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. . .

. . , . .

2004

517.5
()22.16
66

. ., . .
66
: 2 . / . . ,
. . . .: , 2004.
ISBN 5-98419-006-0
I : . 2004. 176 .
ISBN 5-98419-007-9

( 04-01-14126).

ISBN 5-98419-007-9 (. I)
ISBN 5-98419-006-0

c . ., . ., 2004

c

. . . , 2004



1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1. R- . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. C-.
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.
2.6.
. . . . . .
3. - . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. - .
3.3. - . . . . .
3.4. -
3.5. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1. . . . . . . . .
4.2. . . . . . . . . . .
4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2. . . . .

1
1
1
2
2
4
8
12
12
13
15
17
18
20
21
21
22
23
24
26
30
31
35
35
38
42
45
47
53
53
59

vi

5.3.
6.
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.
6.6.
6.7.
6.8.
6.9.
6.10.
6.11.
6.12.
6.13.
6.14.
6.15.
7.
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5.
7.6.
7.7.
7.8.
7.9.
7.10.
7.11.
8.
8.1.
8.2.
8.3.
8.4.

. . . . . . . . . . . 62
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
66
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
. 68
. . . . . 72

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
. . . . . . . . . . . 74
75
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
. . . . . . . . . . . 82
82
z a . . . 85
86
. . . . . . . 87
. . . . 88
. . . . . . . 89
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
a = . . . . . 94
. . 95
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
. . . . . . . . . . 98
. . . . . . . . 99
a = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

8.5.
8.6.
8.7.

. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. .
9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2. - . . . . .
9.3. . . . . .
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2. . .
10.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
11.2. : z . . . . . . .
11.3. : ln z . . . . . .
11.4. . . .
11.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6. .
11.7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
12.1. w = z . . . . .
12.2. w = ln z . . . .
12.3. w = arcsin z . .
12.4.
12.5. . . . .
12.6. . . . .
12.7.
() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii

101
101
103
106
106
107
110
114
114
115
116
118
120
122
126
126
128
130
131
134
136
138
140
144
144
147
147
149
150
152
158
163

viii


165
13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
13.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
13.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
13.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
14.1. . . . . . . . . . . . 174
14.2. . 175
14.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
15. . . 181
15.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
15.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
16.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
16.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
16.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
17.1. . . . . . . . . 192
17.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
18. . . . 200
18.1. . . . . . . . . . . . 200
18.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
19.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
19.2. . . . . . . . . . 219
20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
20.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
20.2. . . . . . . . . . 228
20.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
21.1. . . . . . . . . 234
21.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

21.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.
C2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1. C2 . .
22.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.3. . . . . .
23. . . . .
23.1. . . . . . . . . .
23.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ix

242
246
246
248
250
254
254
262
265
265
270
276
276
283
287
289


,

- . . . . .
, , , (
, ).
( ) , , .
( , -, ),
. . .
, .
, , . . . , ,
, , , ( ,
). , (
).
.
, ( 3- ).
, , , .

xii

. ,

(
, ., , [10], [5]).
( 04-01-00236,
02-02-04002, 02-01-01291), ( -1542.2003.1, -2040.2003.1)

.

1.
1.1. . C (x, y) . z = (x, y). x y
z = (x, y)
x = Re z,

y = Im z.

z = (x, y) z := (x, y).


( ) R C R = {(x, 0)}, ,
,
R = {z C : z = z}.
, ,
iR = {(0, y)} = {z : z + z = 0},
, .
R.
C R2 , ( R). C
= R2 1 := (1, 0) i := (0, 1),
z = (x, y)
z = (x, y) = x 1 + y i x + iy.

1.

1.2. . C ,
1 i
1 1 = 1,

1 i = i 1 = i,

i i = 1,

C. ,
z1 = x1 + iy1
z2 = x2 + iy2
z1 z2 = (x1 + iy1 )(x2 + iy2 ) = (x1 x2 y1 y2 ) + i(x1 y2 + x2 y1 ).
, C
= R2 , , , . , C .
1 := (1, 0), z = x + iy, 0 := (0, 0),
z 1 ,
z 1

x
1
y
= 2
+i 2
.
z
x + y2
x + y2

Q R,
, . , C . ,
(., , . 1.3).
. : .
: z1 , . . . , zn (..
, ),
z1 + + zn = 0 z11 + + zn1 = 0.

1.3. .
z = 0
z = rei := r(cos + i sin ),

(1.1)

1.3.

. 1


r = |z| :=


x2 + y 2

z = x + iy, R = arg z, < arg z  ,


R z (. . 1).
, , z, (1.1), ,
cos =

x
,
r

sin =

y
.
r


Arg z := {arg z + 2k : k Z},

< arg z  ,

z.
.
z1 = r1 ei1 z2 = r2 ei2
z1 z2 = r1 ei1 r2 ei2 = r1 r2 ei(1 +2 ) .
. : .
: , a C \ {0}, k N,
z , az k .

1.

. 2

1.4. . C , C
R2 (.. , ). C,
z0 C z0 (. . 2):
U = U (z0 ) = {z C : |z z0 | < },

> 0.

,
C
,
. ,
.
.
. C
: [, ] C,
, R, < . 1 : [1 , 1 ] C, 2 : [2 , 2 ] C
(. . 3),
: [1 , 1 ] [2 , 2 ],
[1 , 1 ] [2 , 2 ],
2 ( (t)) 1 (t),

t [1 , 1 ].

1.4.

. 3

, : [, ] C ,
,
.
. :
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

e2it ,
e4it ,
e2it ,
e2i sin t ,

0
0
0
0

t
t
t
t

1;
1;
1;
/2?

. : [, ] C ,

[, ] ([, ]). : [, ] C , () = ()
[, ) ([, )).
: [, ] C [, ] R2 ,
.
. , [, ] C, t [, ] (t)

( ,
, (t) , (t) ).
, (t)

t (t)

= 0
t [, ]. : [, ] C (.
. 4), [, ]
= t0 < t1 < < tn1 < tn =

1.

. 4

[tj1 , tj ] ,
.
, ,
, 1
( )
.
. (1) , C .
f : [0, 1] C , f  (t) = f (1) f (0)
t [0, 1].
(2) C- . f : [0, 1] C , f (1) f (0)
f  (t): f (1) f (0) ch f  ([0, 1]).

.
. C D C. D , a, b D
, a b D.
, D C
.
. D C
D . , D

1.4.

(, , ) .

. 5

. D
. , . , D1 , D2 D , (. . 5)
D1 D2 = D1 D2 = D.
a D1 , b D2 , : [0, 1] D
,
(0) = a, (1) = b.
K := {t [0, 1] : (t) D1 }
t0 t0 := sup{t : t K}. 0 <
t0 < 1, D1 D2 . z0 := (t0 )
D1 , D2 . ,
,
t0 + K

> 0,


t0
/K

> 0.

/ D . , (t0 )
D.
, D .
z0 D D1 D z D, z0

1.

: [0, 1] D. D2 := D \ D1 .
z D D , , ,
D1 , D2 . D
, , D2 , . D1 = D , D . 

- .
G C F G . F
G, F = G.
, D
D := D \ D. , , , .
, D ,
(). D , D
. ,
D ,
.
,
. , G D ( G  D),
G D.
1.5. . C ,
.
. C
C, C .
C := C{} {z C : |z| > R}{}.
, C,
C.

1.5.

. 6

. C
.
S=



2

1
1
=
(, , ) R3 : 2 + 2 +
2
4



R3 0, 0, 12
12 (. . 6). C
{ = 0} R3 z = x + iy
Z = (, , ) S , z
N = (0, 0, 1) S. Z z,

= tx,

= ty,

= 1 t.

S t,
2

t (x + y ) +

1
t
2

2
=

1
4

t=

1
.
1 + |z|2

10

1.

, Z = (, , )
=

x
,
1 + |z|2

y
,
1 + |z|2

|z|2
.
1 + |z|2

t = 1,
x=

,
1

y=

.
1

, Z z S \ {N } N
C. ,
C, {z C : |z| > R},
N S. ,
S \ {N } C
S C, N
C, S C.
C .
. (1) ?
(2) z  1/z?
(3) ?

. , C ,
|z1 z2 |2 = (x1 x2 )2 + (y1 y2 )2

z1 , z2 C,

. (z1 , z2 ) z1 , z2 C
( R3 ) .

1.5.

11

. ,
(z1 , z2 ) = 

|z1 z2 |

.
1 + |z1 |2 1 + |z2 |2

, C (.. z1 , z2 , {|z| < R}) (z1 , z2 ) ,

C1 (R)|z1 z2 |  (z1 , z2 )  C2 (R)|z1 z2 |


(: C1 (R) = 1/(1+R2 ), C2 (R) = 1). z C
:
1
(z, ) = 
 1.
1 + |z|2
C




{z C : (z, ) < } = z C : |z| > 2 1 .
, C,
, C,
.

12

2.

2. .

2.1. R-. C- f : C C
R2 R2 , z = x + iy
f (z) = f (x, y) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) = Re f (x, y) + i Im f (x, y).
. f (x, y) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y), z0 = x0 + iy0 , R- z0 , u(x, y), v(x, y)
(x0 , y0 ) x, y.
, z = x+iy, z0 , x := x x0 , y := y y0 . ,

z := z z0 = x + iy,

f := f (z) f (z0 ) = f (x, y) f (x0 , y0 ).

R- f z0 a, b C ,
f = a x + b y + o(|z|)

z 0.

, ,
> 0 > 0 ,
|f a x b y| < |z|
z, |z z0 | < .
, , f
x y z0 ,
f
f
lim
(z0 ) =
= a,
x0, y=0 x
x

f
f
lim
(z0 ) =
= b.
y0, x=0 y
y

. , R- f z0 .
: , f (z) = z 3 /|z|2 ,
z0 = 0 ,
f
(0) = 1 f
(0) = i, R-
x
y
z0 = 0.

2.2. C-.

13

x y z := x + iy z := x
iy, R- f z0




f
1 f
f
1 f
f =
(z0 ) i (z0 ) z +
(z0 ) + i (z0 ) z + o(z).
2 x
y
2 x
y
(2.1)
(
z z)




f
1 f
f
1 f
f
f
:=
i
:=
+i
,
.
z
2 x
y
z
2 x
y
(2.1) df (z0 ) : Tz0 C Tf (z0 ) C f , R- z0 :
df (z0 ) =

f
f
(z0 ) dz +
(z0 ) dz.
z
z

Tz0 C Tf (z0 ) C
C, df (z0 ) : Tz0 C
Tf (z0 ) C C C,
df (z0 ) : C  df (z0 ) =

f
f
(z0 ) +
(z0 )
z
z

C Tz0 C.
2.2. C-. .
. f , z0 , C- z0 ,
a , z0
f = f (z) f (z0 ) = a z + o(z).
:
f
= a + o(1)
z
..
lim

z0

z 0,

f
f (z) f (z0 )
= lim
=: f  (z0 ).
zz0
z
z z0

14

2.

f  (z0 ) f
z0 .
. f , z0 ,
C- f
R- z0

f
(z0 ) = 0.
z

f
z (z0 )

= f  (z0 ).

. = . C- f z0 , f R- z0
:
df (z0 ) = a

C Tz0 C.

, f
z (z0 ) = 0.
= . R- f z0 ,

f
f
(z0 )z +
(z0 )z + o(z)
f =
z
z
z0 .
,
f
(z0 )z + o(z),
f =
z
.. f C- z0 .

f = u + iv


1 f
f
f
=
+i
z
2 x
y
, (.. u = Re f , v = Im f
x = Re z, y = Im z):
f
f
f
= 0
+i
= 0
z
x
y

 

u v
u v

+
+i
= 0.
x y
y x

2.3.

15

,
f
(z0 ) = 0

z
v
u
(x0 , y0 ) =
(x0 , y0 ),
x
y

u
v
(x0 , y0 ) = (x0 , y0 ).
y
x

r, , z, z z = rei , z = rei .
z
, ,
r
ei
=
,
z
2

iei
=
.
z
2r

,



r

ei
i
=
+
=
+
.
z
z r
z
2 r r
f = u + iv, :
f
=0
z

f
i f
+
=0
r
r
u
1 v
v
1 u
=
,
=
.
r
r
r
r

. (1) f (z) = u(x) + iv(y), C- z0 C.


(2) f (z) C- z0 . R- u(z), v(z), (z), (z)
z0 f = u + iv = ei . ,
u, v, , z0 ,
f (z) z0 .

2.3. . f
R- z0 .
f =

f
f
(z0 )z +
(z0 )z + o(z).
z
z

z = |z|ei ,
z = z = |z|ei = z e2i ,

16

2.

