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2007

517.9
22.193:22.2
25

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25 : - . : -
, 2007. 23 .

III - .

517.9
22.193:22.2

c

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c

, 2007


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2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


xy D -

, L (. 1). a . L T = f (s) (s )
T = (x, y) D.
L

s
D

s=0

x
. 1


2 (x, y) 2 (x, y)
+
= 0.
(x, y) =
x2
y 2
, a.
, . L N (. 2). li , i = 1, N
L
l2

li

l1

D
r(xcj , ycj , s)

lj
(xcj , ycj )
. 2

lN

. qi .

(x, y) = 0 +

N
X

qi i (x, y),

(1)

i=1

0 ,
Z
1
i (x, y) =
ln |r(x, y, s)|ds
2
li

, , li . r(x, y, s) (x, y) D
li s. (1)
(N + 1) : 0 qi , i = 1, N .
(N + 1) .
. . (xcj , ycj ), j = 1, N
(xcj , ycj ) = f (scj ),
scj . (1) (x, y),
Z
N
X
qi
0 +
ln |r(xcj , ycj , s)|ds = f (scj ),
j = 1, N .
2
i=1
li

li

=0

(xci , yci )

. 3
i = j,
( ), r(xcj , ycj , s) s = sci , .
,
, .
li , = 0 (. 3).
Z
li

ln |r(xcj , ycj , s)|ds =

Zdi /2

di /2

Zdi /2
ln d,
ln ||d = 2
0

di li .
Z
ln d = (ln 1),
i = j


Z
di
ln |r(xcj , ycj , s)|ds = di ln 1 .
2
li

,
D . ,
7

, L, ,

Z
q(s)ds = 0.
L

qi
,
Z
N
N Z
X
X
qi di .
qi ds =
q(s)ds =
i=1 l
i

i=1


N
X

qi di = 0.

i=1

Ax = b,
aji A :
Z

ln |r(xcj , ycj , s)|ds,


i = 1, N , j = 1, N , i 6= j,
aji =

li



di
d
i

ln 1 ,
i = 1, N ,
aii =
2
2

a(N +1) i = di ,
i = 1, N ,

aj (N +1) = 1,
j = 1, N ,

a(N +1) (N +1) = 0.

aji j (

), i ( ).
x = (q1 , q2 , . . . , qN , 0 ).
8


b = (f (sc1 ), f (sc2 ), . . . , f (scN ), 0) .
, aji , i 6= j
(, , ).

,
, , . 0 qi , i = 1, N ,
D (1).
,
(x, y)
D.

. . , ,
.
.

a = 0.
t

(2)

a , .

(x, y)|t=0 = 0 (x, y).
, 0 (x, y) 0.
D x y x
y (. 4). (2)
k
k+1
ki+1,j 2ki,j + ki1,j ki,j+1 2ki,j + ki,j1
i,j i,j

= 0. (3)
t
x2
y 2

10

PSfrag
L

D
(i, j + 1)
(i 1, j) (i, j) (i + 1, j)
(i, j 1)

y
x

. 4
t , k , i j
x y . (3)
k- (k +1)-.


k
k+1
i,j = i,j + t

ki+1,j 2ki,j + ki1,j ki,j+1 2ki,j + ki,j1


+
x2
y 2

(4)

k+1
= f (s).
L

(5)

L .
11




k
max k+1

i,j < ,
i,j

(6)

i,j

.
, :
1. t = 0, k = 0. 0i,j = 0 D,
0L = f (s) L.
2. (4) k+1
i,j
D, (5) k+1
L.
L
3. (6) , t = t + t, k = k + 1,
2. , .

(3),


1
1
1
1
t 6
.
+
2 x2 y 2

12


. :
1. , ;
2.
( ,
);
3.
;
4. .
, .
, :
1. ;
2. , , , .

13


. 5 9 . -

.
( )
(
). 9 D . 13,
15, 16, 18, 19 , , .
. 14, 17, 20 (b, c) .

.
a, b
c. , ,
x y t
.

14

b
a

a
a

a
. 5

15

6
a

2a
a
2a

2a
a

3a

a
a

a
a
b
a

a
a

3a
. 6

16

10

2a

b
a

2a

12
a

11

2a

a
45

b
2a
. 7

17

14

13

(b, c)

2a

b
a

15

16

a
a
a

a
. 8

18

17

18

a
(b, c)

b
a

19

20

a
(b, c)

b
a
. 9

19


1:

. a . Ti , i = 1, 4
(. 10). x y ( dx ,
).
n = a/dx , N = 4n .
(n + 1) (n + 1) . n = 50.
T4

T3

T1

a
. 10

20

T2

T1 = 1, T2 = T3 = T4 = 0 . 11.
. max = 8.61 103 .
. 12 (x, y) . ,
(
), .
. 13
,
. .
max = 5.05 104 , ,
. . 14
(x, y). , D,
, L.

21

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. 11

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. 12

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. 13

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0
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. 14

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