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: " "

091401, 092401
,


.
11
22 2010 .

___
______________2010 .

, 2010

681.3.07
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" 091401, 092401
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/ . .., . .. , . 2010. 45 .

091401,
092401 ,
.

. .., . ..

. - . ..
. - . ..

. ..

1. 1.
, ...............4
2. 2.
.....................................9
3. 3.
. ..17
4. 4.
..32
45

1
: ,
:
1.1.

[1].



. .

A B ,
( + )
, A B .

:

: A B
. :
= { x | x A } ,
, , x
,
A B .

A B ,
A B ( A B )
, A B .

:

A B

: A B

.
:
A B = {x | x A
x B} ,
, , x
,
A B .

,
.
A B ,

A\ B (

A B )

A , B .
:

A\ B : A B .

A B :

A\ B = { x | x A x B} ,

, , x
A ,
B .

,
() . ,
, ; ,
.
,
.

U .

,
,
.

U \ A

A ( U ) A .

A B
, ( )
:

B = (A\ B)(B \ A)

.
, :

( A B ) ( B C )

B ( A C ) .

.
F , F A , B C :
F = ( A B C ) ( A B C ) ( A B C ) .
A , B C -,
.
F ,

( A B C ) ,
( A B C )
( A B C ) .
A B C .
A , B
C .
,
A B C

C , A
B .
U,
A B C

A , B , C .

,
F
(

):

1.2. .

.

,
.
.

13

14

15

16

10

11

12

21

22

23

24

17

18

19

20

1.3.
1.3.1. , .
1.3.2. ?
1.3.3. ? ?

10

1.3.4. ,
?
1.3.5. A B B C , A C .
1.3.6. ,
( ) = ( ) ( ) , A B = A B .
1.3.7. ()
;
1.3.8.
, :

1.3.9. F ,
F A , B , C D :
F = ( A B C D ) ( A B C D ) ( A B C D ) ;
F = ( A B C D ) ( A B C D ) ( A B C D ) ;
F = ( A B C D ) ( A B C D ) ( A B C D ) ;

F = ( A \ B) (A \ C) ( A B) (A D)

F = (( A B ) ( A C )) \ (( A B ) ( A D )) ;

F = ( A\ B)(A\C) ( B \C)(B \ D)

1.3.10.

A\(BC) = (A\ B)(A\C)

11

A\(BC) = (A\ B)(A\C)

A \ B = A \ ( A B) ;

A(B \ A =)

(A B)\C = A C B C)\()\(

A B = B A;

2
:
:
.
2.1. [1].



, . .
, ,
, .

,
.
(0 1), n
2 n .

(

(000 0) (111 1).

,

, ,

, . .

12

,
.
.
. :
1. :

x1 x 2 ( x1 x 2 ) x3 .

x1 x 2 ( x1 x 2 ) x3 .
2 1

2.

5 4

, &, , :

x1 x 2

x3

x2

x1 x 2

x1 x 2

x3

( x1 x2 ) x3

x1 x 2 ( x1 x 2 ) x3

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0

0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1



19
( 2.2) [1],
:
a b a b ,
a ~ b ( a b )( b a ) ab ab (a b )(a b ) .
,
. , ,
,
,
, . . a a 1 , ,
x1 x1 1 , 1 1 1 , ( x1 x2 ) x3 ( x1 x2 ) x3 1 .

:
1) a ab a b ;
1) a ab a b ;
(
)
a

ab
2)
;
2) a( a b ) ab ,
.
.
a ab (a a )( a b ) 1( a b ) a b .
.
a ( a b ) a a a b 0 ab ab .
.
x1 x2 ( x1 x2 ) x3 .
x1 x 2

x1 x 2 x 3

x1 x 2 x1 x 2 x 3

x1 x 2 x1 x3 x 2 x3

13
x1 x 2 x1 x3 x 2 x3

( )
( )

( )

a) x1 x2 x3 x3 x2 x3 .

) x3 x1 x2 x3 ( x1 x2 ) .

x1 x2 x3 ) x2 x1 x3 x2 x1 x3 .

) x1 x3 x2 x1 x3 x2 x1 x3 x2 .

) x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 .
. ) - ) .

.
.
.
, , ,
,
.
.

,
- (
).
. , ( x1 x3 )( x2 x3 ) ( x1 x2 ) x3 .

( x1 x3 )( x2 x3 ) x1 x2 x3 .
1- .

(x

)(

x3 x 2 x3

x1 x 2 x3 x 2 x1 x3 x3

x1 x 2 x3

x1 x 2 x3 .

