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1970, . 189191; , 1980, . 34, . 12: 14;
, 1998, . 1; , 2003, . 1.2:
15 .].
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12), ,

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,
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861]).
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. 134; 812].
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766767, 771, 803, 807, 811, 951952, 955, 959, 965,
968 .]. NaCa(Mg)
[
, 1998, . 254; 4754],
[, 1998, .254; 5561].
. 1- IV.,
,
,
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.21, . 1].

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, 2002, . 195]. V .

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, 1979; , 1992, , 2001; ,
-3].
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1222].

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1998, . 21, . 1].



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232
p. 30, 32]. ,
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2.
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( )**

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2 (2 . III 1 . IV .)

3
( III
IV/ V .)

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(2 . III IV .)

*
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***



.. ****

I
(III IV/ V .)

12 (III 1 IV .)
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2 (2 IV IV/ V .)

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3 (V VI .)

III (2 . V I . VII .)

3; 4 (V VII .)

IV ( V/VI
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3 (?) 4
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235

3
3. - ()


I2 I1 Ib2 II1 I3 I1 I6 Ib1 II1 Ib1 II3 Ic1 Ic2 III1 I5 I3 IV1 IV2 IV3 IV6 IV4 IV5

. 5

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15
16

102

102

174 +

50

29

53

29

21

53

16

5 757-52 -95

6 770-45

7 770-46

8 770-48

9 757-36

10 757-40

11 757-35

12 770-35 -95

13 757-41

14 770-41

15 757-49 -95

16 757-32

18

19 758-25 *

21

27 758-17

28 757-53

14

48

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18

24 757-44

25 757-30

22

23 758-26 *

26 757-54

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95

16

16

18

16

17

18

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21

21

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20

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17

17

17

12

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16

16

15

17

17

17

21 750-22

127

18 758-18 *

82

17 757-37

17

2,6

2,8

2,9

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3,2

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3,5

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2,9

1,8

2,4

0,9

1,5

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2,4

2,7

1,1

0,9

0,9

1,9

1,4

1,9

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11

7,1

10

11

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12

10

11

12

11

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15

13

12

13

13

12

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11

7,2

13

14

11

CaO

3,1

4,1

4,5

3,6

2,3

0,9

3,9

3,9

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1,6

3,7

1,6

1,2

2,3

2,8

2,8

2,3

2,1

2,7

3,5

2,8

1,8

2,3

2,4

1,8

3,7

3,4

3,4

3,4

3,3

2,1

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2,6

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3,6

2,8

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1,8

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1,6

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1,1

1,1

1,3

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1,6

1,1

1,5

0,8

1,3

0,6

0,8

1,6

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0,7

0,5

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1,6

1,4

1,5

1,3

1,5

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0,2

0,2

0,1

0,1

0,06

0,09

0,2

0,03

0,05

0,07

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0,6

0,2

0,4

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0,3

0,6

0,4

0,4

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0,2

0,3

0,3

0,6

0,3

0,4

0,4

0,4

0,08

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0,09

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0,1

0,04

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0,3

0,2

0,1

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0,05

0,1

0,09

0,1

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,5

0,2

0,1

0,1

0,2

0,08

MgO Al2O3 Fe2O3 MnO TiO2


7

0,3

0,4

1,9

0,2

0,2

2,2

0,9

0,4

0,2

10

0,8

0,7

0,2

0,1

0,3

0,2

0,3

0,6

0,1

0,08

0,05

6,3

0,4

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0,2

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0,3

0,04

0,2

0,6

0,3

0,2

0,1

0,4

0,1

5,7

0,07

0,1

0,2

0,06

0,3

0,05

0,2

0,1

0,2

0,1

0,1

0,2

0,2

0,1

0,1

0,3

SnO2

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2,2

1,8

1,4

1,2

2,2

2,2

1,7

1,3

1,3

2,2

1,8

1,1

1,6

0,9

2,4

1,2

1,5

1,8

1,6

0,8

1,2

1,9

1,9

1,2

1,9

1,7

CuO

0,04

0,08

0,03

0,3

0,07

0,9

0,06

0,08

0,2

0,1

0,07

0,08

0,2

0,4

0,2

0,2

0,3

0,01

CoO Sb2O5 Ag2O

NiO

SiO2 . . 4, . , .. , .* , .. , -95 , .. ,
01 , .. , . ( 2)

