Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 97

10

. 10-11
.. , .: , 2001 .


15.
............................................ 4
16. ................ 10
17. ........ 29
18.
........................................... 65

15.

1.

A, B, C, D .
, AB CD .1

, AB CD , 3
,
. AB CD .
.
2.


,
? .

. a b C
( 3). D
( 1) CD. , , a b, ( 3). , CD .

1
. . (. 19 . 2
9 1993 .).

3.

, ,
. , .

2, , ,
,
. , , , .
.
4.


. , , .

b
a

, b, b
. 2 C
, , , , .
.
6

5.

,
, b,
. ,
b .

. b
. . 2 . b . .
6.

.
- ? .

- , ( 16.1). . . ,
.
7.

,
.

. 136 . 5.
8.

. , , , .
7

b
. ,
b (
,
: . 15 16), b . ,
. .
9.

,
. , ,
, .

. 137 . 6.
10. , ,

, .

(
16.1). b
, b ( ), , ,
( 16.2). .
8

11. , CD
, BD
.

, BD , CD , 2 . .
AC CD . .
12. , .
,
? .

.

( 16.3). , , , D ,
. (, , ), (, , D), (, , D)
(, , D), .
13. ,
? .
9

. 141 . 11.
14. . , , , ,
. , .
, , , , D .
CD, BD , , , , D
ABCD.
AD , . A, B, C D . .

10

16.
1.

, CD , BD .

BD ,
, , , , , D.
, CD ,
CD .
, AC BD . .
2.

,
b,
,
b? .

. , C, b, C
a b. a b ,
.
3.

, ,
,
.

. 141 . 11.
4.

b . ,
, b
, .
11

, b, . b .
1, b. 17.1
, b. , , 1, , , .
, , b
, .
5.

, 1, 1 1.
1, :
1) 1 = 5 , 1 = 7 ;
2) 1 = 3,6 , 1 = 4,8 ;
3) 1 = 8,3 , 1 = 4,1 ;
4) 1 = , 1 = b.

4 , 1, 1, 1
.

1, 1 1 11
. .
1 11. , , 1 11 :
12

1
(AA1 + BB1). :
2
1
1) 1 = (5 + 7) = 6 ();
2
1
2) 1 = (3,6 + 4,8) = 4,2 ();
2
1
3) 1 = (8,3 + 4,1) = 6,2 (),
2
1 =

4) MM1 =

1
(a + b).
2

6.

, .

, AA1 < BB1, 5 .


1: ,
1
, = 1.
2
11: 1 , 1
1 = 1.
2
1
1
1 = 1 = BB1 AA1.
2
2
AA1 BB1, :
1
1
1
1 = AA1 BB1. , 1 = |AA1 BB1|.
2
2
2
:
1
1) 1 = |5 7| = 1 ();
2
13

1
|3,6 4,8| = 0,6 ();
2
1
3) 1 = |8,3 4,1| = 2,1 ();
2
1
4) 1 = |a b|.
2
2) 1 =

7.

.

,
1 1. 1, :
1) 1 = 15, : = 2 : 3;
2) 1 = 8,1, : = 11 : 9;
3) = 6, : 1 = 2 : 5;
4) = , = b; 1 = .

BB1 1 ,
1 ,
1 1
( , 1 1 ). :
1
AC + BC BB1
BC BB1
, 1+
,
=
,
1)
=
=
AC
15
AC
15
1
3 BB1
5
, BB1 = 15 = 37,5 ();
=
2
15
2
AB BB1
AB
11
, BB1 =
=
2)
CC1 = 8,1 = 9,9 ();
AC CC1
AC
9
1+

1 1
CC1
5
=
; BB1 =
AB = 6 = 15 ();
AC
2

1 1
4) AB = AC + BC = a + b. :
=
;

3)

BB1 =

14

AB CC1 c (a + b)
.
=
AC
a

8.


. , 1, 1, 1 D1.
DD1, :
1) 1 = 2 , 1 = 3 , 1 = 8 ;
2) 1 = 4 , 1 = 3 , 1 = 1 ;
3) 1 = , 1 = b, 1 = .


ABCD. , 1,
1, 1 DD1.

1,
, . DD1 = . MM1
ACC1A1, ( 5). MM1
1
(1 + DD1).
DD1B1B. 1 =
2
1 + 1
1 + DD1
=
, DD1 = AA1 + CC1 BB1. :
2
2
1) DD1 = 2 + 8 3 = 7 ();
2) DD1 = 4 + 1 3 = 2 ();
3) DD1 = a + c b.
9.

b .
, b?

b, (
17.2), , ,
. .
10. , , , D . , ,
15

, , AD CD.

a , AB BC, b
, CD AD. : ADC: b .
, b , , , b . .
11. , ( ).
. 142 . 13.
12. , , , D, . , , CD, BD,
AD BC, .

M, N, K, L, P, Q AB, BC, CD,


AD, BD, AC .
16

11 , NL MNKL ABCD. , NL
O . PQ NL PNQL ABCD, . , PQ NL
, O NL, , , O PQ.
PQ NL O. MK, NL
PQ, AB CD, BC AD, AC BD
O, .
13. . ,
, 1, 1.
11, :
1) = 15 , 1 : = 2 : 3;
2) = 8 , 1 : 1 = 5 : 3;
3) 1 = 10 , : = 4 : 5;
4) 1 = , = b, 1 = .

AB , AB || A1B1, A1B1 . , , ABC ~ A1B1C1 ( ). :


A C
AC AA1
A1C A1B1
)=
, A1B1 = AB ( 1 ) = AB (
=
AC
AC
AC
AB
AA1
2
) = 15(1 ) = 5 ();
= AB(1
AC
3
A 1C + AA1
AC
AB
AB
5
8
,
, 1+ =
,
=
=
2)
A 1C A 1 B1
A 1C
A 1 B1
3 A 1 B1

1)

A1B1 = 8 :

8
= 3 ();
3

17

3)

11 B
AB B1C 10 4
=
, A 1 B1 =
=
= 8 ();
BC
5
1 BC

4)

AC = AA1 + A 1C = a + c.

A 1 B1 =

A 1 B1 AB
,
=
A 1C AC

AB A 1C
bc
.
=
AC
a+c

14. ,
.

AB.
M , . ( 17.1). .
15. ,
,
.
. 143 . 13.
16. , , .

18

b .
b1 b.
b1 . 17.3 b. .
17. , , ,
,
.


b . ,
. , ,
, , b . , b , . a ,
.
18. ,
,
.

