b2 x b3x

y a0 a1x a2 x2

y(x)
a
b, regress. , interp,
2


107

.., .

A(t) B(t),

t (. 8.4).
y c0 c1x c2 x3 regress
interp . ,
,
.
y c0 c1x c2 x3


. c0, c1 c2,
n

S (c0 , c1 , c2 ) [ yi c0 c1 xi c2 xi 3 ]2
i 1

. 8.5.
, . ,
, ,
.
. 8.6-8.8
.

. 8.5.

108

y c0 c1x c2 x3

.., .

. 8.6.

. 8.7.

. 8.8.
109

y c0 c1x c2 x3

.., .

. 8.9
.

. 8.9.
, . 8.6-8.9, ,
. 8.3,
.
. . 8.5

.

. 8.10. linfit

110

.., .

, MathCAD
:
k0 F0 ( x) k1F1( x) ... kn Fn ( x) , Fi ( x)
linfit, linfit (x,y,F)
x , y
, F , Fi ( x)
. linfit K.
linfit .
8.3. y (. 8.3).

2

y k0 k1x k2 x .
linfit . 8.10.

. 8.11. pwrfit(x,y,g)

, MathCAD
:
expfit(x,y,g) aebx c ;
a

lgsfit(x,y,g) 1 becx ;
sinfit(x,y,g) a sin( x b) c ;
pwrfit(x,y,g) axb c ;
logfit(x,y,g) a ln( x b) c ;
111

.., .

lnfit(x,y) a ln( x) b .
x , y
, g ,
a, b c ().
pwrfit(x,y,g) . 8.11.
8.2.
. [a,b]
n+1 x0, x1, x2, , xn, ,
f(x)
f ( x0 ) y0 , f ( x1) y1, f ( x2 ) y2 ,..., f ( xn ) yn .

(8.6)

F(x),
,
f(x):
F ( x0 ) y0 , F ( x1) y1, F ( x2 ) y2 ,..., F ( xn ) yn .

(8.7)

(. 8.12) , y = F(x)
, Mi(xi,yi) (i = 0, 1,
2..n).
Y
Y=f(X)
M0

M1

Y0
Y1

X0

X1

Y=F(X)

M2

Mn

Y2

Yn

...

X2

...

Xn

. 8. 12.

.
, F(x) Pn(x)
n, (8.7), ,
Pn ( x0 ) y0 , Pn ( x1) y1, Pn ( x2 ) y2 ,..., Pn ( xn ) yn .

y = F(x)
f(x) x,
.
f(x).
, X[x0, xn], , X[x0, xn].
.
112

.., .

8.2.1.
F(x)
n:
F x Pn x a0 a1x a2 x 2 ... an 1x n1 an x n .

(8.8)

n , n+1
n. (8.7) (8.8),
.
a a x a x 2 ... a x n 1 a x n y
n 1 0
n 0
0
0 1 0 2 0

a0 a1x1 a2 x12 ... an 1x1n 1 an x1n y1

...........................................................

a0 a1xn a2 xn2 ... an 1xnn 1 an xnn yn

(8.9)

a0, a1, ..., an,


(8.8).

.
8.4.
(P0, ) (U1, )
111-6 (. 8.4).
8.4. P0 (U1 )
U1, 132
P0, 330

140
350

150
385

162
425

170
450

180
485

190
540

200
600

211
660

220
730

232
920

240
1020

251
1350

P0 (U1 ) .
. 8.13 8.4
.
8.2.2.
:
n

F (t )

i 1

yi Li (t ) ,

Li(x) , xk :
1, i k
Li ( xk )
0, i k

Li (t )

n txj

.
j 0 xi x j
j i

, :
F (t )

tx

j
yi x x
j
i0 j 0 i

(8.10)

j i

. 8.14 8.4 .

113

.., .

. 8.13. MathCAD

. 8.14. MathCAD
114

.., .

8.2.3.

n- :
F(t)=A0 + A1 (t-x0)+A2 (t-x0)(t-x1)+ ... + An(t-x0)(t-x1) ... (t-xn-1)

(8.11)

Ai (8.7) (8.11).

(n,n),
Ai Ci,i .
. ,
:
1. y.
2.
Ci, j

Ci, j 1 C j 1, j 1

xi x j 1
j 1, n, i j, n

Ci,i Ai
(8.11), t.
. 8.15 8.4 .

. 8.15. MathCAD
115

.., .

. 8.13-8.15, ,

.
8.2.4. -

. , ,

. ,

.
,
. -
( spline , ).

[4]. , ,
,

IV ( x) 0 .

(8.12)

() y(x),
(a, b) a = x0, x1 ..., b = xn y0, y1, , yn.
, [a, b]
y(x), :
gk (s) ak bk (s xk ) ck (s xk )2 dk (s xk )3, s [ xk -1, xk ], k 1,..., n

(8.13)

:
g k xk yk ; g k ( xk 1) yk 1 ( );
g(x) [a, b];
g
: g1" (a) g k " (b) 0 .
, .
MathCAD :
cspline(x,y)
;
pspline(x,y)
;
lspline(x,y) .
x , y
.
, interp,
. interp
.
. 8.16 8.4 -
116

.., .

. 8.16. 8.4
MathCAD ,

. MathCAD
linerp(x,y,t)3. linerp(x,y,t)
t, .

, , x , y
.
117

.., .

9.
MathCAD

, ,
. MathCAD
.
9. 1.
n-
H (t , x, x, x,..., x(n) ) 0 .

(9.1)

x(t ) ,
.
n- :
x f (t , x , x ,..., x )
1
1 2
n
1

x2 f 2 (t , x1, x2 ,..., xn )

xn f n (t , x1, x2 ,..., xn )

(9.2)

:
n

x1 a1, j x j b1

j 1

x2 a2, j x j b2

j 1

n
x
an, j x j bn

j 1

x1 (t )

x2 (t )

x(t)
...

x (t )
n

(9.3)

(9.2), (9.3) .
4,
, .

.
.
:
4

,
118

.., .

, ,
( ) ;
, ,
.
() ()
.
. , ,
.
,
.

, MathCAD.
9.2. MathCAD

MathCAD
:
odesolve ([vector], t, b, [n])
( - ),
, vector
( ),
, t , b
, n ,

; Given;
!!! Given odesolve
.

Ctrl+F7
(Shift+/),
(Ctrl+Shift+/)
Calculus ( 1).
Ctrl+F7.
.
Ctrl+=
= Boolean (. 1.46).
. 9.1 odesolve
:
x x x et cos(t )
x(0) 1, x(0) 0, x(0) 0.4

119

.., .

. 9.1. odesolve
rkfixed(init, t1, t2, npoints, D)
n 5
- ; init
, [t1,t2] , npoints
, [t1,t2], D
;
rkfixed npoints+1 n+1,

[t1,t2],
;
. 9.2 rkfixed

5

x x x3 cos(t )
.
x(0) 2

x F (t, x) .
120

.., .

. 9.2. rkfixed
Rkadapt(init, t1, t2, npoints, D)
n
- ; init
, [t1,t2] ;
npoints+1 ,
, D
; Rkadapt
npoints+1 n+1,
[t1,t2],
;
. 9.3 Rkadapt
x x 2 x3 cos(5t )
x(0) 3
.

rkadapt(init,t1,t2,
eps,
D,
kmax,
ht)

-
; eps
, kmax
( kmax
2), ht
;
kmax n+1 , . 9.4

121

x x 2 x3 cos(5t )
x(0) 3

.., .

. 9.3. Rkadapt

. 9.4. rkadapt
Bulstoer(init,
t1,
t2,
npoints,
D)

-6,
. 9.5.
bulstoer(init, t1, t2, eps, D, kmax, ht)
-
;
Radau(init, t1, t2, npoints, D), Stiffb(init,
x1, x2, npoints, D, J), Stiffr(init, x1, x2, npoints,
D, J)
,
.

-
122

.., .

. 9.5. Bulstoer
9.3.
MathCAD
.
9.1.

dx
x sin( x t )
dt
.
x(0) 1.5

Odesolve
. 9.6. ,
,
x(t).
, (t, x, x) 0
MathCAD,
x F (t , x) . 9.1 :
dx
x sin( x t )
dt
x(0) 1.5

(9.4)

. 9.7 (9.4)
rkfixed.
. 9.7, -
. ,
(. 9.8).
. ,
rkfixed Odesolve, .
123

.., .

. 9.6. 9.1 Odesolve

. 9.7. (9.4) rkfixed ht=1


124

.., .

. 9.8. (9.4) rkfixed


ht=0.175
. . 9.6-9.8, rkfixed

.
.
, ,
Rkadapt. . 9.9
(9.4) Rkadapt,
, Odesolve (. 9.6).

Bulstoer.
(9.4) . 9.10.
, Bulstoer, ,
Rkfixed (ht=1).

Rkadapt.
rkadapt, . 9.11.

125

.., .

. 9.9. (9.4) rkadapt

. 9.10. (9.4) Bulstoer


126

.., .

. 9.11. (9.4) rkadapt



.
9.4.

, .
Odesolve, rkfixed, Rkadapt, rkadapt, Bulstoer
.
9.2.

x cos( x y)
, x(0) 0, y(0) 0

y sin( x t y)

[0;10].
Odesolve
Odesolve
:
;
Odesolve :
(
127

x
),
y

.., .

,
.
Odesolve -
. . 9.12
9.2 Odesolve.

. 9.12. 9.2 Odesolve


rkfixed, Rkadapt, Bulstoer
rkfixed, Rkadapt,
Bulstoer D(t,x),
. , t
, x (x0 - ,
x1 ..). D(t,x) 9.2
. 9.13.

. 9.13. 9.2
128

.., .

rkfixed, Rkadapt, Bulstoer


9.2 . 9.14. . 9.15 ,
Rkadapt7.

. 9.14. 9.2 rkfixed, Rkadapt,


Bulstoer

. 9.15. 9.2,
Rkadapt
9.2 .

.
9.5.
n-
dx
Bx ,
dt

(9.5)

, :
B

Re k 0, k 0,1,

n 1

, rkfixed, Bulstoer, . 9.15.


129

.., .

max Re k
s 0 k n 1
min Re k

, ,

0 k n 1

dx
F(x, t )
dt

(9.6)
Fi
x j

,
. rkfixed
, . . MathCAD .
MathCAD :
Radau(init, t1, t2, npoints, D), Stiffb(init, t1, t2, eps,
D, J) ( -), Stiffr(init, t1, t2,
eps, D, J) ( ).
:
init ;
[t1,t2] ;
npoints [t1,t2];
D ;
J n n+1,
,
(9.5).
npoints+1 n+1,
[t1,t2],
.
Radau J, ,
Stiffb(init, t1, t2, npoints, D, J),
Sttiffr(init, t1, t2, npoints, D, J)
.
9.3. :

119.46 185.38 126.88 121.03


1


1
dX 10.395 10.136 3.636 8.577

X; X(0)

1 .
dt 53.302 85.932 63.182 54.211

115.58 181.75 112.8 199


1

(9.7)

, , ,
B
(. 9.16).

130

.., .

. 9.16. (9.7)
. . 9.17
(9.7) rkfixed
Rkadapt.

. 9.17. (9.7) rkfixed


Rkadapt
131

.., .

. 9.17, -
,
,
.
,
rkfixed .
.
. 9.18 (9.7)
Radau, Stiffb, Stiffr.

. 9.18. (9.7) Radau,


Stiffb, Stiffr
. 9.19 (9.7).

