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. ..

.., .., ..

M 2008

.., .., .. :
. .: . .., 2008. 74 .


: , . ,
.
.
2- . .. .

c . .., 2008

1.

1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.2.7. . . .

18

1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

2.

26

2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

2.2. . . . . . .

26

2.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

2.2.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

2.2.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

3.

42
3


3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

3.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

3.2.2. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

3.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

3.2.4. . . .

53

3.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

4.

66

4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

4.2. . . . . . . . . . .

66

4.2.1. . . . . . . . .

66

4.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

4.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

74


.
1
, , . . 2 :
. . 3
. ,
- , . . . 4

:
. , .
.
,
, .
2- . .. .
.

.
24 .

1.1.

Zb
I=

f (x)dx
a

f (x) [a, b] .

1.2.
1.2.1.
I
In =

n
X

qi f (xi ),

(1.2.1)

i=0

f (xi ) f (x) x = xi , i = 0, 1, ...n, qi . (1.2.1) .


xi , qi
6

1.
.
Zb
Rn = I In =

f (x)dx

n
X

qi f (xi )

i=0

.
, .
, s,
f (x)
s I In .
,
.
1. , f (x)
C k [a, b], f C k [a, b], f (x) [a, b]
k .
2. (h) h
D h > 0, h D
. ,
h0 , c, k, h D , 0 < h 6 h0 ,

| (h) |6 c hk ,

(h) = O(hk )
, (h) O hk

( h 0).

, . (h) = O(hk ), (h) = O(hk ), D = D ,


(h) + (h) = O(hk ),
7

1.
..
O(hk ) + O(hk ) = O(hk ).
k > m > 0, O(hk ) O(hm ). ,
(h) = O(hk ), (h) = O(hk ), , h.
.
1.2.2.
, f C 2 [ h2 , h2 ], h > 0.
Zh/2
f (x)dx h f0 ,

I=

(1.2.2)

h/2

f0 = f (0). (1.2.2) , , f (x), (. 1.1,a), -

f0 f (x) x = 0 [ h2 , h2 ]. (1.2.2)
.
v

a
y

f(x)

f(x)

f1
f0
f0

-h/2

h/2

0
. 1.1.

1.
.
Zx
F (x) = f (t)dt.
0
0

F (0) = 0, F 0 (0) = f0 , F 00 (0) = f0 , F 000 (x) = f 00 (x),


,
h 0
h2 00
h3 000
h
F ( ) = F (0) F (0) + F (0) F ( )
2
2
8
48

h
h
h2 0 h3 00
F ( ) = f0 + f0 f ( ),
2
2
8
48
h
, + , 2 < < 0 < + < h2 .

(1.2.3)

(1.2.3)
h

Z2

 


h
h3 f 00 ( ) + f 00 (+ )
h
f (x)dx = F
F
= h f0 +

.
2
2
24
2

h2

.
. f C 1 [a, b], i [a, b] , i = 1, 2, ..., n.
[a, b],
[f (1 ) + f (2 ) + ... + f (n )]/n = f ().

min f (x) 6 [f (1 ) + f (2 ) + ... + f (n )]/n 6 max f (x)

x[a,b]

x[a,b]

.
,
h

Z2
f (x)dx = h f0 +

h3 00
h
f (), | |6 .
24
2

h2

1.
1.2.3.
f C 2 [0, h].
Zh
f (x)dx h

I=

f0 + f1
,
2

(1.2.4)

f0 = f (0), f1 = f (h). (1.2.4) ,


. (1.1, ) .
, . (1.2.2)

Zh

f0 + f1 h3 00

f (), [0, h].


f (x)dx = h
2
12

1.2.4.
, f C 4 [h, h]
Zh
I=

f (x)dx.
h

p(x)

f(x)

(. 1.2),

f1

f0
f-1

p(x),
(h, f1 ), (0, f0 ),

(h, f1 ),

fi = f (i h), i = 1, 0, 1.

-h

0
. 1.2.

10

1.

p(x) = f0 +

f1 f1
f1 2f0 + f1 2
x+
x
2h
2h2

Zh
p(x)dx =

h
(f1 + 4f0 + f1 ).
3

f (x)dx

h
(f1 + 4f0 + f1 ).
3

Zh

(1.2.5)


Zh

h5 (IV )
h
f
(), [h, h].
f (x)dx = (f1 + 4f0 + f1 )
3
90

(1.2.2),
(1.2.4) (1.2.5) .
1.2.5.
, ,
[a, b] n [xi1 , xi ],
xi = a + i h, i = 0, 1, ..., n; x0 = a, xn = b, h = (b a)/n.
.
h, 2h.
, .

11

1.
(. 1.3)
Zb
f (x)dx h (fc1 + fc2 + ... + fcn ),

(1.2.6)

h = (b a)/n, fci = f (xci ); xci = a + (i 1/2)h, i = 1, 2, ..., n


[xi1 , xi ].

y
f(x)
f(b)

f(a)
a xc1

xc2

...

xci

...

xcn b

. 1.3.

Rn

n

h3 X 00
h3
Rn =
f (i ) = n
24 i=1
24

!
n
1 X 00
f (i ) ,
n i=1

xi1 < i < xi . Rn


h3
(b a) 00
Rn =
n f 00 () = h2
f (), [a, b].
24
24
12

1.
M
f (x) [a, b], .. M = max | f 00 (x) |; Rn
x[a,b]

:
| Rn |6 h2

(b a) M
,
24

,
[a, b] O(h2 ) (. 2).
,
.
. , , . ,
Zb
f (x)dx

n
X

Zb
h fxi1 ,

f (x)dx

i=1

n
X

h fxi .

i=1

- O(h), ..
.

Zb


f (x)dx h

fn
f0
+ f1 + f2 + ... + fn1 +
2
2


,

(1.2.7)

fi = f (xi ), xi = a + i h, h = (b a)/n, i = 0, 1, ..., n.


Rn
Rn = h2

(b a) 00
f (), [a, b].
12


| Rn |6 h2

(b a) M
, M = max | f 00 (x) | .
12
x[a,b]
13

1.
, (1.2.7) , (1.2.6), (Rn = O(h2 ));
, , .

Zb
f (x)dx

f0 + f2n + 4

n
X

f2i1 + 2

i=1

n1
X

!
f2i ,

(1.2.8)

i=1

fj = f (xj ), xj = a + j h, h = (b a)/(2n), j = 0, 1, ..., 2n.