II

I-II

I
(2-3)

78

4 770-44

17

75

46

3 757-42

16

Na2O K2O

2 770-39 -01

71

1 757-43

4. ()

Au

238
9

44

21

21

71

18

18

18

18

99

99

233

17 +

119 +

108

16

59

178

27

27

119

106

32 757-26

33 750-28

34 750-19

35 750-18

36 770-42

37 739-32

38 758-23 *

39 758-22 *

40 758-21 *

41 739-27

42 739-26

43 770-50

44 739-29

45 770-54

46 758-20 *

47 758-16

48 739-31

49 757-56

50 758-15

51 757-31

52 770-49

53 739-28

54 739-30

55 770-55

56 770-47

15

15

16

16

16

15

15

16

17

14

18

16

17

17

17

16

18

17

18

18

18

18

16

17

15

20

18

16

1,1

1,1

2,6

3,1

1,5

2,4

5,2

2,6

2,8

3,4

3,2

3,8

1,6

3,4

3,8

4,6

3,6

5,5

2,6

1,8

3,2

4,5

2,3

7,6

4,4

3,6

Na2O K2O

5,7

6,9

11

11

10

11

10

8,1

8,2

5,7

6,5

8,2

14

13

13

7,7

8,1

11

10

10

5,5

6,2

CaO

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1,7

2,4

2,4

1,8

1,7

1,3

1,3

1,6

1,1

1,1

1,5

2,3

0,8

1,2

3,1

0,6

5,3

4,8

3,7

3,3

3,1

3,3

3,3

2,6

3,6

5,5

3,5

4,3

4,5

4,4

3,8

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4,2

2,5

2,2

1,5

4,8

3,2

2,6

2,7

3,6

2,6

2,6

2,8

2,3

2,8

1,3

1,2

1,6

1,5

1,1

2,7

1,3

1,6

2,2

0,9

0,6

1,7

1,3

1,3

0,8

0,9

1,1

1,3

1,3

1,2

0,6

0,7

0,9

0,5

0,5

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,6

1,2

0,3

0,04

0,5

0,5

0,5

0,6

0,6

0,06

0,06

0,02

0,04

0,04

0,2

0,2

0,05

0,1

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,3

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0,2

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0,2

0,3

0,2

0,1

0,06

0,1

0,1

0,1

0,2

0,2

0,1

MgO Al2O3 Fe2O3 MnO TiO2

3,3

8,7

12

14

13

6,3

14

2,6

0,03

11

10

4,4

2,2

13

0,1

1,9

1,4

1,1

0,2

1,2

0,2

0,2

PbO

5,6

14

14

7,5

4,7

7,2

7,2

8,3

4,5

7,2

4,4

2,3

5,7

4,8

3,9

1,6

4,3

0,9

0,2

0,4

0,4

0,2

0,05

0,5

0,08

SnO2

2,3

3,5

4,8

2,6

2,9

2,1

2,6

2,9

2,9

2,5

1,4

1,4

2,7

2,2

1,3

2,8

4,4

1,4

2,1

2,2

0,7

2,5

1,9

1,9

CuO

0,08

0,1

0,03

0,06

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2 6 7 3 8 12
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VVI . [, , 1997, . 14, 16, 18],
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2002, . 145146].

(. 26: 2).

,

IV 1 V VIIVIII . [,
2003, .1617].
3 (. 26: 1),
.. , ,
IV V. [. 1996, . 50].
(. 26: 4) (
,
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, [,
, 1987, .14, 16; , 2002, . 143144].
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. 1. .
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21 2; 22 ; 23 ; 24 ; 25
; 26 ; 27 ; 28 .

317

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318

. 3. ( .. )

. 4. .
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319

. 5. 1.