. 9.19. (9.7)
Radau, Stiffb, Stiffr

.
9.4.
.
132

.., .

dx0
dt 7 x0 7 x1

dx1
157 x0 x1 1.15 x0 x2

dt
dx2
dt 0.96 x0 x1 8.36 x2

(9.8)

. 9.20 [0;2]
Radau, . 9.21
Stiffr.

. 9.20. (9.8) Radau

. 9.21. (9.8) Stiffr


.
. ,
Radau, Stiffb, Stiffr
.

.
9.6.
MathCAD
Odesolve
rkfixed,
Rkadapt.
133

.., .


.
d 2x

9.5.

dx
13x esin(t )
dt
dt

x(0.25) 1, x(0.25) 1
2

[0.25; 2].
. 9.22
Odesolve.

. 9.22.
Odesolve
rkfixed, Rkadapt,
.

dy
4 y 13x esin(t )

dt

dx y

dt

dx
dt

y (a) 1
x(a) 1 . . 9. 23

9.5 Rkadapt.

. 9.23. 9.5 Rkadapt


134

.., .

. 9.22, 9.23, 9.5, ,


.
9.7. MathCAD
,
,

. .
.
.

MathCAD sbval(v, t1, t2, D, l, s). v
, [t1;t2] , D
, l
,
v, s ,
.
.
t 1 x tx 3t

9.6.
3

x(2) 3; x(4) 11

t=2. v
, 3 (v0=3).
t1=2 t2=4.

x1

D(t , x) : 3 t 4 x
1 .
3

t 1

l, : x, 2,
, v0. ,
x(4)=11, s
, x0-11. sbval,
,
.
t=2 9.6 .
9.24.

. 9.24. 9.6
135

.., .

MathCAD.
. 9.25 9.6 Rkadapt.

. 9.25. 9.6 Rkadapt


sbval, MathCAD
bvalfit,
, .
,
,

MathCAD. ,
Odesolve Rkadapt.

rkadapt.
Radau, Stiffb,
Stiffr. ,

Radau, Stiffb, Stiffr
.
MathCAD,
.

136

.., .

10.

.

MathCAD

10.1.

. , ,
.
MathCAD
READPRN, READFILE, WRITEPRN, APPENDPRN. ,
MathCAD Insert\ Data\ File
Input, Insert\ Data\ File Output.
10.1.1.

WRITEPRN
WRITEPRN(file):=name
name 8 , file
, ,
name.
,
name. ,
.
WRITEPRN . 10.1, . 10.2
.

. 10.1. WRITEPRN

. 10.2. WRITEPRN

MathCAD 11 APPENDPRN
APPENDPRN(file):=name
8

, ;
, - -, ; ,
, .
137

.., .

WRITEPRN, APPENDPRN
, file , APPENDPRN
.
!!!! ,
,
name.
. 10.3 APPENDPRN
e:\abc.txt (. . 10.2). . 10.4
e:\abc.txt .

. 10.3. APPENDPRN

. 10.4. e:\abc.txt APPENDPRN


, WRITEPRN APPENDPRN
,
Windows.

MathCAD File Output ( ).
Insert\ Data\ File Output.
,
(. 10.5) ,
(. 10.6).

138

.., .

. 10.5.

. 10.6. ,
File Options( ,
).
File Options File Format (
),
:
Formatted Text ( ),
;
Tab Delimited Text (, ),
;
Comma Separated Values (, ),
Use comma as decimal
symbol ( ),
139

.., .

,
,
; Use comma as decimal
symbol, ,
.
,
Browse
.
Use comma as decimal
symbol, , , ,
(, .).
Use relative file path
( ).
Data Range ,
:
Start at row ( 1),
;
Stop at row
;
Stop at end of data , ,
, Start at row;
Start at column ,
;
Stop at column
;
Stop at end of data , ,
, Column;

File Output.
(. 10.7)
File Output.

. 10.7. C

140

.., .

E:\matr_C.txt Insert\
Data\ File OutPut.
(. 10.8).

. 10.8. , C
,
E:\matr_C.txt (. 10.9).
MathCAD File Output,
(
) (. . 10.10).

. 10.9. C

. 10.10.
File Output
E:\matr_C.txt (. 10.11).

141

.., .

. 10.11. E:\matr_C.txt
10.1.2.

READPRN, READFILE, File Input .
.
READPRN
READPRN :
name:=READPRN(file)
name ,
file.
9,
name. ,
.
e:\abc13.txt
2 3
4
5
7 3.4 9.25 12.91
1 2
8.8 1.1111
READPRN C (. 10.12).

. 10.12. READPRN
!!! ,
.
READFILE

MathCAD 10 READFILE :
name:=READFILE(file, type, colwidth, rows, cols, emptyfill)

file ;
type ,
: delimited
; fixed

, , ,

142

.., .

; Excel
MS Excel;
colwidth fixed
;
rows ,
name, name
, 10
;
cols ,
name, name
,
;
emptyfill ,
.
file,
type.
.
E:\abc.txt (. 10.13).
E:\abc.txt

READFILE . 10.14.

. 10.13.
. 10.14.
E:\abc.txt
E:\abc.txt READFILE
File Input

File Input, Insert\
Data\ File Input.
10

,

143

.., .

E:\abc.txt (.10.13). Insert\


Data\ File Input (. 10.15),
. 10.5. Use comma as decimal
symbol( .) ,
E:\abc.txt,
File Input. ,
(. 10.16).
File Input,
(. 10.17).

. 10. 15. File Input( )

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144

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File Input

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10.2. MathCAD MS Excel



MS Excel.
MathCAD MS Excel
MathCAD , MS Excel.
10.2.1. MS Excel
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MathCAD
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148

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. 10.39 MathCAD MS Word.

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153

.., .

1. .
1.1. .
1 X

cos( )
3

3.85
2.0435
962.6

4.16
7.27
12.163
5.205
55.18
87.32
2
sin( )
4 X

a
b
c

3.456
0.642
7.12

1.245
0.327
0.121
3.147
2.34
1.78
ab
7 X
2
2
log( c )

3.456
0.642
7.12

1.245
0.327
0.121
3.147
2.34
1.78
sin( 3 )
10 X
48 cos( )

54.8
2.45
0.863

38.5
3.35
0.734

13 X

4.845
16.4
12.44

16 X

0.3575
2.63
0.854

17.3
5.73
0.956

sin( )
tg ( )

5.632
6.312
23.5
16.4
11.5
20.06
2
sin ( ) cos 2 ( )

0.1756
3.71
0.285

0.2131
5.12
0.374

2 X

sin( )

3 X

228.6
86.4
68.7

315.6
186.7
72.5
66.4
53.8
72.3
cos( 3 )
5 X

0.643
2.17
5.843

0.142
1.71
3.721

8 X

0.258
3.45
7.221
2
2
sin ( )

1.6531
3.78
0.158

2.348
3.804
4.37
4.05
0.235
0.318
sin( )
11 X
3

3.878
2.041
962.62

5.16
7.299
11.163
5.115
56.18
88.32
2
sin( )
14 X
cos 2 ( )

3.556
0.652
7.15

1.345
0.131
2.33

ln 2 (ab)

2
c3

1.245
0.327
0.121
3.147
2.34
1.78
2

17 X

3.456
0.642
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0.427
3.144
1.74

154

tg ( )

3.845
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12.48

4.632
7.312
23.3
18.4
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sin( ) cos( )
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2

0.3575
2.63
0.854

0.1756
3.71
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0.7568
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12

227.6
85.4
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15

0.2131
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0.374

0.83.45 0.6384
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1.84
4.88
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X

325.6
176.7
73.5
67.4
55.8
77.3
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X

0.643
2.17
5.843

0.142
0.258
1.71
3.45
3.721
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2
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1.6531
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2.348
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3.804
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3
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0.7568
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0.83.45
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1.84

22 X

20 X

0.6384
327
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cos( ) sin 2 ( )
3

228.6
86.4
68.7

26 X

0.643
2.17
5.843

0.3575
2.63
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1.6531
3.78
0.158

0.142
1.71
3.721

0.258
3.45
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2.348
4.37
0.235

3.804
4.05
0.318

38.5
3.35
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315.6
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72.5
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53.8
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2
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54.8
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3.845
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7.312
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0.2131
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0.7568
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2.65

0.1756
3.71
0.285

0.8345
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1.84

0.6384
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4.88

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21 X

3.85
2.0435
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4.16
12.163
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7.27
5.205
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sin( 2 )

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3.456
0.642
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cos( )

1.245
0.327
0.121
3.147
2.34
1.78

ln( ab)

27 X
c
3

3.456
0.642
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30

54.8
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1.245
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0.327
3.147
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1.2. (
1.1).
( a b) m 3

( a b)c
1 X

mn

4.3
5.2
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17.21
15.32
22.16
8.2
7.5
6.3
12.417 21.823 16.825
8.37
7.56
8.13
(a b) log( m)
4 3 X

cn

13.5
3.7
4.22
34.5
23.725

23.16
8.32
145.5
28.6
0.28

22.16
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3.6
12.37
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a
b
c
m
n

a
b
c
m
n

17.41
1.27
342.3
11.7
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32.37
2.35
128.7
27.3
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2 2 X

cn

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11.8
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3.42
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X

m n 2

15.71
12.31
3.28
1.73
7.2
3.7
13.752 17.428
33.7
41.7

155

(a b)m!

3 X 3
2
(c n)

2.754
11.7
0.65
2
6.32

3.236
4.523
15.8
10.8
0.65
0.85
3
5
7.18
4.17
( a b) 2
6 3 X

m n c!

16.342 12.751 31.456


2.5
3.7
7.3
1
2
3
9.14
8.12
6.71
3.6
1.7
5.8

.., .

a
b
c
m
n

a
b
c
m
n

23.16
8.32
145.5
28.6
0.28

17.41
32.37
1.27
2.35
342.3
128.7
11.7
27.3
0.71
0.93
X (2n 1)!(a b)
10

2
( a b) 2

2.0435
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1

13
a
b
c
m
n

3.754
11.3
0.63
2
6.32

16
a
b
c
m
n

16.342
2.5
1
9.14
3.6

19
a
b
c
m
n

X
na 2 mb 2
64c

10.82
2.786
0.28
14.7

1.1752 4.5681
3.8
6.3
2
3
(a b) m!
X

4
(c n)

4.236
5.523
14.8
10.5
0.64
0.85
3
1
7.15
4.15
2
( a b) X

m n c!

12.751 31.456
3.7
7.3
2
3
8.12
6.71
1.7
5.8
3
ln( m)( a b )

X
3
m (n a )

9.37
11.45
3.108
4.431
0.46
0.75
15.2
16.7

m!( a b )
8 X

cn

16.342 12.751 31.456


2.5
3.7
7.3
38.17
23.76
33.28
2
3
4
3.6
1.7
5.8
2

(a b)c!
X

mn

6.2
2313
16.32
23.16
2
3
20.863 17.925
7.562
8.134
(a b)(m) n 1

X c n!
2

11

5.3
18.21
1
13.417
8.371

14

25.16
8.52
143.5
28.7
1

17

23.16
8.32
145.5
2
3

20

2.0435
4.2
1

16.41
1.67
356.3
14.6
2

12.37
2.25
124.7
26.3
3

n!
ba 2 (m n)! X 2
4c

17.41
1.27
342.3
4
6

32.37
2.35
128.7
6
9

156

18 X

16.342
2.5
38.17
2
3.6

(2m 1)! ( a b )
c log( n2 )

12.751 31.456
3.7
7.3
23.76
33.28
3
4
1.7
5.8
2

(a b )c!
21 X
2
( m n)

4.5681
4.3
5.2
2.13
6.3
17.21
15.32
22.16
1
2
3
12.417 21.823 16.825
3
8.37
7.56
8.13

(2n)! a b
X
( a b) 2

1.1752
3.8
2

ln( m)(3 a b )
9 3 X

m (n a)

10.82
9.37
11.45
2.786
3.108
4.431
0.28
0.46
0.75
14.7
15.2
16.7
(a b)m!
12 X

cn

12.5
19.5
12.8
3.2
5.9
7.2
4.22
3.49
5.82
1
3
5
23.722 14.782 11.232
( a b) 4 c
15 ln( X 2 )

(m n)!