2-
x1 x 2 x3

3-

(x

)(

x 2 x 2 x3

x1 x 2 x3

)(

x1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x1 x3 x3 x1 x 2 x3 .

x1 x2 x3 x1 x3 x 2 x3 .

x1 x 2 x3 .

. ,
.

14

. ,
1 3
.
1 3 .
,
.


( 2.8, 2.9) [1].
:
,

.
.
F ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) = ( x1 x 2 x3 ) ( x1 x3 )

F.

F(x1, x2, x3) = y1 y2 y1 x1 x2 x3 .


y2 x1 x3

,
:
( y1 y 2 ) * y1 y 2 y1 y 2 ;

(x

x 2 x3

( x1

x 3 )

x1 x 3 x1 x3 x1 x 3 x1 x 3 x1 x 3 ( x1 x 3 ) x1 x3 x1 x3 x1 x 3 x1 x 3 .

x1 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x 3 x1 x 2 x 3 x1 ( x 2 x3 );

( )

F *(x1, x2 , x3) = y1 y2 y1 x1 ( x2 x3 ) x1 ( x2 x3 ) x1 x3 .
y 2 x1 x 3

:
, , 0 1, 1 0
.

15

(x

) (

)(

))

x 2 x3 ( x1 x3 ) x1 x 2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x3 x1 x 2 x3 ( x1 x3 ) x1 x3
*

x1 ( x 2 x3 ) ( x1 x3 ).

.
.
(( x1 x2 x3 ) ( x1 ~ x3 ))

(( x1 x 2 x3 ) ( x1 x3 x1 x3 )

x1 ( x 2 x3 ) (( x1 x3 )( x1 x3 ))

x1 ( x 2 x3 )( x1 x3 x1 x3 ) x1 ( x 2 x3 )( x1 ~ x3 ).

: , , ,
:
,
.
:
1.
.
2.
, .. ,
, .
3.
.
4.
.
5.
.
.
( x1 x2 x3 ) ( x1 x3 ).

)
(
) (
)
x (x x ) x x x x x x x x x x x x

x1 x 2 x3 ( x1 x3 ) x1 x 2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x3
1

1 3

1 3

1 2

1 3

1 3

1 3

x1 x 2 x1 x3 x1 x3 .

()
, :
f ( f ) ( f ) ( f ) .
* *

* *

. ( x1 x 2 x3 )( x1 x3 ).
*
( x1 x 2 x3 )( x1 ~ x3 ) ((( x1 x 2 x3 )( x1 ~ x3 )) *

16

((( x x x )( x x x x )) )
* *

2 3

( (

1 3

1 3

x1 x2 x3 ( x1 x3 ) x1 x3
(x x x x x x x x ) (x x x
*

)(

m = ( x1 x 2 ) x1 x3 x1 x3

) .

x 3 x1 x3


, :
1. = 1.
2. = 2.
3. = 3.
4. = 4.
5. , . .
x x .
6.
7. 4.
1

. .
1
( x1 x2 x3 ) ( x1 ~ x3 )

x1 x 2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x3

x1 x 2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x3
4

x1 x2 x1 x3 x1 x3 x1 x3
6

x1 x2 x1 x3 x1 x3
7

x1 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x3
x1 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x 3 x1 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x 3

:
f ( f

* *

(( f

))

( f

. .
( x1 x2 x3 ) ( x1 ~ x3

) (

((

x1 x2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x3

((

))

x1 x2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x3

))

* *

(( x x x ) ( x x ) ( x x ))
( ( x x x x x x x x )( x x ) )
*

2 3

1 2 3

1 3

) (
*

2 3

x1 x2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3

17

x1 x 2 x3 ( x1 x 2 x3 ) x1 x 2 x3

) .

( 2.11, 2.12),
, , [1].

, ( x1 x2 x3 ) ( x1 ~ x3 ) :
x1 x2

x3

(x

x2 x3 ( x1 ~

x3 )

x1 x 2 x3

x1 x 2 x3

x1 x 2 x3

x1 x 2 x3

x1 x 2 x3

x1 x 2 x3

x1 x 2 x3

x1 x2 x3

x1 x 2 x3
x1 x2 x3
x1 x 2 x3
x1 x 2 x3
x1 x 2 x3 ;

(x
(x
(x

)
x )
x ) .

x 2 x3

x2

x2

2.2. .
2.2.1 .
, .

