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5.2.

ON

-
.

-
(, ).
, . .
( ): -
, WD.
" "
PON (ssive til Ntw) (. 5.4).

PON 1995 ,
7 (British Telecom, France Telecom, Deutsche Telecom,
NTT, KPN, Telefonica Telecom Italia)
. ,
ITU-T, FSAN (. full service access
network). , ,
, 1990- . FSAN
PON
,
PON.


(til Line rminal - L),
-
(til Network Unit - ONU). ,
N, . 5.4.

. 5.4. N
N
. LT
,

64,
L 64
NU. NU
.
,


, -
.

N :
N ( N - ,
),
N (dband N - ),
GN (Gigabit-bl N - , ),
N (thernet

N - ,

thernet).
N, N GN
ITU-, N I 802.h (thernet

" "). N
, ON.

5.2.1 APON/N
90- , ATM
QoS .
FSAN, PON,
ATM. , 1998 ITU-T G.983.1,
ATM PON APON (ATM PON).

G.983.x (x=17), 622 /c. 2001
G.983.3, BPON (broadband PON)
PON:

(, , )
OLT
ONT ;

PON,
(triple play)

APON BPON (broadband


PON).
APON DBA (dynamic bandwidth allocation)
ONT
, .
APON : SDH
(STM-1), ATM (STM-1/4), Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, (SDI PAL),
E1 (G.703), Ethernet 10/100Base-TX, (FXS).
- PON
ONT,
APON
. ,
OLT .

PON G.983.1

(
)

1550 ,
DWDM 15xx , C-band

1310 ,
DWDM 15xx , C-band

155 /c; 622 /c

155 /c; 622 /c

A: 5-20
B: 10-25
C: 15-30

15

ITU G.652

1310

(ONT),
,
(OLT)

32

OLT-ONT

20

PON

SC-PC FC-PC
35


(, , /
WDM)

G.671

1998

(ITU-T)

FSAN ATM PON (APON) G.983.x,

Broadband

PON

(BPON).

N ITU- G983.1-G.983.5.
ON ,

. ON
(1- OSI) :

: 155,52,622,08 1244,16 /

155,52 622,08 /
;

: 1260-1360 1480-1500

,
-

: 1539.. .1565 (,

DWDM),
-

: 1550... 1560 ;

: -

: 1 2;

32,

OLT NU

(, , ..:

- 5...20 ( ),
- 10...25(),
- 15...30 ( )

: 20 .

, ITU- G.982.
. 5.5 ON,
(DV-) .
(2 OSI) ON
(nsmission nvergen), .
, . , NU ( )
.

. 5.5. N,

NU
(time slot). ON
:
--, - . - .
5.2.2. GN
N
. N
(, thernet) .

GN

N,

.
GN N.
GN ITU- G.984.1...G.984.3.
GN
(1 OSI) :

: 1,24416 2,48832 /

0,15552, 0,62208, 1,24416 2,48832 /


;

: 1260...1360

1480.. .1500 ;

: ;

: 1 2;

64,

L NU

(, , ..:
-

5...20 ( ),

10...25 ( ),

15...30 ( );

: 20

( DF), 10
-.
ITU- GON

, N.
(2- OSI) GON
(nsmission convergence),

:
.
125 .
:

, 53 ,

GN ,

thernet , , SD,
.
,
, . 5.6.
. ,
NU ( )
.
WAN (Wide- Network - )
LT GN :

SD:S-1,4 16;

D: 1, 2 ;

Gigabit Ethernet I.

. 5.6. GN
NU :

SD: S-1 4;

D: 1, 2 ;

ISDN RI RI;

thernet I (Internet;, VoI, IV, VD ..):

10Base-,

100Base-,

1000Base-.

5.3 Ethernet " " EPON


thernet " " (F - thernet in the First Mile) -
, I
802.h.

thernet-

.
thernet .
(WAN - wide area
tworks) (N - metropolitan tworks). F
(2004), thernet
. thernet

(. 5.7):

: LN - N - WAN,

. 5.7. F thernet-
I 802.h F:

F (F - F):

10 / 750 ,

2 / 2700 ;

F - (F fibre - FF):

100 1000 / 10 ;

F (F ON - F):

1000 / (

) 20 .
F, I
802.3h, . 5.4 . 5.8.
5.4 EFM, IEEE 802,3ah

- (2)

EFM Copper (EFMC)

()

10 /, 750 (VDSL) *

2 /, 2700 (SHDSL) *

- (2)

EFM Fiber (EFMF)

100 1000 /

10

- (2)

EFM PON (EFMP)

1000 /

20

* ,
xDSL.