. 7




f
f
2i
(z0 ) +
(z0 )e
f =
z + o(z).
z
z
z z 0
arg z = = const. ,
R- f z0

lim

z0
arg z=

f
f
f
=
(z0 ) +
(z0 )e2i =: f (z0 ),
z
z
z

f . , 0 2

f (z0 )

f
(z
)

(z
)
(.
.
7). z 0
z 0

. f R- z0 . f (z0 ) ,
f
z (z0 ) = 0.
f (z0 ) =

f
(z0 ) = f  (z0 )
z

R.

2.4.

17

2.4. .
. f
z0 C, C-
. f D,
.
, D,
O(D).
. f R- z0 . C, f , z0 , df (z0 ), R2 , (.. )
. ,
f , D, .
C- .
. , R- f , z0 f C- z0 f  (z0 ) = 0.
. = . f C- z0 f  (z0 ) = 0.
df (z0 ) :  f  (z0 ) = |f  (z0 )| ei arg f

(z0 )

arg f  (z0 )
|f  (z0 )| . , , R2 . ,
f z0 .
= . f R- z0 .

df (z0 ) :  A + B,
f
A := f
z (z0 ), B := z (z0 ).  i
90 .

18

2.

, df (z0 )
f , ..
Ai + Bi = i(A + B ) C.
, 2iB = 0 C , ,
B = 0. , z0 f C- .
f  (z0 ) = 0, df (z0 )
, .

. (1) f z0 . , z0 {z : u(z) = u(z0 )}
{z : v(z) = v(z0 )} u(z) := Re f (z) v(z) := Im f (z) z0 z0
.
(2) , Jf (z0 ) R-
z0 f , R2 R2 ,

Jf (z0 ) =
(z0 )

(z0 )

.
z
z
, f z0 , Jf (z0 ) > 0. ( : .)

. 8

2.5. .
.
f U z0
f  (z) U .

2.5.

19

U z0 , .. (. . 8)
: [0, 1] U,

(0) = z0 ,

(t)
= 0 t [0, 1].
:= f : [0, 1] f (U )
f (U ),

(t)
= f  ((t))(t).

(2.2)

(t)


([0, 1]) (t);

(t).

(t)

ds (t) = |(t)|

dt , , ds (t) = |(t)|
dt,

ds (0)
|(0)|
=
= |f  (z0 )|,
ds (0)
|(0)|

.. f  (z0 )
z0 f .
, , , z0 , . f
z0 , f (z0 ). ,
. 2.4.
(2.2) ,

arg f  (z0 ) = arg (0)


arg (0),

.. f  (z0 ) z0 f .
, , z0 , . , : ,
z0 , .
. f f  (z0 ) = 0.
, f (z) = z 2 z0 = 0,
.

20

2.

2.6. .
. f ,
C, ( ) z = ,
 
1
g(z) := f
z
( ) .
. , f ,
limz f  (z) = 0.

. f : C C, z0 C, ( ) z0 ,
F (z) :=

1
f (z)

( ) z0 . ,
f () = , ( ) f
z0 = ( )
G(z) :=
.

1
1
=
g(z)
f (1/z)

3.1. -

21

3. -
R2 () ,
. C

z  az + b a, b. , C ( ) - ,
z 

az + b
cz + d

a, b, c, d.

C , ..
C. ( C.) -
(. . 3.4).
3.1. - .
. -
w = f (z) =

az + b
,
cz + d

a, b, c, d C,

ad bc = 0.

ad bc = 0 w const. c = 0

a
b
w= z+
d
d
(, d = 0).
- C, z = d/c (
c = 0) z = . . c = 0,

w =

z=

d
c

w=

a
c

z = .

c = 0, w = z = .

22

3. -

3.1. -
(.. , )
C .
. c = 0 ( c = 0 ).
. , w = ac ,
dw b
z=
cw + a
, w = f (z) (, z = dc , ). w = ac , , z = , w = z = dc .
z  w.
z = dc , , z = dc ,
az + b
= ,
zd/c cz + d
lim

lim

a
az + b
= .
cz + d
c

w  z .

3.2. - .
z = dc ,
w = f (z) =

az + b
cz + d

w = f (z) ,

ad bc
dw
=
dz
(cz + d)2
. ( , ad bc = 0
w = f (z).)
w = f (z) z = dc , ,
c = 0 ( c = 0 ).
. 2.6
W =

cz + d
1
=
w
az + b

3.3. -

23

z = dc . ,
dW
bc ad
=
dz
(az + b)2
2

c
z = dc bcad
= 0. , w = f (z) z = dc .
w = f (z) z = ( , c = 0)
 
1
a + bz
g(z) = f
=
z
c + dz

, , .
-,
dw b
z=
cw + a
w = ac , . ,

3.2. - .
. - :
(1) U C;
(2) U C;
(3) C C?

3.3. - . - . , ,
f1 (z) =

a1 z + b 1
c1 z + d1

f2 (z) =

a2 z + b 2
c2 z + d2

- , f1 f2
f11 -.
,
- 22-.

24

3. -

.


a b
GL(2, C)
c d
-
w=

az + b
,
cz + d


GL(2, C) .
, , .. {I : C },
C := C\ {0}, I 2 2-. ,
SL(2, C) 1 ( w ), : I. ,

GL(2, C) SL(2, C)
=: PSL(2, C).
=
C
{I}

- .
0 ,
, z = . 0
GL(2, C) SL(2, C).
3.4. - .
. ( C )
C.
, C .
3.3. -
C C.

3.4. -

25

. c = 0 (.. ) . ,
-
w = f (z) =

az + b
cz + d

c = 0
f (z) =

a
ad bc
B

=: A +
,
c
c(cz + d)
z+C

.. f = f1 f2 f3
f1 (z) = A + Bz,

f2 (z) =

1
,
z

f3 (z) = z + C.

, -
1
z  .
z
(
) 3.3 . z  1z z  z,
> 0.
, z  1z ( !)
.
z  z1
. , z = x+iy
C
A(x2 + y 2 ) + B1 x + B2 y + C = 0,

(3.1)

A, B1 , B2 , C R

. (, A = 0
, A = 0 .) , , , , (3.1)
A, B1 , B2 , C R C,
.

26

3. -

(3.1)

(3.2)
Azz + Bz + Bz + C = 0,
B = 12 (B1 iB2 ). w = 1z , (3.2), , :
A + Bw + Bw + Cww = 0.
C
, - . , C
z  1z C.
z  z, > 0,
.

. , (3.2) A, C R, B C A = 0, |B|2 AC
 > 0.
z0 = B/A, R = |B|2 AC/|A|.

. (. 2.5), f , .. z0
, f (z0 ). - ( C) ( C),
(
).
3.5. - . R2
,
. C
, ,
, -
C.
C , , C.
. z1 , z2 C = {|z z0 | = R} (. . 9),

3.5.

27

z0 z0 R2 :
|z1 z0 | |z2 z0 | = R2 .
z0
.

. 9

. z1 , z2 C = {z : Azz + Bz + Bz + C = 0} (.
(3.2) . 3.4) ,
Az1 z 2 + Bz1 + Bz 2 + C = 0.
, z1 , z2 , z z1 , z z 2 .
. 1 . , =
{z : |z z0 | = R} .
z1 , z2 , z1 z0 z2 z0 , z1 z0
R2 /|z2 z0 |, ..
R2
z1 z0 =
.
z2 z0

(z1 z0 )(z 2 z 0 ) = R2

z1 z 2 z 0 z1 z0 z 2 + z0 z 0 = R 2

:
(z z0 )(z z 0 ) = R2

zz z 0 z z0 z + z0 z 0 = R2 ,

, .

28

3. -

2 . ,
Bz + Bz + C = 0, .. Re(Bz + 12 C) = 0. |B|, , |B| = 1.
, B = 1, C = 0
: z1 , z2
{Re z = 0} z1 + z 2 = 0. , w = Bz + 12 C,
, : z1 , z2 = {Re(Bz + 12 C) = 0} w1 = Bz1 + 12 C
w2 = Bz2 + 12 C {Re w = 0}.
, w1 + w 2 = 0, ..
1
1
Bz1 + C + Bz 2 + C = 0
2
2

Bz1 + Bz 2 + C = 0,

.
,

3.4. - w = f (z)
, .. z1 , z2 C ,
f (z1 ), f (z2 ) f ().
. -
w = az + b w = 1z (. 3.3).
( ) , w = z1 w = z, > 0. ,
z1 , z2 (, ,
). .
, w = f (z) = z1
= {Azz + Bz + Bz + C = 0}

f () = {A + Bw + Bw + Cww = 0}.
z1 , z2 , ..
Az1 z 2 + Bz1 + Bz 2 + C = 0,

3.5.

w1 = f (z1 ) =

1
z1

29

w2 = f (z2 ) =

1
z2

A + Bw 2 + Bw1 + Cw1 w 2 = 0,
.. w1 , w2 f (). w = z
.

3.4 , , .
. C (.. C). z1 , z2 C \ C, z1 , z2 , (. . 10).

. 10

3.4 . {}, z1 , z2 C, (
, z1 = z2 ).
. w = f (z) f () C (
!), w1 = f (z1 ), w2 = f (z2 )
f
f (). , z =
f 1 (w), , , w1 w2 , {}

30

3. -

. w1 w2 , .
. (1) z1 , z2 C, z1 = z2 . 3.4, :
() z1 , z2 ;
() |z z1 |/|z z2 | = k k > 0.
(2) , , 3.4.

3.6. . -

az + b
w = f (z) =
cz + d

(
). ,
- .
3.5. z1 , z2 , z3 C w1 , w2 , w3 C, - w = f (z)
,
wk = f (zk ) k = 1, 2, 3.
. , zk , wk (, ,
).
f . -
f1 (z) =

z z1 z3 z2

z z2 z3 z1

z1 , z2 , z3 0, , 1 C. , -
w w1 w3 w2

f2 (w) =
w w2 w3 w1
w1 , w2 , w3 0, , 1 C. , f (z) = f21 f1 (z) z1 , z2 , z3
w1 , w2 , w3 .

3.7. -

31

f . - f z1 , z2 , z3 w1 , w2 , w3 . F := f2 f f11 0, , 1
. F () = , F (z) = Az + B. F (0) = 0 B = 0, F (1) = 1 A = 1.
, F (z) = z , , f = f21 f1 , .. f .

. (1)
z2 z3 z1 z3
:
z2 z4 z1 z4
z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 . , - .
(2) , z1 , z2 , z3 , z4
C .

3.7. - .
. -
D C - D
.
, - D C - .
- ,
C, C, U := {z C :
|z| < 1} H := {z C : Im z > 0}.
.
3.1. - C - .
3.2. - C 0 .
.

32

3. -

. 11

3.3. -
U
w = f (z) = ei

za
,
1 az

|a| < 1,

R.

(3.3)

. 1 . w = f (z) -
U . a := f 1 (0) U
a := 1/a, a S := U (. . 11). f S ,
f (a ) 3.4
f (a) = 0 f (S) = S, .. f (a ) = .
f (z) , f (a) = 0,
f (a ) = ,
f (z) =

za
z a

C
f (z) = 1

za
1 az

1 . z = 1
, |f (1)| = 1 ( f (S) S), ,
|1 | = 1, .. - U
(3.3).
2 . , w = f (z) (3.3)
U . , |z| = 1 (.. zz = 1),
|f (z)| =

|z a|
|z a|
=
= 1,
|z| |1 az|
|z a|

.. f (S) S. f (S) , , f (S) = S, .. |f (z)| = 1 |z| = 1. ,

3.7. -

33

|f (z)| < 1 z U . (, , ,
|f (z0 )| > 1 z0 U . |f (a)| = 0,

|f (z)| 1
[a, z0 ] U , , |f (z)| = 1 |z| = 1.)
, |f (z)| > 1 z C \ U ( |f (z0 )| < 1
z0 C \ U , z0 a = 1/a
C \ U ).
, f (U ) = U .

3.4. -
H
w = f (z) =

az + b
,
cz + d

a, b, c, d R,

ad bc > 0.

(3.4)

. 1 . w = f (z) -
H. f f 1 R := R {} ,
x1 := f 1 (0),

x2 := f 1 (),

x3 := f 1 (1)

R. , x1 , x2 , x3
(, , ).
3.5 f
f (z) =

z x1 x3 x2

,
z x2 x3 x1

..
f (z) =

az + b
cz + d

a, b, c, d R. f (i) H, .. Im f (i) > 0.


,


ai + b
ad bc
> 0,
Im
= 2
ci + d
c + d2
ad bc > 0. , f (3.4).
2 . , w = f (z) (3.4) H. ,

34

3. -

. 2 3.3. : , w = az+b
cz+d a, b, c, d

Im w =

ad bc
Im z
|cz + d|2

z C. , (3.4)
H.

. -
D1 C D2 C - D1 D2 .
. (1) ( C)
, C (.. ,
C). , C . , H U .
(2) - .

4.1.

