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.., ..

7
: . 7-9 .
. /
.. . .: , 2002 .

1.

1.
1) . - , , , .
2) b.
: ,
b; D, a b1.
1)

2)

.
. (. 19 . 2
9 1993 .)

2.
.
. .

3.
?
. 2 (. 4).
4.
. .
. , . ?
,
.
5.
. -
. ,
.

6.
. -
. -
.

7.
CD D.
CD,
1) = 2,5 , MD = 3,5 ;
2) = 3,1 , MD = 4,6 ;
3) = = 12,3 , MD = 5,8 .
D,
CD = CM + MD.
1) CD = 2,5 + 3,5 = 6 ;
2) CD = 3,1 + 4,6 = 7,7 ;
3) CD = 12,3 + 5,8 = 18,1 .
:

1) 6 ;
2) 7,7 ;
3) 18,1 .

9.
, , . ,
= 4,3 = 7,5 , = 3,2 .
? ? , , ?
4

. 4 (. 6).
10.
, , .
, = 5 , = 7 ? .
, ,
, +
= , , + 7 = 5 , .
, .
:

11.
, , .
, = 7 , = 7,6 ?
.
, , , , , : + = , , + 7,6 = 7 ,
. , .
:

12.
, , , =
1,8 , = 1,3 , = 3 ? .
, , ,
, :
1) = + , , .. 3 1,8 + 1,3 ;
2) = + , , .. 1,8 1,3 + 3 .
3) = + , , .. 1,3 1,8 + 3 ;
5

:
1) .
2) .
3) .
:

, , .

13.
, , ,

? .
, , , = +
( ), AB < + ,
, , , .
:

, , .

14.
, , .
, = 2,7 , = 3,2 . ?
.
1)

2)

1)
2)
6

,
= + = 2,7 + 3,2 = 5,9 .
,

= = 3,2 2,7 = 0,5 .


:

5,9 0,5 .

15.
15 .
, :
1) 3 ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) 2:3.
1)

= + ,
15 = + + 3,
12 = 2,

= 6 ;
= 6 + 3 = 9 .

2)

= + ,
15 = 2 + ,
15 = 3

= 5 ;
= 2 5 = 10 .

3)

= :
= + , :
= = : 2 = 15 : 2 = 7,5 .

4)

2 , 3 ,
= + ,
= 2 3 = 6 ;
15 = 2 + 3,
= 3 3 = 9 .
15 = 5,
= 3.

1) = 9 , = 6 ;
2) = 10 , = 5 ;
3) = 7,5 , = 7,5 ;
4) = 6 , = 9 .

16.
- , . ,
7

,
.

17.
, , , .
, ,
. ? .
. 5 (. 7).
18.
, , D,
. AD, :
1) , CD ;
2) , BD
;
3) CD ,
;
4) CD ,
;
5) , , CD ;
6) , BD ? .
. AD , D
.
8

1) ) , ,
. :
. ,
.
) AD , , D
.
) ) , D
, , D .
2), 3), 4), 5), 6).
1)

2)

. 1)
3)

. 1)
9

4)

. 1)
5)

. 1)
6)

. 1)
:

10

1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) ;
6) .

19.
,
. , , .
. ? .
6 : AD; AN; BD; BN; CD; CN.

, .
20.
a , X, , Z . ,
X, , X Z
.
Z :
? .
. 6 (. 7).
21.
. .

11

22.
. , , ,
,
. .
. 6 (. 8).
24.
(cd).
(cd),
1) () = 35, (ad) = 75;
2) () = = 57, (ad) = 62;
3) (ac) = 94, (ad) = = 85.
, ,
, , (cd) = (ac) + (ad).
1) (cd) = 35o + 75o = 110o;
2) (cd) = 57o + 62o = 119o;
3) (cd) = 94o + 85o = 179o.
:

1) 110;
2) 119;
3) 179.

25.
(ab),
1) (ac) = 30, (cb) = 80, (ab) = 50;
2) (ac) = = 100, (cb) = 90;
3) () (ab)?
. 7 (. 9).
26.
(ab), 60, c. () (bc),
1) () 30 (b);
12

2) () (b);
3) c (ab) ;
4) () (b) 2:3.
(ab),
:
() + (bc) = (ab).
1)
(ab) = (bc) + (bc) + 30o,
60o = 2 (bc) + 30o;
2 (bc) = 30o;
(ac) = 45o, (bc) = 15.
2)

(ab) = 2 (bc) + (bc),


60o = 3 (bc),
(ac) = 40o, (bc) = 20.

3)

(ac) = (bc) = (ab) : 2 = 60o : 2 = 30o.

4)

(ac) = 2x, (bc) = 3x, (ab) = 60o,


2x + 3 = 60,
5 = 60,
= 12.
() = 24, (bc) = 36.

1) () = 45o, (bc) = 15o;


2) (ac) = 40o, (bc) = 20o;
3) (ac) = 30o, (bc) = 60o;
4) (ac) = 24o, (bc) = 36o.

29.
X,
, = ? .
, , .


. , , .. =
13

, , .
30.
, .
, , ?
.
. 8 (. 10).
31.
. , :
1) = 1,5 , = 0,3 ;
2) = 2 , = 4,4 .
1)

= = 1,5 0,3 = 1,2 ;


2)

= = 4,4 2 = 2.4 .
:

1) 1,2 ;
2) 2,4 .

33.
D.
, AD = 5 , BD = 6 ?
AB = AD + BD = 5 + 6 = 11 .
14

= 11 .

