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12

12
.
.
,
. ,
(
). ,
? . ,
. , ,
.

( kT )

rf =
= rr

*
#
Q
QQQ
( )
*

h Q

( kT )
=

Kc =

QQQ ( )

*
#
Q
QQQ
( )
*

h Q

QQQ ( )

*
Q
QQQ ( )
*

QQQ ( )
=

E f TAK
kT

[ ] =

E r TAK
kT

[ ]

( E f TAK E r TAK )
kT

=
(1)

[ ]
[ ]

(1) ,
.
f
r
ETAK
= H 00 ( AK ) H 00 ( ), ETAK
= H 00 ( AK ) H 00 ( ),

H = ETAK ETAK
0
0

(2)

12

[ AK ] f =
[ AK ]r =

*
Q
QQQ ( )
*

QQQ ( )

QQQ ( )

QQQ ( )

E f TAK
kT

Er
TAK
kT

[ ]
(3)

[ ]

[ AK ] f
[ AK ]r

*
Q
QQQ ( )
*
Q
QQQ ( )

[ AK ] f

= Kc

[ AK ]r

( E f TAK E rTAK )
kT

1
=1
Kc

[ ]
[ ] (4)

.
: .

. . 298-301

kbi = Ae

EA
kT

kbi = A0T e
n

n=

1
2
1
2

EA
kT

8kT
kbi = P d
e

ETAC
RT

1
2

1
A
8k 12
= P d
T e RT e 2

12
:

kbi =

( kT )

*
#
Q
QQQ
( )

*
h Q
QQQ ( )

ETAK
kT


. , .
1/2
:

AT

3
2

k
2

3
2

m
2

T T
3
2

T T T T

(5)

n
2

k , m, n = 2,3 .
, m, n = 0 .
:

AT

3
2

2
2

3
2

0
2

T T
3
2

T T T T

0
2

=T

1
2

(6)

k = 2, m = 0, n = 0

:

AT

3
2

3
2

3
2

3
2

T T
3
2

T T T T

3
2

= T 2

(7)

k = 3, m = 3, n = 3
2

c , T
.
:

12

Q ,i = (1 e

h i
kT

h
) 1 i T
kT

(8)

. .
.
. .

. . 294-297
. . 193-194
:
. :

kTAK =

( kT )

*
Q
Q ( )
*

h Q

( A) Q

( B)

ETAK
kT

(9)

. -.
. :
3
2

Q ( )
(2 mAB kT ) h3
h3
=
=
3
3
3
*
*
Q
( A) Q
( B)
3
(2 kT ) ( mAmB ) 2 (2 kT ) 2 2
*

(10)

() :

Q ( ) =

(8

I AK kT )
h

; I AK = d 2

(11)

12

kTAK =

( kT )
h

(8

h3
3
2

(2 kT )

3
2
1
2

h2

8kT

d
e

d 2 kT )

ETAC
kT

ETAK
kT

=
(12)

= kTAC

.
. . (!
(12) !).
,
.
.
,

( kT ) Q
h

*

*

Q ( , 2 c. .)

( A) Q

( B)

E
TAK
kT

1
2

8kT
e
d

ETA
kT

(13)

. ( !),
,
10 100 .
,
, :

Q ( AK ,1.)
Q ( A, 2 .) Q ( , 2.)

10 100

= 103 106
4
4
10 100

Q ( AK ,1.)
Q ( A, 3 .) Q ( , 3.)

105 1010

12
-3

10
.

10-10,

2 H 4 + H 2 = C2 H 6
-6

1.7 10 .

Q ( AK ,1.)
Q ( A, 2 .) Q ( , 3.)

104 108 .

. .
, .