35

4.
4.1. . : I C
, I = [, ].
f : (I) C , f
I.
g(t) = f ((t))(t)

I = [, ]


f dz :=
f ((t))(t)
dt

(4.1)

f .
(. . 1.4), : I C
, I = [, ]
= t0 < t1 < < tn1 < tn =
[tj1 , tj ] ,
. , (4.1),

f dz =

n1
tj
j=1

f ((t))(t)
dt

tj1

4.1.

f dz,

(4.1) ,
.
= t 0 < t 1 < < tn =
I = [, ] (I) (. . 12),

z0 := a = (), z1 := (t1 ), . . . , zn1 := (tn1 ), zn := b = ().



j := (j ),

tj1 < j < tj

j = 1, . . . , n.

36

4.

. 12


f dz = lim

f (j )zj ,

j=1

zj := zj zj1 , := maxj=1,...,n |zj |. (, (t)

= 0
t I, ; 0 , maxj=1,...,n |tj tj1 | 0.)

4.2. f dz

. f = u + iv dz = (t)
dt = dx + i dy



f dz = (u dx v dy) + i (u dy + v dx),

.
4.3. , .. : I C, (t) , (t)

|
(t)|

I.

f dz (4.1),

f ((t))(t).

f , f
I.

4.1.

37

. 13

, .
4.1. , . 1.3
,
x, y R.

ex+iy := ex (cos y + i sin y)

, :
(1) ez+2i = ez z C;
(2) R eit
t R ieit .
r a C (. . 13):
0  t  2,

z = (t) = a + reit ,

f (z) = (z a)n
n.
(t)
= ireit ,

f ((t)) = rn eint ,


(z a) dz = ir
n

n+1

ei(n+1)t dt.
0

(, ,
), n = 1

ei(n+1)t dt =
0

e2i(n+1) 1
,
i(n + 1)

38

4.

ez 2i
( (1) ). n = 1
:


2

ei(n+1)t dt =

dt = 2.

,


0
n Z \ {1},
(z a)n dz =
2i n = 1.

4.2. : I C .
f (z) = z n n =
0, 1, 2, . . . .
,



d n+1
1
n
n
[
z dz =
(t)(t)
dt =
(t)] dt
n
+
1
dt

bn+1 an+1
n+1 () n+1 ()
=
.
n+1
n+1

,
z n dz a
=

b . ,
.
, n = 1
.
. b C \ {0} L(b) := {c C : ec = b}. , b = rei r > 0 R
{c = log r + i + 2in : n Z} c L(b) : [0, 1] C \ {0} 1 b
dz
= c.
,
z

4.2. . ( 5 ).
1 . . f , g a, b C,



(af + bg) dz = a f dz + b g dz.

4.2.

39

. 14

2 . .
1 : [, 1 ] C,

2 : [1 , ] C

1 (1 ) = 2 (1 ) (. . 14).

= 1 2 : [, ] C,

(t) =

1 (t)
2 (t)

 t  1 ,
1  t  .

f = 1 2 ,



f dz =
f dz +
f dz.
1 2

4.4. , . 4.1
= 1 n ,
1 , . . . , n . 1 , . . . , n .

= 1 2 1 , 2 .
3 . .
: [, ] C

40

4.

. 15

,
1 : [1 , 1 ] C , ..
= 1 ,
: [, ] [1 , 1 ]
, [, ]
[1 , 1 ] (. . 15). f : ([, ]) C
, 1


f dz =
f dz.
1

4.5. (. . 1.4),
. 3

, .
4 . .

1 : [, ] C
: [, ] C , ..
1 (t) = ( + t)

 t  .

f : ([, ]) C , 1


f dz = f dz.
1

4.2.

41

5 . . f
: [, ] C.

f (z) dz

|f (z)| |dz|,


|f (z)| |dz| :=

|f ((t))| |(t)|

dt

|f |
. ,
|f (z)|  M

z ([, ]),

f (z) dz
 M ||,

|| .

. J :=

f (z) dz J

J = |J|ei , R.

|J| = ei J =
ei f ((t))(t)
dt.

,

|J| =
Re{ei f ((t))(t)}

dt



|ei f ((t))(t)|

dt =

|f ((t))| |(t)|

dt,

..

f (z) dz

|f (z)| |dz|.

,

|(t)|

dt.
|| =

42

4.

. , |dz|
dz. 4.1 . 4.1,
: I C ( (I)) f : (I) C,

f (z) dz

|f (z)| dz,

4.3. . 4.2 . 4.1 ,


f (z) = z n n
.
,
. , . ,
, .
, C 1 - f D G  D D, : I D
(I) = G. , = f dz,




=
d =
d(f dz) =
df dz
G
G
G
G

= (fz dz + fz dz) dz =
fz dz dz = 0.
G

,
.
,
( ), f C 1 (D).
,
.
( f ), , G .
.

4.3.

43

. 16

. f D,
 D :

f dz = 0.

. , , 0  D ,

= M > 0.

(4.2)
f
dz

0 (. . 16). f 0
f ( 2 4 . 4.2). (4.2) ,

M
4 . 1 ,


.
f
dz

4
1
1
2 ,

f dz

 2 .

4
2

44

4.

, n- n

f dz

 n ,
n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
(4.3)

4
n
0 1 n
D, z0 D.
C- f
z0 . > 0
> 0 , U z0
U = U (z0 ) := {z C : |z z0 | < }
f
f (z) = f (z0 ) + f  (z0 )(z z0 ) + (z)(z z0 ),

(4.4)

|(z)| < z U . (4.4),


n
n  U



f dz =
f (z0 ) dz +
f  (z0 )(z z0 ) dz
n
n
n

(z)(z z0 ) dz.
+
n


, 4.2 . 4.1, n = 0 n = 1. 5 . 4.2

(z)(z z0 ) dz

|z z0 | |dz|  |n |2 ,

|n | n . ( , |z z0 | < |n | z n .)
,

f dz

 |n |2 .
(4.5)

4.4.

45

n 0 .
|n | =

|0 |
.
2n

(4.5)

 |0 | .
f
dz

4n
n

(4.3), ,
M  |0 |2
> 0, .. M = 0 . .

4.4. .
. f D C
D F ,
F  (z) = f (z) z D.
.
4.1. F - f D, f
F , ..
F (z) + const.
. F1 , F2 f D. := F1 F2 D
 (z) 0

D.


(. . 2.2)

= i
=  (z).
x
y

46

4.

0
x

0
y

D.

x y
D, ,
(z) const

D.


, . ,
,
.
f : R R.
4.2. U := {z C : |za| < r},
f : U C U

f dz = 0

 U.



F (z) =

z U,

f () d,
a

( , a
z) f U .
. z U
> 0 , {z + h : h C, |h| < } U (. . 17).
f
a, z z + h, |h| < ,

F (z + h) F (z) =

z+h

f () d.
z

4.5.

47

. 17

,
f (z) =

1
h

z+h

f (z) d,
z

z+h

d = h (. 4.2 . 4.1). ,
z

F (z + h) F (z)
1
=
h
h

z+h

f () d
z

= f (z) +

1
h

z+h

{f () f (z)} d.

5 . 4.2 f
{z + h : h C, |h| < },


z+h

F (z + h) F (z)

f (z)
=

{f () f (z)} d

h
h z
1
|h| max |f () f (z)| 0 h 0.

|h|
[z,z+h]
, F C-

z F  (z) = f (z).
. f , U C,
U .
4.2 .
4.5. . , . 4.4, , f , D, U D. , D. , D (..

48

4.

D) f ? (. 4.9), ,
U D C. , ,
f
. , , f
: I D. .
. : I D D f : D C .
: I C f
, :
(1) I;
(2) t0 I U D
z0 = (t0 ) FU f
,
(t) = FU ((t))
t u = u(t0 ) I,
t0 (. . 18).

. 18

4.6. , t,
z = (t). , U  U  , z  = (t ) z  = (t ), (. . 19),

4.5.

49

. 19

FU  FU  U  U  . .
4.7. f : D C
F : D C D,
(t) := F ((t))
f : I D.
. f D
: I D . f
.
. .

= t0 < t1 < < tn1 < tn =


I = [, ], Ij := [tj1 , tj ]
Uj D (. . 20).
f , U1 . F1 f U1 . F2
f U2
F2 F1 const

U1 U2 = .

F2 , , F2 F1
U1 U2 . ,
Uj Fj ,
Fj Fj1

Uj1 Uj = .

50

4.

. 20

: I C,
(t) = Fj ((t))

t [tj1 , tj ].

I f .
. 1 , 2 f
. t0 I.
u I t0
1 (t) = F1 ((t)),

2 (t) = F2 ((t)),

F1 , F2 f U D
(t0 ). F1 F2 const U , 1 2
u. t0 I , 
1 2 I, .. 1 2 const.
.
. : [, ] D D f
. f .

f dz = () ().

. 1 . ,
f F
D.

4.5.

51

F f (.
4.7)

t [, ].

(t) = F ((t)) + const,

, (t)

(t)
= F  ((t))(t)
= f ((t))(t).

f dz =

f ((t))(t)
dt =

(t)
dt = () ().

2 . : [, ] D j : [tj1 , tj ] D ,
f . j
,



f dz =
f dz =
((tj ) (tj1 )) = () ().


4.8. ,
f ,
D, (
) : I D, :

f dz := f

I.
4.9. f (z) =

1
z



1
D = z C : < |z| < 2 ,
2

52

4.

F . , 4.7
: [, ] D:

f dz = F (()) F (()) = 0,

() = ().

|z|=1

dz
= 2i
z

(. 4.1 . 4.1). , g,
D,
D, r ( 12 , 2) ,

g dz = 0.
|z|=r

5.1.

53

5.
5.1. .
. : I = [0, 1] D D,
. ( : [, ] D
.)
5.1. 0 : I D 1 : I D
0 (0) = 1 (0) = a,

0 (1) = 1 (1) = b

D, = (s, t) : I I D , (. . 21)
(0, t) 0 (t),
(s, 0) a,

(1, t) 1 (t),
(s, 1) b,

t I,
s I.

. 21

, s I
s (t) := (s, t) : I D
() D a
b.

54

5.

.
5.2.
0 : I D,

1 : I D

D, = (s, t) : I I D , (. . 21)
(0, t) 0 (t),
(s, 0) = (s, 1),

(1, t) 1 (t),

t I,
s I.

D,
. , , .. : I z0 D.
5.3. D ,
D .
, U = {z C : |z| < 1} :
0 : I U
(s, t) = (1 s)0 (t). , {z C : < |z| < }
(. 5.1 ).
. ,
.

. f
D 0 , 1 D,


f dz =
f dz.
0

, ,
5.1, 5.2 0 , 1

.
, 0 , 1 . ( , , 4.8 . 4.5.)

5.1.

55

.
s (t) = (s, t) : I D
0 1 .

J(s) :=
f dz s I.
s

, J(1) = J(0). , J(s) I, ..


s0 I v = v(s0 ) I ,
J(s) = J(s0 ) s v.
: I C f
s0 . ,
(. . 4.5). I
0 = t0 < t1 < < tn1 < tn = 1
Ij = [tj1 , tj ], (. . 22):
(1) Uj D , s0 (Ij ) Uj ;
(2) Fj O(Uj ) f Uj ,
= Fj s0

Ij

j = 1, . . . , n.

. 22

56

5.

, (2) 4.1 . 4.4 ,


Fj Fj1 Uj Uj1 . ,
(s, t) I I v I s0
, (v Ij ) Uj j.
s : I C t,
s v , :
s := Fj s

Ij

j = 1, . . . , n.

s v s I
t0 I F (s (t)) F f (t0 ) (,
Fj Fj1 Uj Uj1 !). , s f s .
(
f dz s )
s


f dz = s (1) s (0).

J(s) :=
s

, s v,
.
.
1. 0 1 (
s (0) = a s (1) = b s I),
s (0) = F1 (s (0)) = F1 (a) s (1) = Fn (s (1)) = Fn (b)
s v (. . 23). , J(s)
s v.
2. 0 1 (
s (0) = s (1) s I), ( s)
F1 Fn f U1 Un
zs := s (0) = s (1) (. . 24) ( s) :
Fn (z) F1 (z) = C

z U1 Un .

5.1.

57

. 23

. 24

J(s) = Fn (s (1)) F1 (s (0)) = Fn (zs ) F1 (zs ) = C


s v.

.
5.1. f D
: I D ,

f dz = 0.

, D
f O(D) : I D .
,
f (t) z0
.

58

5.

. 4.1 . 4.1,
, 0  < r <  |z| = r
D = {z C : < |z| < }. ,
.

5.2. D C . f , D,
.
, D ,
. 4.4.
. a D. z D ( ) : I D, a z,

f () d.
F (z) :=

F (z) . ,
1 , 2 (. . 25),
f 1 21
, ..


f () d
f () d = 0.
1

. 25

, z0 D D U z0 , D (. . 25),
z U F (z)
z
F (z) = F (z0 ) +
f () d,
z0

5.2.