34.
D.
, ACD = 30, BCD = 70.

:
= ACD + BCD = 30 + 70 = 100.
:

= 100.

36.
PQR . , = 5 ,
= , = 7 . PQR.
.
PQR , ,
, , AC = PR, = PQ, BC =
QR.
15

: PQ = 5 , PR = 7 , QR = 6 .
:

PQ = 5 , PR = 7 , QR = 6 .

37.
PQR .
: P = 40, Q = 60, R = 80. .
PQR , ,
, :
B = Q, = R, A = P.
, = 80, = 60, = 40.
:

= 80, = 60, = 40.

38.
PQR . ,
10 , 90. PQ R?
.
. 9 (. 12).
39.
, PQR XYZ . , =5
, QR=6 , ZX=7 .
.
, PQR XYZ , ,
:
= PQ = XY, , PQ = XY = 5 ;
= RP = ZX, , = RP = 7 ;
= QR = YZ, , = YZ = 6 ;
:

16

PQ = 5 , XY = 5 , = 7 , RP = 7 ,
= 6 , YZ = 6 .

40.
. ,
ABD?

, .
, D,
.
:

41.
,
, ? .
. 11 (. 13).
42.
. , ?
b. ,
, b.
, b, 17

, : ,
, .

c
A
b
a
:

43.
,
, ? ?
.

18

: , , ,
. , .
44*.
, , D. , , , , , D
. , , , , D .
.

, . , , , , D, , , D . .
45*.
, b, d. , , b,
b, , d
. , .
, b, c , ,
b . 19

b, , d , , d
b c.
, , d b , , ,
. .
46*.
, , , D . ,
CD, CD . , CD .
CD, , CD CD.
CD , , CD .
CD
CD, , D
. .
47*.
. B1 A1. , 1 1 .
1 1, , 1.
, , 1
1, 1
1.
1 ,

1, 1 ,
1 1.
20

1. , 1 1. ,
1 1
1 1.

1 1 1,
1, , .
.
48*.
CD, , . ,
BD.
, ,
DB, D.
DB
DB.
DB, , D,
DB. .
21

49*.
, , , ,
1) ;
2) CD .
1) K . OK , ,
OK.
, OK, ,
, OK
, .
, OK ( AK ) (
). ,
OK.

2) CD , , D
. OK, , OK
, ,
CD.
.
22

50.
, , .
b, , . ,
, , , , ,
:
.
.
51*.
. , .
1) , , ? .
2) ,
.

,
, .
, = + > ,
: > , ,
.
23

. ,
.
b, .
, ,
b, ,
b,
. ,
,
, ,
,
.
.

24

2.

1.
, 30; 45; 60; 90.
:
180, :
1) 180 30 = 150;
2) 180 45 = 135;
3) 180 60 = 120;
4) 180 90 = 90.
:

150; 135; 120; 90.

2.

1) ,
2) ;
3) ? .
:
180, :
1) , 90, . 180, ,
.
2) , 90 180, .
180, ,
.
3) , 90, . 180, ,
25

(, ,
).
:

1) ;
2) ;
3) .

3.
,
.
. 14 (. 21).
4.
,
1) 30 ;
2) 40;
3) 3 ;
4) .
:
180.
1) , +
30. :
+ + 30 = 180,
2 = 150,
= 75
+ 30 = 75 + 30 = 105.
, 75 105.
2) , +
40. :
+ + 40 = 180,
2 = 140,
= 70;
+ 40 = 70 + 40 = 110.
, 70 110.
26

3) , 3.
:
+ 3 = 180,
4 = 180,
= 45;
3 = 3 45 = 135.
, 45 135.
4) ,
180 : 2 = 90, , 90.
:

1) 75 105;
2) 70 110;
3) 45 135;
4) 90 90.

5.
,
1) 6 ;
2) 3 ;
3) 4 ?
1)

2)

27

3)

1) 180;
2) 90;
3) 120.

6.
,

1) 2:3;
2) 3:7;
3) 11:25;
4) 22:23.
:
180.
1) 2,
3. :
2 + 3 = 180,
5 = 180,
= 36;
2 = 2 36 = 72;
3 = 3 36 = 108.
, 72 108.
2) 3,
7. :
3 + 7 = 180,
10 = 180,
= 18;
28

3 = 3 18 = 54; 7 = 7 18 = 126.
, 54 126.
3) 11,
25. :
11 + 25 = 180,
36 = 180,
= 5;
11 = 11 5 = 55;
25 = 25 5 = 125.
, 55 125.
4) 22,
23. :
22 + 23 = 180,
45 = 180,
= 4;
22 = 22 4 = 88;
23 = 23 4 = 92.
, 88 92.
:

1) 72 108;
2) 54 126;
3) 55 125;
4) 88 92.

7.
,
, 30. ?
= 30 (. .)

29

= COD, , , COD = 30.


. 180. , = 180 = 180 30 = 150.
AOD ,
. , AOD = 150.
:

30, 150, 150.

8.
,
100?
:
COD ;
.
COD ,
100. ,
100 : 2 = 50.
+ = 180 ( ).

, = 180 50 = 130.
:

130.

9.
,
, 50. .
. 15 (. 23).
30

10.
, ,
4 . .
:
1 3 , , .
2 4 , , .
1 2 , 1 + 2 = 180.
4 3 , 3 + 4 = 180. ,
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 360.

, 4. :
+ 4 + + 4 = 360,
10 = 360,
= 36;
4 = 36 4 = 144.
: 1 = 36; 2 = 144; 3 = 36; 4 = 144.
:

36; 144.