,
.
19

, .
.
b ( 17.6). ,
,
b (, 17.3).
, b
, . c .
19. ,
.
. 144 . 14.
20. , . ?
b , . b
( 3). .

M
a b ( 16.1). ,
, b .
b, . b, , , . , b
, b. , b,
, .
20

21. ,

, .

AB M, A B
a b. a b , M
. . .
22. , , , D, . , ,
CD, , AD, BD .

D.
: , , , b, b . ,
21

ABD
b, . 17.2 , b .
CD , ACD BCD d CD, , , c||d.
, AD, BD, - , b, c, d. , ACD,
b , b
ACD .
b, d , . .
23. .
?
. 145 . 15.
24. . , , .
,
, ,
, ( ). ,
, .
25. , ,
, .

22

B . , .
b , B, .
b .
1 b1, b1 , b , 17.3 ()
1. b b1 ,
b , .
26. , .
?

1 b1,
b, ( 17.3). a1 b1
.
, , , , b.
27. ABCD ABC1D1
. , ,
CDD1C1 .

23


, CD = = 1D1. , CD 1D1
, , ( 17.2). CC1D1D . .
28. ABCD. , , 1, 1, 1, D1. ,
111D1 .

17.2,
:
11 || || CD || 1D1, 1D1 || D || || 11.
111D1 ( ).
.
29. ,
, ,
1, 1, 1.
111.

24

AC||A1C1, BC||B1C1
AB||A1B1. AA1||BB1||CC1. 11,
11, 11 (
).
, = 11, = 11, = 11. , 111 (3- ). .
30. , , , , , 1, 1, 1. 111.
.

11 , 11 ,
11 .
, .
, :
OB1
A B
OA1 B1C1 OB1 OC1
;
= 1 1 =
=
=
;
OB
BC
OB
OC
AB
OA
O1C1 OA1 A1C1
.
=
=
OC
OA
AC

25

A1B1 A1C1 B1C1


. =
=
AB
AC
BC

, ( )::
111. .
31. , ,
, ,
, , .
, D .
, D, DAE, .

:
||11, CD||1D1, ED||1D1, ||11.
B1C1||BC||ED||E1D1,
B1C1||E1D1 B1E1||BE||CD||C1D1,
B1E1||C1D1.
, , 11D11
.
.
32. .
, 1 1. 11, = ?
1 1
.

11.
11 ,
AB||A1B1 AA1||BB1.
, = 11 = .
33. 1 2
, . . . 1
26

2 1
2. ,
1 : 2 .
. 146 . 16.
34. , , 1 , m : n. , 1 ,
.
, 1 (1 : 1 = m : n)
1 , . ,
.
1) Y

Y1

Y1 : Y1Y = 1 : 1 = m : n,
,
.
2) Y
Y2 Y m : n, 1
, Y2 Y1 .
, .
35. 1, 2, 3.
1, 2, 3 . , 12 : 23
, .. .
, 1, 2, 3 Y1, Y2, Y3.
1
2 3 Z2 Z3.
27

33 ,

1 2 1Z2
=
(
2 3 Z2 Z3

21Z2 31Z3).
, , 1Z2 = Y1Y2 Z2Z3 = Y2Y3,
1 2
YY
= 1 2 , .. .
2 3 Y2 Y3
36. . ,
-
,
, , .

, b, , d ,
ABCD.
1, 1,
1, D1 . 11 DD11, ,
CD, d . , ,

11 1D1.
11 1D1.
1111 . .
37. . ?
. 147 . 18.
38. . ?

28

, .
39. ?
.
, , , .
40. ?

, . ABCD ,
, .
1D1.
DD11 .
CD||AB||C1D1 CD = AB = C1D1, DD1 || 1. , 1D1 1, ABCD.
41. , - - .
, . .

29

42.
. ?

, ,
, .
CD, ,
. , .

30

17.

1.

.
.

. 148, . 24.
2.

, .

.

b. , . a
2 a .
3.

, D .
CD, :
1) = 3 , = 7 , AD = 1,5 ;
2) BD = 9 , = 16 , AD = 5 ;
3) = b, = , AD = d;
4) BD = , = , AD = d.
31

, , AD ,
3 , .
:
1. :
= 3, = 7, , 2 = 2 2 = 49 9 = 40 ().
ACD:
CD2 = 2 + AD2 = 40 + 2,25 = 42,25 (2), CD = 6,5 ().
2. ABD:
2 = DB2 AD2 = 81 25 = 56 (2).
:
2 = 2 2 = 256 56 = 200 (2); 2 = 2002.
CAD:
DC2 = 2 + AD2 = 200 + 25 = 225 (2), DC = 15.
3. : 2 = 2 2, A2 = 2 b2.
CAD : CD2 = 2 + AD2 = (2 b2) + d2, ,
CD = a 2 - b 2 + d 2 .
4. ADB : 2 = DB2 AD2 = 2 d2.
: 2 = 2 2 = 2 (2 d2).
ACD : DC2 = 2 + AD2 = (2 2 + d2) + d2,
DC = a 2 - c 2 + 2d 2 .
4.

32

ABCD 111D1 . , ABCD .

AB BC 11 B 1C1 , = 111
. , = 90.
, BCD, CDA, DAB
90.
ABCD .
.
5.

, ,
, ,
.

, b, , .
.
, , . b
, I2 .
.
6.

,
. ,
.

,
,
.
33

, =
= = = R. XA = XB = XC . .
7.

ABCD
, . 6 , 7 9 . .

ABCD , ABCD. = 9;
= 7, KD = 6.
= 90 ( ), 2
= =2 2 = 92 72 = 32 (2) ( ).
AD2 = 2 ( ABCD ).
KAAD ,
= KD 2 AD 2 = 36 - 32 = 4 = 2 ().
8.

34

AD, . D
, = , = b, AD = .

AD, , , CAD .
DC2 = AD2 + 2 = 2 + 2; DC = a 2 + c 2 .
( ).
, :
2 = 2 + 2 = 2 + b2.
DAB , DB2 = AD2 + 2 =
= 2 + 2 + b2; DB = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 .
9.

,

.

. 150, . 26.
10. b. ,
b .

b . b1, . b1
. b b1 a , . b , .
35

11. ,
.
. 150 . 26.
12. , , .
. 151 . 27.
13. ABCD
, . , :
1) AD
;
2) CD
.

1) 1 || . 1 AD (
). AD ( ),
, AD ( 18.2).
2) 1 || . CD 1 (
). CD 1 CD (
), , CD (
18.2). .
14. , ,
D . , = 3 , BD = 2 , CD = 2,4
.
36

|| D, BE AC.