Rn = h4

(b a) (IV )
f
(), [a, b].
180


| Rn |6 h4

(b a) M
, M = max | f (IV ) (x) |,
180
x[a,b]

.. ,
. [a, b]
(Rn = O(h4 )).
, , ..
, (
).
1.2.6.
,
, [1, 1]. ,
14

1.

Z1
I=

f (x)dx.
1

,
,
. n
In =

n
X

qi f (xi ).

(1.2.9)

i=1

qi ,
xi , , (1.2.9) m.
. , m = 2n 1.
(1.2.9) f (x) = 1, x, x2 , ..., x2n1 , ..

In =

n
X
i=1

qi xli =

Z1
1


l
l+1 1
x
= 1 + (1) ,
xl dx =
l + 1 1
l+1

l = 0, 1, ..., 2n1. xi qi
2n :

q1 + q2 + ... + qn = 2 ,

q1 x1 + q2 x2 + ... + qn xn = 0 ,

2
q1 x21 + q2 x22 + ... + qn x2n = ,
3

..

2n1

q1 x2n1 + q2 x2n1 + ... + qn x2n1 = 1 + (1)


.
n
1
2
2n
15

(1.2.10)

1.
n = 1 (1.2.10) ,
, : In = 2 f (0),
f (x) = c0 + c1 x. n (.,
, [4]),
Pn (x),
Z1
qj =

Qn1,j (x)dx, j = 1, ..., n;

(1.2.11)


Qn1,j (x) =

(x x1 )(x x2 ) (x xj1 )(x xj+1 ) (x xn )


.
(xj x1 )(xj x2 ) (xj xj1 )(xj xj+1 ) (xj xn )

Qn1,j (x) (n 1).


(n 1)- (x xi ), i = 1, ..., n, i 6= j;
x = xj . ,
Qn1,j (x) xi

0, i 6= j,
Qn1,j (xi ) =
1, i = j.
.
Pn (x) =

1 dn 2
(x 1)n , n = 0, 1, 2, ...,
n
n
2 n! dx

(1.2.12)

(1.2.12) P0 (x)=1, P1 (x) = x. n



nPn (x) = (2n 1) x Pn1 (x) (n 1)Pn2 (x).

16

1.
, n = 2, 3, 4, 5:
1
P2 (x) = (3x2 1) ,
2
1
P4 (x) = (35x4 30x2 + 3) ,
8

1
P3 (x) = (5x3 3x) ,
2
1
P5 (x) = (63x5 70x3 + 15x).
8

Pn (x) n = 5 . 1.4.
a

Pn(x)

Pn(x)
P2(x)

P5(x) P3(x) 0.5

0.5

0.5
0

1.0 x

-0.5

0.5

-0.5

-0.5

P0(x)

1.0
x

P4(x)

P1(x)
-1.0

-1.0

. 1.4.

, . Pn (x) x = 1
: Pn (1) = 1, Pn (1) = (1)n .
(1, 1) Pn (x) n . Pn (x) x = 0.
, qj (1.2.11)
(., , [3]). , x = 0 xj = xn(j1)
, ,
n: qj = qn(j1) .
17

1.
xi qi n = 1, ..., 5:
n=1:
n=2:
n=3:
n=4:

n=5:

x1 = 0, q1 = 2;
p
x1 = x2 = 1/3, q1 = q2 = 1;
p
x1 = x3 = 3/5, x2 = 0, q1 = q3 = 5/9, q2 = 8/9;
q
q

x1 = x4 = (15 + 2 30)/35, x2 = x3 = (15 2 30)/35,

q1 = q4 = (18 30)/36,
q2 = q3 = (18 + 30)/36;
q
q

x1 = x5 = (35 + 2 70)/63, x2 = x4 = (35 2 70)/63,

q1 = q5 = (322 13 70)/900, q2 = q4 = (322 + 13 70)/900,


x3 = 0, q3 = 128/225.
(1.2.13)

xi qi (1.2.13)
. 1.1. (., , [5]).
1.2.7.
, f
C 2 [a, b]. , f 00 (x), O(h2 ). ,
.
f C 4 [a, b],

18

1.
I=

Rb

f (x)dx:

I = Ihnp + c h2 + O(h4 ),

(1.2.14)

Ihnp ,
h (h = (b a)/n); c ,
Rb 00
1
h, c = 24 f (x)dx.
a

ch2 (1.2.14) . , c = 0.
h4 . c 6= 0.
f C 4 [a, b],
I = Ihmp + c1 h2 + O(h4 ),

(1.2.15)

Ihmp I,
h; c1 , h, c1 =
Rb 00
1
12 f (x)dx.
a

f C 6 [a, b], (1.2.14) (1.2.15)



I = IhC + c h4 + O(h6 ),

(1.2.16)

IhC I, ; c h .
. Ih I, (
, ).
(1.2.14), (1.2.15) (1.2.16) :
I = Ih + c hk + O(hk+2 ),
19

(1.2.17)

1.
c h, k (k = 2
, k = 4 ). , f C k+2 [a, b].
(1.2.17) ,
 k
h
I = Ih/2 + c
+ O(hk+2 ).
2

(1.2.18)

(1.2.18) (1.2.17),
 k
h
Ih/2 Ih = c
(2k 1) + O(hk+2 ).
2

 k
Ih/2 Ih
h
c
= k
+ O(hk+2 )
2
2 1
, , (1.2.18), O(hk+2 )
I Ih/2

Ih/2 Ih
.
2k 1

(1.2.19)

(1.2.19)
(1.2.17), ..
I (1.2.17), .
2k (1.2.18) (1.2.17),
I (2k 1) = 2k Ih/2 Ih + O(hk+2 ).
I = Ih + O(hk+2 ),
Ih

2k Ih/2 Ih
=
.
2k 1

Ih I.
20

1.

1.3.