11.
,
, 50 . .
1 3 , , .
2 4 , , .
1 2 , 1 + 2 = 180.
3 4 , 3 + 4 = 180.
31

, 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 180 + 180 = 360.


, + 50.
:
+ + 50 + + + 50 = 360, 4 + 100 = 360, 4 = 260, = 65.
, 2 = 65, 4 = 65, 1 = 115, 2 = 115.
:

65, 115.

12.
,
, 270.

, 180, ,
360. 270, 360 270 = 90. : 1 = 90.

1 3 , , 1 = 3 = 90.
1 2 , , 1 + 2 = 180, 2 =

90 .
2 4 , , 2 = 4 = 90.
32

90, 90, 90,


90 .

13.
, , , , .

.
360.
: 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 360, + + + 4 = 360,
4 2 , , 2 = 4, . 4 = 360, = 90.
, ,
, , . .
14.
,
?
. . 42 . 27 .
15.
,
1) 30;
33

2) 52;
3) 172?
, ,
:
1) 30 : 2 = 15;
2) 52 : 2 = 26;
3) 172 : 2 = 86.
:

1) 15;
2) 26;
3) 86.

16.
,
,
1) 60;
2) 75;
3) 89.
, , .
1) 60 2 = 120;
2) 75 2 = 150;
3) 89 2 = 178.
:

1) 120;
2) 150;
3) 178.

17.
, 90.
. 18 (. 25).
34

18*.
,
,
.
b.

, . , , , ..
, .
, .
,
.
19.
.
, 180 ( ).
OK ; OD .
:
BOD = , AOK = .
2 + 2 = 180,
+ = 90.
KOD = + = 90.
35

90.

20.
, .
1 3; 2 4 .
1; 2; 3 4.

1 2 .
90 (. ), .. KOM = MON =
NOF = FOK = 90o. KOM, MON, NOF FOK
.
, KN MF.
36

21.

,
1) 50;
2) 90;
3) 150.
KOC , .

AOK + KOC = 180 (.. ).


.. , = 180 KOC : 2.
1) 180 50 : 2 = 155;
2) 180 90 : 2 = 135;
3) 180 150 : 2 = 105.
:

1) 155;
2) 135;
3) 105.

22*.
OD
, . , OD , .
OD, AOD
() ? .
37

OD
, ,
( 1.1).

.. OD , OD
OD.
AOD , OD ; ,
AOD , OD .
23.
(1)
b . (bc),
1) (ab) = 50o; (ac) = 70;
2) (a1b) = 50; () = 70;
3) (ab) = 60; (1) = 30?
1)

38


(bc) = (ac) (ab) = 70 50 = 20.
2)

.. (1) = 180,
(1) = () + (cb) + (ba1)
(bc) = (aa1) (ac) (ba1) = 180 70 50 = 60.
3)

(1) = (ab) + (bc) + (ca1)


(bc) = 180 60 30 = 90.
:

1) 20;
2) 60;
3) 90.

24.
(1) b
. , (ab) = 60, () = 30. (a1b), (1) (bc).
(1) = 180.
(ab) + (a1b) = 180 (.. ).
(a1b) = 180 60 = 120.
39

() + (1) = 180 (.. ).


(1) = 180 30 = 150, (ab) = () + (cb).
(cb) = (ab) () = 60 30 = 30.

120; 150; 30.

25.

BAD. CAD,
1) = 80, BAD = 170;
2) = 87, BAD = 98;
3) = 140, BAD = 30;
4) = 60, BAD = 70.

1)
2)

40

CAD = BAC + BAD


CAD = 80 + 170 = 250, .. 250 > 180, CAD =
360 250 = 110;
CAD = 87 + 98 = 185, .. 185 > 180, CAD =
360 185 = 175;

3)
4)

CAD = 140 + 30 = 170;


CAD = 60 + 70 = 130.

1) 250;
2) 175;
3) 170;
4) 130.

26*.
, b, . ,
(ab) = (ac) = (bc) = 120.
1) - , ?
2) ?
.
1)
, .
, 120, , 240, , , 120.
. ,
,
.

41

2) d ,
b, , , .
. , .
, ..
(b), , (b), . 1 .
, ,
.

42

3.

1.
CD ,
. BD,
= 10 ?
. 20 (. 29).
2.
, . ,
.

.
: = =
, .. ;
= = 90, .. ;
.

43

, = 1-
.
. = .
.
3.
D,
11 111 D1. , DC A1D1C1 DB D1B1 . 111.

.. ADC = A1D1C1, = 11, AD = A1D1, = 1.


= AD + DB, A1B1 = A1D1 + D1B1, .. = 11, DB = D1B1,
AD = A1D1
111:
= 1 = 11, .. DC = A1D1C1, = 11, , = 111 1- .
44

4.
, , , ,
.
, CD = AC =
. ED .
.
.. = ECD (.. ), = , =
CD ( ), = ECD ( 1- ).


. , = ED.
5.
CD . DBO, , DBO = .

45

.. = , = DBO, = DOB ( ), = DBO 2-


.
6.
BD . DCO, , DCO = .
DCO:
= ( )
AO = DCO ( )
= DOC ( ).