= BD = 2 . , = = 3 2 = 1 ().
, = DC = 2,4 . ABE .
= 2 + 2 = 12 + 2,42 = 2,6 ().
15. ,
3,4, . 5,8 ,
3,9 . .
.
CD = = 3,9 ,
= = 5,8 3,9 = 1,9 ().
AD = = 3,4 .

BKC :
= 2 + 2 = 1,92 + 3,4 2 = 1517
, 3,9 ().
16. 15
, 8 , , ,
20 .
, , .
37

CD. = DE = 8 ,
= CD ED = 20 8 = 12 ().
BCE :
= BC 2 - CE 2 = 225 + 144 = 81 = 9 ().
17.
.
.

BCD . (BCD).
= = AD = , ,
:
= = HD.
, BCD ,
= R =

BC
3

a
3

(BCD), .

38

:
= B 2 - HB 2 = a 2 -

a2
2
=
.
3
3

18. S
SA, SB, SC SO.
, , .

SA, SB, SC , , ,
, , . .
19.
3 . ,
2 .

(BCD). = = AD = 2 , : = = HD. ,
BCD ,
= R =

BD
3

3
= 3 ().
3

39

(BCD), ,
: = 2 - 2 = 4 - 3 = 1 ().
20. 4 . 6 .
.
= . (1) (2). P .

, , , .. = =
=,
. ,
C, .. .
. :
2 = 2 + 2; = : 2 = 2 , OB = R,
= = 4 R, :
R2 = 22 + (4 R)2; R2 = 4 + 16 8R + R2;
8R = 20; R = 2,5 .
POC :
2 = 2 + 2 = 6 + 2,52 = 36 + 6,25 = 42,25,
= 42,25 = 6,5 ().
40

21.
.
, b.

, . AB = AC = AD = AF, OB = OC =
=OD = OF , , .
1
2

OF = CF =

b 2
. AOF .
2

= AF 2 OF 2 = a 2 b 2 = a 2 b .
2
2

22. ,
.

S , SO ,
b . S
,
.
R = b 2 - SO 2 .
41

23. ,
10 17. 9. .
SA SB .
= y, = , > y, SB > SA. SO
. AOS
BOS :

SO2 = AS2 2; SO2 = BS2 2;


AS2 2 = BS2 2;
102 y2 = 172 2.
y = 9, = 9 + ;
102 2 = 172 (9 + )2;
100 2 = 289 81 18 2;
18 = 108; = 6 ;
= 9 + 6 = 15 .
24. .
, :
1) 26 , 12 40 ;
2) 1 : 2, 1 7 .

42

1) SO ,
SA = x, SB = y; x > y, AO > OB. SOA SOB :
SO2 = AS2 2; SO2 = BS2 2, x 2 40 2 = y 2 12 2.
= 26; = 26 + , 2 402 = 2 122;
(26 + )2 402 = 2 122;
52 = 780; = 15 (), = 26 + 15 = 41 ().
AS = 41 (), BS = 15 (c).

2) AS = , AS : SB = 1 : 2, SB = 2x.
SO . AOS
BOS :
SO2 = SA2 2; SO2 = SB2 2, x 2 1 = (2 x) 2 7 2 ,
2 1 = 42 49;
32 = 48; 2 = 16;
= 4. AS = 4 () BS = 8 ().
25. ,
23 33 .
, 2 : 3.
SO , SA SB
.
43

= 2x. AO : BO = 2 : 3, BO = 3x.
AOS BOS :
SO2 = AS2 2; SO2 = BS2 2,
232 42 = 332 92.
52 = 560; 2 = 112.
SO2 = AS2 2 = 23 2 4 x 2 = 81, SO = 9 ().
26. , , .
. 152 . 29.
27.
, , 1 .
3
5 . .

. AA1 BB1
, 1 = 1 = 1 . 1 1 AC BC .
1 1 :
2 = 12 + 12 = 32 + 12 = 10 (2),
2 = 12 + 12 = 52 + 12 = 26 (2).
44

:
2 = 2 + 2; 2 = 10 + 26 = 36; = 6 ().
28.
4 . 8
2 . .

1 1
; 1 = 1 = 4. 1 ,
1D BD .
1 = 8 , 1D = 2 .
1D 1. :
2 = 12 + 12 = 82 + 42 = 80; = 80 (),
BD2 = 12 + 1D2 = 42 + 22 = 20; BD = 20 ().
1
1
=
80 ();
2
2
1
1
OD = BD =
20 ().
2
2

: BD. OCD - , :
CD2 = 2 + OD2 =

80 20
+ = 25; CD = 5 ().
4
4

|| , 11 = = 5 ().
DC1 1 1 DC1
: 1 = DC1 = DC 2 - CC12 = 25 16 = 3 ().
29. , ,
BD,
. CD, = , = b, BD = ?
45

AD. ABD : AD 2 = AB 2 + BD 2 = a 2 + b 2 .
ACD :
CD2 = AD2 2 = (2 + 2) b2 = 2 + 2 b2,
CD = a 2 + c 2 b 2 .
30. ,
.

, .
.
1 1 . 18.4
1 1 ; 11 , , ; , 1 = 1. .
31. . b
. .

46

. BD .
BA DC. CD = . AB = CD = a.
BD : = AD.
:
AD = BD 2 B 2 = b 2 - a 2 .
32. b
. ( ) .
.

DE AC . DM .
DM = .
DM = AB = d. :
d = = a 2 c2 .
DM = a 2 c2 .
EMD , :
47

= D 2 DM2 = b 2 - (a 2 - c 2 ) = b 2 - a 2 + c 2 .
33. , , 0,3 0,5 . ,
3 : 7?

, , :
: = 3 : 7.
1, 1, 1 , , ,
. 1 = 0,3, 1 = 0,5.
18.4 1, 1, 1 , ,
. 1, 1, 1 .
AD 11,
AD BB1. 11 . 1 = 1.
DB1=0,3 .
~ ABD BD.
7
BC
3
B AC + BC
=
= 1+
= = 1+ =
;
C
AC
AC
3 10
BD AB 10
3BD
.
=
= . CK =
CK AC 3
10

BD = 1 DB1 = 0,5 0,3 = 0,2 (),


CK =

3 0,2
= 0,06 ().
10

1 = + 1 = 0,06 + 0,3 = 0,36 ().


34. . , .
48

1
1

, ,
. 1 1
.
18.4 1 1,
.
1 1 .
= , 1 = 1 .
, A1 = B1, , , 1 = 1.
.
35.
. ,
.
BD . BD. AS CS, .