320

. 6.
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; 15 2; 16 ; 17 2: 18
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27 .

321

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322

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; 29 ; 30 ; 31 ; 32
2; 33 ; 34 ; 35 ; 36 ; 37
; 38 ; 39 (?) ; 40 ;
41 ; 42 ; 43 ; 44 .

. 9. .
18 1; 9 ; 10 6 .

323

324

. 10. 1 .
13 1; 46 .

. 11. .

325

. 12. .
1 ; 2 ; 3 26 ; 4, 6,
11, 12, 1517 1; 5, 20 16 ; 7 1
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. 13. .
1, 2, 417 ; 3 .

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326

. 15. .

. 16. .
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327

. 17.
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15, 11 ; 6 10, 12 .

. 18. .

328

. 19. .
1 , 2, 3 ; 4 , 5
; 6 ; 7 ; 8 .

. 20. .
13 ; 46 ; 7, 8 1.

329

. 21. .

. 22. - 8
16 ; 7, 913 .. , 8 .. .

330

. 23. .
1 ; 25 2.

. 24. .

331

. 25. I . ..
13, 7 (?) ; 5, 4 ; 6 1.

332

. 26. .
1 3; 2, 4 ; 3 -.

6.1. .
.


,
, ,
- Barbaricum
( Germania Libera).

-
- (. 1).

(Vlkerwanderungszeit = VWZ),

IV . .. (
)
VI. (
). .

VWZ


.
,

, [Gimbu
tas, 1963, p. 137].



I . ..
V VI .


,

.
IVV . -

,

. V .


Ladekopp (Lubieszewo, woj. Gdaskie)
[La Baume, 1924, S. 76].

(, )

,
. ,

- 1,
,
. ,
: . 1 Pruszcz
Gdaski,
, D2 [,
2004, . 57].

(
) III . (.. ,
), ,
(
Pruszcz Gdaski Wielbark),

[Okulicz, 1992, s. 145].
IIIII.
.

.
-
( )
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).
( 2)


.
Vilkancy Schulze-Drrlamm Iz
Aa 6b (. 2)
Barbaricum 1- V . [,
2003, .290]
( )
.
AVI,171;
Schnwarling; Duratn (. 2).


334


( ) .
, ,
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) . ,
,
.


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.
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IV . ,
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[Kulakov, imnas, 1992, S. 179184].


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,

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.



[, 2003, . 291].

VI,179, D1.

, 1-
V . .


.

,
. 258 -Dollkeim.
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,
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VI.1 [berg, 1919, S. 33]
.
c
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9
D1 (Bgelfibeln
Leipferdingen [Vo, 1994, S.505, Abb. 107: 1]).

Glaston Duratn.

,


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Duratn. . , (
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H38 . [Madyda-Legutko, 1986,
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[, 2003, . 104107].

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. DollkeimKowrovo-Kultur),

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335

6


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[, 2003, .94].


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groe Armbrustfibel, .. 2 (

IV . [, 2005, .124]),

Vilkancy, Schulze-Drrlamm Iz Aa
6b; , D2:
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-,
. 23
. 50
420 .

2 [, , 2000, . 44;
. 6].
.

,
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,
. 35 -Hnenberg.


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,
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.

-
- /.

6.2.

(

).
1. . ,
- (. Hnenberg, Kr. Samland), . 84
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0,48, ,
-.
.

. - ,
.

.
,
- ,
, (. 3: 5, 3, 4),
. 3
I . ,
[Tyszyska,
1988, s.183] . 84 [,
1994, .157; . 92] 400450.
2. Grunaiki, woj. Biaostockie (.
Grunaiken, Kr. Darkehmen), . XI (. 4)
,
: XI 1
Schnrarling , XI3
Duratn
, XI5 (?)
Duratn, XI6
, , XI9
[Tischler, 1879,
Taf. I: 10; III: 9, 10; IV: 3, 20; XI: 9].
Duratn 400450 .
3. , - (. Pollwit
ten, Kr. Samland), . 102 (. 5)
,
.
Duratn,
( ?),
- [Tischler, Kemke, 1902, Taf. XXV:
19; XXVII: 7; XXVII: 11], ,
.
. 102 V . [,
2003, . 148].
Optimates-1 (
).
1. , - (.
Dollkeim, Kr. Samland), . 370 (. 6, 7)
0,46,
0,42 ,
(. 6). (. 7:
27) Grebieten
0,43 - ,
.