, = DCO 2-
.
7*.
,
.
:

46

AD K, , DK = AD.
A1D1 K1, , D1K1 = A1D1.
ADC DBK:
AD = DK
ADC = BDK ( )
BD = DC (.. AD )
, ADC = DBK 1- , DAC =
DKB
= BK.
A1D1C1 = D1B1K1 D1A1C1 = D1K1B1
11 = B1K1.
K A1B1K1:
AK = A1K1 (.. AK = 2AD = 2A1D1 = A1K1)
BAK = B1A1K1 ( )
BKA = B1K1A1 (.. BKA = KAC = K1A1C1 = B1K1A1),
(KAC = K1A1C1 )
, ABK = A1B1K1 2-
, = 11, BK = B1K1 = 11 = .
.. 111
= 11
= 11
= 111, = 111. A1B1K1 1- .
8.
, ( ) ,
. D, .
BDQ EDF FD = DE DQ = BD.
FQ, , ,
AD. HQ .
.
FDQ BDE: FD = DE, BD = DQ ( )
47

FDQ = BDE ( ).
, FDQ = BDE ( 1-
).
DFQ = DEB.
EDA FDH:
FD = DE
DFQ = DEB
FDH = ADE ( )
, EDA = FDH 2-
.
: AD = DH, EAD = DHF.
ABD QHD:
AD = DH
EAD = FHD
ADB = QDH ( )

, ABD = QHD 2-
.
= QH, .
9.
1 , 0,4 . .
.. , = = 2 + .
1 = 2 + 0,4
48

2 = 0,6
= 0,3.
= = 0,3 .

0,3 .

10.
7,5 , 2 . .
.. , = = + +
= 2 + , = 2
= 7,5 2 2 = 3,5 .

3,5 .

11.
15,6 . , :
1) 3 ;
2) 3 .
49

1) , ( 3).
:
= + + ( 3),
= 3 3,
15,6 = 3 3,
3 = 18,6,
= 6,2 .
2) , ( + 3)
. :
= + + ( + 3),
= 3 + 3,
15,6 = 3 + 3,
3 = 12,6
= 4,2 .
:

1) 6,2 ; 6,2 ; 3,2 ;


2) 4,2 ; 4,2 ; 7,2 .

12.
, .
. 23 (. 31).
13.
: 1 1
.
1) 1 1;
2) 1 1.
1) 1 1: = , .. 1 = 1 ( ).
, , 1 = 1 1-
.
50

2) 1 1: 1 = 1 (1 = 1 = 1
= 1)
.
= (.. , ).

, 1 = 1 1-
.
14.

1 1. , 1 = 1. , 1 1 .
1 1:
= (.. )
= (.. ).
1 = 1 ( )

51

, 1 = 1 1-
.
15.
1 1 .
1. ,
1 .
.. 1 = 1, : = , 1 = 1.

, 1 .
.
16.
,
12.
. 24 (. 32).
17.
1 2.
, , 1 2 .
52

.. 1 = 2, = . , .

.
18.
1) ,

.
2) ,

.

1)

53

11 11:
1 = 1 (.. 1 = : 2 =
: 2 = 1)
= , ..
.
, 11 = 11 1-
.
11 = 11.
, 111 ( ).
2)

11, 11, 11:


= = (.. ).
1 = 1 = 1 = 1 = 1 = 1 ( ).
, 1 = 1 = 11 1-
.
11 = 11 = 11.
, 111 .
20.
, :
1) , , ;
54

2) , , .
1) BAK = KAC = OCA = OCK, .. = ,
.
AKB : = (.. )
BAK = (.. ).
. , AKB = 2- .

AK = , .
2) AQ = QB = BF = FC, .. AF CQ .
AFB CQB:
= (.. )
QB = BF
. , AFB = CQB 1- .

AF = CQ.
55

21.
, 111:
1) , 1, ;
2) , 1, .
1)

= 1, = 1, = 1.
= = 11 = 11, .. 11 , =
11.
111: = 11, = 11, = 1.
, = 111 1- ,
= 11.
2)

56

.. = 111, : = 11, = 1, = 1.
BAK = KAC = B1A1K1 = K1A1C1, .. AK A1K1 .
AKC A1K1C1: = 11, = 1, KAC = K1A1C1.
, KC = A1K1C1 2-
.
AK = A1K1.
22.
, , , D ,
CD . ,
, CDE CD.

.. , ( E), (
EBD) , = 180 = 180 =
EBD.
57

EBD:
= (.. )
= EBD
= BD (.. = = OD OB = BD)
, = EBD, , CED , (.. = ED
), .
23.
, , .
AD = A1D1 , A = A1, AC =
A1C1 .
D = A1D1C1: DAC = D1A1C1 (.. DAC
BAC DAC = BAC : 2 = B1A1C1 : 2 = D1A1C1).
AD = A1D1, = 11. ( : AD = A1D1 , A = A11 ).

58

, ADC = A1D1C1 1-
, = 1
)
111: = 11, = 1 ( )
= 1.
, = 111 1-
, .
24.
. D.
:
1) ABD CBD;
2) AMD CMD.
.. ,
. , AMD =
DMV = 90, ABD = DBC,

ABD DBC: = (.. ),


BD .
ABD = DBC (.. ).
, ABD = DBC 1-
.
2)
ADM MDC:
= (.. )
59
1)

DM
AMD = DMC = 90
, ADM = MDC 2- , .
25.
, ,
1) BD ;
2) BD ;
3) BD .
ABD DBC:

1) BD , AD = DC, ADB =
CDB = 90, BD . ABD = CBD .
= , , .
2) BD , ABD = DBC,
ADB = BDC, BD . ABD = CBD 2
.
= , , .
3) BD :
BD 1, , BD = DB1.
ABD DB1:
AD = DC (.. D )
BD = DB1
ADB = CDB1 ( , ).
60

, ABD = CDB1 1-
.
ABD = CB1D, = 1.
ADB1 = BDC.
AB1D = DBC, 1 = .
.. D = DBC (.. BD ), ABD =
DBC = AB1D.
1 , .. ABD = AB1D,

, = 1; .. 1 = , = .
, .
26.
. , , ,
.
: , , ( ). , .
ADC: DO , , (ADC ). , DO .
,
. 2.3 , , , .
, .
61

27.
BD. , 50 , ABD 40 .

= + +
= 2 + (.. = )
50 = 2 + .
25 = AB +

62

1
AC ,
2

PABD = AB + BD + AD = + BD +

1
AC (.. D )
2

40 = 25 + BD
BD = 40 25 = 15.
:

15 .