AOS COS1 : =
= , SOA = S1 OC;

AOS = COS1 ( ), ,
AS = S1C. .
49

36.
, ,
:
1) 3,2 5,3 ; 2) 7,4 6,1 ; 3) b.

. . 1,
1, 1 , , , . 17.4
. AA1 = a BB1 = b.
1
3) = = ; ADB, EM||BD.
2

AE
1
=
; EM =
BD = BD.
2
AB
BD
1
BD = BB1 DB1 = b a, = (b a).
2
1
1
1
1 = + 1 = + (b a) = + b =
2
2
2
1
1
1
= + b = ( + b).
2
2
2
a b , :
1
1
1) 1 = (3,2 + 5,3) = 8,5 = 4,25 ().
2
2
1
1
2) 1 = (7,4 + 6,1) = 13,5 = 6,75 ().
2
2
37. , .
.

50

:
O AB. ADB .
1 .
1
a+b
.
BD =
2
2
1
1
1
a < b, = 1 1 = + b = (b a).
2
2
2
1
a > b, = ( b).
2
1
= | b|.
2

BD = + b 1 =

, :
1
|3,2 5,3| =
2
1
2) = |7,4 6,1| =
2

1) =

1
2,1 = 1,05 ().
2
1
1,3 = 0,65 ().
2

38. 1 ,
0,5 0,3 . .

51

AB O. . AA1 BB1
AA1 = 0,3 , BB1 = 0,5 .
. A , A1B1.
BB1 M. AM BM. ABM : AM2 = AB2 MB2,
MB = MB1 + BB1 = 0,5 + 0,3 = 0,8 (), AB = 1 (),
AM2 = 1 0,64 = 0,36 (2); AM = 0,6 ().
AA1B1M , A1B1 = AM = 0,6 .
39. ,
.
. m : n.
n
1
1

ABCD .
. 1 1
. BB1 = a. OAD ~ OCB ,
OD AD m
=
= .
OB BC n

1D 1 1 1D.
DO1~1D B1 DB OO1D = BB1D = 90.
OO1 OD
m
OD
=
=
.
=
BB1 BD OD+OB m + n
mBB1
am
1 =
.
=
m+n
m+n

40. .
.
52

ABCD .
1 . 1 = a. . 1 . MM1||CC1.
1 1.

1
=
.
C
CC1

AM 1
1
1
= . MM 1 = CC1 = a.
AC 2
2
2

41. .

b ( < b).
.
SA . SB = SD = a (
). (
). SB ( ).

, SBC , :
2 = SC2 SB2 = b2 2,
= AD = CD = BC = b 2 - a 2 .
SA AB ( ),
53

SA2 = SB2 2; 2 (b2 2) = 2a 2 b 2 ,


SA = 2a 2 - b 2 .
42. .
, b, ( < c, b < c).
.

SA . SD, SC SB , SD = b, SC = c, SB = a.
SDC = 90 ( 3- ). SDC
.
DC2 = SC2 SD2 = c 2 b 2 ,
DC = c 2 - b 2 ; DC = .
SAB:
SA2 = SB2 2 = 2 (2 b2) = 2 + b2 2,
SA = a 2 + b 2 - c 2 .
SBC ,
2 = SC2 SB2 = 2 2.
AD = = c 2 - a 2 .
43. 2 .
, 60,
.

54

SO .
SA = SB = 2. ASB = 60.
, , = .
ASB = 60, ASB , , , = AS = SB = 2.
( ), .
= = 45. , ,
BO = = cos45 = 2

2
= 2 ().
2

AOS:
SO = AS2 AO 2 = 4 2 = 2 ().
44. ,
1 , . , , ,
60.

SA = SB , SO , SO = 1. AOS = BOS , (
55

) ASO = 60 BSO = 60, , , SAO =


=SBO=30. :
SO =

1
1
SA = SB. SB = SA = 2.
2
2

SA SB, , , :
= S 2 + SB 2 = 4 + 4 = 8 = 2 2 ().
45.
,
. ,
.
. 153 . 30.
46.
0,7 2,4 .
.

O , OS . r = = = = 0,7 ., ,,
.
SA MN.
AOS:
SA = SO 2 + AO 2 = 2,4 2 + 0,7 2 = 6,25 = 2,5 ().
47. 1,1 , 56

6,1 . , .

S , SO . SO =
1,1 , . SB,
SC, SA ; .
= = .
, , O
. O r = AO = OB = OC.
SOB:
= SO 2 SO 2 = 6,12 1,12 = 36 = 6 ().
48.
AD . D , AD = 13 , = 6 .

D ,
AK . DK . AK , AK
( ABC ), = 3 . ABK :
57

K = B2 BK 2 = 6 2 3 2 = 27 ().
DAK :
DK = D2 + K 2 = 13 2 + 27 = 196 = 14 ().
49. b
, ,
. ,
.
BA , BA AA1,
AA1 A
AA1 . BA1 a.
, BA1 B a.

ABA1 :
BA12 = BA2 + AA12 = b2 + a2,
BA1 =

a 2 + b2 .
50.
. , d.

58

. , AO
. = ; ,
, , = .
. , . .
, ON =

d
( ),
2

OKN:

OK = ON sinNOK = ONsin45 =

2
d
d

=
.
2 2
2 2

:
= K 2 OK 2 = a 2

d2
.
8

51. ,
, ,
b. .
59

BAD.
= MD = b ( ), = ,
.
, CD AD,
BC = CD. ,
ABCD :

D= = = AD = a 2 - b 2 ( AMD ).
DCM :
= DM 2 DC 2 = b 2 - (a 2 - b 2 ) = 2b 2 - a 2 .
52. 6
5 . 2 . .

SO , K, M, N
. 60

SK, SNAB, SMOM. SK = SM = SN


.
S = r, p =
=

AB + BC + AC
.
2

5+ 6+ 5
= 8(); S = 8r ( 2 ).
2

S =

1
BM AC,
2

BM = BC 2 MC 2 = 25 9 = 4 ().

1
64 = 12 (2).
2
8r = 12 r = OK = 1,5 ().
SOK :
S =

SK = SO 2 + OK 2 = 4 + 2,25 = 6,25 = 2,5 ().


53.
CD . D , = , =b, CD= c.

CD ,
( ).
DK . DK
. = AB 2 BC 2 =
S =

a2 -b2 ;

1
1
ABCK = AC.
2
2

61

a 2 - b 2 b
.
a

AC CB
=
AB
CDK :

CK =

a2 b2 b
=
DK = CD + CK = c +

= c2 +

a 2b 2 b 4
a2

= c2 + b2

b4
a2

54. .
, .
. 154 . 31.
55. . ,
, , , .