22.16
15.71
12.31
5.03
3.28
1.73
3.6
7.2
3.7
5
6
7
1
3
5

.., .

22

(a b)(2m 1)!
2X
23
cn

13.5
18.5
11.8
a
3.7
5.6
7.4
b
4.22
3.42
5.82
c
1
3
5
m
23.725 14.782 11.234
n
(a 2 b ) 4 c X 2
25

(m n)!

22.16
15.71
12.31
a
5.03
3.28
1.73
b
3.6
7.2
3.7
c
5
6
7
m
1
3
5
n

28
a
b
c
m
n

16.342
2.5
38.17
2
3.6

(2m 1)! ( a b )
X 2c3 ln( n2 )

12.751
3.7
23.76
3
1.7

31.456
7.3
33.28
4
5.8

(a b) (2m) 2 n 1
( a b) 2m!

3
X
24 X

4
c n!

(c n)

2.754
3.236
4.523
23.16
17.41
32.37
11.7
15.8
10.8
8.32
1.27
2.35
0.65
0.65
0.85
145.5
342.3
128.7
2
3
1
28.6
11.7
27.3
6.32
7.18
4.17
1
2
3
n!
( a b)2 X
2 2
26

27 3c X a (m n)! b
m n c!

16.342 12.751 31.456


23.16
17.41
32.37
2.5
3.7
7.3
8.32
1.27
2.35
1
2
3
145.5
342.3
128.7
9.14
8.12
6.71
2
4
6
3.6
1.7
5.8
3
6
9
log( m)(3 a b )
(2n 1)! a b
X 2 30
29
3
ln(( X b) 2 )
m (n a )

10.82
9.37
11.45
2.0435 1.1752 4.5681
2.786
3.108
4.431
4.2
3.8
6.3
0.28
0.46
0.75
14.7
15.2
16.7
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2
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2. .
1.
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2. ,
lsolve.
3. .
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x1 x 2 2x 3 3x 4
3x x x 2x
1
2
3
4
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5 x 8 y z 7

2) x 2 y 3z 1
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157

.., .

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2x1 3x 2 2x 3 x 4 8

4 5 - 2

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2 1 - 1

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5 7 3

x1 2x 2 3x 3 4x 4
2x x 2x 3x
1
2
3
4
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3x1 2x 2 x 3 2x 4
4x1 3x 2 2x 3 x 4

3x 2 y z 5

2) 2 x 3 y z 1
1
2 x y 3z 11

-5

1
5

A 10 2
0
1

3) 2(AB)(A + B),

1 ,
2

2 4 1

3 1 0
7 2 1

x2 - 3x3 4 x4
x - 2 x 3x
1
3
4
1)
3x1 2 x2 - 5 x4
4 x1 3x2 5 x3
2

-5

x1 2 x2 4 x3 31

2) 5 x1 x2 2 x3 29
12
3x - x x 10
2
3
1
5

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3) (A B )(A + B),

2
7

A 7 2
1
1

1 ,
1

0 2 3

1 0 - 2
3 1 1

x1 3x2 5 x3 7 x4
3x 5 x 7 x x
1
2
3
4
1)
5 x1 7 x2 x3 3x4
7 x1 x2 3x3 5 x4

3) (AB )(2A+B),

12

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2) 2 x 5 y - 3z 4
4
5 x 6 y - 2 z 18

16

A 10
7

2
4
3

1 ,
2

3 6 - 1

-1 - 2 0
2 1 3

158

.., .

x1 5 x2 3x3 - 4 x4 20
2 x1 - x2 - x3 4
3x x - 2 x 9
1

2
3
1)
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5 x1 - 7 x2 10 x4 - 9
3x - 2 x 4 x 11
2
3
1
3x2 5 x3 1

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A 0
- 2

-1
2
-1

- 1 ,
0

3 7

1 1
0 1

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3

2 x1 x2 - 5 x3 x4 8
x1 x2 2 x3 - 1
x - 3x - 6 x 9

1
2
4
1)
2) 2 x1 - x2 2 x3 - 4
2 x2 - x3 2 x4 - 5
4 x x 4 x - 2
2
3
1
x1 4 x2 - 7 x3 6 x4 0
5

3) 2(A0,5B)+AB, A 2
3

- 1

4 ,
- 1

3
0
5

1 4

- 3 - 2
5 7

16

0
2

2 x1 - x2 3x3 2 x4 4
3x1 - x2 5
3x 3x 3x 2 x 6

1
2
3
4
1)
2) - 2 x1 x2 x3 0
3x1 x2 - x3 2 x4 6
2 x x 4 x 15
3
1 2
3x1 - x2 3x3 - x4 6

3) (A B)A + 3B,

A 4
1

2 - 5

2 0 ,
1 2

- 1 2 4

0 3 2
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x1 2 x2 x3 x4
2 x x x x
1
2
3
4
1)
x1 x2 2 x3 x4
x1 x2 - x3 3x4
2

3) 2A(A +B) B,

3x1 - x2 x3 4

2) 2 x1 - 5 x2 - 3x3 - 17
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x x - x 0
2
3
1
10

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0

4
1
1

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4 6 - 2

4 10 1
2 4 - 5

159

.., .

10

4 x1 x2 - x4
x - 3x 4 x
1
2
3
1)
3x2 - 2 x3 4 x4
x1 2 x2 - x3 2

-9
-7
12
3x4 0

3) 3 (A B ) 2B,

x1 x2 x3 2

2) 2 x1 - x2 - 6 x3 - 1
3x 2 x 8
2
1

4 2 1

A 3 - 2 0 ,
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2 0 2

5 - 7 - 2
1 0 - 1

11

2 x1 - x2
2 x x 1
2
1)
3
x

x
3
1
2 x1 2 x2 -

x3 - x4 1
3x4 2
x4 - 3
2 x3 5 x4 - 6

2 x1 x2 - x3 1

2) x1 x2 x3 6
3x x x 4
2
3
1

3) (2AB)(3+B)2, A - 2
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0
0
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1 ,
1

7 5 2

0 1 2
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12
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1)
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- x1 3 x2 - 2 x3

2 x1 - x2 - 3x3 3

2) 3x1 4 x2 5 x3 8
-1

2 x2 7 x3 17

3) (A B)-2(B+), A - 1
5

3
2
3

4 ,
0

2 7

-1 0
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13

5
21

13

x4 9
5 x1 x2
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2
3
4
1)
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2 x3 x4 16
3x1
x 2x - x 2
2
3
1
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x4 0
1

3) (A+B)AB(2+3), A 2
1

-2
3
4

5 ,
- 1

160

4 11 3

1 6 1
2 2 16

.., .

14

2 x1 x3 4 x4
x 2x - x
1
2
3
1)
2 x1 x2 x3
x1 x2 2 x3

x - 2 y 3z 6

2) 2 x 3 y 4 z 16
x4 5
3x - 2 y 5 z 12

x4 - 1

x4 8

3) A(2A+B)B(), A 4
0

3
-1
1

0 ,
2

2
4

8
7
3

3
5

15

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x 3x 5 x 7 x
1
2
3
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x

5
x

7
x

x
2
3
4
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2) 2 x - y - 3z - 1
0
x 5y z 0

12

3) 3(A+B)(A2), A 1
4

1
2
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0 ,
0

22 - 14

6 -7
11
3

0
15

16

x1 5 x2 2
2 x1 - x2 3x3 7
2 x x 3 x 2 x 4
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2
4
1)
2) x1 3x2 2 x3 0
3x1 x2 x3 2 x4 6

2 x2 - x3 2

3x1 x2 3x3 x4 6
4 2 0

3) 2- (A B)(A B), A 1 1 2 ,
3 2 0

0 2 6

B 2 4 3
0 3 4

17
x1 4 x2 x4
x x 2 x 3x

2
3
4
1) 1
2 x1 3x2 x3 x4

x1 2 x2 3x3 x4

2 x1 x2 4 x3 20

2) 2 x1 x2 3x3 3
-6
3x 4 x 5 x - 8
2
3
1
-4
1

3) 2+3B(B-2), A 2
1

-1
0
1

- 1,
1

-1
-3

161

3
2
0

0
0

.., .

18

5 x1 x2 x3 3x4 4
x1 x2 4

x 2 x 3x 2 x 6

1
2
3
4
1)
2) 2 x1 3x2 x3 1
2 x1 x2 2 x3 3x4 8
2 x x 3x 11
2
3
1
3x1 2 x2 x3 2 x4 4
1 2
3 4 5
0

3) A BA B 2AB, A 1 0 2 , B 1
1
2
2 1 0
3 1
0

19

4 x1 2 x2 x3 4 x4 3
x1 5 x2 x3 7
2 x x x x 1
1

2
3
4
1)
2) 2 x1 - x2 x3 4
3
3x1 x3 x4
3x 2 x 4 x 11
2
3
1
2 x1 2 x2 2 x3 5 x4 6
3) 2A-B(-)+,

A 0
5

2
-1
7

- 1

2 ,
1

0 3 - 1

2 - 1 2
- 3 1 4

20

2 x1 x3 2 x4 -1
11x 3 y - 3z 2
x 2x x 2
2

3
4
1)
2) 2 x 5 y 5 z 0
x1 x2 x4 - 1
x y z 2

- x1 3x2 2 x3 0
4

3) A - (A + B)( 3), A - 1
-1

5
0
2

3 ,
- 1

1
3

-1
0
1

21

x1 x2 x3 x4 4
7 x 5 y 2 z 18
2 x x 2 x 3 x 1
1

2
3
4
1)
2) x y z 3
3
x

2
x

2
x

1
2
3
4
1
x y 2 z 2

4
x

3
x

2
x

5
2
3
4
1
7 3 0

3) BA 2B 3AB, A 1 1 0
2 0 3

4 2 1

, B 1 0 1

3 2 1

162

- 2
2

.., .