.
1. ( a ( d b)) (( a (b d )) c)) c ( a (b d ),
2. ((a c ) ( a d )) (((c (c b)) c) a,
3. (b d ) ((d c) ( a c ) ( d c ) (a c)) (b d ),
4. ( a c ) ( a b) (b c ) ( a b) (b c ),
5. ( a c ) ((b d ) ( a d ) ( d b) ( a d )) ( a c ),
6. ((b c ) ( a b)) ( d c ) (((b a ) c ) ( a b)),
7. ( a c ) ( a b) (b c ) ( a b) (c b ),

8. ((a (c (b c ))) (c d ) (c d )) (c ( d c ) d ),
9. ((a a ) (b d ) (b c ) (c d )) ((b c ) (c d )),
10. ( a c ) ((a d ) (b d ) ( a d ) (b d )) ( a c ),
11. (( d c ) ( d b ) (c b)) (( d b) (c b)) ( a a ),
12. ((c d ) (b c )) ( a d ) (((c b) d ) (c b )),
13. ((a b) (b c d ) ( a b c d ) b c d ,
14. ((a b) ( a b)) (( a b) (c d ) ( a b) ( d c )),
15. ((b c ) (c d ) a ) ( a b c d ) (c d ) a,
16. ((b c ) ( d (b c ))) ( d a ) ((c b) ( d c )),
17. (b d ) ((c d ) ( a c ) ( d c ) ( a c )) (b d ),
18. ((c d ) ( d a )) ((b b) (c a ) (c d ) ( d a )),

18
19. ( a d ) (((c b) d ) (c b)) (( d c ) (c b)),
20. ((( d ( d c )) d ) b) ((b d ) ( d a )),
21. ((b (c a )) d ) d (b (c a )) (b ( a c )),
22. ((c a ) ( a b) (a c ) (b a )) (b d ) (b d ),
23. (d (a d ) a ) ((b (d (d c ))) (c a ) ( d a )),
24. (c b) (d c ) (b c ) (d c ) (b d ).
25.( d ( a d ) a ) ((b ( d ( d c ))) (c a ) ( d a ))
26.( a ( a d ) a ) ((b ( d ( d c))) (c a ) ( d a ))
27.((b c ) ( d (b c ))) ( d a ) ((c b) ( d c ))
28.(((d ( d c)) d ) b) ((b d ) ( d a ))

2.2.2. f1 f 2 (. 1).
2.2.3. f3 (.1).
.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

f1

x y x y yz
y z xz x y z x y
y z xz x y
x y z xz x y z
y z x y yz x z
y z x y z x yz
x yz xz yz x yz
x y z x y yz xz x yz
yz x y yz x yz
x yz xz yz x yz
x yz x y yz x yz
x yz x y yz x yz
y z xy z y z
yz x y x yz xz
yz yz xz xz
x yz x y x yz

xz x y x z yz
xz x yz x yz
xz x yzx yzx y
yz x yz x y x yz
xz xz x yz yz
xz x yz x yz x y
xz x yz x yz x y
xz x yz x yz yz
xz xy
xzx yz y
x y x z yz
xyxyzxyz
x yx yz x yz yz
x z y xz

f2

x y x z
x y x y yz
x y z x x yz
x y z z x y
x y yz xz
xz x y
x y x y xz
x y x y z
x y x y xz
x y x y xz
x y x y x
x y y z z
yzxy
yz yz xz
yz yz xz xz
yzxxyz
x y xz yz
xy yz
yz yz yx
x y z y z
yzxy yz
xy yz yz
yz y yz
xz x yz
x y x yz
x yxz
x y yz x y xz
xz yz
xz x z yz
xz x yz x yz yz

2.3. .

f3

x z x y x y
x z x y x y
yz x y x y yz
x y y z
x y yz xz
x x y z
x z x y z
y z yz xz
y z
x y z
x y z yz
x y x z x z

xz

xy xyz
x yz yxyz
xz yz
xz x y yz
xyz y
x x y x yz
xzxz x y

xz

xz y
xz xz y
yz xy xy
x yz x yz yz
x yz x yz yz
xz x y yz
xyz z
xz y yz
x y yz x y