28.
, ,
, ,
.
. 26 (. 34).
29.
111 = 11, = 11, =
1 = 90. , = 111.

63

. 27 (. 35.).
30.
, ,
, .
29, , ABD =
DBC, , AD = DC ,
, , BD .

ABD = DBC (, BD ),
.
31.
1 . 1 1.

64

1 1:
= ,
1 = 1 (.. 1 )
1 .
, 1 = 1 ( 3-
).
32*.
, , , D . ,
1 2 , CDE1 CDE2
.
1 = 2, 1 = 2, .. 1 = 2.( )
1 2:

1 = 2 (.. 1 = 180 1 = 180 2


= 2) ( ).
1 = 2.( )
, 1 = 2 1-
.
1 = 2
1 = 2.
CDE1 CDE2:
1 = 2,
65

E1CD = E2D, .. 1CD = 180o ACE1 = 180o ACE2


= E2CD ( ).
, CDE1 = CDE2 1-
.
33.
CD , . ACD BDC.
AOD CO:
= , = OD (.. CD).
= AOD ( ).
, AOD = 1-
. AD = C (
).
= DOB = DB.
ACD BDC:
AD = CB ( ),
AC = DB ( ),
CD .

, ACD = BDC 3-
.
34.
, .
66

BD = B1D1, .. BD =

1
1
BC = B1C1 = B1D1 ( ).
2
2

ABD A1B1D1:
AB = A1B1, AD = A1D1, BD = B1D1, , ABD =
A1B1D1 3- .
ABD = A1B1D1.

111:
= 11
= 11 ( )
ABD = A1B1D1, , = 111 1-
.
35.
CD . ,
, , BD AD ,
CAD CD .
ACD BCD:
: AC = CB, AD = DB, CD .
67

, ACD = BCD ( 3-
), ACD = BCD, ADC = CDB ( , ).
, CD .
, = ADB = DBA,
DAB = C.

, ,
.
36.
, 35 CD .
ADC, ACB, CBD, BDA
(.. 2 ), , , , , OD
.

68

, CD CD, . 2.3.
CD, .
37.
BAD , D
. ,
1) CBD DAC ;
2) CD .

.. = ABD, = BD, CB = AD, CAO = D.


1) CBD DAC:
CD
= DB, AD = CB ( ).
, CBD = DAC 3-
, , CDB = DCA.
2) DOB:
= BD, CAO = OBD, CDB = DCA.
, = DOB 2- ,
= . , BD ,
.
38.
CD ,
= OD. DCB.
DOB:
69

AO = OD ( ),
= (.. = DC DO = AB AO = OD),
= DOB ( ).
, = DOB 2-
, = DB ( ).

DCB:
AC = DB ( ),
AB = CD ( ),
.
, = DCB 3-
, .
39.
, .
, :
BD = DO, B1D1 = D1O1.
ADO DBC:
AD = DC ( )
BD = DO ( )
ADO = BD ( ).
70

, ADO = BDC 1-
; = , AOD = DBC.
A1D1O1 = D1B1O1 11 = 11, A1O1D1 =
D1B11.
.. = 11, = 11.
111:
= 11 ( ),
= 11 ( ),
= 11 ( ),

, = 111 3-
.
ABD = A1B1D1, A1O1D1 = D1B1C1. .. AOD =
DBC A1O1D1 = D1B1C1, DBC = D1B1C1.
= ABD + DBC
71

A1B1C1 = A1B1D1 + D1B1C1, .. ,


.
= 111.
111:
= 111, = 11, = 11 ( ).
, = 111 1-
, .
40.
, , , , .
BDC B1D1C1:
BD = B1D1 ( ),
1
1
DC = D1C1 ( DC = AC = A1C1 = D1C1 ) (.. D D1 2
2
11 )
BDC = B1D1C1 ( ).

72

, BDC = B1D1C1 1-
. = 11.
ADB = A1D1B1 = 11.
111:
= 11 ( ADB = A1D1B1
= 11 ( D = 1D11
= 11 ( )
, = 111 3-
, .

73

4.

1.
,
, .
b , . , c b, 2 , b,
, , .
2.
, , .
b . , b
, b || c, , ..
b , .

3.
: a || b || c || d. , a || d.
74

.. b || c b || c, b || d. ..
a || b b || d, a || d.
4.
CD . ,
AD,
AD.
. 29 (. 42).
5.
. 1,
1.
, 11.

1)

2)

:
1 11
11 11
:
11 11
11 11.

6.
.
75

:
2 3, 1 4.
:
1 2, 3 4.
7.
AD . BD .
. .

CBD , ..
D . ABD , ..
C D
, ,
AD .
76

8.
, . , , .
. 31 (. 44).
9.
, , , ,
.
MFO = FOL .
MFO = 1 + 2, 1 = 2, FD .
FOL = 3 + 4, 3 = 4, OK .