22
5 x1 3 x2 7 x3 3 x4 1
2 x 3 y z 1
x 3x 4 x - 5
2

3
4
1)
2)
x z 0
x1 2 x3 3 x4 - 4
x - yz 2

4 x1 3x2 5 x3 5
2 3
1
4

3) 3(A B) - (A - B)A, A 0 - 2 3 , - 1
1
2
1 1

2
2
3

0
- 1

23

x1 x2 x3 x4 0
x 2 y - 2z 3
x 2x 2x 1
1

3
4
1)
2) x y - 2 z 0
x1 x2 x4 - 1
x y z 1

x1 3x2 2 x3 0

1 -2

1
3) (A - B) + 2(A + ), A 1
1 -1

- 2

- 2 ,
- 1

0 3 5

4 1 0
1 1 2

24

2x1 x 2 x 3 3x 4
3x x x 5x
1
2
3
4
1)
x

2x

2x
2
3
4
1
2x1 3x 2 x 3 x 4

6
3
28
0

3x1 x2 5 x3 - 7

2) 2 x1 - 3x2 4 x3 - 1
5 x x 3x 0
2
3
1

3) (2A B) B - 0,5A A 3
2

-1
0
-1

- 2 ,
1

25
2 x1 x2 2 x3 2 x4 3
x1 - 2 x2 x3 15
3x 2 x x x 3
1

2
3
4
1)
2) 2 x1 x2 3x3 9
x1 3x2 x3 3x4 0
2 x 3 x 2 x - 2
2
3
1

4 x1 2 x2 2 x3 5 x4 15
2 1 - 1
2 - 1 0

3) AB - 2(A B) A A 1 0
1, 0 2 1
3 1 - 2
1 3 - 1

163

-1 0 - 2

1
2 1
- 2 0
1

.., .

26

x1 2 x2 3x3 4 x4
2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x
1
2
3
4
1)
3x1 x2 x3 7 x4
2 x1 x2 6 x3 3x4

2 x1 - x2 - 2 x3 1

2) 3x1 2 x2 x3 1
2 x 3 x 3 x 0
2
3
1

8
2
7

3) (A 2B)(3A - B) A 4
0

1,
- 1

2
-2
1

- 2
1

3
0
0

- 1

- 1
1

27

3x1 2 x2 5 x3 x4 3
2 x 3x 3x 4 x 1
1
2
3
4
1)
4 x1 x2 3x3 2 x4 3
5 x1 2 x2 x3 3x4 5
1

3) 2AB A(B - A) A 2
0

2 x1 3x2 4 x3 5

2) 3x1 4 x2 - x3 3
4 x 5 x - 2 x 3
2
3
1
2
3
2

- 1

0 ,
- 1

1 2 - 1

2 - 1 0
1 2 1

28

2 x1 x2 5 x3 x4 1
3x 3x 2 x 5 x 2
1
2
3
4
1)
x1 x2 2 x3 3x4 10
3x1 2 x2 7 x3 2 x4 1

2 x1 - x2 3x3 -9

2) x1 2 x2 x3 3
3x x x - 1
2
3
1

3) (3A 0.5)(2B A) A - 1
1

2
0
2

2 ,
1

1 0

2 3
3 1

1
0

29
3x1 x2 2 x3 x4 8
3x1 x2 - 2 x3 4
2 x 3x 3x x 3
1

2
3
4
1)
2) 2 x1 3x2 x3 9
4 x1 2 x2 5 x3 3x4 6
5 x x 3x - 4
2
3
1

2
x

4
x

3
x

3
2
3
4
1

2 3

3) 2A(A B) - 3AB A 1 - 2
0 1

0 ,
2

164

2 0 - 2

1 1 0
1 - 1 1

.., .

30

2 x1 3x2 5 x3 x4 6
3x x x 5 x 0
1
2
3
4
1)
2 x1 x2 3x4 5
2 x1 2 x2 x3 7 x4 3

2 x1 x2 3x3 -4

2) x1 3x2 - x3 2
5 x 2 x x 5
2
3
1

3) 3AB (A B)(A 2B) A 0


1

5
2
0

- 1

1,
1

1 -2

1 0
0
0

2
3

3. .
3.1. .

f(x)

f(x)

2
2
1
11
21
2x
4x 5
4x 8

9x 2 4
x 3 3x 2 2 x 2
2 3x 2

f(x)
4 x 3x 2 2 x 2
x2 1
3

22

1 x2

3x 2 7
2x 1

23

16 x 2 9
2 x 2 3x 1
1 2x

14

x2 5

24

4 x 3 3x 2 8 x 2
2 3x 2

15

9x 2 8
x 2 6x 4
2 2x

4x 3 x 2 2x 1
2x 2 1

25

5x 2 3

x2 3

16

26

3x 2 2
2x 2 6
x2

21 x 2
7x 9

3x 2 1
4x 3 x
x2 1

17

2x 2 7

27

x 3 x 2 3x 1
x2 1

18

3x 2 2
2 x 3 3x 2 2 x 1
3x 2 1

2x 3 2x 1
x2 1

28

x2 5

4 x 3 3x
4x 2 1

19

x 2 11
4x 3

29

x2 2
2x 2 5

x 2 6x 4
3x 2

20

2x 2 9

30

17 x 2
4x 5

12

x2 3

13

4x 2 3
x 3 4x
3x 2 4

8
9
10

3x 2 4
15 x 3
2x 1

x2 1

3.2. .

f(x)

f(x)

3
3
1
11
21
(1 x)( x 2 2 x 2)
(1 x)( x 2 2 x 2)
2
3

( x 2 4 x 3) 2

12

(3 x) x 2

13

x( x 2 2) 2

x 2 ( x 2 2) 2

22

(3 x)(2 x 2 x 1)

( x 2) 2 ( x 1)

23

( x 1) 2 3 ( x 2) 2

f(x)

165

.., .

(2 x) 2 ( x 2 4)

14

f(x)
3

(1 x) 2 3 ( x 2) 2

15

( x 2) 2 3 ( x 3) 2

16

( x 1) 2 3 ( x 2) 2

17

( x 4) 2 ( x 2)

18

( x 2 2 x 3) 2

19

(3 x)( x 2 6 x 6)

20

10

( x 2) 2 ( x 1)

24

(2 x) 2 3 ( x 3) 2

25

x( x 3) 2

26

( x 1) 2 3 x 2

27

x 2 ( x 6)

28

x 2 ( x 4) 2

29

( x 1) 2 3 x

(2 x)( x 2 4 x 1)

30

( x 2 x 3) 2

f(x)
3
3

3
3

3
3
3

f(x)
3

(4 x) 2 3 ( x 3) 2
3
3
3

(6 x) x 2

( x 2 3x 2) 2

( x 4) 2 ( x 2 2)

( x 3) 2 3 ( x 4) 2

3.3. .

f(x)

f(x)

f(x)
2
2
2
2
2
1
11
21
y
y
x
x
y2
x

1
2
4
3
4
4
9
2
2
12
22
y2 x2
x2 y2
y2
x

1
2
3
3
4
4
9
3
13
23
y2 x2
x2 y2
y2 x2

1
3
5
2
3
4
9
4
14
24
y2 x2
x2 y2
y2 x2

1
2
4
3
5
4
9
y2 - 2x2 - 4
y2 +24x2 - 4
2y2 - 9x2 18
5
15
25
6
16
26
y2 x2
x2 y2
x2 y2

1
2
4
3
4
9 16
7
17
27
x2 y2
x2 y2
y2 x2

1
9 16
3
4
2
3
8
18
28
y2 x2
x2 y2
y2 x2

1
2
3
3
5
9 16
4y2 - 5x2 20
9
19
29
y2 x2
x2 y2

1
9 16
3
5
4y2 + 5x2 - 20
2y2 +9x2 18
10
20
30
y2 x2

1
2
4
3.4. .

x(t)
y(t)
x(t)
y(t)
x(t)
y(t)
2
3
2
3
t
t
2t
t
t-2sint
1-2cost
1
11
20
3
2
2
3
2
t
t
2t
3t
-t
2t3
2
12
21
t
t
3
13
22
t2
3t 2
3t
t2
3
2
3
3
2
1 9t 3
1 9t
1 t
1 t
1 t
1 t
166

.., .

4
5

x(t)

y(t)

t
1 t 3
t

1 t3

t
1 t3
t2
1 t3
t

1 t3

14
15

x(t)

y(t)
2

3t
1 t2
3t 2
1 t 2
2t 2
1 t 2

3t
1 t 2
3t

1 t2
2t
1 t 2

23
24

x(t)

y(t)

t
1 9t 3
2t

1 t3

t2
1 9t 3
2t 2
1 t 3
2t

1 t3

2t 2
1 t 3

t2
1 t3

7
8

cos2t+cost

t
1 t2

t
1 t2

19

t
1 t2

1
1 t 2

28

10

t2

2t3

20

t-sint

1-cost

30

t2-sint

4 cos 3

t
4

costsint
4 sin 3

t
4

16

25

17 2cos2t+cost 2costsint 26 cos2t+2cost cost2sint


t
t
t
18 9 cos 3 t
27
9 sin 3
4 cos 2
4 sin 2
4

t
1 t2

1
1 t2

1-cost

3.5. .

2
1
11
21
3
2cos+2

2
12
22
2+1
2(1-cos)
2ctg
3
13
23
2/sin+2
5sin(4/5)
3/+3

4
14
24
2sin3
2
2 sin 2
5
15
25
2cos3+3
2cos+1
-2tg
6
16
26
-2ctg
2cos6
2 +1
7
17
27
3+2
32 +
2 cos 2
8
18
28
2sin6
3
2tg3
9
19
29
1/cos(/3)
2/sin+3
5sin2(/3)
10
20
30
2/sin+1
5sin(/3)
3/2+1
3.6. .

f(x)

f(x)

2
1
11 1 x 2 cos 2 x , x 0 21
1 x
,x0

1 x4

sin 2 x

2
x

,x0

2 x
1 x
, x 1
3
2
1

2
2 ln(1 x ), x (1;0)

3
(1 x) 5 , x 0

3 sin x cos x, x 0

3 1 x , x 0

x
3 x 1 , x 0
e

12

13

1 x
1 x 2 , x 0

, x (0;1)
1
1

2 sin(3x) , x 1

3 sin x cos x, x 0

2 x ,x0
167

f(x)
1 x2 , x 0

1 x
,x0
3
0.2 x
1 1 e

22

1 x
,x0

2
1

2 x
x 2e , x (0;1)

1/ 3
2 x , x 1

23

sin x 2 cos x, x 0

1 x , x 0

.., .

f(x)
3x
,x0

1 x 2

1 2x , x 0

1 x2
2

14

f(x)
3x 1 x 2 , x 0

2 x
2 cos x e , x [0;1]
2 sin 3x, x 1

24

f(x)
1 x , x 0

1 3x
,x0

3
2 1 x

3 1 x 2 , x 0

1 x
,x0

1 cos 2 x
1 x

,x0
2 x

1 x
,x0

2 cos 3 x
x
,x0

2
1 x
1 x, x 0

25

1 cos x
,x0

2
1 x
x cos x, x 0

26

x 1 x 2 , x 0

x
sin x e , x [0;1]
2 cos 2 x, x 1

27

x e 2 x , x 0

1
,x0

2
1 x

18

2 1 x 2 , x 0

1
3 x ,x0
1 e

28

13
x ,x0

2 x x , x [0;1)

0.1
x 3 , x 1

19

2
1 x , x 0

2
2 cos x, x [0;1]

1 3 2 sin 3x , x 1

29

3 1 x 2 , x 0

x
sin 2 x 3e , x [0;1]
cos x sin x, x 1

1 x x 2 , x 0

1 2 x , x [0;1)
2 0.5 sin x , x 1

1 2 x 2 sin 2 x , x 0

2 x
,x0
3
0.1 x
2

20

1 x sin x , x 0

x
4 0.1x , x 0
e

30

3 sin x
,x0

2
1 x
2 x 2 cos 2 x, x 0

15

3 sin 2 2 x
,x0

2
1 cos x
2 1 2 x , x 0

16

x
e 2 x , x 0

2
1

2
1 x , x 0

17

1 2x 2 , x 0

1 x
,x0
3
x
1 1 e

10

1 sin x
,x0

1 2 cos x
1 x, x 0

3.7. .

f(x)

f(x)

f(x)
1
11
21
ln x ( x 1) 3 0
x sin x 0.25
x 2 cos x 0
2
12
22
x 2 20 sin x 0
3x cos x 1
2 x 4x 0
3
13
23 x 0.2 sin( x 0.5) 0
x2 sin 5x 0
1.8x2 sin10x 0
1
2 lg x 0.5x 1
0.5x lg x 0.5
4
14
24
2 ln x x 0
2
x
x
x lg x 0.125 0
5
15
25
( x 1) 0.5e 0
2 xe 0
6
16
26
x 2 lg( x 2) 0
x cos x 0
x ln x 100 0
7
17
27
x 2 cos x 0
2 x ln x
ex x2 0
8
18
28
e x ( x 1) 2 0
x cos 2 x 0
ex x2 2
9
19
29
lg x x 2 0
0.5x 2 cos 2 x 0
x 1 x 1 0
10
20
30
e x 2( x 1) 2 0
x 2 cos x 2 6
2 x cos x 0
168

.., .