Zb
I=

f (x)dx
a

:
1) ,
2) = 0.0001:
,
,
.
. , ,
,

| Ih/2 Ih |
< .
2k 1
. . l- Il = Ih
I hl , Il+1 = Ih/2
, hl+1 =hl /2.
Il Il+1
| Il+1 Il |
< ,
2k 1
21

(1.3.1)

1.
. : Il Il+1 ,
n, Il+1 (1.3.1).
I0 ( l = 0)

h0 h0 k . , , h0 n0 ,
n0 = (b a)/h0 , . n
l , ,
, .
:


ba
ba
n0 =
+ 1, h0 =
n0

;


ba
ba

n0 =
+
1,
h
=
0
2n0
24

(1.3.2)

(1.3.3)

.
[ ]
.
3) , , Rn
;
4)
, ;
5) , .. 3 4;
22

1.
6) . , .
1.2.
1.1.


n i
1
2

xi

qi

x1 = x2

0.5773502692

x1 = x3

q1 = q 3

0.8888888889

0.7745966692

0.5555555556

x1 = x4

q1 = q 4

x2 = x3

q2 = q 3

0.3399810436

0.6521451549

0.8611363116

0.3478548451

x1 = x5

q1 = q 5

x2 = x4

q2 = q 3

0.5688888889

0.5384693101

0.4786286705

0.9061798459

0.2369268851

23

1.

1.2.

ex + 1

2x + 1/ ln 2

2/ ln 2

3x + 1/ ln 3

3/ ln 3

0.1

0.1 e

ln(10 x)

0.1

0.2

0.2 e

ln(5 x)

0.2

ex + 1/x

e(e 1) + ln 2

x ex

x2 + 16/x

(e3 1)/3 + 16

2x ex

1/e

10

2x + 1/x

3 + ln 2

11

3x2 + 1/x

7 + ln 2

12

4x3 ex

1/e

13

2x + ex

14

1/(1 + x2 )

/4

15

1 2xex

f (x)

24

1/e

1.

1.2.
1

16

2xex

e1

17

1 xex

2/e

18

ln2 x/x

1/3

19

x/(1 + x4 )

20

e1/x /x2

/8

e e

21

ln 2

2 ln 2

1/(ex 1)

ln(3/2)

22

/2

cos3 x sin(2x)

2/5

23

/2

(x + sin x)/(1 + cos x)

/2

24

1/(x + x2 )

ln(4/3)

25

/2

ex cos x

(e/2 1)/2

26

ex+e

27

0.5

0.5 e

ln(2x)

1/2

28

4x

1/ ln 4

29

5x + 1/ ln 5

5/ ln 5

30

10x + 1/ ln 10

10/ ln 10

25

ee e


.
24 .

2.1.

ZZ
I=
f (x, y) dx dy,

(2.1.1)

f (x, y) D x y.
. .
f (x, y) , .
, , .

2.2.
: .

26

2.
2.2.1.
D =
= {a 6 x 6 b, c 6 x 6 d}. f (x, y)
D f (x, y)
ZZ
1
f (x, y) dx dy, S = (b a) (d c).
(2.2.1)
f (x, y) =
S
D

,
: f (x, y) f (x, y), x = (a + b)/2, y = (c + d)/2;
(2.1.1)

ZZ
f (x, y) dx dy S f (x, y).

(2.2.2)

(2.2.2). f (x, y) , .. ,
. f (x, y) , ( (x, y))
f (x, y) = f (x, y) + (x x) f 0 x (x, y) + (y y) f 0 y (x, y)+
1
+ (x x)2 f 00 xx (x, y) + (x x)(y y) f 00 xy (x, y)+
2
1
+ (y y)2 f 00 yy (x, y) + ...
2

(2.2.3)

27

2.
(2.2.2) (2.2.3),
Zb Zd
f (x, y) dx dy S f (x, y)

R=
a

(2.2.4)

1
S [(b a)2 f 00 xx (x, y) + (d c)2 f 00 yy (x, y)],
24
, ,


D. , , ,
, .
(b a) (d c) ,
(2.2.4) . D (. 2.1) xi = a + ih1 ,
yj = a + jh2 , i = 0, 1, ..., m, j = 0, 1, ..., n; h1 = (b a)/m, h2 = (c d)/n
Dij = {xi1 6 x 6 xi , yj1 6 y 6 yj , i =
1, ..., m; j = 1, ..., n}.
(2.2.2) ,
m X
n
X
(2.2.5)
I Ih =
Sij f (xi , y j ),
i=1 j=1

Sij = h1 h2 , xi = (xi1 + xi )/2, y j = (yj1 + yj )/2


. Ih
(2.1.1), (2.2.5) h1
h2 .
(2.2.5) , f (x, y) ,
28

2.

( xi , yj )

h1
yn=d
yj

h2

yj -1
y0=c
x0=a

xi -1

xi

xm=b

. 2.1.

.
(2.2.4) Dij
Rij



1
Sij h21 f 00 xx (xi , y j ) + h22 f 00 yy (xi , y j ) .
24

(2.2.6)

(2.2.6) ,
R c1 h21 + c2 h22 ,

(2.2.7)

1
c1 =
24

ZZ

1
f 00 xx (x, y) dx dy, c2 =
24

ZZ

f 00 yy (x, y) dx dy

R = O(h21 + h22 ),

(2.2.8)

.. h1
h2 .
29

2.
, (2.2.6)
h1 h2 , (2.2.7) ,
.. h1 0 h2 0
h1 h2 .
(2.1.1) , (2.2.8),
. f (x, y)

(2.2.8),
h1 h2 . , f (x, y) , , Dij
. ,
h1 h2 , f (x, y)
, .
(2.1.1)
I = Ih + c1 h21 + c2 h22 + O(h41 + h21 h22 + h42 ).

(2.2.9)

c1 c2 (. (2.2.7)).
, c1 c2 h1 h2 , 0.
, , (2.1.1)
I Ih + c1 h21 + c2 h22 .

(2.2.10)

c1 c2 . 30

2.
, (2.1.1) ,
. Ih ,
Ih/2 . Ih/2 (2.1.1),
(2.2.5) h1 /2 h2 /2. , (2.2.10),


I Ih/2 + c1

h1
2

2


+ c2

h2
2

2
.

(2.2.11)

, x y
, (2.2.10) [c1 (h1 /2)2 + c2 (h2 /2)2 ] (2.2.11):
"
 2 #
 2
h2
h1
+ c2
.
I Ih + 4 c1
2
2

(2.2.12)

(2.2.11) (2.2.12) ,
"
"
 2
 2
 2 #
 2 #
h1
h1
h2
h2
Ih + 4 c1
Ih/2 + c1
.
+ c2
+ c2
2
2
2
2
(2.2.11)

c1

h1
2

2


+ c2

h2
2

2

Ih/2 Ih
.
3

(2.2.13)

, (2.2.11),
I Ih/2

Ih/2 Ih
.
3

(2.2.14)

, (2.2.13) (2.2.11), (2.1.1) , ..