59

z0 z. 4.2
. 4.4 , F U
F  (z) = f (z) z U.
z0 , F f D.

5.2. .
, , . , .
(. . 1.4), D  C , D

0 , 1 , . . . , n , 0
D, 1 , . . . , n D.
.
D  C f
G D.


f dz

f dz =
D

n

j=1

f dz = 0.

.


n

f dz =
f dz
f dz
D

j=1



f dz
D

D, . 1.4. ,


f dz = 0.
D

60

5.

. D

1 , . . . , n , 0 , 1 , . . . , n , , ,
D
j ,
. 26, G.

. 26

(, 5.1)



n
n


f dz =
f dz +
f dz +
f dz =
f dz,
0=

j=1

+
j

j=1

+
j j .

5.1. , ,

1 , . . . , n ,
G.
, .
A) D C , D = 0 ,
D G D.
B) D C . z0 , z1 D
: I C, D , .. (0) = z0 , (1) = z1 (t) D 0 < t < 1.

5.2.

61

z0 , z1 D,
D \ (I) , .. D \ (I)
. ,
. , . ,
: I I C ,
(a) (1/2, t) = (t) t I;
(b) (s, 0), (s, 1) D s I;
(c) (s, t) D s I, 0 < t < 1.
s > 0 D \ ([s, s] I)
.
A) B), . z0 0 , z1 1 , . . . , zn n , B),
j , j = 1, . . . , n, zj1 zj ,
j : I I C
B) . s > 0
Ds := D \

n


j ([s, s] I)

j=1

, s := Ds , s G A).
s , 0  s  1, () 1 ,
. G,
.
, A), B)
D ,
(.. , ). , (.
), , , (. . 6.7).
, . 4.3.
5.2. , f G D

62

5.

f D
D. :

D1  D2   D ,
n=1 Dn = D, ,
f D,


f dz =
f dz.
lim
n

Dn

f dz = 0 ,

f dz = 0.
,

Dn

5.3. .
. D  C
f G D. z D

f ()
1
d.
f (z) =
2i D z
1
, z
.
. z D
(. . 27)
Ur := { C : | z| < r}.

. 27

5.3.

63

U r D r > 0.
. 5.2 Dr := D \ U r
g() =

f ()
,
z

.


f ()
f ()
d =
d.
D z
Ur z

(5.1)

, r. ,
2if (z).


f ()
f (z) f ()
d =
d,
(5.2)
2if (z)

z
z
Ur
Ur


d
= 2i

z
Ur
(. 4.1 . 4.1). , (5.2)
. , f () z
( 5 . 4.2) ,
(5.2)
r,

f (z) f ()

|f () f (z)|

d
 max
2r

Ur
z
r
Ur
 2 max |f () f (z)|.
U r

, , (5.2)
r, . , (5.1) 2if (z).

5.3. z D, .. z C \ D,

f ()
1
d = 0
2i D z
. 5.2.

64

5.

5.4. , , . ,
.
.
. f ,
D, a D
a, Ur (a) := {z C : |z a| < r}, D:
2
1
f (a) =
f (a + rei ) d.
2 0
. Ur (a)  D

1
f () d
f (a) =
.
2i Ur (a) a

= a + rei ,

d = irei d,


. (1) f {z C : |z| <


1 + } > 0. , 0  r < 1
max |f (z)| 

|z|r

max||=1 |f ()|
.
1r

: f (z) {z C :
|| < 1} , 5 . 4.2.
(2) (1) ,
max |f (z)| = max |f (z)|.

|z|1

|z|=1

: (1) f (z)n ,
n- n .
(3) Pn (z) {|z| = 1}. ,
{|z|  1}.
: (2).

6.1.

65

6.
6.1. . , ,

.

. (1) n=1 an , , s C,

aj

= 0.
lim

s
n
j=1


(2)
n=1 fn (z), fn : K C, K C,
f : K C K,


n




f
lim 
f

j

n

= 0,

K := sup |(z)|.


zK

j=1

, .
1 . .
: I C
 , fn : (I) C

n=1 fn (z) (I).
f (z) (I)


f dz = lim

fn dz.

2 .
 .
n=1 fn (z),
fn : K C,
K C.
, ..


K.

fn K  cn

n=1 cn ,
n=1 fn (z)

66

6.

6.2. .
-. f D C UR (a) = {z C : |z a| < R}
R > 0 a D, D.


f () d
1
cn :=
,
n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 0 < r < R.
2i |a|=r ( a)n+1
cn r f a.

cn (z a)n

n=0

f a.
z UR (a) f (z):
f (z) =

cn (z a)n

|z a| < R.

(6.1)

n=0

. cn r
,
{| a| = r1 } {| a| = r2 }

0 < r1 < r2 < R

D .
(6.1),
z UR (a) 0 < r < R,
|z a| < r < R. (. 5.3)

f ()
1
d.
f (z) =
2i Ur (a) z
, |z a| < r = | a| Ur (a)
(. . 28), :


f ()
f ()
1
(z a)n f ()
f ()
=
=

=
.
z
( a) (z a)
a 1 za
( a)n+1
a
n=0
(6.2)

6.4.

67

. 28

n-




(z a)n f ()
M (r) |z a| n

, M (r) := max |f ()|.

( a)n+1

r
r
|a|=r
, 2 . 6.1 Ur (a). 1 . 6.1 (6.2) Ur (a). 2i, (6.1).

6.3. .
.
0 < r < R n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
|cn | 

M (r)
,
rn

M (r) := max |f ()|.


|a|=r

. , cn , 5 . 4.2:

M (r)
f ()
1 M (r)

n+1 2r =
|cn | =


.
n+1
2i Ur (a) ( a)
2 r
rn

6.4. .
. f C M > 0 ,
|f (z)|  M
f (z) const.

z C.

68

6.

. cn f a = 0. 6.2
f (z) =

cn z n

n=0

z C.
|cn | 

M
rn

r > 0 n = 0, 1, 2, . . . . r , ,

cn = 0 n = 1, 2, . . . . , f (z) = c0 const.
. , C , .
, , C .
. , C .

6.5. .
. {bn } .

bn (z a)n .

n=0

R :=

lim |bn |1/n

(6.3)

( 0 +) ,
UR (a) = {z C : |z a| < R}
. (6.3)
R .
.

6.5.

69

bn (z a)n

n=0

z UR (a), K UR (a). z C \ UR (a).


. , 0 < R < (
R = 0, ). R ,
lim (|bn |Rn )1/n = 1.

(6.4)

. z UR (a), .. |z a| < R. (6.4)


> 0 n0 = n0 () ,
|bn |Rn < (1 + )n

n  n0 .

,
|z a|
(1 + ) =: q < 1.
R

|bn (z a)n | <


(1 + )n
|z a|n = q n
Rn

n  n0 ,

bn (z a)n

n=0

.
, K UR (a)
max |z a| =: r < R
zK

( ,
K U (a), 0 < < R).
> 0 ,
r
(1 + ) =: q < 1.
R

70

6.


|bn (z a)n | < q n

z K

n  n0 .

, K 2
. 6.1.
. z C \ UR (a), .. |z a| > R. (6.4) > 0 nk
,
|bn |Rn > (1 )n

n = nk .

> 0 ,
|z a|
(1 ) =: q > 1.
R
n = nk
|bn (z a)n | >

(1 )n
|z a|n = q n ,
Rn

bn (z a)n

n=0

, .

( ).
f {z : |z a| < r}
:
f (z) =

bn (z a)n ,

n=0

f .
. U := {|z a| < r}


n=0

bn (z a)n ,

6.5.

71

, U . k = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(0, r)


f (z)
1
bn (z a)n =
(z a)k+1 n=0
(z a)k+1

{|z a| = }. {|z a| = },
2ibk = 2ick ,
ck k- f .

. 1 .
 n

z
n=1

zn,

n=1

(nz)n

n=1

R = , 1, 0
UR (0) = C, {|z| < 1}, .
2 .




zn
zn
n
,
z ,
n
n2
n=1
n=1
n=1
( ,
), .
,
( ),
z = 1 ( ),
z = 1 ( ),
(
),


 1 |z|  1.

n2
n2
. (1) ,


zn
n
n=1

72

6.

, z = 1.
(2) ,


zn
nln n
n=1


, .
(3)
f (z) =

cn (z a)n

n=0

|z a| < R. , r [0, R) f (z) r


:
2


1
|f (a + rei )|2 d =
|cn |2 r 2n .
2 0
n=0
: |f (z)|2
|f (z)|2 = f (z)f (z) =

ck (z a)k



k=0


cl ( z a )l ,

l=0

z a = re ,
[0, 2]. k = l
.
(4) ,

|cn |2 r 2n  M (r)2 ,

M (r) := max |f (z)|.


|za|=r

n=0

(5) , (. 6.3)
(.. n N r [0, R) ,
|cn | = M (r)/r n ), f (z) = C(z a)n
C C. ,
f (z) 0.

6.6. .
.
f (z) =


n=0

bn (z a)n

6.6.

73

. f  (z)
, f (z).
. , f , R , R > 0 ( UR (a) ).
g(z) =

nbn (z a)n1 ,

n=1

f (z).
R,
lim n1/n = 1.

, . 6.5
UR (a), UR (a).
, g
( 2 . 4.4), :
(1) g UR (a);
(2)  UR (a)

g(z) dz =


(z a)n1 dz = 0

nbn

n=1

(
1
(z a)n1 dz = 0
. 6.1,

, . 1 . 5.1 2 . 4.1).

z
f0 (z) =
g() d
a

( a z) U
f0 = g U .
g() [a, z]
f0 (z) = f (z) b0 .

74

6.

, f U f  = g, .

.
f (z) =

z 2 sin(1/z)
z2 + 1

z = 1.

6.7.
.
. f ,
D C, D ,
D. n- f (n) (z)
a D n-
f (z) a.
. UR (a)
f (z) a.
f  (z) UR (a) , f (z).
, f  UR (a) ( ),
a ( . 6.5). f  , f  .. a D f D.

. . 5.3
, ,
. 5.2 D = U2 \ U1 ,
U1  U2 .

,
5.1 . 5.2.

6.8. .
.
f (z) =


n=0

cn (z a)n

6.10.

75

UR (a) = {|za| < R}.


a
cn =

f (n) (a)
n!

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

. . 6.7, n f (z) z = a.

6.9. .
. D C
f D D.
n = 0, 1, 2, . . . z D

f ()d
n!
f (n) (z) =
.
2i D ( z)n+1
. z D
r > 0 , Ur = Ur (z)  D z
D.
f Ur
(. . 6.2, 6.8):
cn =

1
2i


Ur

f ()d
( z)n+1

cn =

f (n) (z)
.
n!

, ,
1
f (n) (z)
=
n!
2i


Ur

f ()d
.
( z)n+1

(. . 5.2)
Ur D,
.

6.10. .
. f D
f  D
, f D.

76

6.

. f
U  D.
( 4.2 . 4.4) f U F . F
(. . 6.7), f
U .

6.11.
.
. f a C:
(1) f C-
U a;
(2) f a, .. a,
U a;
(3) f U a
f  U
.
.
(1) (2): (. 6.2).
(2) (1):
(. 6.6).
(1) (3): . 5.1,
5.2; (. 4.3).
(3) (1): (. 6.10).

6.12. .
. f a C
f (a) = 0, f a. U a f
f (z) = (z a)n g(z),
n , g
U U .

6.12.

77

. f


ck (z a)k
f (z) =
k=1

UR (a) (, c0 = f (a) = 0 ).
n := min{m  1 : cm = 0}
( , cm = 0 m  1,
f (z) 0 UR (a) ). ,
f
f (z) = cn (z a)n + cn+1 (z a)n+1 + .

g(z) := cn + cn+1 (z a) + .
, f , ,
g(z) UR (a). ,
f (z) = (z a)n g(z) z UR (a).
g UR (a) g(a) = cn = 0,
U UR (a) a, g(z) = 0
z U.

.
n = min{m  1 : cm = 0} = min{m  1 : f (m) (a) = 0}

f a. , f a
n f (n) (a) ,
, n ,
U a
f (z) = (z a)n g(z)
g O(U ) g(a) = 0.
( ).
f D
a D, f 0 a,
U D a , f (z) = 0 z
U \ {a}.

78

6.

6.13. .
. D C E D ,
a D ( , E {z C :
0 < |z a| < } > 0). f1 , f2 ,
D, E, ..
f1 (z) = f2 (z)

z E,

f1 (z) = f2 (z)

z D.

. A z D , f1 f2 z.

(a) ( );
(b) ( z0 D A, z0
f1 f2 , z0 A
. 6.12);
(c) ( a E f1 f2 , a A
. 6.12).
D A D (.
- . 1.4),
.

. ,
. 6.12 .
f D C , a D
: f (a) = 0. U D
a ,
f (z) = 0

z U \ {a}.

, D D,
.

6.14.

