Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

1

1.
.

. .7-22.
. . 9-19, 23-26, 44-48.
.-. . 48-57, 70-73

2+ 2

(1)

r=

1 dnA
;
V (t ) dt

r>0

(2)

n - , V - .

r = - dc(t)/dt = - d[A]/dt

(3)

V = const, , , .
[/].
,
:

r = - d[A]/dt =- d[B]/dt = d[2]/dt

(4)

r (4) .
:

- d[A]/dt; -d[B]/dt d[2]/dt

(5)

AA + BB + = CC + DD +

(6)

- d[A]/dt; -d[B]/dt d[C]/dt; d[D]/dt

(7)

r = -1/A d[A]/dt =- 1/B d[B]/dt = 1/C d[C]/dt

(8)

, : c
:

r = -1/A d[A]/dt = k(T) [A]a [B]b []

(9)

1) a,b,c... - .

(a+b+c....) - . a,b,c -
, .
. .
2) k(T) .
.
. .
1 -3/2
(5/2) - [ ].
3) [A](t),

[B](t),

[](t) (9) a,b,c... k.


a,b,c... k [A](t), [B](t),
[](t) (9).
4) () .
, .

Br* + H2 = HBr + Br*

(10)

, : H2.

r = - d[Br*]/dt = k [Br*] [H2]

(11)

, a=1,

b=1. , ,
. ,
. .
: ( 2),
( 1) - ( 3).
2

1
.
.
.
- .
.

H2 +Br2 = 2HBr

(12)

(12) :

k1 *[ Br2 ]1/ 2 *[ H 2 ]
r = - d[Br2]/dt =
k [ HBr ]
1+ 2
[ Br2 ]

(13)

[Br2]>>[HBr]
r k1 [Br2]1/2[H2]
3/2.
.
5) (9) .
.

() = +

(14)

CaCO3 () = CaO (.) + CO2


,

(t ) =

[ , ]
[ ]

(15)

, d/dt.

d/dt = k(T) f()

(16)

k(T) . [1/],
. f() .
.

f() = 1- ; d/dt = k(T) (1-)

(17)

- .. -:

d/dt = k(T) (1-)*(-ln (1-))3/4

(18)

.
(9):

ln r = lnk + a ln[A] + b ln[B]

(19)

[C],.[B] >>[A];

[B], [C] const

(20)

ln r = onst + ln[A]

(21)

ln r

tg =

[B] = const, T = const

ln [A]

1
.
( ).

(22)

r = - d[A]/dt = d[]/dt = k [A]

(23)

(23):

- d[A]/[A] = k dt ; ln [A] = - kt + const


t = 0 [A]

ln [A](t)/[A0] = - kt ;

(24)

= [A0].

[A](t) =[A0] * e- kt

(25)

t:

[B](t) = [0] + [A0] - [A] = [0] + [A0] * {1- e- kt}


[0]

(26)

[](t),

[B](t).:

A --> B

[A], [B]

[B](t)

[A](t) = [A0]/2

[A](t)=[A0]e-kt

1/2

ln [A]

ln [A] = -kt +ln [A0]

tg = - k
t
-, t, [0]
:

A(t )
1
ln
ln
=

= k 1/ 2
A
2
0

1/ 2 =

ln 2
k

(27)

1/ 2 .

1
- ,
(22). , ,
, t t+dt :

d[A] = - k[A]dt = - k [A0] * e- kt*dt; -d[A]/ [A0] = k e- kt * dt

(28)

-d[A]/[A0]

,
- kt
t t+dt ( ), k e
.
:

t = t * ke- kt * dt = 1/ k

(29)

t = t * ke * dt = (t * e
- kt

(t * e

- kt

1
k

- kt

- kt
)
+
e
* dt =

1
1
+ * e- kt ) = (0 0 + 0 ) =
k
k
0

(30)