4.
.
4.1. ( ) (
x2 y2 z 2
) , 2 2 2 1 .
a
b
c

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
31
33

a
1
2
2
0.71
1.72
2
3
5
5
5.71
2.72
2
7
7
1.5
5.1
5

b
2
0.9
1
0.75
2.9
3
5
3
4
4.75
3.9
3
4
2
0.78
7.1
3

3
1.1
3
1.21
3.1
5
4
4
3
4.21
5.1
7
2
4
1.45
1.2
1.1

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
32
34

a
3.1
1.25
1.5
4
6
4
1
5
5
7.1
7.2
1
7
1
1.5
6.1
2.5

b
3.2
1.95
1.25
5
5
6
5
6
1
7.5
8.9
3
3
1
2.78
3.1
2.78

c
5.3
1.5
1.95
6
4
5
6
1
6
4.21
1
7
1
2
3.45
2.2
4.5

5.2. ( )
( ) ,
x2 y2 z 2

1 .
a2 b2 c2

,
.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

a
1
2
2
0.71
1.72
2
3
5
5
5.71

b
2
0.9
1
0.75
2.9
3
5
3
4
4.75

3
1.1
3
1.21
3.1
5
4
4
3
4.21

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
169

a
3.1
1.25
1.5
4
6
4
1
5
5
7.1

b
3.2
1.95
1.25
5
5
6
5
6
1
7.5

c
5.3
1.5
1.95
6
4
5
6
1
6
4.21

.., .

11
12
13
14
15
31
33

a
2.72
2
7
7
1.5
5.1
5

b
3.9
3
4
2
0.78
7.1
3

5.1
7
2
4
1.45
1.2
1.1

26
27
28
29
30
32
34

a
7.2
1
7
1
1.5
6.1
2.5

b
8.9
3
3
1
2.78
3.1
2.78

c
1
7
1
2
3.45
2.2
4.5

5.3. ( )
( ) ,

x2 y2

Z.
p
q

,
.

p
q

p
q
1
2
1.5
2.5
1
16
2
1
2.5
1/5
2
17
1
3
1.4
3.4
3
18
3
1
3.4
1.4
4
19
2
5
2.5
5.6
5
20
5
2
5.4
2/5
6
21
1
4
1.1
4.1
7
22
4
1
4.1
1.2
8
23
1
5
1.5
5.1
9
24
5
1
5.5
1.5
10
25
3
5
3.3
5.3
11
26
5
3
5.1
3.7
12
27
4
5
4.1
5.1
13
28
5
4
5.3
4.2
14
29
6
1
6.05
1.9
15
30
5.5
4.2
7
3
31
33
6.12
1.34
3
7
32
34

170

.., .

5.
.
5.1. .

3
2
3
2
3
2
1 2x 3x 12x 5 0. x 3x 9x 8 0. 16 x 3x 24 x 3 0. x 3 4 x 6 0.
2
17 x 3 12 x 6 0. x 3 0,2x 2 0,5x 0,8 0.
x 3 3x 2 3 0.
x 3 6 x 8 0.
3 x 3 3x 2 24x 10 0. x 3 3x 2 6x 3 0. 18 2x 3 3x 2 12x 10 0. x 3 3x 2 12x 12 0.
4 2 x 3 9 x 2 21 0. x 3 0,1x 2 0,4x 1,5 0. 19 x 3 3x 2 2,5 0. x 3 0,2x 2 0,2x 1,2 0.
5 x 3 3x 2 2 0.
x 3 2 x 4 0.
x 3 3x 2 3,5 0.
x 3 3x 2 9 x 2 0. 20
6
x 3 3x 2 24 x 10 0. x 3 x 5 0. 21 x 3 3x 2 24x 8 0 x 3 0,2 x 0,5x 1,4 0.
7 2 x 3 9 x 2 10 0. x 3 0,2x 2 0,5x 1,2 0. 22 x 3 12x 10 0. x 3 3x 2 6x 5 0.
8 x 3 3x 2 0. x 3 0,1x 2 0,4 x 1,2 0. 23 2x 3 3x 2 12 x 1 0. x 3 3x 1 0.
9 x 3 3x 2 24x 5 0. x 3 0,2x 2 0,5x 2 0. 24 x 3 4 x 2 2 0. x 3 0,2 x 2 0,5x 1 0;
10 x 3 12 x 5 0. x 3 3x 2 12 x 9 0. 25 x 3 3x 2 24x 1 0. x 3 3x 2 12x 3 0.
11 2x 3 3x 2 12x 12 0. x 3 0,2 x 2 0,3 0. 26 2 x 3 9 x 2 6 0. x 3 0,1x 2 0,4x 2 0.
12 x 3 3x 2 1,5 0. x 3 3x 2 6x 2 0. 27 x 3 3x 2 24x 10 0. x 3 0,2x 2 0,4 1,4 0.
13 x 3 3x 2 14x 3 0. x 3 0,1x 2 0,4x 1,5 0. 28 x 3 12x 10 0. x3 0,4x2 0,6x 1,6 0.
14 2 x 3 9 x 2 4 0. x 3 3x 2 6 x 1 0. 29 2x 3 3x 2 12x 8 0. x 3 x 3 0.
15 x 3 3x 2 1 0. x 3 0,1x 2 0,4 x 1,2 0. 30 x 3 3x 2 3,5 0. x 3 0,2x 2 0,5x 1,4 0.
5.2.

4
1
x x 1 0; x 3 x 3 0.
2
2 x4 9 x2 60 x 1 0; x 3 2 x 2 0.
3
3x 4 4 x 3 12 x 2 5 0; x 3 2 x 2 2 0.
4 2 x 4 x 2 10 0; x 3 0,2x 2 0,4x 1,4 0.
5 3x 4 8x 3 6 x 2 10 0; x 3 3x 2 12x 3 0.
6 x 4 18x 2 6 0; x 3 0,1x 2 0,4 x 1,2 0.
7 x 4 4x 3 8x 2 17 0; x 3 0,2x 2 0,5x 1,4 0.
8 x 4 x 3 2 x 2 3x 3 0; x 3 4 x 6 0.
9 3x 4 4x 3 12x 2 1 0; x 3 3x 2 6 x 1 0.
10 3x 4 8x 3 18x 2 2 0; x 3 3x 2 6x 2 0.
11 2x 4 8x 3 8x 2 1 0; x 3 3x 2 12x 12 0.
12 2x 4 8x 4 8x 2 1 0; x 3 3x 2 12x 9 0.
13
x 4 4 x 3 8x 2 1 0; x 3 3x 1 0.
14 3x 4 4x 3 12x 2 5 0; x 3 3x 2 9x 2 0.
15 2 x 3 9 x 2 60 x 1 0; x 3 3x 2 6x 3 0.

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

171

x x 1 0; x 3 3x 2 9 x 10 0.
4

x 4 4 x 3 8x 2 17 0; x 3 3x 1 0.
3x 4 8x 3 6x 2 10 0; x 3 0,4x 2 0,6x 1,6 0.
x 4 18x 2 6 0; x 3 0,1x 2 0,4 x 2 0.
2 x 4 x 2 10 0; x 3 0,2 x 2 0,5x 1 0.

x 4 x 3 2 x 2 3x 3 0; x 3 3x 2 6x 5 0.
3x 4 4x 3 12x 2 1 0; x 3 0,2x 2 0,5x 0,8 0.
3x 4 8x 3 18x 2 2 0; x 3 0,1x 2 0,4x 1,2 0.
3x 4 4x 3 12x 2 5 0; x 3 0,1x 2 0,4x 1,5 0.
2 x 3 9 x 2 60 x 1 0; x 3 2 x 4 0.
x 4 x 1 0; x 3 0,2 x 2 0,3x 1,2 0.
2 x 4 x 2 10 0; x 3 0,2 x 2 0,5x 2 0.

3x 4 8x 3 10 0; x 3 0,2x 2 0,5x 1,2 0.


x 3 0,1x 2 0,4 x 1,2 0. x 4 18x 2 6 0;
3x 4 4x 3 12x 2 1 0; x 3 0,1x 2 0,3x 0,6 0.

.., .

5.3. .

x
x
2
1
1
16
2 5x 3 0; 0,5 1 ( x 2) ;
arctgx 3 0; ( x 1) 2 2 x 1;
3
x sin x 0,25; ln x ( x 1) 0;

x cos x 1; [log( x)] ( x 2) 1;


1
x 1 ;
tg (0,58 0,1) x 2 ;
x

17

3x
tg x x 1, x 2 x 1;
2arctgx x 3 0; x cos x 0;
x
2 lg x 1 0. x 2 20 sin x 0;
2

5 x 3x 0; x 2 2 0,5 x 0;

18

3 x 2 x 5 0;

x cos(0,387 x) 0; 3x cos x 1 0;

2e x 5x 2;

x log 3 ( x 1) 1;

19

cos( x 0,5) x . 2 x ln x;
3

2 x 2 0,5 x 2 0;
x
ctgx 0;
x lg( x 1) 1.
3
2
2
x
( x 2) 2 1; x 20 sin x 0;
1
tg (0,47 x 0,2) x 2 ; ( x 1) 2 e x ;
2

3 x1 2 x 0; 3x cos x 1 0;
7
0;
5 sin x x. tgx
2x 6
1
2arctgx 3 0; x 2 2 x 1;
2x
tg (0,5x 0,2) x 2 ; (2 x)e x 0,5;

20

e 2 x 2 x 1 0; 0,5 x 1 ( x 2) 2 ;
x 2 cos 2 x 1. 3x cos x 1 0;

22

5 x 6 x 3 0; 2 x 2 0,5 x 3 0;
x lg( x 1) 1. 5x 8 ln x 8;

23

arctg ( x 1) 2 x 0; ( x 2) 2 2 x 1;
tg (0,5x 0,1) x 2 ;
x( x 1) 2 1;

24

10

2arctgx x 3 0; x 3 sin x;
x
2 lg x 1 0. x 2 4 sin x 0;
2

25

11

3 x 2 x 2 0; [( x 2) 2 1]2 x 1;

26

12

ctg1,05x x 0; x ln( x 1);


2arctgx 3x 2 0; [log 2 ( x 2)]( x 1) 1;