19

2.3.1. .
2.3.2. .
2.3.3. ?
2.3.4. :
(x ~ ( y z )) ~ (x ( y z )) ;
( x y ) (( y z ) ( x ( y ~ z ))) ;
(( x ~ y ) ~ ( ( z ( x y ) ) z )) ~ ( x y ) ;
( x ~ y ) ( ( ( y ~ z ) ( z ~ x )) ( x ~ z )) .
2.3.5. ,
:
x ( y ( x y )) ;
( x y ) (( y z ) (( x y ) ( x z ))) ;
( ( x y ) z ) (( x y ) z ) ;
( ( x y) ( x ( y z ) ) ) (( x y) z ) ;
( ( x y ) ( x ( ( y ( x z ) ) ( y z ) ) ) ~ z ).
2.3.6. ,
:
( x y )( y z ) ( x z ) ;
( x ( y z ) ) ( xy z ) ;
( x z )( y z ) ( x y z ) ;
( x z) ( ( y z) ( x y z) ) .
2.3.7. :
x ( y z );

xy xz;

( x y )( x yz );

( xy yz zv )( x y z );
x ( y z ( x y ));
xyz xy z x y z x yz;

(( x y )( x z ) xy ) (( x y )z x );
xy ( yz xyz ( xz yz ) xy )( x y z ). .
2.3.8. ()
:
x y

(x y) x

x ( y x)
x ( y z)
( x y )( y z ) ( x z )
( x y )( y z )( z x )
( x y )( y z )( z ~ x )
( x y )( y z )( z v )

2.3.9. ()
:

20

( x y) x y
x y ( x y )
x yz
xyz

( x y )( y z )( z ~ x )
x y ( x z)
( ( x y ) ~ ( y x ))z
x y z ( x y) z

3
: .
:
.
3.1. [1].

[1],
( ).
,
.
,
[1].

, ..
, (
). .
, xi ,
x .
, ,
ab ab = a
a ab = a a a b = a b (
: ( a b )(a b ) = a; a( a b ) = a
a ( a b ) = ab ). a b
. ,
, ..
.
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
:
y = x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x .
i

21

y = ( x1 x2 x3 x1 x 2 x3 ) ( x1 x2 x3 x1 x 2 x3 ) x1 x 2 x3 = x1 x2 x1 x 2 x1 x2 x3 .
:
y = x1 x2 x3 ( x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 ) ( x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 ) = x1 x2 x3 x2 x3 x1 x2 .
.
,
( , x x = x ).
x x x .

x
x
x
(
)
y = x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 = x1 x2 x1 x2 x2 x3 .
, :
y = x1 x 2 x1 x 2 ( x1 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x3 ) = x1 x 2 x1 x 2 x1 x3 .

, ,
.
.

,


.
1


n -
. ,
n - n
. . 3.1
.3.7.

.3.1 ,
y = x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
1

n ,
,
n - .
( n -1)- n 1
n - ( ), ..
= x x , n - ,
xi ,
n 1

n 1

n 1

22

, (, ).
, ( n -1)- n -
. ( n -2)-
- n - , (
).
n - , s ,
s -. , 0-, 1-,
2- .. , ,
( n s )-
n s -, s -
s - ,
. . 3.2
. x1 x2 x1 x2 1- ( s = 3 2 = 1
), x3 2- ( s = 3 1 = 2 ).

.3.2

y = x1 x 2 x1 x 2 x3

, n s -, ,
(0-).
: s -
, ,
s -
. ,
s - ( )
.

, s - ,
s - . , ,

.
,

y = x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x . 3.3
y = x x x x x x y = x x x x x x .
1

23

. 3.3
y = x

x 2 x1 x 2 x 2 x 3 ;

y = x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 .

y = x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 x3

n - n 3 .
, . 3.4,
,
y = x x x x x x x .
n > 4 ,
.
1

. 3.4

y = x1 x3 x 2 x 4 x1 x3 x4



,
.

24

,
,
.

. ,
, . . 3.5
, , .
(x1,x2)
01
11

00

(x3,x4)
01
11

00

10

10

00
01

00

(x2,x3)
01
11

(x1,x2)
11

10

10

0
(x1)

. 3.5 ,

, ,
1, (
, ). , . 3.6,
,
. 3.4. ,
1 ,
.

1
1

1
2
1

1
2

. 3.6
() ()
n-
- . s-
2 , ,

25

, (
). , (. .
), . , . 3.6,
,
y = x x x x x x x .
.
, s-, (ns)- ,
(ns) , s-,
1 , 0
. , s-,
.

( ) (. 3.7).