, 1 = 2 = 3 = 4. 3 2
DD1 KK1 FO. . .3 = 2, , , .
10.
CD . , BD .
DEB :
DE = EC, A = ( ).
= DEB ( ).
77

, DEB = 1-
.
CDB = DCA ( ,
),
D DC. , AC || DB.
11.
BAD . D . , BD .

.. = ABD, = ABD, , BD .
, || BD, .
12.
= 80, BCD = 120.
CD ? .
78

.. 80 120 80 + 120 180, , , , CD


.
:

13.
BD , D
. ,
1) DBC
;
2) ABD;
3) DBA
.
. 32 (. 45).
14.
1)
30.
.
2)
150.
?

79

1)
).

1 = 180 2 (.. 1 2 -

1 = 2 + 30 ( ),
180 2 = 2 + 30, 2 2 = 150,
2 = 75, 1 = 105.
2) .. 3 = 2 ( ),
2(3) = 150
3 = 2 = 75.
:

1) 75 105;
2) 75 75.

15.
,
, 72.
.

1 = 72.
1 = 3 = 72 ( ).
3 = 5 = 72 ( ).
5 = 7 = 72 ( ).
2 = 180 72 = 108 (.. 1 2 ).
:
2 = 4 = 6 = 8 = 108.
:

72, 72, 72, 108, 108, 108,180.

16.
,
, 30. 70? .
80

30, 150,
70.
:

17.
, ,
, .

a b,
b || c
a || d
1 = 2 = 90 ( ).
2 = 4 = 90 ( ).
. . c d.
18.
,

1) 50 30;
2) 40 75;
3) 65 80;
4) 25 120.
.. 1 + 2 + 3 = 180, 3 = 180 (1 + 2).
1) 3 = 180 30 50 = 100
2) 3 = 180 40 75 = 65
3) 3 = 180 65 80 = 35
4) 3 = 180 25 120 = 35.
81

1) 100;
2) 65;
3) 35;
4) 35.

19.
,

1) 1, 2, 3;
2) 2, 3, 4;
3) 3, 4, 5;
4) 4, 5, 6;
5) 5, 6, 7.
1 = ,
2 = 2
3 = 3
1) + 2 + 3 = 180 (.. 1 + 2 + 3 = 180)
6 = 180
= 30
. . : 30; 60; 90.
1)

:
2) 2 + 3 + 4 = 180, = 20
1 = 40, 2 = 60, 3 = 80.
3) 3 + 4 + 5 = 180, = 14
1 = 45, 2 = 60, 3 = 75
4) 4 + 5 + 6 = 180, = 12
1 = 48, 2 = 60, 3 = 72
5) 5 + 6 + 7 = 180, = 10
1 = 50, 2 = 60, 3 = 70.
:

82

1) 30, 60, 90;


2) 40, 60, 80;
3) 45, 60, 75;

4) 48, 60, 72;


5) 50, 60, 70.
20.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ?
:

1) ;
2) ;
3) . ..
180, .

21.

?
,
180, , .. = 180, .. .
:

22.

,
1) 40;
2) 55;
3) 72.
.. 180,
1) 180 2 40 = 100;
2) 180 2 55 = 70;
83

3)

180 2 72 = 36.

1) 100;
2) 70;
3) 36.

23.
,

1) 80;
2) 120;
3) 30.
, , .. , :
1) 2 + 80 = 180,
= (180 80) : 2,
= 50;
2) (180 120) : 2 = 30;
3) (180 30) : 2 = 75.
:

1) 50;
2) 30;
3) 75.

24.
100.
.
.. ( 180),
.
:
1
(180 100) = 40.
2

1 = 40, 2 = 40, 3 = 100.


:
84

40, 40.

25.
70. . ?
, 70, , :
1
1
(180 70) = 110 = 55.
2
2

1 = 55, 2 = 55, 3 = 70.


, 70, , :
180 2 70 = 180 140 = 40.
1 = 70, 2 = 40, 3 = 70.
:

2 :
1) 40 70
2) 55 55.

26.
, 60, .
.
1) 60, ,
.. 1 = 2, 60 + 1 + 2 = 180, 1 = 2 =

1
(180 60) =
2

60. , .
2) 60 , 60 + 60 + 3
= 180, 3 = 60. , .
27.
CD. ,
ADC
1) 60;
2) 75;
3) .
85

1 = , :
+ 1 + CDA = 180, 1 = 2 =

1
A (..
2

).

, :
1) 2 + + 60 = 180,
3 = 120,
= 40.
= 80, = 80, = 180 2 80 = 20.
2) 2 + + 75 = 180,
3 = 105,
= 35.
= 70, = 70, = 40.
3) 2 + + = 180,
3 = 180 ,

= (180 ) : 3 = 60 ,
3

o
A = 120 2 , C = 120 o 2 , B = 4 60 o
3
3
3
:

1) 80, 80, 20;


2) 70, 70, 40;

3) 120 o 2 , 120 o 2 , 4 60 o .
3
3
3

28.
, 36, AD. , CDA ADB .
86

:
1
(180 36) = 72,
2
1
BAD = DAC = 72 = 36 (.. AD ).
2

ADC 180 (72 + 36) = 72.

.. = ADC; = BAD, ABD ADC


.
.
29.

. D. ADB,
1) = 50, = 100;
2) = , = ;
3) = 130;
4) = .
BK AL , BAD = DAC, ABD =
DBC.