27

e 2 x 2 x 1 0; 0,5 x 3 ( x 1) 2 ;
x 2 cos 2 x 1. tg (0,36 x 0,4) x 2 ;

e x x 1 0;

x 2 4 sin x 0;

21

0,5 x 3 ( x 2) 2 ;

x 2 ln( x 1);

2 x 3x 2 0; (0,5) x 1 ( x 2) 2 ;
x
ctgx 0; 2,2 x 2 x 0;
2
arctgx 2 x 1 0; ( x 2) log 2 ( x) 1;
sin( x 1) 0,5x.
2 x lg x 7 0;
( x 2) 2 lg( x 11) 1.
x 2 4 0,5 x 0;
tg (0,44 x 0,3) x 2 ; 3x e x 0;
2e x 2 x 3 0; x log 3 ( x 1) 1;
cos( x 0,5) x 3. 3x cos x 1 0;

tg (0,4 x 0,3) x 2 ; 2 x cos x 0,5;

3 x 2 x 0; x lg( x 2) ;
x
5 sin x x 0,5. ctgx 0;
10
arctg ( x 1) 2 x 3 0;
( x 1) 2 2 x 1;
x 2 4 sin x 0; 2 x lg x 0,5;

13

3 x 2 x 5 0; x 2 3 0,5 x 0;
( x 2) 2 lg( x 11) 1. x lg x 1,2 0;

28

3 x 2 x 5 0; 2 x 2 0,5 x 3 0;
x lg( x 1) 1. sin(0,5 x) 2 x 0,5;

14

2e x 3x 1 0; x log 3 ( x 1) 2;

29

arctg ( x 1) 2 x 0; ( x 2) 2 2 x 1;
x 2 10 sin x 0. lg(1 2 x) 2 x;

30

3 x 5x 2 0; 0,5 x 1 ( x 2) 2 ;
x
21lg x 1 0; x lg(1 x) 1,5;
2

cos( x 0,3) x 2 . 1,8x 2 sin 10 x 0;

15

3 x1 4 x 0; ( x 3) 2 log 0,5 ( x 2) 1;
5 sin x x 1. ctgx

x
0;
4

172

.., .

5.4.


2
1 sin( x 1) y 1,2; tg ( xy 0,4) x ;
16 cos( x 1) y 0,5; sin( x y) 1,6 x 0;
2
3
4
5
6
7

2
2
2 x cos y 2.
0,6 x 2 y 1, x 0, y 0.
cos( x 1) y 0,5; sin( x y) 1,6 x 0;

2 2
x cos y 3. x y 1, x 0, y 0.

x cos y 3.

2 2
x y 1, x 0, y 0.

17

sin x 2 y 2; tg ( xy 0,1) x 2 ;

2
2
cos( y 1) x 0,7; x 2 y 1.

tg ( xy 0,1) x 2 ;
2
2
x 2 y 1.
sin( x 0,5) y 1; tg ( xy 0,3) x 2 ;

2
2
cos( y 2) x 0. 0,9 x 2 y 1.

18

cos x y 1,5;
sin( x y) 1,2 x 0,2;

x 2 y 2 1.
2 x sin( y 0,5) 1.

19

sin( y 1) x 1,2; tg ( xy 0,2) x 2 ;

2
2
2 y cos x 2. 0,6 x 2 y 1.

sin( x 2) y 1,5; sin( x y) 1,2 x 0,1;

x 2 y 2 1.
x cos( y 2) 0,5.
cos( x 0,5) y 2; tgxy x 2 ;

2
2
sin y 2 x 1. 0,7 x 2 y 1.

20-

2 y cos( x 1) 0; sin( x y) 1,5 x 0,1;

x 2 y 2 1.
x sin y 0,4.
sin( x 1) 1,3 y; tgxy x 2 ;

2
2
x sin( y 1) 0. 0,8 x 2 y 1.

sin( x y ) 1,3x 0;

x 2 y 2 1.

22

sin x 2 y 2;

cos( y 1) x 0,7;

cos( x 0,5) y 1;

sin y 2 x 1,6.

21

cos( y 1) x 0,5; sin( x y) 1,5 x 0,1;

x 2 y 2 1.

y cos x 3.
cos y x 1,5; sin( x y) 1,2 x 0,1;

x 2 y 2 1.
2 y sin( x 0,5) 1.

sin y 2 x 2; tg ( xy 0,4) x 2 ;

2
2
cos( x 1) y 0,7. 0,8 x 2 y 1.

23

sin( y 0,5) x 1; tg ( xy 0,1) x 2 ;

2
2
cos( x 2) y 0. 0,9 x 2 y 1.

24

sin( y 1) x 1,3; tg ( xy 0,1) x 2 ;

2
2
y sin( x 1) 0,8. 0,5 x 2 y 1.

10

cos( y 0,5) x 0,8; sin( x y) 1,4 x 0;

2
2
sin x 2 y 1,6. x y 1.

25

11

cos( y 0,5) x 2; tg ( x y ) xy 0;

2
2
sin x 2 y 1. x 2 y 1.

26

12

sin( x 1) y 1; tg ( xy 0,2) x 2 ;

2
2
2 x cos y 2. x 2 y 1.
sin x 2 y 1,6; tgxy x 2 ;

2
2
cos( y 1) x 1. 0,5 x 2 y 1.

27

2 x cos( y 1) 0; sin( x y) 1,1x 0,1;

x 2 y 2 1.
y sin x 0,4.
sin( y 2) x 1,5; sin( x y) xy 1;
3

2
2
y cos( x 2) 0,5. x y 4 .
cos( x 1) y 0,8; sin( x y) 1,5 x 0;

x 2 y 2 1.
x cos y 2.

28

cos x y 1,2; sin( x y) 1,2 x 0,2;

x 2 y 2 1.
2 x sin( y 0,5) 2.

14

sin( x 0,5) y 1,2; tg ( xy 0,1) x 2 ;

2
2
cos( y 2) x 0. 0,7 x 2 y 1.

29

cos( x 0,5) y 1; sin( x y) 1,5 x 0,2;

x 2 y 2 1.
sin y 2 x 2.

15

sin( x 1) y 1,5; tgxy x 2 ;

2
2
x sin( y 1) 1. 0,6 x 2 y 1.

30

sin( y 1) x 1; sin( x y) 1,2 x 0;

x 2 y 2 1.
2 y cos x 2.

13

173

.., .

6.
.
6.1. (x), x, x.

x
x
x
3
1
16
x
ln(1 x sin x )
x sin x
2
3

1 cos 3 x 2
xtg x

1 x 1

4
5

arcsin 4 x 5

2x 1

sin 3 x 2

arctg 4 x 1.5

22x 1

arcsin 4 x 3

54 x 5
x

x
x

210x 1

sin 4 x 3

5x

1 x3 1

arctg 3 x

tg x

19
20

ln(1 x)

1 cos x

2 3
x
3
x

ln(1 2.1 x 2.1 )

arcsin x 2.1

x 2.1

21

x 3 100x 2

cos x 2

e x x 2

1 2x x

e x 1

4 1.5

22

2 3
x
3

23

xtgx 3

1 x3 1

x5

x
1.5

17
18

x4
x3

arctg x 5

x 4.5

x
x

1 3 x 1

ln(1 x sin x )

1 x 2 tg

x
2

ln(1 x )

1 cos x

24

10

ln(1 x 2.1 )

sin x 2.1

x 2.1

25

11

x arcsin x

ln(1 x sin x )

x3

26

ln(1 x )

12

1 cos 3 x 2

arcsin 2 x 3

x4

27

13

sin 4 x 5

3x 1

x5

28

ln(1 x sin x )

14

xarctg x

x3

29

xarctg x

ln(1 x sin x )

15

tg 4 x 5

54 x 5

30

1 cos 3 x 2

arcsin 2 x 3

x 1 1
4 4.5
e x 1

6.2. f(x).

f(x)

2
1
11
4x 5
4x 8

ln(1 x )

9x 2 4
x 3 3x 2 2 x 2
2 3x 2

cos(3 x 1)

21

x2 x
sin 4 x 3

f(x)
4 x 3x 2 2 x 2
x2 1
3

3x 2 7
2x 1

23

16 x 2 9
2 x 2 3x 1
1 2x

14

x2 5

24

15

9x 2 8
x 2 6x 4
2 2x

4x 3 x 2 2x 1
2x 2 1

25

5x 2 3

x2 3

13

4x 2 3
x 3 4x
3x 2 4

4 x 3 3x 2 8 x 2
2 3x 2

x cos x

1 x2

12

sin( 3 1 x )

22

17 x 2
4x 5

f(x)
2x

e x cos x

174

3x 2 1

e x cos x
l 2 (e x 1) 2
3

x5
ln(1 x)

54 x 5
x
3 2

.., .

6
7
8
9
10

16

f(x)
x 3
2

3x 2 2
2x 2 6
x2

26

f(x)
21 x
7x 9

f(x)
4x 3 x
x2 1

17

2x 2 7

27

x 3 x 2 3x 1
x2 1

18

3x 2 2
2 x 3 3x 2 2 x 1
3x 2 1

2x 3 2x 1
x2 1

28

x2 5

4 x 3 3x
4x 2 1

19

x 2 11
4x 3

29

x2 2
2x 2 5

x 2 6x 4
3x 2

20

2x 2 9

30

x 1
2

6.3.

f(x)

f(x)

1
11
21
1
1 cos 2 x
2
sin x(1 cos x)
1 cos 2 x
1
cos
x

sin
x
2
12
22
(1 sin x)

3x 2 4
15 x 3
2x 1

(sin x cos x)

f ( x)dx

.
f(x)

cos x 1
(1 sin x cos x)

sin x
(1 sin x cos x)
cos x
(1 sin x cos x)
cos x
(1 sin x cos x) 2
sin x
(1 sin x) 2
cos x
(1 sin x cos x)

1
sin x(1 sin x)

13

1
(2 sin x 3 cos x)

23

cos x
(5 4 cos x)

14

24

cos x
(1 sin x cos x)

15

1
(5 3 cos x)
2 sin x
(2 cos x)

cos x
(2 sin x)

16

1
(5 4 sin x)

26

cos x
(1 cos x) 2

17

1
sin x 1

27

sin x
(1 sin x cos x) 2

1
cos x(1 cos x)
1
(1 sin x cos x) 2

18

1
1 sin 4 x

28

19

1
1 tgx

29

sin 2 x
(1 sin x cos x) 2
1
sin x(1 sin x)

sin x 1
(1 sin x cos x)

20

sin 2 x
1 tgx

30

8
9
10

25

175

sin x
(2 sin x)

.., .

6.4. .

1
,
2
2
,
2
1
11
21
tg ( x 2 )
dx
dx
.
x 1
1,6 x 2 2,5 ;
0,5
1, 6

0, 6

x 2 1,2

12

13

14

3, 3

15

lg( x 2 0,8)
2,5 x 1 dx.

2 ,1

dx
x2 3

10

1, 2

sin( x 2 0,4)
0,8 x 2 dx.

0 , 63

( x 1)tg 2 xdx.
x x2
1,6 2 lg 2 dx.

19

0 , 66

20

3, 2

0 , 32

x 2,3
2

dx
0,2 x 2 1

1, 4

x cos xdx.
2

1, 2

0 ,8

25

2, 0

26

1, 4

0, 6

27

2 ,1

1, 3
2, 6

x
x

1
sin

1,2 2 2 dx.

