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Macro-mechanical Behavior of a Lamina

Mechanics of Composite Materials


Atta ur Rehman Shah PhD Student Advanced Composite Materials Lab. CHANGWON NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

2.1

Introduction

A lamina is a flat (or sometimes curved) arrangement of unidirectional (or woven) fibers suspended in a matrix material. A lamina is generally assumed to be orthotropic, and its thickness depends on the material from which it is made.

Schematic illustration of lamina composite ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS LAB

2.1

Introduction

Macromechanics Composite: Concepts, math-models and equations which are used to transform ply properties from its material axes to composite structural axes.

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2.2

Stress-Strain Relations for Anisotropic Materials


Hooks law in contracted notations is

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2.2

Stress-Strain Relations for Anisotropic Materials


Engineering Shear Strain Vs Tensor Shear strain

Engineering shear strain, ij, is the total angle of shearing under a state of simple shear, while tensor shear strain, ij, is half of the angle of shearing under pure shear stress.

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2.2

Stress-Strain Relations for Anisotropic Materials


The stiffness matrix, Cij, has 36 constants for an anisotropic material.

An anisotropic material has no planes of symmetry for material properties. The number of constants in the stiffness matrix can be reduced for materials with more property symmetry, shown in the next slide.
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2.2

Stress-Strain Relations for Anisotropic Materials


Mono clinic, 13 independent constants Orthotropic, 9 independent constants

Transversely isotropic, 5 independent constants

Isotropic, 2 independent constants

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2.2

Stress-Strain Relations for Anisotropic Materials


Similarly for strain stress relationship:

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2.2

Stress-Strain Relations for Anisotropic Materials


Various couplings are shown for an arbitrary stressed body in the fig, where the physical response of each compliance is labeled.

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2.3

Stiffnesses, Compliances, and Engineering Constants for Orthotropic Materials


Engineering constants (also known as technical constants) include Youngs moduli, Poissons ratios, and shear Moduli as well as some other behavioral constants (to be discussed later). These constants can be measured in simple tests such as uniaxial tension or pure shear tests. These components have more direct meaning than the components of compliance and stiffness matrices. The engineering constants are generally the slop of a stressstrain curve (e.g. E= /) or the slope of a strain-strain curve (e.g. = -y/x).
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2.3

Stiffnesses, Compliances, and Engineering Constants for Orthotropic Materials For an orthotropic material, the components of compliance matrix in terms of engineering constants are:

Where E1,E2,E3 = Youngs moduli in 1,2 and 3 directions ij = -j/i = Poissons ratio G23,G31,G12 = Shear moduli in the 2-3, 3-1, and 1-2 planes
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2.3

Stiffnesses, Compliances, and Engineering Constants for Orthotropic Materials

Since compliance matrix for an orthotropic material is symmetric, i.e. Sij = Sji When engineering constants are substituted in the above equation; we get a reciprocal relation,

Thus three relations must be satisfied for an orthotropic material.

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2.3

Since stiffness and compliance matrices are mutually inverse, thus by matrix algebra the components of a stiffness matrix will be:

Stiffnesses, Compliances, and Engineering Constants for Orthotropic Materials

In terms of engineering constants, the stiffness matrix components can be written as:

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2.4

Restrictions on Engineering Constants


For isotropic materials certain relations between engineering constants must be satisfied. e.g. G in terms of E and v as

2.4.1: Isotropic Materials

In order that E and G always be positive. Similarly, if an isotropic body is subjected to hydrostatic pressure, p, i.e,, x=y=z=-p, then the volumetric strain becomes:

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2.4

Restrictions on Engineering Constants

2.4.2: Orthotropic Materials

For orthotropic materials, the relations between engineering constants are more complex. The product of stress and the corresponding strain represent work done by the stress. The sum of the work done by all the stresses must be positive, hence matrices relating stress to strain must be positive-definite. i.e. the diagonal elements must be positive.

Also hence

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2.5

Stress-Strain relations for Plane Stress in an Orthotropic Material


For a unidirectionally reinforced or woven lamina in the 1-2 plane, a plane stress state is defined by

Since a lamina can not withstand high stresses in any direction other than that of fibers, so it can not be subjected to unnatural stresses as 3. Thus plane stress condition is a practical approximation

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