79

. (1) f O(C) z. , z.
(2) f1 (z) = z 2 sin(/z) f2 (z) 0
E = {1/n : n = 1, 2, . . . }, a = 0.
, f1 f2 .
?
(3) D C f , D . , f
D .
(4) f O(C) a C cn
f (z) =

cn (z a)n

n=0

. , f .
: . 6.8.

6.14.
.
.

fn (z),

n=1

fn , n = 1, 2, . . . , D C, D.
f (z) D k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

f (k) (z) =

D.


n=1

fn(k) (z),

n=1
(k)

fn (z)

. 1 .
U  D. f ,
f U  U




f dz =
fn dz = 0

n=1

80

6.

( , . . 4.3).
. 6.10 , f O(U ).
U , f O(D).
2 . K D
V , K V  D.
k = 1, 2, . . . z K :

f () d
k!
f (k) (z) =
2i V ( z)k+1



k!
fn () d
=
=
fn(k) (z).
k+1
2i
(

z)
V
n=1
n=1
(. 6.9),
.

(k)

n=1 fn (z) K.

n

fj ()
rn () := f ()
j=1

K V r R .

5 . 4.2, z K

(k)

(k)

f (z)

f
(z)
j

j=1

k!

rn () d

k! maxV |rn ()|


=


2R.
2
V ( z)k+1
2
(R r)k+1
z n .
3 . ,

fn(k) (z)

n=1

f (k) (z) K D.
K

N
K1 , . . . , KN D , K j=1 Kj .
f (k) (z)
Kj , , K.


6.15.

81

6.15. . ,
f (x) [0, 1] . ,
Pn (x) ,
f Pn [0,1] 0 n .
, f (z), {|z|  1}?
(. 6.14) , , , Pn (z), f (z)
{|z|  1}, {|z| < 1}.
, f O({|z| < 1}), Pn (z), f (z). ,
f , f (z)
{|z| < 1} . 6.2 6.5.
, {|z| < 1}
D C? ,
, , .
. (1) , Pn (z), f (z) = 1/z {1/2 < |z| < 2}.
(2) 0  a < b. , f O({a < |z| < b})
{a < |z| < b} , f (z)
|z|  a , , {|z| < b}.
: (3) . 5.3
. 6.14.


, , .
. D C f D, Pn (z), f (z) D.

82

7.

7.
, , ,
, . ,
.
7.1. .
. f (z)
V = {z C : r < |z a| < R}
a C 0  r < R  +.

f () d
1
n Z r < < R.
cn :=
2i |a|= ( a)n+1
cn f V .

cn (z a)n ,

n=

f V ,
z D f (z):
f (z) =

cn (z a)n

r < |z a| < R.

(7.1)

n=

cn (z a)n ,

n=0

,
1

n=

cn (z a)n

7.1.

83

. ,


cn (z a)n
n=

cn (z a)n

cn (z a)n ,

n=

n=0

.
. cn
,
{| a| = 1 } {| a| = 2 } r < 1 < 2 < R
V .

. 29

(7.1), z V
s, t (r, R) , s < |z a| < t (. . 29).
(. 5.3) { C : s < | a| < t},

s := {| a| = s}

1
f (z) =
2i

t := {| a| = t},

1
f () d

a
2i

f () d
=: I1 I2 .
a

(7.2)

84

7.

, |z a| < | a| t ,
I1 :


f ()
f ()
f ()
1
(z a)n f ()
=
=

=
.
za
z
( a) (z a)
a 1 a
( a)n+1
n=0

n-

n
M (t) |z a|
, M (t) := max |f ()|.
t
t
|a|=t
, 2 . 6.1 t . t ,
I1 =

cn (z a)n ,

cn :=

n=0

1
2i

f () d
,
( a)n+1

(7.3)

.. I1 . , ,
6.2
.
I2 . s | a| <
|z a|,
1
1
1
=
=

z
( a) (z a)
za


1
( a)m
=

.
a
(z a)m+1
za 1
m=0

f () s , ,


I2 =
bm (z a)(m+1) ,
m=0


bm

1
=
2i


( a)m f () d
s

c(m+1) . , I2
. I2 I1 , (7.3),
(7.2), (7.1).


7.2. z a

85

7.2. z a.
. {cn : n Z}
1

,
r := lim |cn |1/n .
R := lim |cn |1/n
n

f (z) :=

cn (z a)n

n=

{r <
|z a| < R}, f (z)


f () d
1
= cn n Z r < < R.
2i |a|= ( a)n+1
(7.4)
|z a| < r,
1

cn (z a)n

n=

. |z a| > R,


cn (z a)n .
n=0

, (7.4) .
. (. 6.5),

f1 (z) :=

cn (z a)n

n=0

f2 (z) :=

1

n=

cn (z a)n =


m=1

cm Z m ,

Z :=

1
.
za

86

7.

f (z) r < |z a| < R ,


f1 (z) |z a| < R . 6.6,
f2 (z) |Z| < r1 , .. |z a| > r.
(7.4),
f () :=

cn ( a)n

n=

( a)(m+1)
| a| = ( ).
4.1 . 4.1
n = m , n = m 2i,
(7.4).

. (1)
f (z) =

cn (z a)n

n=

|z a| > 1. f (z) z = ,
f () = 0. , f (z) z = .
(2) u  U . ,
f (z), V = U \ u, , ,
.. z V
f (z) = f1 (z) + f2 (z),
f1 O(U ), f2 O(C \ u).
: . 7.1.
(3) , f1 , f2 f
, .. f1 (z), f2 (z)
f1 (z) + C, f2 (z) C, C C .
: . 6.4.
(4) (2), (3)
(.. , u, U )?

7.3. .
.
f (z) =


n=

cn (z a)n

7.4.

87

{r < |z a| < R}. n Z


(r, R)
|cn | 

M ()
,
n

M () := max |f ()|.
|a|=


. 6.3.

n
. (1) , f (z) =
n= cn (z a)
{r < |z a| < R},
2


1
|cn |2 2n =
|f (a + ei )|2 d
2 0
n=

r < < R.
. 7.3


|cn |2 2n  M ()2 .
n=

: . (3), (4) . 6.5.


(2) , (. 7.3)
f (z) , C(z a)n
C C, n Z.

7.4. . . ,
, f {1 < |z| < 1 + }
> 0, n- cn f


2
1
1
cn =
f () (n+1) d =
f (eit )eint dt.
2i ||=1
2 0
, n-
(t) = f (eit ) 0  t  2. ,
. 7.2 , f (eit )
0  t  2.
. (1) (. 6.14), ,
f (eit )
[0, 2] .
(2) , (1) . 7.3 ,
f (eit )
0  t  2.

88

7.

, ,
, , . , L1 (0, 2)

2
1
(t)eint dt.
cn =
2 0
(,
C 2 (0, 2)), ,   0 2,


cn eint
n=

[0, 2].


cn z n
n=

- {1 < |z| < 1 + }, > 0, ,


(
. 7.2 6).
7.5. . .
. a C ( ) f (z),
f V = {0 <
|z a| < }, > 0, a. a f :
(1) , ()
lim f (z) C;

za

(2) ,
lim f (z) = ;

za

(3) ,
.. ( , )
f (z) z a.

7.6.

89

. a = 0 :
(1)
f (z) =

sin z
;
z

(2)
f (z) =

1
;
z

(3)
f (z) = e1/z
(, z = x 0 +,
0, z = iy 0 ei/y =
cos(1/y) i sin(1/y) );
(4)
f (z) = ctg

1
,
z

zn = (n)1 .
7.6. .
. f , V = {0 < |z a| < } a,
:
(1) z = a ;
(2) f (z) V  =
{0 < |z a| <  },  > 0, a;
(3) cn f V = {0 < |z a| < }
cn = 0

n < 0;

(4) f (z) z = a , f
U = {|z a| < } a.

90

7.

. (1) (2). .
(2) (3).
|f (z)|  M

0 < |z a| <  ,

(. 7.3)
|ck |  M k

k = 1, 2, . . .

(0,  ).

0, , ck = 0 k = 1, 2, . . . .
(3) (4).
f (z) =

cn (z a)n

0 < |z a| < .

n=0

f (a) = c0 ,
|z a| < . . 6.6 f {|z a| < }.
(4) (1). .

. f O({0 < |z a| < }) |z a|1/2 |f (z)|
{0 < |z a| < }. , a
f (z).

7.7. .
. a f , V = {0 < |za| < } ,
, f V ( ) . ,
f V

f (z) =

cn (z a)n

n=N

N N, cN = 0.
. = .
lim f (z) = ,

za

7.7.

91

f (z) = 0 0 < |z a| <  . ,


g(z) :=

1
f (z)

V  = {0 < |z a| <  }.

lim g(z) = 0.
za

. 7.6 g U  = {|z a| <  } a,


, g(a) = 0. N g(z)
z = a (. . 6.12). 0 < |z a| < 
g(z) = (z a)N h(z),
h U  = {|z a| <  }
h(z) = 0 0 < |z a| <  . 1/h U  = {|z a| <  } , , . 6.2
:
1
= b0 + b1 (z a) + ,
h(z)
b0 = 1/h(a) = 0. (z a)N ,
,
f (z) = (z a)N

1
h(z)

{0 <
|z a| < }.
= .
f (z) = (z a)N g(z),
g U = {|z a| < }
g(a) = 0 U . ,
lim f (z) = .

za

92

7.

7.1. N ,
:
cn = 0 n > N,

cN = 0,

f (z) z = a.
, f (z) a
, 1/f (z)
; f (z) a
1/f (z) a.
7.2.
:
f (z) =

cn (z a)n ,

n=

V = {0 < |z a| < }
z = a,
,
n  1 ,
cn = 0.
. (1) f , g z = a
k, l .
z = a
f g, f g, f /g?
(2) f (z) z = 0
|f (z)| 

M
.
|z|

f (z) z = 0?
(3) , f (z), z = 0
ef (z) = z
.

7.8.

93

7.8. .
. a C f , A C
zn a ,
lim f (zn ) = A.

. 1 . A = .
. 7.6 f a ( a
f ). zn a , f (zn ) n .
2 . A C. a z f (z) = A, ( zn a ,
f (zn ) = A n). ,
g(z) :=

1
f (z) A

z = a . a
g(z),

f (z) = A +

1
g(z)

(, ) z a, (. . 7.5). , a g(z). ,
, zn a ,
g(zn ) n .
,
f (zn ) = A +

1
A n .
g(zn )


94

7.

. (1) , .
(2) f O(C \ {0}) ,
|f (z)| > e1/|z|

z C \ {0}?

7.9. a = . a C
. 7.5 ( )
a = . ,
.
. a = ( ) f , f
O({|z| > R}) R > 0.
(,
) , . 7.5. . 2.6, z = (,
) f (z) ,
= 0 (, ) g() := f (1/).
. 7.6, 7.7,
a C ,
a = . , a =
f , {R <
|z| < },
f (z) =

cn z n .

n=

a = :
(1) f cn = 0
n  1;
(2) f N  1 ,
cN = 0,

cn = 0

n  N + 1

( N );
(3) f cn = 0
n  1.

7.11.

95

(.. , ) f

cn z n ,

n=1

cn z n .

n=

7.10. .
. ,
C, .
. f z =
, f .
.
P (z) =

cn z n

n=1

f , . 7.9.
g(z) := f (z) P (z) . , g(z) const (. . 6.4), , f .

. (1) f f (z) z .
, f (z) = 5 z C.
(2) , f O({|z| > 1})
g , g(z) f (z) 0 z ?

7.11. .
. f D C, D ,

96

7.

. , M D , f O(D \ M ) f a M .
M
, ( M K
K D).
, C, ctg(z). ctg(1/z) C, z = 0
ctg(1/z).
. f C
z = ( ,
f C ), .
. f C ,
a1 , . . . , an .
Rj (z) =

nj

cjk (z aj )k ,

j = 1, . . . , n,

k=1

f ,
P (z) =

ck z k

k=1

f .

g := f (P + R1 + + RN )
C z = , , g(z) const.

.
f (z) = C + P (z) + R1 (z) + + RN (z),
,
, f (z)
.

8.1.

97

8.
8.1. . f V = {0 < |z a| < }
a C, a .
. f
a C

1
f () d, 0 < r <
resa f =
2i |a|=r
( r).
. D C G C, D D. , f
G, a1 , . . . , an D.

n

f () d = 2i
resaj f.
D

j=1

. > 0 ,
Bj := {z C : |z aj | < },

j = 1, . . . , n.

, D (.
. 30). (. 5.2)
D := D \

n


Bj

j=1



0=


f () d

f () d =


f () d

=
D

n

j=1
n

f () d

Bj

2i resaj f,

j=1

98

8.