3
3

. 3.7
y = x1 x 2 x1 x 2 x1 x 3 x 2 x3 ;
( :
y = x1 x 2 x1 x 2 x1 x 2 x 3 ; y = x1 x 2 x1 x 2 x 2 x3
.
f ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 ) = x1 x 2 x3 + x1 x 2 x3 + x1 x 2 x3 + x1 x 2 x3 + x1 x 2 x3

x2

x2
x1

x1

1
1

x3

x3

x2

x2
1

x1

x1

x3

f min1 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x1 x2 + x2 x3 + x1 x2

x3

x3

x3

f min 2 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x1 x2 + x1 x3 + x1 x2

26

. ,
.
x3

x3

x1

x1

x4

1
1

x2
x2 f min ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) = x3 + x1 x2 + x1 x4
x2

x4

x4


n- ,
.
,
.
.


, .



.
,
.
() y = f ( x1 , x2 , , xn )
K s ( y) ,
s() s- (s=0.1,,n), . . K ( y ) =
s
s() . s-
n n,
n .
,
(1 xi 0 x ).
x .
, 2- ,
x x x
( x10x1 ). 0-,
, ,
. , s- s
. n , n-,
.
, , K n ( y ) = .
s- K ( y ) ,
s-. si

27

, . ,
,
(. 3,10), K ( y ) = K 0 K 1 K 2 ,
0

K = 0
0

1
0

1
1 ; K = 0
x
0

x
0


2
1 ; K = x .
x
0

. 3.8
.

. 3.8 ()
()
.
s-, ,
, . ,
(. 3.8)
x

C = 0
1

x ,
x

x
1
0

y = x x x x x .
.

K ( y1 y2 ) = K ( y1 ) K ( y2 ) ,
- K ( y1 y2 ) = K ( y1 ) K ( y2 ) .
, . .
K ( y ) = K ( y ) , K ( y ) ,
0. , -
()
, .
,
,

.
2

28


.
, . ,
,

c = q s ( n s ) , q
s
s

s - ,

.
.
. ,

s - , ,
- .
, . ,

,
.

, .
,
,
, , . . .

,
, ,
. ,
, (
), - .
, ,
.
, .
. 3.9, Z (. . 3.9,)

C min

(. 3.9)

(. . 3.9, )
C min

:
1

Z = 0
x

1
x

x
1

0
1

= 0
1 C min
x
x

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1

= 0
1 C min
x
x

x
1
1

1
x

1
x
1

, C min
)
. 3.9 ( Z ) ( C min
y = x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x ( , , )
1

y = x1 x 2 x1 x 3 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x1 x 2 x1 x2 ,

29

1- ( 10 x ) ( 01x ), -

x1 x 2 x3 x1 x 2 x3

(100) (010).

-. ,
(
).

ax a x = a , a
, xi . ,
, 0- 0,
0-,
. 1-,
0- x .
0-. 1- 1. 1
, 2- 2 . .
, s s+1
. 0
K = {K 0 , K 1 , K 2 , , K s } , s n .
K Z K
- (,
) , .
, Z .

s ,
s- ( ),
.
s-,
, s-
s- .

.
,
,
0- () .
,
. ,
- .
, ,
.
,
.
i

.
:
f ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) = x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 +

+ x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4

30



K0

0 0

1 0
=
0 1
0 1

10

1
0
~
1

0
0

11
01
0
~
1

0
1

0
~
1

,
, ( ,
):

x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 = x1 x2 x3

x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 = x2 x3 x 4
x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 = x1 x3 x4

x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 = x2 x3 x4

x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 = x1 x2 x4
~
x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 = x2 x3 x4
x1x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 = x1 x2 x4

x1x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 = x1 x3 x4
...{ x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 = x1 x2 x3

K1

~
0

1
=
0
x

x 0
1x
01
01

x
0
1
1

0
1
x
1

x
1
0
1

1
0
x
1

1
x
0
1

~
1

0
x

~ { x1 x2 x3 + x1 x2 x3 = x2 x3
{ x 2 x3 x 4 + x 2 x3 x 4 = x 2 x3

x
1

K 2 = .
0

.
Z , :
f . = x1 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x4 + x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x4 + x1 x3 x4 + x2 x3

31

K0 0
Z

1
0
0

0X 11

0
0
1
1
V

01X 1

0
1
0
1

1
0
0
1

0
1
1
1
V

1
1
0
0

10X 1

1X 01

X10 X V

1
1
0
1

X 011

1
0
1
1

V
V

( x10 x ),
x2 x3 ( ).
, .
, (
). :