,

336
.
.
,

(.7: 6), . ,

.
.1 .
. . 370
,
600 .


0,20 .

Dollkeim, ,
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.


.
,
.


,
-
.

. 370
: - 0,24 ,
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5); -
,
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7) , -,

- (. 7: 11, 8, 17);
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(. 7: 23);
(. 7: 10)
IV .-.

(
2/D1 ?).

2
V. ( D2). ,
: (. 7: 22) H38
., D3;
(. 7: 12),
(. 7: 19) SPb2 ( 2/1);
( . 7: 21);

9
,
- 17,5
(. 7: 20). -,


,
. 370 .
(.7: 16)
.
.


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. ,
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,
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,

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, D. . 370

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:
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V., (. 7: 14) H12
.,
.

(. 7: XVII.11).


.
(. 7: 1).

. 370
D1D2 [, 2003, . 6773].

, ,
.

( ,
), ,
.

.
, . 370

6
: ( )
( ).
2. .
, - (. Greibau, Kr. Sam
land), . 211 (. 8) . : 1
, (?) H38
. , 2
. [Tischler, Kemke, 1902, S. 32; Taf. XI:
3; XVII: 2]. . 211
450 . [, 2003, . 32].
3. , -
(Grebieten, Kr. Samland), . 43 Sd (. 9)
. : a, b ,
, d , , f
, g
II . -,
h , i
, k, m
H . , l ,
n [Heydeck, 1888, Taf. VIII: a-l].
. 43 (Sd)
450 . [, 2003, . 121].
4. , - (. Dollkeim,
Kr. Samland), . 163 (.10) .
: 1 -, 2
Duratn, 3
38 . , 4
(?)
, 5 ,
, ,
, , ,

[Tischler, Kemke, 1902, S. 24]. . 163
D2/D3 450470 .
[, 2003, . 121].
5. .,
- (. Warnikam, Kr. Heiligenbeil), .30
(.11, ) . : 1 ,
II
.-, 2 H38
., 3 , 4
H . , 5
, 6 Pauckenperle.
. 30 450 . [,
1997, .169171].
6. .,
- (. Warnikam, Kr. Heiligenbeil), . 31
(. 11, ) . : 1 ,
II .
-, 2 H38 .
, 5 , 4 H
., 3 -. .31
450 . [, 1997, .169171].
7. . ,
- (. Hnenberg, Kr. Samland),
.57k 1999 . (. 12)
. : 1 (
?), 2, 3
II . -, 4

337

H38 ., 5
. . 57k
450 . [ , -1, 17585].
,
,
( . 30 31 ),
-
,
(
)
.
Optimates-2 (
).
1. , - (. Eis
liethen, Kr. Fischhausen), . 43 (. 13)
:
, Duratn,
, , -
[Jentzsch, 1896, Taf. VII: 27].
D2 [,
2003, . 121].
2. , -
(Grebieten, Kr. Samland), . 82 Sd (.14)
:
, b
H38 ., c
, d ,
Bassonia, f, g, h -
Dollkeim [Heydeck, 1888, Taf.
IX: ad].
D2.
3. .
, - (. Greibau, Kr. Sam
land), . 1/1992 (.15)
,
(.15:
4). ,
: 1 , 2 , 3
Bassonia, , ,
-, ..
,

[
, 2004, . 121, 122]. -
D2.
Equites (
, ).
1. . ,
- (. Hnenberg, Kr. Samland),
.177 (. 16)
, 0,44 ,
0,53.
(. 16: 5),

-
(. 16: 3),
- (. 16: 4).