29

1, 6

30

0,5

2,3

dx
x 4
2

176

1, 4

0,5 x 2 1

4, 7

28

0,5

dx

24

cos x
0,8 x 2 1 dx.

2 ,8

2x 0,7

2 ,8

1, 2
2,5

lg(1 x 2 )
2 x 1 dx.
1, 2

0, 6

18

1, 4

dx

23

0 ,15

17

0 , 72

x 1 lg( x 3)dx.

1, 3

cos( x 2 )
0,4 x 1 dx.

dx

22

3, 2

2
( x 1) cos( x )dx.

0, 6

2 x

dx.

1, 0

16

1, 2

sin( x 2 1)

0, 2

lg( x 2 3)
1,2 2 x dx.

3, 6

2 ,1

1, 3

x 2 0,8

dx

1, 2

dx

dx
2x 2 0,3

dx

0,5 x 1,5
2

dx
12x 2 0,5

dx
3x 0,4
2

dx
1,5 x 2 0,7

lg( x 2 1)
0,8 x 1 dx.

0 ,15

dx
2x 1,6
2

.., .

7.
.
7.1. [x0,xn] y=f(x,y), y(x0)=y0
- . ,
h, 2h h/2.

y(x0)=y0
y(x0)=y0
F(x,y,y)
F(x,y,y)
x
x
2
2
y(0)=0.5 16 xdx ydy x ydy xy dx
y(1)=1
1
e 1dy e dx 0
y(1)=e
y(0)=1
y ln y xy 0
2
17 3( x 2 y y)dy 2 y 2 dx 0
3

4 x 2 y xy 2 x 0

2 ex
3e tgydx
dy 0
cos 2 x
x

1 e yy e
x

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

y sin x y ln x
ydy
xdx

0
1 y 1 x

1 y dx xdy
2

14

2 y y

2 dy 2e x dx 0
2 y ln y xy 0

2
4

13

x 2 y xy 2 x 0

ydy
xdx

0
1 y 1 x
xdy y ln ydx 0

15 6 xdx 6 ydy 2x 2 ydy 3xy 2 dx

y(0)=-tg2

18

y(1)=
19
arctg(2-e)
y(0)=1
y(2)=e
y(1)=1
y(4)=1
y(0)=1
y(0)=1/9
y(1)=e
y(0)=-1
y(0)=1
y(1)=1
y(1)=2

y sin x sin y
yy

y(2)= 2

1 2x
y

y(0)=1

20 e 2 x 3dy 2e 2 x dx 0
21 sin y cos xdy cos y sin xdx
22
1 y2
y

y(0)=0.25
y(0)= 4
y(0)=1

1 x2
y xy 1 x 2 y
xyy 1 x 2

23
24
y tgx y 1
25
26 ( xy 2 x)dx ( y x 2 y)dy 0
27
1 y2
y

1 x2

y(1)=1
y(1)=1
y(2)=1
y(0)=0
y(0)=0

28

dx
1
e x 1
dy

y(0)=1

29

1 x 2 y xy 2 x 0
y 10 x y

y(0)=0

30

y(1)=0

7.2. y1=f1(x,y1,y2), y2=f2(x,y1,y2), y1()=y1,0,


y2()=y2,0 [a,b] - h=0.1.
, h, 2h h/2.

f1(x,y1,y2)
f2(x,y1,y2)
y1() y2() a
b
sin( y1 y 2 )
1
0
-1
1
1

1
2
3
4
5
6

arctg
2
2
1 y1 y 2
arct ( x 2 y 22 )

sin( x y1 )

x 2 y1 y 2

cos( y1 xy 2 )

x y
x

xy1 y 2

2
2

y2

1 x 2 y 22

1 x 2 y12

sin( x 2 y 22 )

cos( xy1 )
177

0.5
-1
1
0.2

1.5
1
0
0

0
0
0
-1

2
4
5
1

.., .

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

f1(x,y1,y2)

f2(x,y1,y2)

sin( y 2 )
x cos( y1 y 2 )

cos( y1 )

y1() y2()
0.5 -0.5
-0.6
2
0
0
0.5 1.3

a
-1
2
-1
0

b
3
5
3
2

sin y1 cos 2 y 2

sin( y1 y 2 )
cos y1 cos y 2

3 3x 2 y12 y1

x 2 y12 y 2

y12 y 2
y 2 x 2 y12

y12 y 2
y 2 cos x sin 2 x

1
0.8

1
3.5

1
2

3
4

y1 x
exp( y1 y 2 )
1
3 exp( y1 )

y2 x
exp( y1 y 2 )
1
2 exp( y1 )

-1

-3

cos( y1 y 2 )

sin( y1 y 2 )

y 2 ln x

y1 y

0
-2
0
0
0

0
-1
1
0
0

0
1
-1
-2
0

2
4
1
1
4

-1
1

1
1

0
0

4
3

( xy1 y 2 x) / 5
exp( xy1 )
2 x 5 y1
4 y1 3x
y1 3x
x y1 y 2
6 xy 2
2
x y12 y 22

1
0
0
-0.5
2
1
4.5

1
0
0
0.5
-2
2
5

0
0
-0.5
-0.5
0
1
2

3
3
0.5
0.5
2
3
3

x 2 y12 xy 2

1.5
-2

2
-2

2
-3

3
0

x y12

arctg ( xy 2 )
y1 y 2
y12 y 22
y y1 y 2
x y1 y 2
(3xy1 2 y 2 2 x) / 5
y2
y1 7 x
y1 2 x
x 3y 2
x y1 y 2
2 xy1
2
1
2

x 2 y12 y 22
y1 x

x y1 y 2

2
2

y1 y 2 2
sin( y1 )

1 y 2 y 2
1
2

y1 y 2
y 2 ( x y1 )
x 2 y1 y 2

2
1

x y

178

.., .

8. .
.
W 2 x1 x 2 x 4 min
x1 x 2 x3 x 4 1
1.
x1 x 2 x3 x 4 0
2 x1 x 2 x3 x 4 3

W 3 2 x 2 x3 max
x1 x 2 2 x3 x 4 1
2. 2 x1 x 2 x3 x 4 1

x1 2 x 2 x3 x 4 1
x1 x 2 x3 2 x 4 5

W x3 3x 4 min
x1 x 2 x3 x 4 2
3. x1 x 2 x3 x 4 0

x1 x 2 2 x3 x 4 3
x1 1

W x1 x 2 2 x 4 max
2 x1 x 2 2 x3 x 4 4
4. x1 2 x 2 x3 2 x 4 2

x1 x 4 1
x 2 x3 1

W x 2 2 x3 x 4 min

W 4 2 x1 x 2 x3 min

3x1 x 2 2
5. x 2 2 x3 1

4 x 3 x 4 3
5 x1 x 4 6

x1 2 x 2 3x3 4 x 4 10
6. x1 x 2 x3 x 4 4

x1 x 2 x3 x 4 6
x1 x 2 x3 x 4 10

W 2 2 x 2 x3 3x 4 max
x1 x 2 2 x 4 1
7. x1 x3 x 4 1

x 2 x3 x 4 1
x3 4; x2 10

W x1 10 x 2 100 x3 max
x1 x 2 x3 1
8. x1 x 2 x3 2

x1 2 x3 0
x1 2 x3 5

W 2 x1 x 2 2 x3 min

W x1 2 x 2 3x3 1 max
x1 x 2 x3 3
9. x1 x 2 2

x1 x3 2
x 2 x3 2

x1 x 2 2
10. x1 x 2 0

x1 x3 2
x1 x 2 x3 3

179

.., .

W 2 x1 2 x 2 min

W x1 x3 min

x1 x 2 2
x1 2 x 2 3
11.
2 x1 2 x 2 4
x1 3x 2 4

3x1 x 2 4

x1 x 2 x3 4
12. x1 x 2 x3 2

x1 x 2 x3 2
x1 x 2 x3 2

W 2 x1 3x3 x 4 min

W x 2 2 x3 x 4 min

x1 x 2 x3 x 4 2
13. x1 x 2 x3 x 4 2

x1 x 2 x3 x 4 2
x1 x 2 x3 x 4 2

x1 x 2 2 x 4 1
14.
x1 x3 x 4 1
x 2 x3 x 4 1

W x1 x3 max

W x1 x 2 2 x 4 min

2 x1 7 x 2 22 x3 22
16. 2 x1 x 2 6 x3 6

2 x1 5 x 2 2 x3 2
4 x1 x 2 x3 1

x1 x 2 x3 2 x 4 2 x5 3
15.
x1 x3 x 4 2 x5 2
x1 x 2 2 x 4 x5 2

W x1 x 2 max

W 3x1 2 x 2 3x3 4 x 4 x5 min

x1 2 x 2 2
18.
2 x1 x 2 2
x1 x 2 5

x1 x 2 2 x5 1
17.
x1 x3 1
x1 x 4 1

W x1 x 2 3x3 x 4 max

W x1 x 2 3x3 x 4 max

x1 x 2 x 4 1
19. x 2 x3 x 4 1

x1 x3 2 x 4 2
2 x 2 x 4 0

x1 5 x 2 4 x3 5
20. x1 2 x 2 3x3 4

x1 6 x 2 5 x3 4
x 2 x3 1

W x1 x 2 x3 1 min

W x1 x 2 3 max
x1 x 2 1
22. x1 2 x 2 2

x1 x 2 1
2 x1 x 2 2

x1 x 2 0
21. x1 x3 1

x 2 x3 1
x1 2 x 2 3x3 0

180

.., .

W 3 x1 3x 2 5 x3 max

W 5 x1 x 2 3x3 max

x1 x 2 x3 1
23. 2 x1 x 2 x3 1

x1 2 x 2 x3 1
x1 x 2 2 x3 1

x1 x 2 2
24. x1 x 2 0

x1 x3 2
x1 x 2 x3 3

W 3 2 x1 x3 2 x 4 min

W x1 x 2 x3 2 x 4 min

x1 x 2 2 x3 x 4 1
25. 2 x1 x 2 x3 x 4 1

x1 2 x 2 x3 x 4 1
x1 x 2 x3 2 x 4 5

x1 x 2 x3 x 4 1
26.
x1 x 4 5
x 2 x3 10

W x1 x 2 4 x3 max

W x1 x 2 x3 3x 4 min

x1 x 2 x3 1
28. x1 x 2 x3 1

x1 x 2 x3 1
x1 x 2 x3 1

x1 x 2 x3 x 4 x5 1
27.
x1 x 2 x 4 2
x 2 x3 x5 1

W x1 x 2 x3 x 4 max

W x1 x 2 2 x3 min

3x1 x 2 2
29.. x 2 2 x3 1

4 x 3 x 4 3
5 x1 x 4 6

x1 x 2 x3 1
30.
x1 x 2 x3 2
x1 2 x3 2

9.
.
9.1.
.

, ,
. .
1. P(s)=As3+Bs2+D
0
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
S
12
10.1 11.58 17.4 30.68 53.6 87.78 136.9 202.5 287
P
2. G(s)=Asb
0.5
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
s
3.99
5.65
6.41
6.71
7.215 7.611 7.83
8.19
8.3
G
181

.., .

