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20

20.
.
.
.
) ;
) .
.
: :
Pt
C6 H12
C6 H 6 + 3H 2

(1)


:
H2
4
2

H2

H2
6

Pt

1,2,3 , , 4,5,6
.
(!) (1) ,
, .
Ni, Pt, Rh Pb. Mo Ba.
- :

20

Mo, Ba

Ni,Pt,Rh,Pb

, Mo Ba (1).
- .
. -,

r = 2.48 2.77
, ,

r (C-C) = 1.54 1.42


Pb Au , ,

r = 3.50 2.88
Pb

Au (1).

, Cr2O3. , ,
, .. .
..
.

H1 , E1
H 2 , E2
AB + CD
{ A..B..C..D}
AC + BD

(2)

20
.

,
(. ):

H r
= H1 = H 2
2

(3)

,
. ,
.
:

E1 + E2 const , H r
E1 E2 ,

H1 = H 2

(4)

- ,
, .

- .
.-. . 183-185

20

H 00 < 0,
E1 = 48 0.25 H 00 ( )
H > 0,
0
0

(5)

E1 = 48 + 0.75 H 00 ( )

. ,
-:

H* + CH4 = CH3* + H2
Na * + CH3Cl = NaCl + CH3*

(6)

Br* + H2 = HBr + H*
- 2.
.
, ,
. ,
. .
-2
-4
, 10 10
.
,
. .

z0 = S/

(7)
4

20

S , - .
:

= N/z0,

(8)

( ) ?
2

1 z 1
W2 = 0
z 0 z0

N 2

N!
( N 2)!2!

(9)

,
, ,
, N.
n :
n

1 z 1
Wn = 0
z0 z0

N n

N!
( N n)!n!

(10)

n <<N
n

N
z0

N e
Wn
n!
z0

(11)

(11) N

N
dWn
= n
dN
z0

n 1

1 z0 1 N 1 z0 1
e e =0
n ! z0 z0
n!
z0
(12)

20

N max
= 0,
z0

nz0 = N max

, n

N max = nz0 .

N, ,
. , n
Wn

.
z0. , n :

Wn *z0

(13)

- rn,
, n , :

An = Wn *z0 rn

(14)

(.
):

an =
An

n = (Nmax/ z0)

an
n 1

Wn z0 rn
N

N
z0

Wn N 1 e
;
=
N z0 z0 n !
(15)
N
N
Wn

n2
n 1
d
z0
z

N = n 1 N 1 e N 1 e 0 = 0
( )

dN
z0 z 0 n ! z 0 z0 n !
, :

20
'
N
N max

n 1 = 0, n 1 =

z0
z0

(16)

An , an

, n
, .
an :

An

an

18

N, atoms/g, 10

- ,
N. .. ,
. ,
( !) :

20

, An An /N = an
N ( -
).

'
N max N max
,

, ,
, n , :
'
N max
N max
n=
, n 1 =
;
z0
z0

N (n 1)
N max
n = max '
, n=
'
N max
N max N max

(17)

( )

z0 =

N max
'
= N max N max
n

(18)

n=3, .
Nmax

1018 .