, b . , b,
b . . b
b. b. , . .
56.
1 1
.
62

11,
= 2 , 1 = 3 ; 1 = 7 11
.

CK AB 1 1 1. 1.
1 || 1 || . 11
, 1 , CK
.
1 =

1 + BB1
.
2

1 :

1 =

A1C 2 AC 2 = 9 4 = 5 ().

1 :

1 =

B1C 2 BC 2 = 49 4 = 45 = 3 5 ().

1 =
1 :

1 + 1
5 +3 5
= 2 5 ().
=
2
2

1 =

KK 12 + KC 2 ,

= cos30 =

3
3
= 2
= 3 ().
2
2

1 = (2 5 ) 2 + ( 3 ) 2 = 20 + 3 = 23 ().
57. 1
1 .
11,
1=4 , 1=3 , 1 = 6 , 1 = 2
11 .

63

1 . 1 = KK 1 2 + CK 2 (
), 1 (1
).

1 || 1 || 1 , ,
11 . 1 , 1
11.
1 + 1 5
= = 2,5 ();
1 =
2
2
1:
= B1C 2 - BB12 = 62 2 2 = 32 ();
1:
= 1C 2 - 12 = 4 2 3 2 = 7 ();
ABC :
AB = BC 2 + AC 2 = = ( 32 ) 2 + ( 7 ) 2 = 32 + 7 = 39 ();
1
AB ( ),
2
1
39 ();
=
2
CK =

39
=
, 1 = (2,5) +
2

16 = 4 ().

58. , ,
, , .

, .
64


b . b, . ( ), b;
. . 59. , ,
BD .
, :
1) = 6 , BD = 7 , CD = 6 ;
2) = 3 , BD = 4 , D = 12 ;
3) AD = 4 , = 7 , CD = 1 ;
4) AD = = 5 , CD = 1 ;
5) = , CD = , BD = b;
6) AD = , = b, CD = .

5:
5) , CD , BDAD.
:
2 = 2 + 2, CDB , :
2 = CD2 + BD2 = c 2 + b 2 .
2 = 2 + CD2 + BD2 = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 .
= a 2 +b2 + c2 .
, 1 2:
1) 2 = 62 + 72 + 62 = 36 + 49 + 36 = 121 (2);
= 11 ().
2) 2 = 32 + 122 + 42 = 9 + 144 + 16 = 169 (2);
= 13 ().
6:
65

6) 2 = 2 + 2,
2 = AD2 CD2 ( ACD ),
= AD 2 CD 2 + BC 2 = a 2 + b 2 c 2 .
4) AD = = 5 , CD = 1 ; :
=

AD 2 CD 2 + BC 2 =

5 2 12 + 5 2 = 7 ().

3) AB = 16 + 49 1 = 64 = 8 ().
60. b .
.


. , AD, .
ABCD . = a 2 +b 2 . AC .
, , , , D .
,
, ( 58). AD ,
18.4 AD||, , , AD BC
. .
AC = a 2 + b 2 .
61. .
,
( ) 0,5 .
b,
1,2 .
b.

66

. b || ; = 1,2 ,
= 0,5 , AB c BC b. A b. AC
=

AB 2 + BC 2 = 1,2 2 + 0,5 2 = 1,69 = 1,3 ().

62.
.
|| , b || . b,
1,5 , b 0,8 .

.
, || ( || , || . b.
b. ,
( );
:
= 2 + 2 = 1,5 2 + 0,8 2 =

2,89 = 1,7 ().

67

18.

1.

, ?

: (0;0;z), ..
z.
2.

(1;2;3), (0;1;2), (0;0;3), D(1;2;0).


:
1) ;
2) z;
3) yz?
. 157 . 40.

3.

(1;2;3). , .

.
x(1;0;0); (0;2;0); z z (0;0;3).
,
z, x z; z
.
x, z, xz.
A x A xy = 2; A x A xz = 3; A y A xy = 1;
A y A yz = 3; A z A xz = 1; A z A yz = 2.

68

z, ;
A x, z, xz. : x(1;2;0), z(0;2;3), xz(1;0;3).
4.

(1;2;3) :
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

3
:
1) Ax = |z| = 3; Axz = |y| = 2; z = |x| = 1, (x; y; z) , (x; y; z) = (1; 2; -3).
2) :
= y 2 + z 2 = 4 + 9 = 13 ;
= x 2 + z 2 = 1 + 9 = 10 ;
z = y 2 + x2 = 4 + 1 = 5 .
3) 2 = z2 + z2 .
2 = 5 + 9 = 14;
= 14 .
: 3, yz 2, yz 1; 13 ,
10 , 5 ; 14 .
5.

D(;;0), : (0;1;1),
(1;0;1), (0;1;0).

. 158 . 41.
6.

, (0;0;1),
(0;1;0), (1;0;0) yz 2.

(;;z).
yz || ( 4). || = 2, =2
=2.
, , , (0;0;1), (0;1;0), (1;0;0)
,
69

AK 2 = BK 2 = CK 2 ;
x 2 + y 2 + ( z 1) 2 = x 2 + ( y 1) 2 + z 2 = ( x 1) 2 + y 2 + z 2 .

y 2 + ( z 1) 2 = ( y 1) 2 + z 2 , y = z
x 2 + ( z 1) 2 = ( x 1) 2 + z 2 , x = z . x = y = z = 2 .

: 1(2; 2; 2) 2(-2; -2; -2).


7.

(;0;0),
(1;2;3), (2;1;3).

2 = (1 )2 + 22 + 32 = 2 = (2 )2 + 12 + 32,
1 2 + 2 + 4 + 9 = 4 + 4 + 4 + 1 + 9 + 2;
6 = 0;
= 0. (0; 0; 0).
8.


, (1;2;3)
.

(x, y, z) .
2 =2,
2 + 2 + z2 = ( 1)2 + ( 2)2 + (z 3)2;
2 + 2 + z2 = 2 2 + 1 + 2 4 + 4 + z2 6z + 9;
2 + 4 + 6z 14 = 0;
+ 2 + 3z 7 = 0 .
9.

, ABCD (1;3;2), (0;2;4), (1;1;4), D(2;2;2)


.

. 159 . 42.
70

10. , ABCD
, :
1) (0;2;3), (1;1;1), (2;2;1), D(3;1;5);
2) (2;1; 3), (1;0;7), (2;1;5), D(1;2;1).