338

().
, 27
, .
(
) 6
. -
(. 16: 1) II,
2, 1 . [Kaczanowski,
1995, tab. V: 5],
(. 16: 2). .,
. 177 400500 .

.180 [, 1994, . 5153].
2. . ,
- (. Hnenberg, Kr. Samland),
. 260 (. 17, 18)
,
4,20w 3,13,
-- --,
0,98 .
.260
.
,

- .

, (
- Malstein .17)
.
,
,
: (. 18: 14)
(.18: 12),
Grebieten (.18:7),
, , ,
(.18:810),
(?) (.18: 13).
,
46
.
(. 18: 3, 2),
,


(.18: 1). ,

,
(. 18: 14).
,
,
,
.

.
,
, (. 17: 12).

.

9
(. 17: 10). ,
,
, -

(. 17: 4, 6).

(.17: 1, 5)
(. 17: 2).
.260 475500. [, ,
2005, . 127]
, , [
, -1, 17585].
3. . ,
- (. Hnenberg, Kr. Samland), . 35
(. 19) ,
- .
15 1997 . ,
.
( 1,20 w 0,75 ,
0,86 ),
- .
. ,
.
,
.
(. 19: 6) (. 19: 10).
(. 19:
9).
,
:
, ,
, , ,

H .
, (. 19: 1, 2, 7, 4, 12, 5).
0,86 1,25
,
. ,
,
.
(. 19: 11),
. .35,
-,
,
,
,
450 . [, 1998, . 105].


. 35 ,
,
(Malstein) -
.
balteus Vidgiriai, .

,
V. [, ,

6
2000, . 45]. ,
D2 -
, balteus Vidgiriai.
,

. , . 35 (
- ,
. 35)
, V.
(
),
.
,
,
, .
.
. 35
.. 420450.

,
.
4. . ,
- (. Hnenberg, Kr. Samland),
.51/1943 (. 20)
(?) 0,30 ,
(?),
.

,
VI.2 . IxCr1a
. (. 20: 2),
, (
).

-
,
-
(. 21), 1.1
[, 2003, .128].

, [Grunert, 1944,
S.2427]. [Schulze, 1977, Tab. 6] . 51,
-,
425525 .
.
1. .,
- (. Warnikam, Kr. Heiligenbeil), .1
(. 21) . :
22 [, 2003,
.131], ,
,
.
, ,
.

, .

, I
. .

339
,
.
223 ,
(?)
.

.

IX . .
. 1, ,
(. 21:
1, 6, 7) ,
550 .

[, 1997, . 144].
. 1

, III .

[Werner, 1980, S. 39]. . 1
,
,
cloisonne.
[berg, 1919,
S. 105]. (nordfranzsischrheinische Form)
VI . [Werner, 1961, S. 36].
2. .,
- (. Warnikam, Kr. Heiligenbeil) . 4
(. 22) . :
Snartemo ( . )
(,
), II , ,
80
.
. 4 . 1 [,
1997, . 144, 145].

miles.
-Warnikam


,


,

-
[, 1987, . 80].
,
,

.
,

.


340
(spatha),
2 VI .
.
-- [Menghin, 1983,
Karte 9].
Warnikam. ,
,

. (
-Warnikam) 3035
.
-
. , ,

(, )
550600 .

.

,
, V 1
VI . ,
,

,
(Avstrvegr),
.

,

.
,
.
, 450475 .
( )
- (- -)

()
[, 1994, . 36, 37].
equites, ,


.
( )

.



-,

[Mller-Wille, 1970/1971,
S.128, 143].
, .
-,
(481/482) [Mller-Wille,
1970/1971, S. 143, 217]. ,


[Mller-Wille, 1997, . 245],


.
, ,
-Warnikam,
.
,
,


.

() ,

[Lund Hansen,
1998, S. 350].

6.3.

,

-

:
1. V .

() .
, -
Barbaricum,
(
AVI,171,
Schnwarling, Duratn, ,
H38 ., Ssdala,
, . 370 Dollkeim,
).


, .