I Ih =

4 Ih/2 Ih
,
3
31

2.
Ih I.
. 1. ,

, .. m/n .

(2.1.1)
(2.2.10) (2.2.11), .
2. , c1 = 0 c2 = 0, (2.1.1) (2.2.14) .
(2.2.5)
. ,
. ,
D = {a 6 x 6 b, 1 (x) 6 y 6 2 (x)} (. 2.2,a),
x = x(u) = (b a)u + a, y = 1 (x(u))+
+ v (2 (x(u)) 1 (x(u))) D
D0 = {0 6 u 6 1, 0 6 v 6 1} (. 2.2, )
. D Oxy D0 Ouv x = x(u, v), y = y(u, v),


x x


u v
6= 0,
J =

y
y


u v
32


2.
v

n2(x)

1
D
D
n1(x)
0

. 2.2.


ZZ
ZZ
f (x, y) dx dy =
f (x(u, v), y(u, v)) | J | du dv.
D

D0

,
, (. 2.3).
. -

D D

, (2.2.5) ,

D.
(2.2.5),

0
. 2.3.

.
33

2.
, (2.2.5)
( ). (1.2.6), . 1.
2.2.2.
.
D = {a 6 x 6 b, c 6 x 6 d} (. 2.4).
(2.1.1)

ZZ
Zd Zb
I=
f (x, y) dx dy = f (x, y) dx dy.
c

(2.2.15)


Zd
I=

Zb
F (y) dy,

F (y) =

f (x, y) dx.

(2.2.16)


. 1. , x,
y (1.2.7).

F (yj ) h1

m
X

q1,i f (xi , yj ),

i=0

q1,i

1/2 i = 0 i = m,
=
1 i = 1, 2, ..., m 1.
34

(2.2.17)

2.

I h2

n
X

q2,j F (yj ),

(2.2.18)

j=0

q2,j

1/2 j = 0 j = n,
=
1 j = 1, 2, ..., n 1.

(2.2.17) (2.2.18),
I Ih = h1 h2

m X
n
X

qij f (xi , yj ),

(2.2.19)

i=0 j=0

qij = q1,i q2,j

1/4 i = 0, m; j = 0, n;

i = 0 i = m, j = 1, ..., n 1,

1/2
=
j = 0 j = n, i = 1, ..., m 1;

1 i = 1, ..., m 1, j = 1, ..., n 1.

. 2.4 ,
(2.1.1) (2.2.19). ,
, qij =
1, 1/2 1/4, .
,
f (x, y) (2.2.19) h1 h2
.
.
x y,
(2.2.5).
35

2.

y
h1
yn=d
yj

h2

yj -1
y0=c
0

x0=a

xi -1

xi

xm=b

. 2.4.

. ,
(. . 2.3).
.
2.2.3.
, (2.2.19) .
x(u) = (a + b)/2 + u (b a)/2,
y(v) = (c + d)/2 + v (d c)/2 {a 6 x 6 b, c 6 x 6 d}
D = {1 6 u 6 1, 1 6 v 6 1}. ,

36

2.
D = {1 6 x 6 1, 1 6 y 6 1}:
Z1 Z1

ZZ
f (x, y) dx dy =

I=

f (x, y) dxdy.

(2.2.20)

1 1

(2.2.20) x, y ,
In =

n X
n
X

qi qj f (xi , yj ).

(2.2.21)

i=1 j=1

x y . 1.1. n = 3
n = 4 . 2.5,a . 2.5,, :
y
1

-1

1 x

-1

1 x

-1

-1

. 2.5.

37

2.

2.3.

D, D {a 6 x 6 b,
1 (x) 6 y 6 2 (x)}:
ZZ
f (x, y) dx dy.

I=
D

:
1) ,
2) = 0.0001:
,

x y.
D
D0 (. . 2.2). .
. :
, , .
.
. , ,
,
. l, h1 h2 ,
m n,
: ) , ) .
. 2.1 2.2

38

2.

2.1.

1 (x)

2 (x)

f (x)

x2

1+x

x y2

1 + ln x

ey

/3

cos x

sin x/(1 + y)

x2

ln x

y/x

x2 1 + x y

x2

1+x

x2 y

ln x

1 + ln x

ey

/6

/2

sin x

cos x/(1 + y)

2x

x ln(x y)

10

ln x

y/x

11

3x

x + y2

12

ln x

1 + ln x

e x+y

13

/3

1/ cos x

y tg x

14

15

4x2 ln(1 + x y)
p
2
2x y 1 + x y 2

39

2.

2.1.
1

16

1+x

x + y 2

17

ln(1 + x) 1 + 2 ln(1 + x)

e x+y /(1 + x)

18 /6 /2

1/ sin x

y ctg x

19

2x

20

1/x

ln(y/x)

x 1+xy

21

22 1/4

1+x

23

ex

24

1x

25

x2

26

x/2

x/(x2 + y 2 )

27

2x2

2e y/x

28 /3 /2

cos(x + y)

29

30

40

x + y2

x x e xy
 
2 x
xy
(x + x )e cos
3e
ln(x + y)/x
1/[(1 + x2 )(1 + y)

8x2 y ln(1 + x y 2 )

1/ 1 + e 2y/x

y]

2.

2.2.

93/120

16

5/12

3e/2 1

17

e2 e + 1

2 ln 2 1.5 ln(1.5) 0.5

18

0.75

(3e2 + 24e 43)/12

10 5 8 2

1
3
15

19

4 (2 ln 2 1)

20

[2 (2 2 1)]/3

187/420

21

1.5 (e 1)

22

[2 (e e 1/8 7/8)]/3

2 ln 2 1.5 ln(1.5) 0.5

23

(9 e 2 )/(2 2 )

1
12

10 ln 2 3

8
9

24

7 ln 2 4

10

(3e2 5)/12

25

(7 2 )/144

5
12

26

/4 arctg(1/2)

12

e2 (e 1)

27

e (3e3 e 6)/2

13

0.75

28

0.25

14

25 ln 5 4 ln 2 25.5

10 5 8 2

1
3
15

29

25 ln 5 4 ln 2 25.5
!

(1 + 2)e

4 ln
1 + 1 + e2

11

15

30

41



,

.
4 .