. 5.8. F: F r (F), F fiber (FF)


F N (F)
5.3.1 EFMF (-, 2)
IEEE 803.3ah ,
Ethernet -, EFMF

(EFM fiber - EFM - ).


- (point-to-point) 2 (. 5.9).
EFMF : 100
/ 1000 / (1 /) 1 2 .
IEEE 802.3ah EFMF:

100BASE-LX10: Ethernet 100 /

10 ,

100BASE-BX10: Ethernet 100 /

10 ,

1000BASE-LX10: Ethernet 1000 /

10 ,

1000ASE-BX10: Ethernet 1000 /

10 .
. 5.5 5.6
EFMF.

5.5 EFM 100BASELX10 100BASE-BX10


100BASE-LX10

100BASE-

BX10-D
BX10-U
IEC 60793-2: B1.1, B1.3 (ITU-T

G.652.D)
1
2


1310
10

6.0

100BASE-

1550

1310

5.5

6.0

5.6 EFM 1000BASELX10 1000BASE-BX10


1000BASE-LX10

1000BASE-

1000BASE-

BX10-D
BX10-U
IEC 60793-2: B1.1, B1.3 (ITU-T

G.652.D)
1
2


1310
10

6.0

1490

1310

5.5

6.0

EFM,

(2)

Ethernet 100
/ 1 /.
.
,
100 / 1 /.
(2- OSI) CSMA/CD,
Ethernet. Ethernet
IEEE 802.3 (. 5.10).

IEEE 802.3ah EFM


:

10PASS-TS

Ethernet VDSL (EoVDSL - Ethernet over VDSL),

VDSL: ANSI Tl.424,

10 /, 750 ;

2BASE-TL

Ethernet no SHDSL (EoSHDSL - Ethernet over SHDSL),

SHDSL: ITU-T G.991.2,

2 /, 2700 .

. 5.11 , EFM . ,
,
100BASE-LX10 100BASE-BX10,
10PASS-TS.

. 5.11. , EFM:

5.3.2. EPON (-, 2)

, IEEE 802.3ah,
Ethernet (Ethernet Passive Optical
Network - EPON). EPON BPON GPON

- (point-to-multipoint, 2).

EPON . 5.12.
EPON 1 /. EPON
. 5.7.

. 5.12. EPON
5.7 EPON
1000BASE-

1000BASE-

1000BASE-

1000BASE-

PX10-U
PX10-D
PX20-U
PX20-D
IEC 60793-2: B1.1, B1.3 (ITU-T

G.652.D)
1


1310
10

20

1490


1310
20

1490

19.5

24

23.5

10

. 5.7, EPON .
1000 / 1
/.
. N
EPON
(optical line terminal,- OLT), (optical network unit,ONU).
ONU EPON 16, 32,
, . 5.7.
. 5.13
Ethernet. OLT
-> ONU -> . . 5.14
-> ONU -> OLT.

. 5.13. Ethernet EPON

. 5.14. Ethernet EPON


,
OLT Ethernet, ONU . ONU
, , ,
(
). Ethernet, EPON,
Gigabit Ethernet 8 ,
EPON.

ONU

(time
slot).
- -.
EPON
(2 OSI),

Multipoint MAC Control ().


64 :
GATE (), REPORT () REGISTER ().
GATE OLT ONU

ONU .
GATE ,
REPORT, ONU. REPORT
ONU

OLT,

ONU

OLT
ONU.

ONU.
EPON
Ethernet
( BPON GPON).

, IP- Ethernet
, . IP-
:

IP- (VoIP),

IP- (IPTV) - ,

IP (VoD).

IEEE 8002, EPON


:

IEEE 802.1D,

(Virtual Local Area Network

-VLAN), IEEE 802.1Q.