D:
87

1
1
A + B + ADB = 180 o (..
2
2
180).
1
ADB = 180o (A + B ) .
2
1
1) ADB = 180o 50o + 100o = 180 75 = 105
2
1
o
2) ADB = 180 ( + )
2
3) + + = 180, + = 180 130
1
ADB = 180 o 50 o = 180 25 = 155
2
4) + = 180 ,

1
ADB = 180 o 180 o = 180 o 90 o + = 90 o + .
2
2
2

1) 105;
2) 180 ( + )/2;
3) 155;
4) 90 + /2.

30.
?
.. , 1 =
180o
= 60o .
2 = 3 =
3
:

60, 60, 60.

31.

?
.. 180,
90, 180 90 = 90.
88

90.

32.

70. .
,
70, 180 70 = 110.
, ..
180. , :

1
(180
2

110) = 35.
:

35, 35, 110.

33.
, ,
120 150.
,
150, 180 150 = 30, 120 180 120 =
60. : 180 60 30 = 90.
:

30,60, 90.

34.
100 150.
.
89

, 150, :
180 150 = 30, 100: 180 100 = 80. ,
,
, .. 80 + 30 = 110.
35.
CD. , , D , ?
. 34 (. 47).
36.
CD. , , D , ?
.

D, = D +
, < 90o, D = 90. , . D , D =
+ , D = 90, > 90. , . , D.
:

37.
, .
90

KBD + DBC = + ( 4.5),


= (.. ).
CBD = KBD, , KBD = DBC = A = C.
.. DBC = C, DB , BD || .
38.
,
, 240.
?

4.5 360 240 = 120. , =
180 120 = 60.
:

60.

39.
.
AD = = . DBE,
?
ABD , BD . ABD: ABD.
1
A
D = BAC =
.
2
2
BDE.
91

1)

DBA , , D = (180
1
DAB) : 2 = (180 180 + ) : 2 = BAC (..
2
DAB ).
1
1
E = BCA , DBE = ABC + (BCA + BAC ) .
2
2
1
C
.
E = BCA =
2
2
A C
A + C
, DBE = B +
, +
= B +
2
2
2
, , .
:

DBE = ABC +
D =

1
BAC
2

BAC + ACB
,
2
1
E = BCA .
2

40.
30,
40. .

92

= 180 DAB = 180 40 = 140 (.. DAB


).
= 180 = 180 30 140 = 10 (..
180).
:

140, 10.

41.
BD. CBD, ,
1) = 20;
2) = 65;
3) = .

, D (
35 4).

.. , = 90 .
.. BCD , CBD = 90 90 + =
.
1) CBD = 20o,
2) CBD = 65o,
3) CBD = .
:

1) 20;
2) 65;
3) .
93

42.
BD. D CBD, , =
, = .

= 180 ( + )
.. CDB , DBC = 90 = 90
180 + + = + 90.
.. DBA , D = 90
= 90 = 90 .
:

90, , 90 ; 90, 180 ( + ), ( + ) 90.

43.
, 30 , , .
. 35 (. 48).
44.
.

94

, ..
180.
:

1
(180 90) = 45.
2

90, 45, 45.

45.
AD.
ABD.
= = = 60 ( ). .. , D = 90, = 60,
DAB = 90 = 30.
:

30, 60, 90.

46.
, ,
. , = 70, =
80.

1:
= 70 ( ), 1 = 90, 1 = 90 70 = 20.
1:
= 80 ( ), 1 = 90, 1 = 90 80 = 10.
: ..
180,
= 180 (1 + 1) = 180 20 10 = 150.
:

150.
95

47.
BD .
.

ADB = , BDC = 180 ( ).


ADB DBC ( ). , = ABD =
= DBC =

1
(180 ).
2

1
(180 180 + ).
2

= DBC + ABD = 90 o
:

x x
+ = 90 o .
2 2

90.

48.
. ,
.
, . 1 1:
1 = 1 ( ),
1 = 1 = 90
= ( ).
= 90 1 = 90 1 =
96

, 1 = 1 , 1 = 1.

49.
.
. ,
.
1 1:
1 = 1 ( ),
1 = 1 = 90
= 90 1 = 90 1 =
= ( )

, 1 = 1 2-
, = . , .
50.
,
.
97

. 36 (. 49).
51.
, , ,
.

1, 1, 1.
1, 1 1:
= =
= = (.. ), ,
1 = 1 = 1 , 1 = 1 = 1.

98

5.

1.
, , ,
.

. ,
.. .
.
2.
, , ,
.
, ,
180. , .
3.
, , , .
. 38 (. 55).
4.
,
3.
: , , , .
99

:
= , .. ,
, , = ,
= .

5.
1)
, . .
2) ,
. .
1) = = ( ), ,
, = 60.
2) = 60

= + = 60 + 60 = 120.
:
100

1) 60;

2) 120.
6.
,
.
. 39 (. 56).
7.
? .
,
, , : =
= 90, .
:

8.
, , .
. 40 (. 57).
9.
, ,
?

101

= = ( ), , = 60 (..
).
.. , BAK = 90 60 = 30.
:

BAK = 30.

10.
, , , .

ABK = BAK = 30 ( )
BKA = 180o (BAK + ABK) = 180o 30o 30o = 120o (..
180).
BKF = 180o 120o = 60o (.. BKF BKA ).
:

60, 120.

11.
30 40 .

.
, , 1 . 2
1) .
1 = + 1 = 30 + 40 = 70
102

2) .

1 = 1 = 40 30 = 10
:

70 , 10 .

12.
,
25 50 , 60 ?
, ,
25 + 50 = 75, 50 25 = 25, 75 60 25 60,
, .
:

13*.
1) , , ,
. ? .
103

2)
?
1) , ,
, = = , = = = ,
= = 90, .. ,
180 = = 90,
, .. 180.