. 30

8.2. .
.
f (z) =

cn (z a)n

n=

V = {0 < |z a| < }
a C,
resa f = c1 .
.
(7.4) . 7.2, n = 1. , ,
:

1
resa f =
f (z) dz
2i |za|=r

1
1
=
2ic1 = c1 ,
cn
(z a)n dz =
2i n=
2i
|za|=r
,
f |z a| = r,
0 < r < , 4.1 . 4.1;

8.3.

99

n = 1.

|za|=r

(z a)n dz n = 1 2i


. a C
.
, , f
,
f . , c1 = 0 ,
c2 , c3 , . . . . , z 2 , 2-
.
8.3. .
1: . a (.. 1- ) f . f a

f (z) =


c1
+
cn (z a)n ,
z a n=0

c1 = resa f = lim (z a)f (z).


za

, . , f
a
f (z) =

(z)
,
(z)

(z), (z) a,
(a) = 0,

(a) = 0,

 (a) = 0.


resa f = lim (z a)
za

(a)
(z)
za
= lim (z)
= 
.
(z) za
(z) (a)
(a)

n- . a n-
f . a
f (z) =


cn
c1
+

+
cn (z a)m .
+
(z a)n
z a m=0

100

8.

c1 , f (z) (z a)n
n 1
z = a:
resa f = c1 =


1
dn1 
lim n1 (z a)n f (z) .
(n 1)! za dz

8.4. a = . f {|z|  R0 }
.
. f


1
res f =
f dz,
2i R1
R = {|z| = R}
R > R0 , .
, f , {|z| > R0 }

f (z) =

cn z n ,

n=

res f = c1 .


1
.
f R
. , ,

a C. , :
,
. .
,
, .
. (1) f .
,


res f = lim z f () f (z) .
z

8.6.

101

( . 8.3.)
(2) ,
resz= f (z) = res=0

 
1
1
f
2

f O({|z| > R}).

8.5. .
. f C,
{a }. {a } :

resa f = 0.
res f +

. UR = {|z| < R}
, {a }.
(. 8.1), ,


1
f dz =
resa f.
2i UR

,
res f .

8.6. .
. f
{z C : Im z  0, |z|  R0 }.
R  R0
M (R) := max |f (z)|,
zR

R (. . 31)
R = {z = Rei : 0   }.

102

8.

. 31

, f ,

lim M (R) = 0.
R

t > 0

lim
f (z)eitz dz = 0.
R

itz
i tR sin +itR cos
i

f
(z)e
dz
f
(Re
)e
iRe
d

M (R)RetR sin d.

,
sin 

0  

( [0, /2] , .
. 32).

. 32

8.7.

103

:= 2R/, ,

Re

tR sin

d = 2

Re

tR sin

et d =


d  2

/2

Re2tR/ d

(1 etR ),
t

. f (z) 1 ,

lim M (R) = 0
R

8.7.
. a > 0, t > 0.

x sin tx
I(t) :=
dx
2 + a2
x

lim

R+

x sin tx
dx.
x2 + a2

( ,
, I(t).)

J(t) := lim

R+

xeitx
dx.
x2 + a2

, .

zeitz
f (z) := 2
z + a2
.

DR := {z C : Im z > 0, |z| < R}

104

8.

[R, R] R := {z C :
Im z  0, |z| = R} (. . 33).

. 33


f (z) dz

f (x) dx =
DR

f (z) dz
R

ieat + o(1) R .
, R > a, DR
2i resz=ai f (z) = ieat
, R o(1) R
( , t > 0!). R ,
,
J(t) = ieat t > 0.
,
I(t) = Im J(t) = eat

t > 0.

sin tx t :

at

t > 0,
e
I(t) = 0
t = 0,

eat t < 0.
8.1.
Re

xeitx
x cos tx
= 2
x2 + a2
x + a2

8.7.

105

[R, R],
J(t) = iI(t).
, I(t) t > 0.
, t < 0


f (z) dz

f (x) dx =
DR

f (z) dz,
R

,

zeitz
lim
dz = ieat + ieat = 0.
R z 2 + a2
R
, t < 0, , .
8.2. P (x)
Q(x)
deg P  deg Q 1.

106

9. .

9. .

9.1. . , f1 ,
D1 , D2 , D1 ,
f2 , D2 , ,
f1 f2

D1 D2 .

( ) .


. , f (z) = sinz z
C,
z = 0,
. f z = 0
f (
)
f (z) =

z2
z4
sin z
=1
+
+ .
z
3!
5!

, , .
. D C
= (t, z) : [a, b] D C,
z D
t [a, b]. f ,

f (z) =

(t, z) dt.
a

f D.
. [a, b] K, K
D, , f (z) z D.

9.2. -

107

,
 K

f (z) dz = 0.

f (z) dz =

(t, z) dt dz
a
b


(t, z) dz dt =

0 dt = 0.
a

(
, .)

, - .
9.2. -. -

et tz1 dt,
(z) =
0

tz1 := e(z1) ln t

t > 0, Re z > 0.




I1 (z) =

1
0

et tz1 dt


I2 (z) =

et tz1 dt.

I2 (z) z,



|et tz1 | dt =
et tRe z1 dt
1

z C. , |z|  R
|et tz1 |  et tR1 ,

108

9. .

I2 (z) C

fn (z) :=

et tz1 dt

n . ,

et tz1 dt


|I2 (z) fn (z)| =

et tR1 dt 0

n . fn (.. C) . 9.1, (. 6.14) ,


I2 C.
,

I1 (z) = lim

et tz1 dt

1/n

Re z > 0,
1
et t1 dt
0

> 0. , (z) Re z > 0.


. I(t) . 8.7 t,
t. ?

, -,
Re z > 0, z C.
, . .
, z C t [0, 1] et tz

et tz =


(1)n z+n1
t
.
n!
n=0

(9.1)

Re z > 1 :

9.2. -

109

(a) (9.1) t [0, 1],



1
1
;
tz+n1 dt =
z+n
0
(b) (9.1) t [0, 1].
(, Re z > 1 !)
(9.1) t:
I1 (z) =


(1)n 1
n! z + n
n=0

Re z > 1.

, z C \
{0, 1, 2, . . . }. ,
n = 0, 1, . . . , N 1,


(1)n 1
fN (z) :=
n! z + n
n=N


DN := {z C : Re z > N }
( , ).
fN DN , {Re z > 1}
N
1

(1)n 1
+ fN (z) + I2 (z).
(z) =
(9.2)
n! z + n
n=0
,
, , .. Re z > 0.
I1 (z)
et N .
, (9.2) , DN \ {0, 1, . . . , (N 1)}
(z) Re z > 0, (9.2) (z) {Re z > 0} DN \{0, 1, . . . , (N 1)}.

110

9. .

, , , (9.2)
(z) z DN \ {0, 1, . . . , (N 1)}.
N ,
(z) =


(1)n 1
+
et tz1 dt
n!
z
+
n
1
n=0
z C \ {0, 1, 2, . . . }.

(z) {Re z > 0} C\{0, 1, 2, . . . }.


z = n, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 1- n
, (1)
n! .
, (z) n
1
z = n (1)
n!
z+n . ,
(z) ,
z = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

- .

-
(z + 1) = z(z)
( Re z > 0
).
(z) Re z > 0,
(z) := (z + 1)/z

Re z > 1,

z = 0.

(z) D0 D1 ( , ,
DN := {Re z > N }) 1-
z = 0 (, (1) = 1 = 0). ,
(z) D2
, , .
9.3. . ,
.
.

9.3.

111

U = {|z 1| < 1} z = 1
1,


(1)n1
(z 1)n .
ln z f (z) =
n
n=1

, ,
U .
f  (z) =

(1 z)n1 =

n=1

1
1
=
1 (1 z)
z

z U .
z
d
f (z) =
z U,

1
[1, z].
z
d
z C \ (, 0]
f0 (z) =
1
( [1, z]), , f0 D0 := C \ R ,
R := (, 0] C. f0 f U .
, f0 (z)
(, 0] , , f0 (z) , f0 (
).

. 34
. 1/ (. . 34)
[1, |z|] {|z|ei : 0   arg z},

112

9. .

, z C \ R
ln z = ln |z| + i arg z,
< arg z < .

, f0 (z), D0 ,

, . 9.1.
D0
ln z. , R
arg z

ln z = ln |z| + i arg z
+ < arg z < + ,
ln z U D := C \ R
R := ei R . D

C := C \ {0}. ln z
, C . (
.)
, C , ,
z
d
,
1
C , 1 z C ,
z C . , ,
. , 2 1
n ,


d
d
=
+ 2in.

2
1
( , . 4.1.)
, , ln z C
ln z. , .

9.3.

113

, ,
XIX- .
, , ,

(D , f ), f ln z U D . (
)
, .

.
(, ), C ,
, C .
12.

114

10.

10.
10.1. . , . 9.1. g, G C, f , D C,
D, f g D G.
, ,
. ,
, , . 10.4.
. g, G C,
f , D C
, :
a) D0 = D, D1 , . . . , DN 1 , DN = G Dk Dk+1
k = 0, 1, . . . , N 1;
b) f0 = f , f1 , . . . , fN 1 , fN = g,
Dk
, fk
fk+1 k = 0, 1, . . . , N 1.
, D0 , D1 , . . . , DN ,
, ak ,
ak Dk
Dk1 . fk , Dk , () c ak , Dk Dk+1 fk
ak+1 . , , . .

10.2.

115

10.2. .
. F = (U, f ), U = {|z a| < R} a f , . a
, R . F , U
f a.
, U = {|z 1| < 1} 1 1
f (z) = ln z,
ln z =

(1)n1

n=1

(z 1)n
.
n

. F = (U, f ) G = (V, g)
(:
) , (. . 35)
U V = f = g U V.

. 35

. 36

G F F0 = F, F1 , . . . , FN 1 , FN = G, (. . 36)
Fn+1

Fn

n = 0, 1, . . . , N 1.

116

10.

F0 , F1 , . . . , FN F0 , F1 ,
. . . , FN ,
F := F0 = F0 ,
 := F  . ,
G := FN G
N
,
?
G=G
 = 1, F1 = F0 = F0 ).
( N
. F0 =
(U0 , f0 ), U0 = {|z 1| < 1},
f0 (z) =

z=

|z| ei arg z/2 ,

/2 < arg z < /2 ,

F0 , F1 , F2 , F3 , Fj = (Uj , fj ) j = 1, 2, 3

Uj =
z e2ij/3
< 1 .
U3 = U0 , f3 = f0 = f0 .
: fj , f0 ,
arg z.

,
, . F = (U, f ) G = (V, g)
, : F = G.
10.3. . ,
, .
() . G = (V, g)
F = (U, f ) b V U (. . 37),

. 37

10.3.

117

g
f b, ..
g(z) =


f (n) (b)
(z b)n
n!
n=0

z V . , b U , g(z) V
; (V, g) (U, f ).
() . F1 = (U1 , f1 )
F0 = (U0 , f0 ), F2 = (U2 , f2 )
F1 (. . 38).
U0 U1 U2 = ,

. 38

F2 F0 .

;
.
. ()
. () ,
U0 U1 U2 U0 U2 f2 f1 f0 . ,

f2 f0 U0 U2 ,
, F2 F0 .

118

10.

10.4. . ,
.
.
Ft = (Ut , ft ),

t I = [0, 1],

F0 : I C (. . 39), :
(1) at Ft (t), R(t)
t I;
(2) t0 I ut0 I
t0 , t ut0
(t) Ut0

Ft Ft0 .

. 39

. 10.5,
F0 ,
.

10.4.

119

. {Ft : t I} {Ft : t I} F0 = F0


,
F1 = F1 .
.
E := {t I : Ft = Ft }.

(1) , 0 E;
(2) , t0 E ,
ut0 u
t0 E
() . 10.3;
(3) ; , t0 I
t0
E, ut0 u
t1 E; Ft0 Ft0
Ft1 = Ft1 (t0 ), (. . 10.2).
I , E = I,
.

. R(t) Ft
{Ft : t I}, F0 : I C.
R(t) = t I, R : I R
.
. 1 . R(t0 ) = t0 I.
(A) . 10.3
,
R(t) = t ut0 .
, ,
{t I : R(t) = } , ,
( ).
2 . R(t0 ) < . t ut0 Ut Ut0
( Ut , Ut0

120

10.

. 40

, () . 10.3).
a Ut Ut0 .
(t), a, (t0 ) (. . 40)
|R(t) R(t0 )|  |(t) (t0 )|
(
). (t) R(t).

10.5.
. ,
. ,
. (1) {Ft : t I} F0 . 0 = t0 <
t1 < < tn = 1 , F1 F0
F0 = Ft0 ,

Ft1 ,

...,

Ftn = F1 .

(2) , G F
F = F0 ,

F1 ,

...,

Fn = G.

: I C () ,
F0 , F1 , . . . , Fn .

10.5.

121

Ft , t I,
F0
, ,
Ft=1 = Fn .
. (1) . 10.4
> 0 , R(t)  t I.
(t) > 0 ,
|s t| <

|(s) (t)| < .