3.1.
u(x)
u0 = f (x, u), u(x0 ) = u0 ,

(3.1.1)

u0 = du/dx, x0 u0 .
,
f (x, u) G = {|x x0 | 6 A,
|uu0 | 6 B}
u, |x x0 | 6 , (3.1.1)
. f (x, u) k- ,
u(x) (k + 1)- . ,
, , . ,

42

3.
, , - .

3.2.
,
D =
{a 6 x 6 b, c 6 u 6 d}. (3.1.1)
[a, b]. [a, b] hi :
hi = {a = x0 < x1 < ... < xn1 < xn = b},

xi , i = 0, 1, ..., n

, hi = xi xi1 , i = 1, ..., n ; n .
hi = h = const, h .
h :
h = {xi = x0 + i h, x0 = a, h = (b a)/n, i = 0, 1, ...n}.

(3.2.1)

h h.
ui = u(xi ) (3.1.1) xi , yi
, .
3.2.1.
, f (x, u) D f /x f /u. ,
43

3.
, (3.1.1)

u00 (x) =

f
f
(x, u) +
(x, u)f (x, u).
x
u

(3.2.2)


yi+1 = yi + h f (xi , yi ), i = 0, 1, ..., n 1,

(3.2.3)

y0 = u0 .
(3.2.3) .
u(x) xi :
h2 00
u(xi+1 ) = u(xi ) + h u (xi ) + u (i ) =
2
0

(3.2.4)

= u(xi ) + h f (xi , u(xi )) +

h 00
u (i ),
2

i [xi , xi+1 ], i = 0, 1, ..., n1.


u(xi ) yi .
. 3.1 -

a0 a1 a2

.
A2

, .. y1

A1

y2 x = x1 x = x2 . -

A0

a0 , a1 a2 -

y0

y2

y1

u0 = f (x, u) -

x0

x1

x2

. 3.1.

u(x0 ) = u0 = y0 ,
u(x1 ) = y1 u(x2 ) = y2 , . a0
(3.1.1),
44

3.
A0 (x0 , u0 ). A1 A2
. a0 .
. A0 A1 a0 A0 . A0 A1
u00 = f (x0 , u0 ). A1 A2
a1 . , ,
.
.
u0 = u x, u(0) = 1.
. (3.2.3),
y0 = 1,
y1 = y0 + h (y0 x0 ) = 1 h,
y2 = y1 + h (y1 x1 ) = 1 h + h (1 h h) = 1 2h 2h2 ,
y3 = y2 + h (y2 x2 ) = 1 3h 6h2 2h3
.. , u(x) = 1 + x
2e x . :


h2 1
h
u1 = u(h) = 1 + h 2e = 1 + h 2 1 + h + e
=
2
= 1 h h2 e 1 ,
u2 = u(2h) = 1 + 2h 2e
= 1 2h 4h2 e 2 ,

0 < 1 < h;
2h

4h2 2
= 1 + 2h 2 1 + 2h +
e
2


0 < 2 < 2h.

u3 = u(3h) = 1 3h 9h2 e 3 ,
45

0 < 3 < 3h.


=

3.
, , h2 , ,
i. ,
C h, C , h.

yi .
1. x = xi

i = |u(xi ) yi |.
,
yi , f (x, u) . , (m)

(.. ,

) ( , , ). ,
,
, . , yi .
2. [a, b]
(m)

(m) = max i .
16i6n


,
(m) 0 h 0.

46

3.
3. (3.1.1) k- ,
(m) = O(hk ) h 0,

(m) 6 C hk h 0,

(3.2.5)

C = const > 0 f (x, u), a, b


(3.1.1), h.
, . ,
.
.
. i = 0, 1, ..., n 1
i+1 6 (1 + c1 h)i + c2 hk+1 ,

(3.2.6)

h = (b a)/n; c1 > 0 c2 > 0 , h.


(3.1.1)
k- .
.
(3.2.5). ,
0 = |u(x0 ) y0 | = |u(x0 ) u0 | = 0.

47

3.
(3.2.6)
i+1 6 (1 + c1 h)i + c2 hk+1 6
6 (1 + c1 h) [(1 + c1 h)i1 + c2 hk+1 ] + c2 hk+1 =
= (1 + c1 h)2 i1 + c2 hk+1 [1 + (1 + c1 h)] 6
6 ... 6
6 (1 + c1 h)i+1 0 + c2 hk+1 [1 + (1 + c1 h) + ... + (1 + c1 h)i ] =
i+1
1
k+1 (1 + c1 h)
= c2 h

.
(1 + c1 h) 1
,
(1 + c1 h)i+1 = exp{(i + 1) ln(1 + c1 h)} 6 exp{(i + 1) c1 h} =
ba
(i + 1)} 6 e c1 (ba) .
= exp{c1
n

i+1

[c2 (e c1 (ba) 1)] k


h ,
6
c1

i = 0, 1, ..., (n 1). (3.2.5) C = [c2 (e c1 (ba) 1)]/c1 ,


.
, , , ,
i+1 6 (1 + c1 h)i + c2 hk+1 ,
i = 0, 1, ..., n 1.
(3.2.3) (3.2.4),
ui+1 yi+1

h2 00
= ui yi + h [f (xi , u(xi )) f (xi , yi )] + u (i ).
2
48

(3.2.7)

3.

f (xi , u(xi )) f (xi , yi ) =

f
(xi , i ) (ui yi ),
u

i ui yi .
(3.2.7)
i+1 6 i + h c1 i + c2 h2 = i (1 + c1 h) + c2 h2 ,
c1 = max |fu0 (x, u)|, c2 = 0.5 max (|fx0 (x, u)| + |fu0 (x, u)| | f (x, u)|)
(x,u)D

(x,u)D

(. (3.2.2)).
, ,
.
3.2.2. -
, h
.
- . :
k1 = h f (xi , yi ),
k2 = h f (xi + h, yi + k1 ),
1
yi+1 = yi + (k1 + k2 ), i = 0, 1, ..., n 1.
2

49

(3.2.8)

3.
- . :
k1 = h f (xi , yi ),
k1
h
k2 = h f (xi + , yi + ),
2
2
h
k2
k3 = h f (xi + , yi + ),
2
2
k4 = h f (xi + h, yi + k3 ),
yi+1 = yi +

(3.2.9)