2)
, , . , ,
, = = ( ) .
. ( . 1 ). , , .
:

1) ;
2) .

14*.
1) 1 . ,
1.
2) , .
104

, 1.
1 1:
= ( ),
1 = 1 ( ),
1 .
, 1 = 1 3-
, AOK = KOB, AO1K = BO1K.
:
= , , , AOK =
KOB, , OK ,
, .. , OK .
, 1.
2) ,
.
, 1 , , , . 1
1, 1, ,
, 1.
, .
1)

15*.
1)
, . , . = . , .
105

2) ,
, .
3) ,
, .

1) , .
:
(.. = ( )) (..
( )). , . , = .
2) , , .. , ,
, . , . ,
. 1, ., ..

.
3) ,
.
1, , ,
1. 1 ,
106

. 1 = 11 1-
. 1
11 = 1 1 = . =
1, 1 = 11, 1
. .
. , , 1,
.

, . ,
. , 1, , 1 . , . ,
.
16*.
1)
. , MQ
. 2) ,
.
107

OQM:
,
= OQ, ,
, OQ MQ (.. MQ ).
, = OQM 1-
. = .
2)
: , MQ, . . 1 , = MQ =
MA, , Q,
. , .
. 14 5 . ,

.
1)

17.
, . , .

108

, ,
.
, ,
.
, . , .
18.
, , AB + AC BC
1, 1, 1. , AC1 =
.
2
,
, .
1 = 1 ( )
1 + 1 = 1 + 1 = + (1 + 1) =
+ = 2

, AC1 =

AB + AC BC
.
2

19.
a, b .
109

. 43 (. 58).
20.
. , ABD.

.
21.
,
.

, , , r
.
22.
.
110

, .
23.
:
1) :
) = 5 , = 6 , = 40;
) = 3 , = 5 , = 70.
2) :
) = 6 , = 30, = 50;
) = 4 , = 45, = 60.
1) (. . 44 , . 59) .
. .
) .
2) ,
(. . 1).
.
24.
, .
1) = 6 , b = 4 , = 70;
111

2) = 4 , b = 6 ,
1) , 4 . , r = 6 .
.
2) .
25.

.
..
,
(. 23).
26.
, .
..
, (.
. 45 , . 59).
27.
.
,
(. 45 , . 59).
28.
60 30
,
. 60 : 2 = 30 (. . 45 , . 59).
112

29.
. .
.
, (. . 46
, . 72).
30.
, .
,
, .
31.
, ,
, .
,
, . , .
32.
, .
(. . 110 )
b, m.
:
= , BD = b, AD = 2m;
1 1 =
1;
.
113

. :
BA1D = CA1A ( 1- ).
, = BD = b
AB = a
AA1 = AD = 2m : 2 = m
1 .

, .
33.
. .

(. . 47 , . 60).
34.
, .
.. ,
, (
33).
35.
.
, , .
114

36.

, .
. 35, .
37.
, .
. 35.
:
1)

2) .
38.
, .
, .
, , ,
.
.
39.
.
, ,
.
115

, .
.
40.
.
, , . . . .
41.
, ,
h, , h.

C
h
a
A
h

..

, , h
, b.
D b, , D
h.
DA = h AD a.
h .
116

, D , .
D b .
42.
, .

41, , ,
, ,
.
43.
, , . ,
.
:
1) ;
2) .
1)
.
2) , .
117

.
44.
,
.


.
45.
, , , D. , D.

118


CD.
46*.
, ,
.
m .
, = , BCD + = m.
< m ..
.
BCD (D = m, = )
( = ).
CD,
BD . AD = . BCD, = ,
BCD = , + = , .. = AD.

= , BCD D.
d CD
1.1.
, D.
,
BD.
, d , BD
K. .. KD > BD, KCD < BCD.
DKC , , KCD = D, D > BCD
(.. m > a), BCD D < . , .. d D.
, .
119

47*.
, ,
.
d .
, = , = , |AC
AB| = d.
d < a, .. - , .

I. .
:
1) .

120

> , d = , D
= d, AD = AB d = AC, ..
CD.
> , BD = d.
d = AC AB, AD = AB + BD = AB + d, .. AD = AC,
CD.
2) .

> , BD = d,
AD = AC
CD.
) , d = .
= .
= ,
BD = d.
, CD. .. = AD DB = AC d, d = AC AB,
.
) , d = AB AC.
= .
= , BD
= d.
, CD. .. = d + AC, d = AB AC, ,
.
121

II.
, d = ( . I, )

, .
I.
) DBC DBC (.. DBC ) DB
< BC,
< , , .
) BDC 90, CDA 90. ,
.
II.
BDC CBD (.. CBD ), > d, , BDC , 122

DC , ,
. DBC ,
.
48*.

.

. 46.
49.
1) R
. ,
, =
, = 2R.
2) ,
.

123

1) . ,
= . ,
= , , . = = 2 = 2R.
2) , . .
2R .
1.
1 1.
, 1.
1 1 ,
. , = R,
1 1 = R, , 1 . ..
(
16 5), .
50*.
.
1 R1
R2. 2
( 49). K.

124

O1K 1
R1. O1K .
2 R2. , MN , .. MN 1, O2N MN, , MN
.
1 R1
+ R2 2. 1 = R1
1. HL 2 R2, , HL , .. HL O2L HL 1, , HL
.
:
1)
, .
2)
, .
3) , .
4)
, .
5) R1 + R2 < 12, .
6) R1 = R2 2 1,
.

125