I = [0, 1]
It := ut (t /2, t + /2)
It1 , . . . , Itn1 , t1 < t2 < < tn1 ,
t0 = 0, tn = 1.
|(tj ) (tj1 )| <

j = 1, . . . , n

( ) Ftj Ftj1 (
ut t = tj1 , tj ).
(2) n = 1. (
n.)
, F1 = G F0 , : I C
, (0), (1) F0 , F1 . Fk = (Uk , fk ) k = 0, 1 t [0, 1] Ft = (Ut , ft )
(t) , ft (z)
f0 (z) f1 (z) (t). ( ft f0 f1 (t) U0 U1
, . 10.3 ().)
, {Ft : t I}
, ut0 (. . 10.4). ut0 t0
I , (ut0 ) U0 U1 .
t ut0 Ft Ft0 ()
. 10.3.


122

10.

10.6.
.
. 0 , 1
0 (0) = 1 (0) = a,

0 (1) = 1 (1) = b,

C. : I I C
, , ..
(s, 0) = a,

(s, 1) = b

s : I C,

s I,

s (t) := (s, t),

0 1 (. . 21
. 5.1). , F = (U, f )
a
{Fst : t I} s , s I.
F 0 1 :
F01 = F11 .
. s0 I.
. 10.4 > 0 , R(s0 , t) Fs0 ,t

R(s0 , t) >

t I.

,
v = vs0 I s0 , s v

max |(s0 , t) (s, t)| <
tI

.
4

,
(i) s v F
s F s0 .
, s v, t I
Fst ,
st , fst )
. Fst := (U

10.6.

123

(s, t) fst (z), fs0 t (z)


(s, t).
,
(ii) s v {Fst : t I} Fs0 = F s .
, (ii)
. 10.4,
Fs1 F s
Fs1 := Fs0 1 , (i).
(ii),
t0 I u
t0 (. . 10.4). > 0
, |t1 t2 | <
|(s0 , t1 ) (s0 , t2 )| <

( t0
s0 ). , u




u
t0 := ut0 t0 , t0 +
.
2
2
, (s0 , t)
st0 , U
st (
Us0 t0 , Us0 t , U
; . . 41),
.

. 41

124

10.

, () . 10.3 ABC ACD , :



Fst0 Fs0 t0 ( F),
Fs0 t0 Fs0 t ( ut0 ),
, Fst0 Fs0 t

Fst0 Fs0 t ( ),
Fs0 t Fst ( F ),
, Fst0 Fst . , Fst
t0 . (ii),
Fst0 t u
(i).
, ,
F s . ( (ii)
s s v,
s0 .) , (i) .
, Gs F s ( ) ( (i)) s [0, 1]. ,
s, .

. . 10.4
(. 4.5) (. 5.1).
: , z

f () d f (z)

F (z) =
a

a.
5.2 . 5.1 .
( ). D C F = (U, f ) a D. , D a.
b D F D a b

10.6.

125

G = (V, g). , F D
, D. V b
g G = (V, g), F = (U, f ) a b.
f D.

126

11.

11.
11.1. .
. D C F0 = (U0 , f0 )
a D U0 D, D a. F , F0 , () D,
F0 .
, F
F b D
, F0 , : F
D
b, F .

D C F
Fa = (Ua , fa ), a D, f O(D).
( fa (z) f
a D, Ua .)
F
f , F
D. (. 10.6)
:
.
. F D C D1 D . F1 = (U1 , f1 ) F, D1
g O(D1 ), ,
F
D1 , (D1 , g) ( ) F D1 .
, ,
, , F
( ).
F
()

11.1.

127

(
), (D1 , f1 )
(D2 , f2 )
, f1 f2
D1 D2 (. . 42).

. 42

. (D1 , f1 ) (D2 , f2 )
a C, a D1 D2
f1 f2 a. (, .)
a.
a , Oa . f a {f }a ,
:
{f }a + {g}a := {f + g}a ,

{f }a {g}a := {f g}a.

0 : I C
t O(t) ,
t0 I u = ut0 I t0 ,
Dt0 C f O(Dt0 ) ,
(u) Dt0

{f }(t) = t

t u.

.

:

128

11.

(1) ,
( );
(2) ,
( );
(3) ,
( ).
, ,

.

11.2. : z . f

f (z) = |z| ei arg z/2 , < arg z < .
f , ,
C \ R =
C \ (, 0].
f (z)2 = z ,
f  (z) =

1
.
2f (z)

f (z) z = 1. U0 = {|z 1| < 1} (


. 6.2), ,
f  (z) z 0. f0 (z).
. (U0 , f0 )
C \ {0}
z = 1
C, 0.
. : I
C \ {0} (0) = 1
(t) = |(t)| ei(t) ,
: I R (0) = 0. (.
. 43)
Ut := {z C : |z (t)| < |(t)|}

11.2. :

129

. 43

ft O(Ut ), (U0 , f0 ) ,

ft (z) = |z| ei arg z/2 , + (t) < arg z < + (t).
ft , , R(t) = ei(t) R , + (t). ut0
( . 10.4)
t0 I , (ut0 ) Ut0 ;
(t).
: I C , (t0 ) = 0
t0 I, {Ft : t I}

ft0 (z) =

1
z (t0 ) = 0
2ft0 (z)

( ft (z) = 1/(2ft(z)) ft ), .



C\{0},
(U0 , f0 )
C\{0}, z . , z C\{0}
z.

z ,
. 10.6

130

11.

. 44

s . , (. . 44)
s = {z C : |z s| = 1 s},

0  s  1,

0 1
a = b = 1, (U0 , f0 ) 0 1 :
0 , , (U0 , f0 ),
1 (U0 , f0 ). , 1/2 0,
.
11.3. : ln z.
(U0 , f0 ) U0 U0 =
{|z 1| < 1} 1 z = 1, f0

f0 (z) =


(1)n1
(z1)n = ln |z|+i arg z,
n
n=1

< arg z < ,

(. . 9.3).
C \ {0} z = 1
ft (z) = ln |z| + i arg z

+ (t) < arg z < + (t)

( . 11.2),
z
d
,
ft (z) =

11.4.

131

([0, t]) , (t) c z. ln z C \ {0}, ()


C \ {0}.
. F = (U, f ), U =

n
2
{|z| < 1} f (z) =
n=1 z /n |z| < 1. ( f (z)
.) , F : [0, 1] C \ {1} (0) = 0 0
/ ((0, 1]),
{|z 1| = 1}, z = 0.

11.4. .
F , G D C F = (U, f ),
G = (V, g)
a D.
a, f  , f +g, f g,
D.
( F G) F  , F +G, F G. ,
. , F  ,
F + G, F G (,
) .

z
+
z
.

2 z 0, i ln z + ln z
. ,
(ln z) = 1/z (
) .
G F, , F
D Cz F D1 Cw , G. F = (U, f ), G = (V, g)
a D f (a) f (D) .
a, g f , D. G F
. ,

F (w) = w2 F (z) = 4 z -

132

11.

4

(
z )2= z (,

, 4 z 4 z = { z , i z }),
F ,
,


2 : w i w . . 11.8 12.6.
. F
D C, F G C
O(G). F D. , {f | A}
() F
U D, F U f ,
A. f f
D, f f
. F U
F U
D, , F
D.
, , , . , ,
.
. D C , f D f (D) C \ {0}.
g h, D, ,
f = g2

f = eh

D.


.
f (z) , .
D . g(z)
, g O(D)
g2 = f

D.

ln f (z)
D h, f = eh D.

. (1)
, .

11.4.

133

h1 (z) f  (z)/f (z) D ( D, . 5.2 . 5.1).


eh1 (z) = Cf (z)

C. ,
h O(D) , eh = f . g(z) =
eh(z)/2 g 2 = f .
(2) D C . , D f  0 D
, f D .
(3) F D := {0 < |z| < 1}

F D. F
D?


. 14.2 ( ,
, )
. 23.2 ( ,
,

).

, F
D
1
F , D C, D1 D F
, D1 , D1 .
D1 . ,
F D,
D1 : ,

F
D1
D1 .
F D, . (
. 12.6.)
. (4) F D C.
, nz (F) F
z z D.
n(F) F D.
D
1 D . ,
F
D n(F) D1
1
.
(5) F(z) = z z = ez ln z
C \ {0}. , F C \ {0}

134

11.

, m, n  1 , F z = m/n,
n.

.
. (, ,
, , ,
, )
,
.
11.5.
.
. a C F , F V a
V = {z C : 0 < |z a| < }
a C

V = {z C : |z| > 1 }

a = .
11.1. V a. : I V (0) =
(1) = z0 V n Z , 0n ,
.. 0n , 0
0 (t) = a + (z0 a)e2it ,

0  t  1,

|z0 a| a.
, ,
V , , ;
0n .
. n.

z0 a = |z0 a|ei0 ,

11.5.

135

0 = arg(z0 a).
0n (t) = a + |z0 a|ei(0 +2nt)

0  t  1.

(t) :
(t) = a + |(t) a| ei(t)

t I = [0, 1],

(t) = arg((t) a) I (0) = 0 . (0) = (1) = z0


, (1) (0) = 2n n Z.
: I I V ,
(s, t) = a + |z0 a|s |(t) a|1s ei{(0 +2nt)s+(t)(1s)} .
s = 0
(0, t) = a + |(t) a|ei(t) = (t),
s = 1
(1, t) = a + |z0 a|ei(0 +2nt) = a + (z0 a)e2int = 0n (t).
, (s, t) 0n .
, ln |(s, t) a| ln |z0 a| ln |(t)a|, arg((s, t)a)
arg(0n (t) a) arg((t) a) (.
. 45).
n. 0n1 0n2 , = 0n1 n2
(t) z0 V . ,


dz
= 0,
2i(n1 n2 ) =
za
.. n1 = n2 .

.  n, 11.1,
1 (V, z0 )
Z.
11.2. a F , V . F0 F ( z0 V )

136

11.

. 45

0 F0 , F V .
. 11.1 1 , 2 V
z0 z V
2 1 0n
n Z.
F0 V (0) = z0
(1) = z V , .
F .

11.6. .
F V
a F0 F
z0 V . n Z Fn
F0 0n ,
11.1.
. (1) F1 = F0 (.. F0 0 F0 ), F V 11.2. a F .
(2) F1 = F0 , a F .
Fn = F0 n  2, a -

11.6.

137

;
F a min{n  2 : Fn = F0 }.
a F .
, F (.. , ) c

F .
11.3.
F0 F.
. F0 F z0 V .

0
0 (t) = a + (

z0 a)e2it ,

0  t  1,

11.1, 1 (V, z0 ). , , Fn , n Z, F0



0n .

. 46

V z0 z0 ,
F0 F0 (. . 46).
0 , z0 z0 :
z0

138

11.


0 a, z0 ,
z0 . 11.1
m
1
0 0

0m 0

(11.1)

m Z. ,

0 1
0 0 0 .
(11.1), ,
0 1
0

0n 1 0n n Z.
, Fn Fn n Z (
). , Fn = F0 Fn = F0 .

. V
a C, F
D V .

F
V
V (. . 11.4) V
a.
,
1
F (z) = 

1+ z 2
C \ {0, 1}. V = {0 < |z 1| < 1/2}
, z = 1 2,
, .
. F(z) z = 0
z = . ( 11.4.)

11.7.
.
11.1. n- z 1/n n-

C \ {0},
z (. . 11.2)

11.7.

139

n z = 0, . ln z, . 11.3,
z = 0, .

11.2. tg(1/z) 2-
1
,
n
z = .

z=

1
,
/2 + m

n, m Z,

11.4 . z = 0 ( ).
11.4. f (z) a C
 1- z = a.
f (z) 2 z = a.
. a C. U a
f (z) = (z a)g(z),
g(z) U .
. 11.4
g = h2
h(z), U .

f (z) = h(z) z a

U . ,
f (z)

z = a , z a , ..
2. a =
z 1/z.

11.3.
z a := ea ln z
C \ {0} a C. a:

140

11.

(1) a , z a C \ {0}, z = 0
( a  0) ( a < 0). z a z = ?
(2) a Q \ Z, .. a = m/n, m, n
n > 1. z a
C \ {0},
n z = 0 z = .
(3) a C\Q, z a C\{0},

z = 0 z = .
11.4. a C \ {0}
az := ez ln a
, .
. z = .

11.8. . F
V = {z C : 0 < |z a| < } a,
a n.
v := { C : 0 < || < 1/n }
: v V ,
() = a + n .
. F n v. = 0
, j , j = 1, . . . ,
n 1,
j () = (j ),

:= e2i/n ,

j = 1, . . . , n 1.

F
F = 1 .

11.8.