1
(k1 + 2k2 + 2k3 + k4 ), i = 0, 1, ..., n 1.
6

, yi+1
yi ,
. , . ,
. ,
l-, yi+1 l yil+1 , yil+2 , ... , yi .
3.2.3.
(3.1.1) ,
Zxi+1
Zxi+1
Zxi+1
u(xi+1 ) u(xi ) =
u0 (x) dx =
f (x, u(x)) dx
p(x) dx,
xi

xi

xi

p(x) , f (x, u(x)). fi = f (xi , yi ),


yi (3.1.1), p(x) , l (xj , fj )
(j = (i l + 1), (i l + 2), (i l + 3), ... , i), (xi , fi ).
50

3.
l = 1, (3.2.3). l = 2, p(x) -

(. 3.2,a), (xi1 , fi1 ) (xi , fi ):

fi+1

p(x)

p(x)
fi
fi-2

fi+1

fi-1

fi

fi-1

xi-2
0

xi-1

xi

xi+1

-h

xi-1
0

xi
h

xi+1
2h
x

. 3.2.

p(x) =

(xi x)
(x xi1 )
fi1 +
fi , p(xi1 ) = fi1 , p(xi ) = fi .
h
h

xi xi+1 ,
( -):
yi+1 = yi +

h
(3fi fi1 ).
2

(3.2.10)

l = 3, p(x) , (xi2 , fi2 ),


(xi1 , fi1 ) (xi , fi ) (. 3.2, ),

yi+1 = yi +

h
(23fi 16fi1 + 5fi2 ).
12

(3.2.11)

(3.2.11) , ,

51

3.
x xi1 (. . 3.2, ).
p(x) = ax2 + bx + c;
p(h) = ah2 bh + c = fi2 ,
p(0) = c = fi1 ,
p(h) = ah2 + bh + c = fi .

p(x) =

fi2 2fi1 + fi 2 fi fi2


x +
x + fi1 .
2h2
2h

(3.2.12)

(3.2.12) [h, 2h],


(3.2.11).
l = 4

yi+1 = yi +

h
(55fi 59fi1 + 37fi2 9fi3 ).
24

(3.2.13)

l : y0 , y1 , ... , yl1 . , ,
(3.2.13) i < 3. - , -,
, .
.
.
.
. . :
yi+1 = yi + h f (xi+1 , yi+1 ), i = 0, 1, ..., n 1.
52

(3.2.14)

3.
yi+1 ( ) .
. . yi+1

yi+1 = yi +

h
[f (xi , yi ) + f (xi+1 , yi+1 )], i = 0, 1, ..., n 1.
2

(3.2.15)

3.2.4.
(. . 1 2) .
(h)

yi

xi y (h)

(3.1.1) [a, b], h, xi = a + i h, i = 0, 1, ..., n,


(h/2)

n [a, b], h = (b a)/n. yi

xi , y (h/2) , h/2,
.. 2n. , y (h/2)
(3.1.1) ,
(h/2)

| yi

(h)

yi |
< ,
2k 1

i = 1, 2, ..., n; k (, k = 1
(3.2.3), k = 4 - (3.2.9)).
. , (3.1.1) -
(k = 4). ,
. . l , y l ,
hl , hl l- .
. y l+1 hl+1 = hl /2.
53

3.

| yil+1 yil |
< ,
2k 1

(3.2.16)

, xi y l y l+1 .
(3.2.16) y l y l+1 , . {x0i }, n0 h0 : x0i = a + i h0 , i = 0, 1, ..., n0 ,
h0 = (b a)/n0 . n0 ( ) (.
(1.3.2) (1.3.3))



ba
n0 =
+ 1.
k

(3.2.17)

k , [ ], (1.3.2)
(1.3.3), .
h i
ba

. k = ba
k , ..

ba

, 1 (3.2.17) . , , k = 4,
[a, b] [0, 1], = 0.0001. ,
n0 10, 11 ( (3.2.17)),
h0 = 0.1.

3.3.
m
u0 = f(x, u), u(x0 ) = u0 ,

54

(3.3.1)

3.
u0 = du/dx,

u0 (x)
1

u0 = ...

u0m (x)

, u =

f (x, u1 , ..., um )
u1 (x)
1

..
.. , f(x, u) =

.
.

fm (x, u1 , ..., um )
um (x)

u0 = {u1,0 , ..., um,0 }; x0 , ui,0 , i = 1, ..., m .


(3.3.1) , - ,
u, f , y ki - (3.2.8)
(3.2.9) - u, f y
ki . u .
, , [a, b]
(3.3.1) m = 2,

u (x ) = u ,
u0 = f (x, u , u ),
1 0
1,0
1
1 2
1
, x0 = a.
,
u2 (x0 ) = u2,0
u0 = f2 (x, u1 , u2 )
2

(3.3.2)


u0 = f(x, u), u(x0 ) = u0 , m = 2,

(3.3.3)

u0 =

u01 (x)
u02 (x)

, u =

u1 (x)
u2 (x)

, f(x, u) =

f1 (x, u1 , u2 )
f2 (x, u1 , u2 )

, u0 =

u1,0
u2,0

(3.3.3) -
2- 4- ( (3.2.8) (3.2.9))
.
55

3.
-
(3.3.3):
k1 = h f(xi , yi ),
k2 = h f(xi + h, yi + k1 ),
1
yi+1 = yi + (k1 + k2 ), i = 0, 1, ..., n 1.
2

(3.3.4)

(3.3.4) :
k1,1 = h f1 (xi , y1,i , y2,i ),
k1,2 = h f2 (xi , y1,i , y2,i ),
k2,1 = h f1 (xi + h, y1,i + k1,1 , y2,i + k1,2 ),
k2,2 = h f2 (xi + h, y1,i + k1,1 , y2,i + k1,2 ),
1
y1,i+1 = y1,i + (k1,1 + k2,1 ),
2
1
y2,i+1 = y2,i + (k1,2 + k2,2 ), i = 0, 1, ..., n 1.
2

(3.3.5)