K0 0

0
1
Z
1
0X 11 V

1
0
0
1

01X 1

0
1
1
1
V

1
0
1
1

X 011 V

10X 1

1X 01

?
. ,
( 0x11 ), ,
.
, ( 10x1 ).
( x10 x )
, :
x3
x3
f min 1 = x1 x3 x 4 + x1 x 2 x4 + x2 x3 .
1
2
1 x
.
x1
, .
1
1
11

10

00

01

11

10

00

01

x1

x4

x2

x4

x4

x2

32

f min 1 = x1 x3 x 4 + x1 x 2 x4 + x2 x3

,
.
, ( x011 ),
, .
( 1x01 ), - ( 01x1 ).
:
x3
f min 2 = x2 x3 x4 + x1 x3 x4 + x1 x3 x4 + x2 x3
x3
1
1 x2
: x1
11

10

00

01

11

f min 2 = x2 x3 x4 + x1 x3 x4 + x1 x3 x4 + x2 x3

10

00

x2

x1
x2
1
1
, ..
1
.
x4
x4
x4
.
, ,
,
f ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 )
.
01

f ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) = x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 +

+ x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x4

, ,
. ,
,
. ,
( ).
n
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

3
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

4 121314232434 1231241342341234 y
0 00000000000000000000000000000
0 1010 100000001001001000001000 0
0 01000010100001001000010001001
0 11101010100011011010010011001
0 000100010010 00100001001000100
0 10111001001010110011001010100
0 010100111010 01101001011001100
0 11111011101011111011011011100
1 00 000100010100000100100100010
1 10101100010110010110100110011
1 01000110110101001100110101011
1 11101110110111011110110111011
1 000101010111 00100101101100111
1 101111010111 1011011110111011 1
1 010101111111 01101101111101111
1 11111111111111111111111111110

33

,
, -
.
x 2 x3 (10),
2,3,10,11. 9- ,
x1 x2 x4 (101). 12, 13 14 .
x1 x3 x4 (011).
3.2.
1. 1 ,
, (
F ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) ).
:
- ( );
- n ;
- ;
- .
.
2. {-, -}
.
2.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

4
2
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2

6
3
2
2
2
3
2
1
5
1
1
3
2
2
2
3
6
2
5
2
3
3

8
6
4
5
5
7
5
2
7
2
4
4
3
9
5
6
7
4
6
3
4
5

1
9
10
7
8
5
6
7
8
6
10
9
10
8
10
4
7
8
9
3
9
6
7
5
7
7
8
10
11
6
8
7
9
9
12
10
11
7
9
4
9
7
10
8
10

11
14
7
12
12
12
11
10
12
12
8
8
12
12
9
11
13
13
13
12
12
11

15
15
9
14
13
13
14
11
13
14
9
10
14
13
10
13
14
14
14
15
13
12

11
14
14
15
12
15
15
15
11
15
15
14
15
15
14
14

34
23
24
25

3
4
4

4
5
3

5
7
2

7
9
9

8
10
8

9
11
7

10
12
14

11
15
15

3. .2
0.
? ,
.
4.

.3

0 (
).
(
).
{-, -} .
F ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x1 , x2 , x3 , x5 )

3.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

6
5
8
4
3
7
7
2
6
9
11
6
7
14
3
2
8
1
5
1
8
2
5
2
11

10
11
13
6
11
10
8
4
11
12
16
9
8
18
5
5
11
4
8
4
14
6
15
4
18

18
16
14
19
23
15
10
13
12
17
23
11
23
25
9
8
12
6
10
7
23
15
21
8
27

0
27
30
17
27
22
24
21
22
22
23
24
21
14
29
24
25
29
23
21
25
31
28
29
12
26
13
17
14
30
7
12
22
30
12
16
26
31
20
27
27
29
11
25
29
31

31
28
30
27
30
-

3.3.
3.3.1. .

35

3.3.2. .
3.3.3. () .
3.3.4. . ?
4
:
: .
4.1. [1].
.
- ,

.
,
.
i xi , Yi
yi . n m
X = X 1 X 2 X n

Y = Y1 Y2 Ym ,
x = ( x1 , x2 , , xn ) n,
y = ( y1 , y 2 , , ym ) m, xi X i yi Yi .

,
.
,
(- . .).

.

,
, .

, ,
, .
,
t . , tv+1 = tv + t
. ,
t v ( v = 1,2, ) ,
, v , . .
x(t ) x(v ) .