141

. 47

. 1 . , 0 v u0 v , : u0 V u0 U0 V z0 = (0 ) (. . 47).
, u0 U0 . uj , j = 1, . . . , n
1, u0 uj = j u0 . F U0 n
Fj = (U0 , fj ),

j = 0, . . . , n 1,

, Fj F0 0j j = 0, . . . , n 1 ( 0 ,
, a, z0 ).
fj n-
. 0 = 0, 0 . 0 ,
z = () 0n . Fj
Gj := Fj = (u0 , fj ) =: (u0 , gj ),

j = 1, . . . , n 1.

Gj 0 ( )
Fj 0n , Fj .
, 0 Gj . , 11.2, Gj j O(v). ,

142

11.

F n 0 , 1 , . . . , n1 O(v).
, fj (.
), .
2 . O(v) {0 , 1 ,
. . . , n1 }. . 11.4 1
V ,
(U0 , p) V ,
p : U0 v
= 1 (z) = (z a)1/n

V.

F ,
(U0 , p). 1 = F ,
.
3 . O(v) {0 , 1 ,
. . . , n1 }, 1 = 1 V ( F , . 2 ) ,
z0 V (p(z)) 1 . , . 2
(p(z)) = (j p(z)) j {1, . . . , n 1}.
, () = (j )
p(z0 ) v, , , v.
.

11.1.
:
F (z) V n z = a
() ,
F (z) = ((z a)1/n ).
11.2. ()

() =
ck k v
kZ

= (z a)1/n . F
:

F (z) =
ck (z a)k/n .
kZ

11.8.

143

, , V ,
F (z) = 1 (z).
. (1) a, b C. ,
z a (1 z)b C \ [0, 1] ( C \ {0, 1}) , a + b Z ( a, b Z).
(2) F C \ {0},
(D, f )
|f (z)|  1

z D.

, F .
(3)
? , F V := {z C : 0 < |z a| < }
z = a. v := { C : Re < ln }
: v V () = a + e . F , F(z) = (ln(z a))
()?

144

12.

12.
,
, ,
,
. , ,
.
,
. w = F (z) D C z
w = () ,
D, ( F ) X, D.
F (z) z ,
z D , X ,
z F .

( . 12.512.8),
,
(.
.12.112.3).

12.1. w = z . z = f (w) = w2 , w = z .
(. . 48)
D = {w C : 0 < arg w < }

0<


G = {z C : 0 < arg z < 2}.
< < 2,
. , f
D , D f (D ) = C \ {0},

12.1. w =

145

. 48

f (D ) ( ) z 0 < arg z < 2 . = 2,


D2 = C \ [0, +) (0, +), C \ {0}
C \ {0}, z C \ {0}
. , z = f (w) = w2
Cw \ {0}

X Cz \ {0}. w = z X C \ {0} , ,
X, .
:
C \ [0, +)
, ,
(.
. 49). ,
C \ [0, +)
D = {w C : 0 < arg w < }
z = f (w) = w2 ,

D2 \ D = {w C : < arg w < 2}
. z = f (w) = w2 w,
w .
z = f (w) = w2 w (
) z

146

12.

. 49

. 50

12.3. w = arcsin z

147

( ), ,
.
12.2. w = ln z. z = ew , w = ln z,

Dn = {w C : 2n < Im w < 2(n + 1)},

n Z,

C \ [0, +). . 12.1 , z = ew Cw


Cz \ {0}, C \ [0, +)
( n Z) n-
(n + 1)- (. . 50).
w = ln z
(
C).
12.3. w = arcsin z. , z = sin w, w = arcsin z,




D0 := w C : < Re w <
2
2
G := C\((, 1][1, +))
D0 G, {Re w = 2 , Im w  0} (
{Re w = 2 , Im w  0}) ( ) [1, +), {Re w = 2 ,
Im w  0} ( {Re w = 2 , Im w  0})
( ) (, 1] (.
. 51). sin w = F4 F3 F2 F1 (w),
F1 (w) = ieiw ,
F3 (w2 ) = w22 ,

w1 + 1
,
w1 1
w3 + 1
.
F4 (w3 ) =
w3 1

F2 (w1 ) =

F1 , F2 , F3 , F4 ,
D0 :
{Im w1 < 0},
{Im w2 > 0}, w3

148

12.

. 51

{Im w3 = 0, Re w3 > 0} , , G z.
.
, n Z z = sin w

Dn :=

w C : n < Re w < n +
2
2



G = C \ (, 1] [1, +) Dn , ,
.
, z = sin w




C \ m + : m Z
2
C \ {1}, .
{Gn : n Z}



C \ (, 1] [1, +)

( Gn Dn
z = sin w). k Z
G2k G2k+1 - (.. , . 12.1)
[1, +), G2k G2k1 (, 1] (. . 52).
w = arcsin z
.

12.4.

149

. 52

12.4. .
, .
, ( .12.112.3).
, .
F F = (U, f ), F0 . F0 , , U1 , U2
F1 = (U1 , f1 ) F2 = (U2 , f2 ) U1 U2 .
, F1 = (U1 , f1 ) F2 = (U2 , f2 )
,
f1 f2

U1 U2

(.. F1 F2 ). f1 = f2 U1 U2 (
U1 U2 ), , F1 , F2

U1 U2 . z (.
. 10.2). Fj = (Uj , fj ),
j = 0, 1, 2, 3, : U0 U1 , U1 U2 ,

150

12.

U2 U3 . U3 U0 ,
U0 .

z D , F
. F
. z , ln z arcsin z , . 12.112.3
.
12.5. . .
.
, , .
12.1. X . , X U , A,
: U B
B C, . U := U U ,
1
: (U ) (U )

1
: (U ) (U )

( ), .
. 53. , (X, {U }, { })
X ,
{U } , { }
() .
,
,
.
:
. (1) D C :

12.5.

151

. 53

U D, D,
(z) z.
(2) C = C {}
.



1
U2 = |z| >
{},
U1 = {|z| < 2},
2

1 (z) = z,

2 (z) =

1
.
z



.
12.2. (X, {U }, { }) (Y, {V }, { })
.
f : X Y ,
f 1

152

12.

( ). , f : X C ,
f , A, . f : X Y , f 1 : Y X
, f X
Y .
; D1 C
D2 C , D1 D2 .
C
. , . 2.6, , f : C C
12.2 , . 2.6
( ). , D C C
, D (.
. 7.11).
12.6. . .
12.3. : X Y
, X ,

z Y :
V = V (z) z Y Uj , j J,
X ,
1 (V ) =

Uj

jJ

Uj
Uj V , j J (. . 54).

12.6.

. 54

153

154

12.

(. ) , 1 (z) z Y (
J). .

z  ez ,
C C \ {0},
z  z n , n = 1, 2, . . . ,
C \ {0} C \ {0}.
. : C C \ {0} (z) = exp(exp z). ,
w C \ {0} V , 12.3, , w = 1. , : C C \ {0}
, 1 : C \ 1 (1) C \ {0, 1}
.


.
12.4. : X Y : Z Y
.
f : X Z , f = (.. f
).
,
fk : z  fk (z) = z + 2ik,

k Z,


C C \ {0},

z  ez ,

,
gk : z  gk (z) = k z,

= e2i/n k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1,


C \ {0} C \ {0},

z  z n ,

.
: X Y , ,

12.6.

155

( )
Y X, ,
. : X Y .
z0 Y , : I Y z0 0 1 (z0 )

 : I X 0 ,
(. . 55):
(
(t)) = (t)

t I.

. 55

. .
-

156

12.

(. . 4.5). (I) V (z), z (I) (. 12.3 )


V0 , V1 , . . . , Vn1 , ,
0 = t0 < t1 < < tn = 1 I ,
([tj1 , tj ]) Vj1

j = 1, . . . , n.

[t0 , t1 ]


 := 1 ,
1 : V0 Uj00 V0 Uj0 , j J0 ,
1 (V0 ) =

Uj0 ,

jJ0


0 . [t1 , t2 ]
1 , 1 : V1 Uj11 V1
Uj1 , j J1 ,
1 (V1 ) =

Uj1 ,

jJ1


(t1 ). .
.
1 ,
2
1 (0) =

2 (0) = 0 .
2 (t)}
G := {t I :
1 (t) =
, 0, 
1 ,
2 .
, t0 G
:
1 = 1 
2 = 1 , 1 : V Uj
Uj
1 (V ) =

Uj ,

jJ

2 (t0 ). , G = I,

1 (t0 ) =
.


12.6.

157

. 56

. 1 (z)
z Y .
. z0 , z1 Y . Y
: I Y (0) = z0 , (1) = z1 .
0 1 (z0 ) 1 :=
(1) 1 (z1 )

,
(0) = 0 (. . 56).
1 (z0 ) 1 (z1 ),

0  1 ,

. , z0 z1 . , .

. , , Y = D C : X C
X. 1
D, .
z0 D 0 1 (z0 ), V (z0 ) D . U (0 )
Uj

Uj ,
1 (V (z0 )) =
jJ

158

12.

0 ( V (z0 )).
1 z0 (V (z0 ), f ), f O(V (z0 ))
f (()) = () U (0 ).
: I D z0

 : I X 0 t I

Ft := 1
V ((t)) =
U( (t)) ,
U (
(t))
(t), V ((t)). {Ft : t I} . , ( z0 0 ),
D ( . 11.4) 1 .
12.7.
().
, , F , F .
, F D ,
.
R(F ), D,
.
R(F ) , , F , F .
F : R(F ) D, F F a = F (F ) D.
F .
R(F ),
. - B (F0 ) F0 F > 0
F F ,
|(F ) (F0 )| <

F F0 .

12.7.

159

R(F )
( R(F ) ,
).
R(F ). A
= (F, ), > 0, F R(F ),
{z C : |z (F )| < } D.
= (F, ) A:
U := B (F ),

:=
U .

-. (F , {U }, { }) R(F ) ,
F . F : R(F ) D
, F : R(F ) C, F = (U, f ) F

F (F ) = f (F (F )) = f F ,
R(F )
1
.
F = F F
1
F F
. 12.6.
, (G, f ) F  R(F ) , F
G
 G
G
1
f = F F

G.

. 1) R(F ). F1 = (U1 , f1 ) F2 = (U2 , f2 )


F .
(F1 ) = (F2 ), > 0 , |(F1 ) (F2 )| > 2.
B (F1 ) B (F2 ) (
). (F1 ) = (F2 ) = a,
> 0 , {|z a| < }

160

12.

U1 U2 . B (F1 ) B (F2 )
F = (U, f ) b, U U1 U2
( b) , , F1 F2
(. . 10.3(B)).
F1 , F2 ,
.
2) : R(F ) D . z0 D.
Fj F, j J, (Fj ) = z0 . V := {|z z0 | < }, > 0 ,
{|z z0 | < 2} D B (Fj )
.

B (Fj ).
1 (V ) =
jJ

, F = (U, f ) 1 (V ), , z0 U . f z0 , F
z0 , .. Fj . ,
F Fj , F B (Fj ).
Uj := 1 (V ) B (Fj ).
Uj , . 12.6.
3) F .

U :=
B (F0 ) F0 = (U0 , f0 ) :=
U
F 1
(z) = f0 (z),
F F = F 1 . 
. . 11.8 (z a)1/n ( a, , n- z = a). , . 11.8 , F V = {z C : 0 < |z a| < }, a n- , : v V ( v = { C : 0 < || < 1/n } () = a + n )

12.7.

161

, F = 1 V . 0 v
F0 n F (0 ), v
, F0 , : I v , 0
. (
n- .)
J : v R(F ) : v V F : R(F ) V V , v
F .
. 11.8 , F (z)
: v V () ,

fk :  fk () := k ,

:= e2i/n , k {1, . . . , n 1},

= fk (.. )
() F () =
(k ). F
: v V .
. , ,
F , D C, : Y D (
, F = 1 D), : X Y
Y . ( ,
,
, 1.)
: X D
D , F .
( ) , .

162

12.

. X p : X D
D. , F
D : X C
X, ..
F = p1 .

: X R(F ) ,
p = F

= F .

, R(F )
, D, F . F F : R(F ) D
.
. (1) , arctg z
C \ {i} C \ {0}, C \ {i} C \ {0}
.
(2) 1 : C \ 1 (1) C \ {0, 1}
. 12.6 ln ln z.
(3) F1 (z) = ln ln z F2 (z) = ln{z(z 1)},
C \ {0, 1}?

163


[1] ., ., . .: , 1968,
1922.
[2] ., ., . .: ,
1978, 1925.
[3] . .,
. .: , 1984, 1934.
[4] . ., . . 1, 2.
.: , 1968, 1950.
[5] . ., . ., . .,
. .:
, 1970, 1960.
[6] .,
. .: ,
1963, 1961.
[7] . ., . .: , 1991,
1965.
[8] Rudin W., Real and complex analysis. New York: McGrawHill, 1987, 1966.
[9] . ., . 1.
. .: , 1985, 1968.
[10] . . (.), . .: , 1972, 1969.


. . , . .


I.

. .
. .

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