-
(3.3.3):
k1 = h f(xi , yi ),

h
k2 = h f xi + , yi +
2

h
k3 = h f xi + , yi +
2


k1
,
2

k2
,
2

(3.3.6)

k4 = h f(xi + h, yi + k3 ),
yi+1 = yi +

1
(k1 + 2k2 + 2k3 + k4 ), i = 0, 1, ..., n 1.
6

56

3.
(3.3.6) :
k1,1 = h f1 (xi , y1,i , y2,i ),
k1,2 = h f2 (xi , y1,i , y2,i ),

h
k2,1 = h f1 xi + , y1,i +
2

h
k2,2 = h f2 xi + , y1,i +
2

h
k3,1 = h f1 xi + , y1,i +
2

h
k3,2 = h f2 xi + , y1,i +
2

k1,1
, y2,i +
2
k1,1
, y2,i +
2
k2,1
, y2,i +
2
k2,1
, y2,i +
2


k1,2
,
2

k1,2
,
2

k2,2
,
2

k2,2
,
2

(3.3.7)

k4,1 = h f1 (xi + h, y1,i + k3,1 , y2,i + k3,2 ),


k4,2 = h f2 (xi + h, y1,i + k3,1 , y2,i + k3,2 ),
1
(k1,1 + 2k2,1 + 2k3,1 + k4,1 ) ,
6
1
= y2,i + (k1,2 + 2k2,2 + 2k3,2 + k4,2 ) , i = 0, 1, ..., n 1.
6

y1,i+1 = y1,i +
y2,i+1

, (3.3.4) (3.3.6)
m (3.3.1)

3.4.
( ) :
1) ( )
;
2)
( ) - 57

3.
.
;
3) (
) = 0.0001
, .
.
, .
,
. 3.13.6.

u00 + p(x)u0 + q(x)u = g(x) ,
u(x0 ) = A, u0 (x0 ) = B ;

(3.4.1)

x [a, b], x0 = a
.
u1 (x) = u(x), u2 (x) = u0 (x). u1 (x) u2 (x) (3.4.1)

u0 = u ,
2
1
,
u0 = g(x) q(x) u1 p(x) u2
2

u (x ) = A,
1 0
u2 (x0 ) = B.

(3.4.2)

, ,
(.(3.3.2) (3.3.7)).
58

3.

3.1.

f (x, u)

u0

x/u

2u/x
x

u
1+x

0.5

e2

/3

3
4
5
6
7
8
9

[a, b]

ex+u
u
1
+
x ln x x
2
2x u + x ex
3u
x
x
1
tg x u +
cos x
2x
u + 1 + x2
2
1+x

10

2u + ex x

1/4

11

2u + e3x

6/5

12

u/x + 2 ln x + 1
2u
+ ex (1 + x)2
1+x

13

59

3.

3.1.
1

sin 1

15

u
+ x cos x
x
u + ex /x

16

(u + 1)/x

17

e2x ex u

18

(sin x u) cos x

19

1 + u/x

20

(x + u)/x

1/2

21

u + cos x

1/2

22

2u x2

1/4

23

u + 2x

24

u/x

25

u/(2x)

26

2u + 4x
u
u
ln
x
x

e2

2u/x
x

u
1+x

x/u

14

27
28
29
30

60

3.

3.2.

u(x)

u(x)

4 x2

16

x1

x2

17

ex 1

(x + 1) e x

18

e sin x + sin x 1

ln(2 ex )

19

x ln(1/x)

(1 + ln(ln x)) ln x

20

1 x

x 2

e x (1 + x2 /2)

21

(sin x + cos x)/2

x2 + x3

22

(2x2 + 2x + 1)/4

sin x + cos x

23

e x + 2x 2

x (1 + x2 )

24

10

e 2x e x +

11

e 2x +

x 1
+
2 4

25

e 3x
5

26

e 2x + 2x 1

12

x ln x + 1/x

27

x e 1+x

13

(x + 1)2 e x

28

2x2

14

x sin x

29

15

e x ln x

30

2 (x + 1) e x

1 x2

61

3.

3.3.

. p(x) q(x)
g(x)

[a, b] .
a
b
A
B

ex

3/2

cos x

4 [sin(2x) + cos(2x)]

e 5x

2e x

14

4e x

10

2 (1 x)

11

12

4e x cos x

13

3/5

14

5 sin(2x)

2/3

15

3e x

62

3.

3.4.

u(x)

u(x)

ex

7
1
2 e x + e 7x
6
6

x x
2+
e + e x
2

5 sin x + 2 cos x + 2e x

10

x2 + e x

11

8 4
2
+ x e 6x
3 3
3

12

e x [(2x 1) sin x

2
3
4
5

(7 3x)e x2

x
2+
sin x + sin x
2
1
3 cos(2x) + sin(2x)+
2
+x [sin(2x) cos(2x)]

6
7
15

cos x]

1 x 11 3x 1 5x
e + e + e
8
4
8

3 7
2
x + e 5x
5 5
5
5
e 2x1 2e x + e 1
14
4 sin x + cos x sin(2x)
3


3
2 + x + x2 e x
2
13

63

3.

3.5.

[a, b] .

f1 (x, u1 , u2 )

f2 (x, u1 , u2 )

u1,0

u2,0

1/u2

1/u1

(u2 1)/u2

1/(u1 x)

x/(u1 u2 )

x/u21

u2 /x
u1
2
x

u1 /x

e1

u2 + (2 + x)

u1
x

u1 + 3u2

u1 + 5u2

3u1 2u2 + x

3u1 4u2

u2 5 cos x

2u1 + u2

2u1 + u2 + 2 e x

u1 + 2u2 3 e 4x

10

3u1 + 2u2 + 3 e 2x

u1 + 2u2 + e 2x

11

u2 + cos x

1 u1

0.5

12

5u1 u2 + e x

u1 3u2 + e 2x

119
900

211
900

13

u2 + cos x

u1 + sin x

14

2u1 u2

u1 + 2u2

e4

13
18

11
12

5 e x sin x
15

2u1 4u2 + 4e 2x

2u1 2u2

64

3.

3.6.

u1 (x)

u2 (x)

e x/2

2 e x/2

x ex

e x


3

1/3
3 2
x +1
2

1/3
3 2
x +1
2

x + 1/x

x + 1/x

1/x2

e x 1/x2

3 e 2x

e 2x

2
5
2 e 2x + e 3x x
3
18

e 2x + 3 e 3x

x
1

2 12

e x + e 2x 2 sin x cos x e x + 2 e 2x + sin x + 3 cos x

e 3x + x e x e 4x

e 3x (1 + x) e x 2 e 4x

10

e x e 2x

e x e 2x

x
cos x
2
4
1
ex
e 2x
25
36

x
1
sin x cos x
2
2
1
7
ex +
e 2x
25
36

13

sin x + e x

e x

14

e x (2 cos x sin x)

e x (3 cos x + sin x)

15

e 2x

11
12

1+

65

.
2 .

4.1.
u(x),

u00 + p(x)u0 + q(x)u = f (x), a < x < b,

(4.1.1)

u(a) = A, u(b) = B.