, .
0+2
22
3 1
= 1, =
= 0, z =
=
1) 1: =
2
2
2
= 2 ;
1(1;0;2).
1 1
1 5
1 + 3
= 0, z =
= 2 ;
= 1, =
2: =
2
2
2
2: (1;0;2). 1 = 2
ABCD .
22
1+ 1
3+ 5
= 1, =
= 1, z =
= 4;
2) 1: =
2
2
2
1(0;1;4).
1 1
0+2
7+1
= 0, =
= 1, z =
= 4;
2: =
2
2
2
2: (0;1;4); 1= 2, ABCD .
11. , ABCD
, :
1) (6;7;8), (8;2;6), (4;3;2), D(2;8;4);
2) (0;2;0), (1;0;0), (2;0;2), D(1;2;2).
1) , ABCD :
6+ 4
7+ 3
8+ 2
= 5, =
= 5, z =
= 5; ;
1: =
2
2
2
1(5;5;5).
8+ 2
2+8
6+ 4
= 5, =
= 5, z =
= 5; BD;
2: =
2
2
2
2: (5;5;5). 1 = 2,
ABCD .
:
2 = (8 6)2 + (2 7)2 + (6 8)2 = 22 + 52 + 22 = 33;
71

AD2 = (2 6)2 + (8 7)2 + (48)2 = 42 +12 +42 = 33, AB = AD


ABCD , .. .
0+2
2+0
0+2
= 1, =
= 1, z =
= 1 ;
2) 1: =
2
2
2
1(1;1;1).
1+1
0+2
0+2
= 1, =
= 1, z =
= 1 BD;
2: =
2
2
2
2: (1;1;1). 1 = 2,
ABCD .
2 = (0 1)2 + (2 0)2 + (0 0)2 = 12 + 22 = 5;
AD2 = (0 1)2 + (2 2)2 + (2 0)2 = 12 + 22 = 5.
= AD,
ABCD , .. .
12. (2;3;1)
(1;1;1). (;;z).
,
2 + x 3 + y 1 + z
;
;
),
(1;1;1) = C(
2
2
2
2+x
3+ y
1 + z
= 1;
= 1;
= 1;
2
2
2
= 0; = 1; z = 3; (0;1;3).
13. D ABCD,
:
1) (2;3;2), (0;2;4), (4;1;0);
2) (1;1;0), (0;1;1), (1;0;1);
3) (4;2;1), (1;3;2), (4;2;1).

.
72

1) 1 = 2, 1 , 2 BD.
3+1
2+0
2+4
= 3, =
= 2, z =
= 1;
1: =
2
2
2
1(3;2;1). 1 = 2,
x
2+ y
4+ z
= 3, = 6;
= 2, = 2;
= 1, z = 2,
2
2
2
D(6;2;2).
2) 1 = 2;
1 1 1 + 0 0 + 1
;
);
;
1 (
2
2
2
0 + x 1 + y 1 + z
2 (
;
;
),
2
2
2
x
1
1+ y
1
1 + z
0 = ; = 0; =
; = 2;
=
; z = 2.
2
2
2
2
2
D(0;2;2).
3) 1 = 2;
4 4 2 + 2 1 + 1
;
;
);
1 (
2
2
2
1 + x 3 + y 2 + z
2 (
;
),
;
2
2
2
1+ x
2+z
3 + y
0=
; = 1; 2 =
; z = 2,
; = 7; 0 =
2
2
2
D(1;7;2).
14. , (;;b) (;d;b) .
,
a a c + d b + b
;
;
),
(
2
2
2
c+ d
(0;
;0), .
2
.
15. , (;b;) D(p;q;c) .
CD.
73

a+ p b+q cc
a+ p b+q
;
;
); (
;
; 0) ,
2
2
2
2
2
. .
(

16. , = , = , z = z.

.
,
,
xy . = ; = |z|= = |z|.
, z = =z. , = , = , z = z. .
17. (1;2;3), (0;1;2), (1;0;3).
, .
. 160 . 43.
18. (1;2;3), (0;1;2), (1;0;3).
, .
(;;z) (;;z). :
1) (1; 2; 3);
2) (0;1; 2);
3) (1;0;3).
74

19. , .

, .
. , .
= =
= .
= ( 1- ), , = .
.
20. , .

(1; 1; z1)

(2; 2; z2)

(1; 1; z1)
(2; 2; z2)

75


. , x y
. AB A(x1;y1;z1) B(x2;y2;z2), , A'(x1;y1;z1) B'(x2;y2;z2) ( 16).
:
2 = (1 2)2 + (1 2)2 + (z1 z2)2;
()2 = (1 2)2 + (1 2)2 + (z1 + z2)2;
( z1 z 2 ) 2 = ( z 2 z1 ) 2 , = , , .
21. ,
.

: = r.
: (
).
(; ; ).
, ,
( ).
22. ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
.
, + = ,
, + = . ,
, .
76

, , .
23. , b, c = + , = + b, z = z + c,
(1;0;2) (2;1;0).
. 163 . 45.
24. (2;1;1) (1;1;0). ?
:
= + , = + b, z = z + c. (0;0;z0)(0;0;z0),
= 0 0; b = 0 0; = z0 z0.
(2;1;1)(1;1;0);
= 1 2 = 1; b = (1) 1 = 2; = 0 (1) = 1.
(0;0;0) :
(0 + ; 0 + b; 0 + ) = (1;2;1).
25. , ,
D, :
1) (2;1;0), (1;0;1), (3; 2;1), D(2;3;0);
2) (2;3;5), (1;2;4), (4;3;6), D(7;2;5);
3) (0;1;2), (1;0;1), (3;2;2), D(2;3;1);
4) (1;1;0), (0;0;0), (2; 2;1), D(1;1;1)?
, .

= = D ; b = y B y A = y D y C .
= z z = zD z. :
1) 1 2 = 2 3 = 1;
0 1 = 3 (2) = 1; 1 0 0 1.
, .
2) 1 (2) = 7 4 = 3; 2 3 2 (3).
.
3) 1 0 = 2 3 = 1; 0 1 = 3 (2) = 1;
77

1 2 = 1 2 = 1.
.
4) 0 1 1 (2);
, .
26. , .