3. K(s)=Abs
0
0.5
1
1.5
s
2.31
2.899 3.534 4.412
K
4. V(s)=AsbCs
0.2
0.7
1.2
s
2.3198
2.8569
3.5999
V
5. W(s)=A/(Bs+C)
1
2
3
4
s
0.529 0.298 0.267 0.171
W
6. Q(s)=As2+Bs+C
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
s
5.21
4.196 3.759 3.672
Q

2
5.578
1.7
4.4357

2.5
6.92

3.5
8.699

2.2
5.5781

3.5
10.69

2.7
6.9459

4
13.39
3.2
8.6621

5
0.156

6
0.124

7
0.1

8
0.078

9
0.075

2
4.592

2.25
4.621

2.5
5.758

2.75
7.173

3
9.269

7. Y=x/(Ax-B)
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
x
0.61 0.6
0.592 0.58 0.585 0.583 0.582 0.57 0.572 0.571
Y
8. V=1/(A+Be-U)
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
U
5.197 7.78
11.14 15.09 19.24 23.11 26.25 28.6
30.3
V
9. R=AtB+14.5
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
t 1
5.2
11.15 19.27 26.2
30.37 32.0
33.0
33.22 33.2
R 2.11
10. Z=At4+Bt3+Ct2+Dt+K
0.66
0.9
1.17
1.47
1.7
1.74
2.08
2.63
3.12
t
38.9
68.8
64.4
66.5
64.95 59.36 82.6
90.63 113.5
Z
11. R=Ch2+Dh+K
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
h
0.035
0.09
0.147
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.31
0.34
R
12. G=DL+K
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
L
2
2.39
2.81
3.25
3.75
4.11
4.45
4.85
5.25
G
13. Y=Ax3+Bx2+Cx+D
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3
x
1.5
2.7
3.9
5.5
7.1
9.1
11.1 12.9 15.5 17.9
Y
14. Y=Ax3+Cx+D
0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2
x
1.2
2.2
3.0
6.0
7.7
13.6
Y
15. R=Ch2+K
0.29
0.57
0.86
0.14
1.43
1.71
1.82
2
h
3.33
6.67
7.5
13.33
16.67
23.33
27.8
33.35
R

182

.., .

16. Z=At4+Ct2+K
1
1.14
1.29
1.43
1.57
1.71
t
6.2
7.2
9.6
12.5
17.1
22.2
Z
17. Z=At4+Bt3+Dt+K
2
2.13
2.25
2.38
2.5
2.63
t
12.57 16.43 19
22.86 26.71 31.86
Z
18. Z=At4+Bt3+Ct2+K
3
3.13
3.25
3.38
3.5
3.63
t
57.14 64.0
74.29 81.14 91.43 105.14
Z
19. Z=At4+Dt+K
0.88
0.9
0.91
0.93
0.94
0.96
t
0.029 0.086 0.17
0.31
0.43
0.57
Z
20. Y=Ax3+D
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
x
0.072 0.073 0.075 0.096 0.12 0.16 0.24
Y

1.86
28.3

1.92
35.3

2
36.5

2.75
37.0

2.88
43.43

3
49.86

3.75
3.88
4
115.43 129.14 142.86
0.97
0.71
1.4
0.35

0.99
0.86
1.6
0.42

1
0.97
1.8
0.47

21. R=AtB+C
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
t 1
5.2
11.15 19.27 26.2
30.37 32.0
33.0
33.22 33.2
R 2.11
22. W(s)=1/(Bs-C)
2
2.38
2.75
3.13
3.5
3.88
4.25
4.63
5
s
3.5
2.29
2.29
1.99
1.71
1.5
1.35
1.21
1.14
W
23. V(s)=sbCs
1
2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
17.5
20
s
1.11
1.57
2.26
2.84
3.25
3.75
4.05
4.45
4.75
V
24. Y=x/(Ax+B)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
x
0.2140 0.2210 0.2237 0.2258 0.2262 0.2268 0.2275 0.2283 0.2288
Y
25. V(s)=AsCs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
s
43.75 32.25 17.83 8.76
4.0
1.77
0.76
0.32
V
26. V(s)=Asbs
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
s
6.5
8.71
12.67 18.60 27.63 42.61 65.6 101.86
V
27. V=(A+BeU)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5 3
3.5
U
3.597
4.597
5.5984 7.5987 11.269 17 26.5096 42.1599
V
28. G=D/L+K
1
1.13
1.25
1.38
1.5
1.63
1.75
1.88
2
L
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.3
1.1
G
29. V(s)=AsB
1
2.3
2.9
4.1
5.2
5.9
6.8
8.1
9.2
s
2.4
29
58.5
165.5 337.5 493
754.5 11275 1868
V
183

.., .

30. K(s)=AeSb
0
0.1
0.2
s
2.2
3.73
6.25
K

0.3
10.49

0.4
17.61

0.5
29.65

0.6
49.84

0.7
140.9

0.8
237.1

9.2. 1- 6

. .
1. x1=0.702, x2=0.512, x3=608
0.43
0.48
0.55
0.62
0.7
0.75
x
1.63597
1.73234
1.87686
2.03345
2.22846
2.35973
y
2. x1=0.102, x2=0.203, x3=0.154
0.02
0.08
0.12
0.17
0.23
0.30
x
1.02316
1.09509
1.14725
1.21423
1.30120
1.40907
y
3. x1=0.526, x2=0.453, x3=0.436
0.35
0.41
0.47
0.51
0.56
0.64
x
2.73951
2.30080
1.96864
1.78776
1.59502
1.34310
y
4. x1=0.616, x2=0.478, x3=0.537
0.41
0.46
0.52
x
2.57418
2.32513
2.09336
y
5. x1=0.896, x2=0.774, x3=0.955
0.68
0.73
0.80
x
0.80866
0.89492
1.02964
y
6. x1=0.314, x2=0.235, x3=0.186
0.11
0.15
0.21
x
9.05421
6.61659
4.69170
y

0.6
1.86203

0.65
1.74926

0.72
1.62098

0.88
1.20966

0.93
1.34087

0.99
1.52368

0.29
3.35106

0.35
2.73951

0.40
2.36522

7 - 12
.
.
7. x1=1.3832, x2=1.3926, x3=1.3866
1.375
1.380
1.385
1.390
1.395
1.400
x
5.04192
5.17744
5.32016
5.47069
5.62968
5.79788
y
8. x1=0.308, x2=0.325, x3=0.312
0.298
0.303
0.310
0.317
0.323
0.330
x
3.25578
3.17639
3.12180
3.04819
2.98755
2.91950
y
9. x1=0.608, x2=0.594, x3=0.631
0.593
0.598
0.605
0.613
0.619
0.627
x
0.53205
0.53562
0.54059
0.54623
0.55043
0.55598
y
10. x1=0.115, x2=0.130, x3=0.164
0.100
0.108
0.119
0.127
0.135
0.146
x
1.12128
1.13160
1.14594
1.15648
1.16712
1.18191
y

184

.., .

11. x1=0.720, x2=0.777, x3=0.700


0.698
0.706
0.714
0.727
x
2.22336
2.24382
2.26446
2.29841
y
12. x1=0.238, x2=0.261, x3=0.275
0.235
0.240
0.250
0.255
x
1.20800
1.21256
1.22169
1.22628
y

0.736
2.32221

0.747
2.35164

0.265
1.23547

0.280
1.24933

13 - 18
.
.
13. x1=0.105, x2=0.109, x3=0.111
0.095
0.102
0.104
0.107
0.110
0.112
x
1.09131
1.23490
1.27994
1.35142
1.42815
1.48256
y
14. x1=0.1817, x2=0.2275, x3=0.175
0.180
0.185
0.190
0.195
0.200
0.205
x
5.61543
5.46693
5.32634
5.19304
5.06642
4.94619
y
15. x1=3.522, x2=4.176, x3=3.475
3.50
3.55
3.60
3.65
3.70
3.75
x
33.1154
34.8133
36.5982
38.4747
40.4473
42.5211
y
16. x1=0.027, x2=0.525, x3=0.61
0.01
0.06
0.11
0.16
0.21
0.26
x
0.99182
0.95193
0.91365
0.87690
0.84163
0.80778
y
17. x1=0.1539, x2=0.2569, x3=0.28
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
x
4.4817
4.4930
5.4739
6.0496
6.6859
7.3891
y
18. x1=0.1264, x2=0.1315, x3=0.1334
0.115
0.120
0.125
0.130
0.135
0.140
x
8.65729
8.29329
7.95829
7.64893
7.36235
7.09613
y
19 - 24
.
.
19. x1=0.1521, x2=0.1611, x3=0.1662
0.150
0.155
0.160
0.165
0.170
0.175
x
6.61659
6.39989
6.19658
6.00551
5.82558
5.65583
y
20. x1=0.1838, x2=0.1944, x3=0.2038
0.180
0.185
0.190
0.195
0.200
0.205
x
5.61543
5.46693
5.32634
5.19304
5.06649
4.94619
y
21. x1=0.2121, x2=0.2165, x3=0.2244
0.210
0.215
0.220
0.225
0.230
0.235
x
4.83170
4.72261
4.61855
4.51919
4.42422
4.33337
y
22. x1=0.4258, x2=0.4396, x3=0.4315
1.415
1.420
1.425
1.430
1.435
1.440
x
0.888551 0.889599 0.890637 0.891667 0.892687 0.893698
y
185

.., .

23. x1=0.263, x2=0.125, x3=0.350


0.05
0.10
0.17
0.25
x
0.050042 0.100335 0.171657 0.255342
y
24. x1=0.105, x2=0.110, x3=0.125
0.101
0.106
0.111
0.116
x
1.26183
1.27644
1.29122
1.30617
y

0.30
0.309336

0.36
0.376403

0.121
1.32130

0.126
1.32660

24 - 30
-. .
25. x1=0.846, x2=0.683, x3=0.785
0.62
0.67
0.74
0.80
0.87
0.96
0.99
x
0.537944 0.511709 0.477114 0.449329 0.418952 0.382893 0.271577
y
26. x1=1.277, x2=1.118, x3=1.204
1.03
1.08
1.16
1.23
1.26
1.33
1.39
x
2.80107 2.94468 3.18993 3.42123 3.53542 3.78104 4.01485
y
27. x1=0.2054, x2=0.2072, x3=0.2088
0.2050 0.2052 0.2060 0.2065 0.2069 0.2075 0.2085
x
0.207921 0.208130 0.208964 0.209486 0.209904 0.210530 0.211575
y
28. x1=0.8942, x2=0.8973, x3=0.8958
0.8902 0.8909 0.8919 0.8940 0.8944 0.8955 0.8965
x
1.23510 1.23687 1.23941 1.24475 1.24577 1.24858 1.25114
y
29. x1=0.6111, x2=0.6124, x3=0.6192
0.6100 0.6104 0.6118 0.6139 0.6145 0.6158 0.6167
x
1.83781 1.83686 1.82860 1.82720 1.82416 1.82207 1.81791
y
30. x1=0.5415, x2=0.5424, x3=0.5461
0.5400 0.5405 0.5410 0.5420 0.5429 0.5440 0.5449
x
1.66825 1.66736 1.66448 1.66071 1.65734 1.65322 1.64987
y

186

.., .

1. ., . .
. .: , 1991. 245 .
2. . . . : , 2002.
840.
3. . . MS Excel VBA .
.: -, 1999. 332.
4. . MathCAD 2000: . .: , 2000. 592.
5. . . MathCAD 12. .: -, 2004.
576.
6. . ., .. MathCAD:
. .: , 1999. 656 .
7. .. MathCAD
Excel. .: -, 2003. 464.
8. .. Excel 2002. .: -, 2004. 192.
9. .. MathCAD. .:
-, 2003. 208.
10. .. . .: i, 1975.
768.

187