(4.1.2)

(4.1.1), (4.1.2) ,
(4.1.2) [a, b].

4.2.
4.2.1.
[a, b] h (3.2.1). (4.1.1) h , (n 1)-

66

4.
3(n 1) ui , u0i u00i :
u00i + pi u0i + qi ui = fi , i = 1, 2, ..., (n 1),

(4.2.1)

ui = u(xi ), u0i = u0 (xi ), u00i = u00 (xi ), pi = p(xi ), qi = q(xi ), fi = f (xi ).


ui , u(x)
u(x) . , u(x)
. ui+1 ui1 , xi
:
h2 00 h3 000
ui + ui + O(h4 ),
2!
3!
h3
h2
4
= ui hu0i + u00i u000
i + O(h ).
2!
3!

ui+1 = ui + hu0i +
ui1

(4.2.2)

, O(hk ) (. . 1),

u(x) xi :

ui+1 ui
+ O(h),
h
ui ui1
(4.2.3)
+ O(h),
u0i =
h
ui+1 ui1
u0i =
+ O(h2 ),
2h
u(x)
u0i =

xi :
u00i =

ui1 2ui + ui+1


+ O(h2 ).
2
h

ui+1 ui ui ui1 ui+1 ui1


,
,
h
h
2h
67

(4.2.4)

4.
(4.2.3) , , .
ui1 2ui + ui+1
h2
(4.2.4) .
(4.2.3) , u0 (x)
h,
h. (4.2.4) , u00 (x) h.
4.2.2.
, , yi , ui u(x) xi . u00i u0i (4.2.1)
, , ui yi .
(4.1.1), (4.1.2)
:
yi1 2yi + yi+1
yi+1 yi1
+
p
+ qi yi = fi , i = 1, 2, ..., (n 1),
i
h2
2h

(4.2.5)

y0 = A, yn = B.

(4.2.6)

(4.2.6) (4.2.5), yi , i = 1, 2, ..., (n 1)


(n 1)-

68

4.




h
h
2
(h q1 2)y1 + 1 + p1 y2 = h f1 A 1 p1 ,
2
2




h
h
1 pi yi1 + (h2 qi 2)yi + 1 + pi yi+1 = h2 fi ,
2
2
2


h
1 pn1 yn2 + (h2 qn1 2)yn1
2

i = 2, ..., (n 2);


h
= h2 fn1 B 1 + pn1 .
2
(4.2.7)

(4.2.7) [1].
4.2.3.
.
(4.1.1)
u(x) = u0 (x) + c1 u1 (x) + c2 u2 (x),

(4.2.8)

u0 (x) (4.1.1), u1 (x) u2 (x)


, (4.1.1)
u00 + p(x)u0 + q(x)u = 0.

(4.2.9)

(4.1.2), (4.2.8),
u0 (a) + c1 u1 (a) + c2 u2 (a) = A,

(4.2.10)

u0 (b) + c1 u1 (b) + c2 u2 (b) = B.


u0 (x) (4.1.1), u0 (a) = A, u1 (x) u2 (x) (4.2.9)
u1 (a) = 0 u2 (a) 6= 0, . (4.2.10)

A + c1 0 + c2 u2 (a) = A,
69

4.
.. c2 = 0, (4.2.8)
u(x) = u0 (x) + c1 u1 (x).

(4.2.11)

c1 (4.2.10): u(b) = u0 (b)+


+c1 u1 (b) = B. c1 = (B u0 (b))/u1 (b). ,
u1 (b) 6= 0.
[3].
. , (4.2.11), y(x) h
yi = y0,i + c1 y1,i , i = 0, 1, ..., n.

(4.2.12)

y0,i y1,i , 0-
1- h :
y0,0 = A, y0,1 = D0 ,

(4.2.13)

y1,0 = 0, y1,1 = D1 6= 0,

(4.2.14)

D0 D1 .
D0 D1 (D1 6= 0), D0 = A + O(h) D1 = O(h).
y0,i y1,i , (4.1.1) (4.2.9)
y0,i+1 y0,i1
y0,i1 2y0,i + y0,i+1
+ pi
+ qi y0,i = fi ,
2
h
2h
y1,i1 2y1,i + y1,i+1
y1,i+1 y1,i1
+
p
+ qi y1,i = 0,
i
h2
2h
i = 1, ..., (n 1).

70

4.
y0,i+1 y1,i+1 :


h
h2 fi 1 pi y0,i1 (h2 qi 2) y0,i
2
y0,i+1 =
,
h
1 + pi
2


h
1 pi y1,i1 (h2 qi 2) y1,i
2
y1,i+1 =
,
h
1 + pi
2
i = 1, ..., (n 1).

(4.2.15)

(4.2.13) (4.2.14) (4.2.15) y0 (x) y1 (x) xi , i =


= 2, ..., n. c1 (. ): c1 = (B y0,n )/y1,n .
, , y1,n = 0. D0
D1 (4.2.13) (4.2.14) ,
D1 (4.2.14) y1 (x), y1,n 6= 0.
(4.1.1), (4.1.2) (4.2.12).

4.3.
, .
b :
u00 + p(x)u0 + q(x)u = f (x) ,
u(x0 ) = A, u0 (x0 ) = C ;
x [a, b], x0 = a.
B b u(x)
: B = u(b). . 4.1. a
b 0 1, [a, b] = [0, 1].
71

4.

4.1.

. p(x) q(x)
f (x)

.
A
C

e x sin x

3/2

12

x e x

x2

0.5

16

e 4x

2e x x2

ch(2x)

e x (x2 + x 3)

10

4e x

11

2 x2

12

e 2x

13

6x2 + 1

3.5625

14

16x e 2x

15

2x + 1

72

4.

4.1.

16

10

17

2x

18

sin(2x) + 1

0.25

19

2 sin x

0.2

20

2 sh x

21

cos x 3 sin x

22

23

sin x

24

ex

25

26

14

27

6 cos(3x)

28

5e 2x

29

3 sin(2x)

0.75

30

4x e x

73


1. .., .. . .: ,1989. 432 .
2. .. . .:
, 2005. 288 .
3. .., .., .. . .:
, 2002. 632 .
4. .., .. . .: , , 2006. 184 .
5. .. . .: , 1987. 248 .
6. .. . .: , 1978. 512 .
7. .., .., ..
. .: . ., 1994. 544 .

74