3 , 23 = 8
. 802.3D
, . 5.8.
5.8 IEEE
802.ID

111

(
, , SNMP, RIP)
. ,

110

(< 10 ), ,
(VoIP)
. ,

101

(< 100 ), ,
(IPTV,
VoD)
(Controlled

100

load).
,
(, ,
,

()

011

,
Best effort (Excellent).
,
.

000

(
)
(Best efforl).
, , web-

(Background).

010
001

VLAN
.
,

IEEE 802.1Q, VLAN,


Ethernet VLAN 4 .

VLAN (VLAN ID) 12 .


VLAN 212
= 4096 .
VLAN

VLAN

,
. ,
,
. ,
, ,

,
.

IEEE

802.3ah

EPON

(.

5.15)

,
Ethernet. EPON ,
,
(, ).
1550 - 1560 .

. 5.15. EPON, (AMVSB) (DVB-C)

5.4.
. 5.16 :
1.

"" -.

;
2.

" " -.

. ,
;
3.

(N) -.

.
5.16 ,
.
.
. ,
, ()
( 5.16).
.

5.16.
- . -,
Ethernet ( EFM, IEEE 802.3ah)
.
100 1000 /.
"" (. 5.16,),

.

" " (.
5.16,). ,

.
, .
(N), ,
EPON GPON Ethernet.
BPON ATM. EPON ,
. GPON
,
.
GPON ATM SDH ,
,
Ethernet. , -
,
.
, ,
EPON GPON
.
5.5 APON, EPON
GPON

APON (BPON)
ITU-T

EPON
IEEE

GPON
/ ITU-T

SG15 / FSAN
1998
ITU-T G.981.x

EFMA
FSAN
2004 2003
IEEE
ITU-T G.984.x

SG15

, 155/155

, 622/155

802.3ah
1000/1000

622/622
ATM
NRZ
20

32

FEC

1244/155,622,1244
2488/622,1244,2488

Ethernet
8B/10B
20 (>30)

SDH
NRZ
20

16

64 (128)

IP,

5.5. ,

5.5.1.

.

(Light Emitting Diode,LED);

(Vertical Cavity Surface

Emitting Laser, VCSEL);

(Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, Laser).

().

,
( EN 50173-1).
Gigabit Ethernet Ethernet 10 /
.
Ethernet 100 /.
-20...-5 , 30-100 .

.

,
.
,
.

(VCSEL)

10
/ 300 .

EN 50173-1
. VCSEL ,
(DFB)
- . ,
VCSEL, , ,
. VCSEL


. VCSEL 850 , 5-10 , < 1
. VCSEL
1310 , .

.
.
:

(MLM laser, MLM = Multi-Longitudinal

Mode), , -;

(SLM laser, SLM = Single-Longitudinal

Mode), , (DFB).


,
.

3 ,
.

.
<< 1 , -20 .

5.17.

5.17. - -


.
( ITU-T G.652.D),
,
1310 1550 .
N
1480-1560 , 1260-1360 .
(ONU)
, ,
N 32 (ONU)
(OLT). (OLT) .
,
N, ITU-T, BPON GPON,
IEEE 802.3ah EPON.
0-13 .
N (ONU)
.

,
(OLT).
N

(ONU) (OLT)
, "1"
1, "" - .
, "" ,
.
.
:

1 0 .

N. ,
EPON
6 . .
(,
-) 0,45 /,
(, DFB) - 0,1 /.
CWDM DWDM.
CWDM 20 ,
DWDM 0,6 .

5.5.2.

-
: PIN ().

.
.

,
(

).

PIN -55 -40 ,


-65 -40 .
.
, ()
.
.
. 5.18
PIN .

10 -12.

"1",

. 5.18.
( "1") PIN .
= 10 -12

5.5.1.

,
, .
,
. 1

P1 P2 P3
, .



- (Hybrid Fibre and Coaxial),

90- PON
(Passive Optical Network),
.

5.5.2.

,
, .

X ( ) Y- (
). -
(
22). Y-
, (
12).
Y- . Y-
: . Y ,
.
.


() : 1310 1550 .
PON ,

. , , 1550
,
1310 .