36

. ,
,
.
.
,
, ,
s1 , s2 , , sk ,
. ,
, . S1 , S 2 , , S k
s1 , s2 , , sk ,
S = S1 S 2 S k .
,
. -,
v- y ( v ) = ( y1 ( v ) , y2 ( v ) , , ym ( v ) )

x( v ) = ( x1 ( v ) , x2 ( v ) , , xn ( v ) ) s ( v ) = ( s1 ( v ) , s2 ( v ) , , sk ( v ) ) ,
. . y ( v ) = ( x( v ), s( v ) ) . -, s( v +1) ( v +1) -
x(v ) s(v )
, . . s( v + 1) = ( x( v ), s( v ) ) .
,
,


.
,
,

. ,

t .
, , ,
,
.
.
,
.
.
,
.
(
, ),
(
), (

37

, , ),
. .

, ,
.

s( v + 1) = ( x ( v ), s ( v ) ) ;
y ( v ) = ( x ( v ) , s ( v ) ) ,

.
- (. 4.1)
, ,
, .

x1 ( )

.
xn ( ) ..
s1 ( )
.
.
sk ( ) .
.

y ( )
. 1
.
. y m ( )

.
.
.

sk ( + 1)

s1 ( + 1)

.4.1 -
X , Y , S
,
.

, .
,
.
,
y ( v ) = ( x( v ) ) .
.
,
.
.
, ,

38

X , Y , S ,
.
: , .
X , Y , S ,
, : X = {0,1,2,3} , Y ={0,1} S = {0,1,2,3} .
,
, .
, ,
s ( v +1) = ( x( v ), s( v ) ) , s ( v +1) ,
x(v ) , s(v )
. , ,
y ( v ) = ( x( v ), s ( v ) ) ,
y (v ) ,
x ( v ) s ( v ) . , X ,
Y , S :
s ( v +1) = ( x( v ), s( v ) )

y ( v ) = ( x ( v ) , s ( v ) )

x(v )
s(v )

0
1
2
3

3
3
3
3

2
2
2
0

1
1
2
0

3
3
3
1

x(v )
s(v )

0
1
2
3

0
1
1
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1

0
1
1
1

,
(
), . .
x(v )
s(v )

0
1
2
3

3/0
3/1
3/1
3/0

2/0
2/0
2/0
0/0

1/0
1/0
2/1
0/1

3/0
3/1
3/1
1/1

,
,
,
.
, .

39

. 4.2 ,

. 0
1,2 3, 0
1, 2 3.
1
2 0,
0 1 2/0.
2
1 0,
0 2 1/0. . 4.2
3
0 3
0, 0 3 0 / 0 3 / 0 .
.
2 2 1 2,
0 1. , 2 1 / 0 2 / 1 .
.
,
x(v ) s(v ) y (v ) s( v +1)
s( v + 1) = ( x( v ), s ( v ) )

y ( v ) = ( x( v ), s ( v ) ) . s( v +1)
.


.

.
X , Y S , ,
,
. , , ,
:
x(v )
s(v )
s ( v +1)
y (v )

0
0
3
0

0
1
3
1

0
2
3
1

0
3
3
0

1
0
2
0

1
1
2
0

1
2
2
0

1
3
0
0

2
0
1
0

2
1
1
0

2
2
2
1

2
3
0
1

3
0
3
0

3
1
3
1

3
2
3
1

3
3
1
1

,
, .
s ( v +1) y ( v ) :

40

x ( v) 0
x( v ) 1
x2 ( v ) 0
s ( v ) 0
s( v ) 1
s2 ( v ) 0
s ( v + 1) 1
s ( v + 1) 1
s2 ( v + 1)1

y ( v ){ y1 ( v )

0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

0 1 1
1 0 1

0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1

1 1 1
1 1 1
0 1 1 0

1 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
0 0 1 1

1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
0 1 1 1

, ,
x1 ( v ) , x2 ( v )
s1 ( v ) , s2 ( v ) , ,
s1 ( v + 1) , s2 ( v + 1) y1 ( v ) .
,
1 2, (. 4.3).
x1 ( )

y1 ( )

x2 ( )
s1 ( )
.

. 4.3

s2 ( )

s1 ( + 1)
s2 ( + 1)

2
1

. - ,

.

.
- (, )
, .

.

.
1, 0, , ()
, .
: Q +1 = Q( X 1 .... X n , Q ) ,
Q+1 - ( +1 ) - ;
X i - - ;
Q - - .
: RS, JK, D, T
R (Reset )
0 (Q=0, Q=1);

41

S (Set )
1 (Q=1, Q=0);
J (Jerk );
(Kill );
(Toggel ) ;
D (Delay , Drive - )
0 1;
RS
RS- - ,

. RS- . 4.4.