ABCD , A', B', C', D' ,


A, B, C, D. ..
( ),
CD CD.
.. ( ) ,
AA' || BB' || CC' || DD' AA' = BB' = CC' = DD'.
AA'D'D
, , , AA'D'D .
A'D' = AD A'D' || AD.
A'B' = AB A'B' || AB; C'D' = CD C'D' || CD;
B'C' = BC B'C' || BC.
.. , , , , A'D' || B'C', A'B' || C'D'.
, , A'B'C'D' ,
ABCD (.. ).
.
27.
ABCD A1B1C1D1 . ,

ABCD

A1B1C1D1
.

78

.. , , AA1 = BB1 = CC1 = DD1 = x.


ABCD A1B1C1D1
x, , , x ,
.
, ABCD A1B1C1D1 . .
28. , .

S ,

SA SB
B 1SA 1= BSA 1,
=
SA` SB`

SABSA11,
11 S1

S1
=
= , , 1 1 =
= .

S
11 S1
=
= , .

S
79

11 11 11
=
=
= ,

111, . .
,

29. , S, , , , 1, 1, 1. , 111
.
AB || A1B1; AC || A1C1; BC || B1C1, ..
SA1B1, SA1C1, SB1C1 ,
. SAC = SA1C1, SCA = SC1A1,
.
, SAC ~ SA1C1 ( ). ,
SAB ~ SA1B1, SBC ~ SB1C1.

:
SA
SC
SA
SB
=
(SAC ~ SA1C1),
=
(SAB ~ SA1B1).
SA1 SC1
SA1 SB1
SA
SC
SB

=
=
=k,
SA1 SC1 SB1
.. SA1 =
.
80

1
1
1
SA, SB1 =
SB, SC1 =
SC, K
K
K

, , ABC A1B1C1 .
.
30. , b .
b?
b a
1 a. b a1, , , b a ( 18.3), ..
b 90.

31. , .
,

+ < 90?
:

1) x .
, ,
= + .

2) = + , = .

81

3) = + , = .
x = + x = | |.
32. , b, . b , 60 80?

a, b c, a, b c,
. a, b, c
a, b c.
1) + 60 + 80 = 180; = 40.

2) + 60 = 80; = 20.
33. , , , . :
, .
. 165 . 47.
82

34. 1) , , ,
.
2) , , ,
.

1) ,
b , . (
b , ). .

2) ,
b.
( b, ). .
35. h.
,
:
1) 30; 2) 45; 3) 60.
. 166 . 48.
36. . ,
, : 1) 45; 2) 60; 3) 30?
83

AC .
.
. = =90.
= D . . BC = AC cos = a cos . :
2
a
;
=
2
2
1 a
2) = 60; = cos60 = a = ;
2 2

1) = 45; = cos45 =

3) = 30; = cos30 = a

3 a 3
=
.
2
2

37. 10 ,
2 3 .
.

, 1
1 . 1 = 2 , 1 = 3 , = 10 . BOB1 .
1, OB1||AC BAC = BOB1 = .
:
= 10, = 1 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 5 ().
84

sin =

5
1
; sin =
= ; = 30.

10
2
38. ,
, , 45 30,
. .

DC DB .
AD . DB DC . DAB
DAC .
DC = : sin45 = a 2 ;
DB = : sin30 = 2a.
, BDC ( ).
:
=

DB 2 + DC 2 = 2a 2 + 4a 2 = 6a 2 = a 6 .

39. ,
, , 45, 60.
.

85

D . DB DC .
AD .
.
ABD ACD , .
= C = AD = .
:
DC = DB = : sin45 = 2 .
BDC , BDC = 60,
BDC , ..
DB = DC = = 2 .
40. ,
, 30
,
120. .

, .
AD , BD DC .
BD = DC = : tg30 = actg30 = a 3 .
, = a 3 cos30 =
86

a 3 3
3a
=
( )
2
2

= 2 = 2

3a
= 3.
2

41.
45
. .

.
= = ( ).
= : cos45 = 2 .
BD .
BCD = 45 ( ).
a
a 2
;
BD = cos45 =
=
2
2
ABD , = BAD;
a
.
= 2 ; BD =
2
BD
a
1
sin =
=
: 2 = ; = 30.
AB
2
2
42. , , ,
.

87

||
CD .
|| CD ( ).
, .
, , .
= ,
CD, . .
43. 30.
, ,
.

.
. 167 . 49.
44. , ,
, ,
.
CD. A .
ABCD AA1 . 1 .
1=, = 2.

88

1 ,
1 a
1
=
= , = 30.
sin =
2a 2
45.
, 60.
16 , 17 , .
.
D . (). 2 :
1)

1) CED = 60 ( DE ).
= 2 2 = 172 82 = 15 ().

DEB: DE =

1
= 8
2

( EAD = EDA = 45 ).
, :
CD2 = 2 + DE2 2EDEcos = 152 + 82 21580,5;
CD2 = 169 (2),
CD = 13 .

89

2)

2) CED = 180 - = 120 .


CD2 = 2 + DE2 2EDEcos(120) =
= 152 + 82 + 21580,5 = 409 (2) CD =

409 .

46. ABD , .
cos, :
1) = 24 , = 13 , AD = 37 ,
CD = 35 ;
2) = 32 , = 65 , AD = 20 ,
CD = 63 .

CED - .
1
1) = = 12 ( ).
2
90

:
= 2 2 = 13 2 12 2 = 169 144 = 5 ().
AED:
D = D2 2 = 37 2 12 2 = 1369 144 = 35 ().
ED:
1
CE 2 + ED 2 CD 2 5 2 + 35 2 35 2
55
=
=
= .
cos =
2 CE ED
2 5 35
2 5 5 7 14
2) =

1
AB = 16 .
2

:
= 2 2 = 65 2 16 2 = 1225 256 = 63 ().
AED:
D = D2 2 = 20 2 16 2 = 400 256 = 12 ().
CED :
cos =

CE 2 + ED 2 CD 2 63 2 + 12 2 63 2
12
2
=
=
= .
2 CE ED
2 12 63
2 63 21

47. 7
24 .
, 30 .

. CD , = 30. . CED = = 30.


, = 2 + 2 = 24 2 + 7 2 = 576 + 49 = 625 = 25 ().
91

1
CEAB, :
2
1
1
1
S= B, CEAB = B;
2
2
2
24 7
=
=
= 6,72 ().
25

CDE :
1
CD = sin = 6,72sin30 = 6,72 = 3,36 ().
2

, S =

48. .

, , : 1) 30; 2) 45; 3) 60.