.4.4 RS-
S ( . Set )
.
R ( . Reset )
. , R S
, ,
RS- QQ=00.
1 .
1 RS- , 1.
RS- ,
( RS-
) ( RS-
,
).
Q +1 = Q( R , S , Q ) - RS
RS .
:
i
R
S
Q
Q+1

0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
1
1

2
0
1
0
1

3
0
1
1
1

4
1
0
0
0

5
1
0
1
0

6
1
1
0

7
1
1
1

Q +1 = Q ( R , S , Q )

42

R 1

Q
Q
=S

+R Q
:
(4.1)
+1
Q
(4.1) { - }:
(4.2)
Q
=S +R Q =S +R +Q

Q

:

Q
= R + S Q
(4.3)
(4.3) {-}:
(4.4)
Q
=R +S Q =R +S +Q
+1

+1

+
1

+1

+1

(4.2) (4.4) RS
{ - }:
R

, (4.1) { -}:
Q
=S +R Q =S R Q (4.5)
(4.3) { - }:
Q
=R +S Q =R S Q
(4.6)
(4.5) (4.6) :
+1

+1

&

S
R

&
R

Q
Q


-, ,
,

43

T. -
RS .
Q +1 = Q( , Q )

- ,

- Q
, . ( +1 ) - ;
Q - Q ,
. - ;
(Clock ) .
, ,
.
Q+1

Q
Q+1

0
0
0
0

1
0
1
1

2
1
0
1

3
1
1
0

Q+1 = Q + Q

- -

Q
Q

-
. 4.5 ,
RS .

S1 T1 Q1
1
Q1
R1

S2 T2

R2

.4.5
1=0 2=1 2
, 1: Q = Q1 , Q = Q1 .
(1=1), 2 1

44

: Q1 = Q , Q1 = Q . 2=0 2 .
2=1 1
2, , .
, ,
(.4.6).
C
Q

.4.6

t
t

.
. ,
, ,..
.
,
, .

. , , ,
,
. ,
, .
.
, .
.
X = { A, B} X = {0,1} .
S = { 0,1,2} ,
0 ( );
1 ;
2 ,.

. Y ={0,1} , 0 1 ,
0 - , , 1 - .
-
,y=0

=
A,y
0

1
y=
A,

B,
y=
0

B,y=1

B,y=1

.4.7

45


s ( +1) = ( x( ), s ( ) )
x ()
s ()

0
1
2

1
1
0

0
2
2


y ( ) = ( x( ), s ( ) )
x ()
s ()

0
1
2

0
1
0

1
0
1

.
x ()
s ()
s ( +1)
y ()

000111
012012
110022
010101

46

x ( v)
x( v ) 1
x2 ( v )

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 1 1

s ( v ) 0
s( v ) 1
s2 ( v ) 0
s ( v + 1) 0
s ( v + 1) 1
s2 ( v + 1)1

y ( v ){ y1 ( v )

0 1 0 0 1
1 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 1
1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 1


x1 ( )

y1 ( )

x2 ( )
s1 ( )

s2 ( )

s1 ( + 1)
s2 ( + 1)

T2

T1

&

y ( )

,
&
:
1

y1 = x1 x2 s1 s2 x1 x2 s1 s2 x1 x2 s1s2 = x1 x2 s1s2 x1 x2 s2 s1 ( +1) = x1 x2 s1s2 x1 x2 s1s2


&
s2 ( +1) = x1 x2 s1s2 x1 x2 s1s2 = x1 x2 s1
s1 ( + 1)

T1

&

&
1
1
1
1

x1 x2s1 ( ) s2 ( )

x1x2 s1 ( ) s2 ( )

s2 ( + 1)

T2

47

4.2.
) . : .
,
. ;
) ,
,
. . .
,
;
) ,
1 ., 2 . 3 . ,
.
) ,
.
. , ,
. ,
, . ,

.
.
)
.
- , - ,
.
,
. ,

48

,
.
4.3.
4.3.1. , ,
. .
4.3.2.
?
4.4.3. .
4.4.4. .
4.4.5.
?
4.4.6. ?
.
4.4.7. RS {-, }.

1. :
,
, ./ .., .. .
, 2010. 103 .,
2. . .. , 1975, 768.
3. .. : , , .
5- .- .: , 2002. 268.
4. .: . .
.:, 2003. 960 .: .
5. .., .. ,
.: , 1975.-240.
6. .. . . .
: , 2004. 512.:.

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