ABC - , .
, CD .
ED
ADB, CED
ACD , .. CED = .
CED: ED = cos.
ADB .
1
1
a2 3
,
SADB = DE = cos = Scos. SABC =
4
2
2
ABC .
SDB =
:
92

a 3
cos .
2

a2 3
3 3a 2
=

;
4
2
8
2
a2 3
2 a 6
2) = 45; SADB =

=
;
8
2
4
1) = 30 ; SADB =

3) = 60; SADB =

a2 3 1
a2 3
=
.
4
8
2

49. 1)

ABD.
2)
D
AB.

46

46

1) SABD = Scos, D ABC


ABD.
1
1
S = = 524 = 60 (2);
2
2
1 30
2
SABD = 60cos = 60 =
= 4 (2) ( 46).
7
14 7
2) SAB = SDcos, ABC'

ABD ABC.

1
1
EDAB = 1232 = 192 (2).
2
2
2 128
2
S = 192 =
= 18 (2) ( 46).
21
7
7

SABD =

93

50. (2;7;3), (1;0;3), (3;4;5),


D(2;3;1). AB , BC , DC ,
AD , AC BD .
. 169 . 51.
51. (1;0;1), (1;1;2), (0;2;1).
D(;;z), AB CD
.
AB = (1 1;1 0;2 1) = (2;1;1);
CD = ( 0; 2;z + 1); AB = CD , :
0 = 2, = 2; 2 = 1, = 3;
z + 1 = 1, z = 0. D(2;3;0).

52. D(;;z), AB CD
. (1;0;1), (1;1;2), (0;2;1).
AB = (1 1;1 0;2 1) = (2;1;1);
CD = ( 0; 2;z + 1) = (x; y-2; z+1)

2 + x = 0

AB + CD =0, 1 + y 2 = 0
1 + z + 1 = 0

x=2
y = 1 D(2;1;2).
.
z= 2

) (

53. 2, n,3 3,2, m . m n


?
,

2 n 3
2 n
4 2 3
9
= = , = ; n = ; = ; m = .
3 3 m
2
3 2 m
3 2
54. a (1;2;3),
(1;1;1) .
. 170 . 52.
94

55. n :
1) a (2;1;3), b (1;3;n);
2) a (n;2;1), b (n;n;1);
3) a (n;2;1), b (n;2n;4);
4) a (4;2n;1), b (1;1;n)?
:
a b = 0.
1) a b = 21 + 3(1) + 3n = 0; 2 3 + 3n = 0;
1
3n = 1; n = ;
3
2) a b = nn + (2)(n) + 11 = 0;
n2 + 2n + 1 = 0; (n + 1)2 = 0; n + 1 = 0; n = 1;
3) a b = nn + 2n(2) + 14 = 0;
n2 4n + 4 = 0; (n 2)2 = 0; n 2 = 0; n = 2;
4) a b = 4(1) + 2n1 + (1)n = 0; -4 + 2n n = 0;
n 4 = 0; n = 4.
56. (1;0;1), (1;1;2), (0;2;1).
z D(0;0;), AB CD .
:
AB CD = 0. AB = (1 1;1 0;2 1) = (2;1;1);
CD = (0 0;0 2; + 1) = (0;2; + 1).
AB CD = 20 + (2)1 + ( + 1)1 = 0;
2 + + 1 = 0; 1 = 0; = 1.
57. a b 60, c
.
a + b + c .
:
a ^ b = 60; a ^ c = 90; b ^ c = 90,
: | a + b + c | = ( a + b + c ) 2 ;
95

(( a + b ) + c )2 = ( a + b )2 + 2 c ( a + b ) + c 2 =
= a 2+b 2+ 2a b + 2a c + 2b c +c 2=
= a 2+b 2+c 2+ 2a b + 2a c + 2b c ;
a c = 0, b c = 0 ( , ac b c ),
(( a + b ) + c )2 = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + 2 a b ,
1
a b = | a || b |cos60 = | a || b |. :
2
| a + b + c |= ( a + b + c ) 2 = |a |2 + |b |2 + |c |2 + |a || b | .
58. a , b , c
60. :
1) a b + c ; 2) a b c .
: a b = a c = b c = 11cos60 =

1
;
2

a 2 = b 2 = c 2 = 1. :

1) a ( b + c ) = a b + a c =

1 1
+ = 1;
2 2

| b + c | = (b + c ) 2 = b 2 + c 2 + 2b c = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 ;
a (b + c )
1
1
=
=
, .
| a || b + c | 1 3
3
5444;
v
1 1
a (b c )
= 0,
2) a ( b c ) = a b a c = = 0, cos =
2 2
a b c
cos =

, =

= 90.
2

59. (0;1;1), (1;1;2), (3;1;0),


D(2;3;1). CD.
. 170 . 53.

96

60. (0;1;1), (1;1;2), (3;1;0).


.

CA CB .
CA = (0 3;1 1;1 0) = (3;0;1);
CB = (1 3;1 1;2 0) = (2;2;2),
| CA | = 9 + 0 + 1 = 10 ; | CB | = 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 = 2 3 ;
CA CB = (3)(2) + 0 ( 2) + (1) 2 = 6 2 = 4 .
cosC =

CA CB
| CA | | CD |

4
10 3 2

2
30

2
.
15

61. , , a b , :
a b = | a || b |cos.

ba

, AC = a, AB = b CB = b a.
:
2 = 2 + 2 2cos,
( a b )2 = a 2 + b 2 2| a || b |cos.
97

( a b )2 = a 2 + b 2 2 a b ,
a 2 + b 2 2| a || b |cos = a 2 + b 2 2 a b ,
a b =| a || b |cos. .
62.
AD . BD, ABD ,
.
= DBC.
DE .
.
BAD

= BDcos;
= cos = BDcoscos. ,
cos =

BE BD cos cos
=
=
BD
BD

=coscos.
63. 45 .
45 .
.
SB ,
, SA .
SBA = 45 ( ).
SBE ; SBA= = 45;
2 SB
=
= SBcosSBA = SB
2
2
( SBA , A = 90 ).
2 SB
=
( 2
2
2
, );
= cos =

98

CB

SBC = SBC .

BC SB
1
=
: SB = ,
SB
2
2
= 60 .

cos =

64.
,
. ,
.

, .
= .
= = ( ).
:
OB 2 + OC 2 - BC 2 2a 2 - BC 2
=
cos =
.
2 OB OC
2a 2
, = .
BAC : BC 2 = AB 2 + AC 2 2AB AC cos .
a
= =
( AOB ).
sin
BC 2 =

a2
2

a2

a 2 cos

sin
sin 2
1 cos
)
2a 2 2a 2 (
2
1 cos
cos cos 2
sin

=
cos =
1
(
)
.
2a 2
sin 2
sin 2
sin

99