.
2.

-
.

(
) .
,
/
. . VVI .

, ,

6

[, 2004, . 161].
3. ,

, optimates-1, opti
mates-2, equites V .
,
VI . .


(
).


,
,
.

-Warnikam. ,
, ,


.
- ,
,

populus,
gens
. populus
, (
),

V . [, 1998, . 73].

[Lund
Hansen, 1998, S. 350].
populus
, , ,

,
,
-Strobjehmen (. 23),
VIIVIII .
, V .
:


.

[Menghin,
1983, S. 170], a convivae re
gis, . ,
,
,
-Warnikam.
4.

.
,

341


,


.

.
,

VIX .
17-
,

[, 2003, . 209].
-:
,
. ()
,
,
.
-:
() ,
,
.
, ()
. , ,

( ) .
-:
,

. ,
,
(
) [Ostpreussishe Sagn, 1986, S. 15, 16].
,
( )
.
,
.

XIII .
[Gaerte, 1931, S. 127, 134]. , VIII
XI.

.
,
2/1,

,
,

. , ,

,
[,
2004, . 107, 108].
(

342
)
. (
.).

-,

V ., , ,
.

,
( ) .



.

.
, , ,
. ,

9
VII/VIII .
.
, - ,
. ,

, .



.


.

(.23).


.

343

. 1. IV . .. - [Jaskanis, 1977].
( . ).

344

. 1.
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 7 , 10 , 11
-I, II, 12 , 13 , 14 (), 15 , 16 ,
17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 24 , 25 , 26 .
Henriettenfeld, 29 , 30 , 31 , 33 -I, 34 -II, 36 ,
37 , 38 , 39 , 41 , 44 -I, 45 II, 46
, 48 , 49 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56
, 57 , 59 , 60 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 65 ,
66 , 67 -, 68 -I, 70 , 71 , 72 -I, 74 ,
75 , 76 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 80 ,
81 -, 83 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 ,
88 , 89 , 91 , 93 , 94 , 95 , 96 ,
97 , 98 , 99 , 100 , 101 , 102 , 103 -I,
104 -1, 106 , 107 , 108 , 109 , 110
, 112 , 113 , 114 , 116 , 117 , 118
, 119 , 120 , 122 -I, 123 -II, 124 -III, 125 , 127
, 129 -, 131 , 132 , 133 , 134 , 135 ,
136 , 137 , 138 -I, 139 II, 140 , 141
, 142 , 143 , 144 , 145 , 147 , 148 ,
150 , 152 , 153 -I, 154 -II, 155 , 156 , 157
, 158 , 159 -I, 160 -II, 161 , 163 -II, 164
, 167 , 168 , 169 , 170 , 172 , 173
. , 174 (. Ernsthof), 175 (. Gr. Sausgarten), 176
(. Gr. Waldeck), 177 (. Hochschnakeinen), 178 (. Wack
ern), 179 (. Wogau), 180 , 181 (. Althof-Insterburg), 185
. Friedensfelde, 186 (. Gaitzuhnen), 187 (. Gr. Berschkallen),
189 , 190 (. Nettinen), 191 (. Siemonen), 192
(. Tammowischken), 193 - (. Wengerin), 225 (.
Kampischkehmen), 231 . Koddien, 232 (. Luxhausen), 235 (. Muskau),
236 (. Plauen), 237 (. Potawern), 238 (. Stobingen),
240 (. Wiesborienen), 359 (. Hammersdorf), 360 (. Hunt
enberg), 361 . Otten, 364 , 241 (. Neu Lubnen), 242 (.
Patersort), 243 (. Tengen), 244 (. Warnikam), 244 -
(. Domniksruh), 245 (. Balga/Schneckenferg), 246 /
(. Karben), 248 (. Jknitz), 249 (. Keimkallen), 251
(. Stuthenen), 252 (. Wolittnik), 253 , 255 . Wittkampen, 256
, 257 . Schakumehlen, 264 . Mehlawischken, 271 . Detlevsruh, 354
(. Lobellen), 355 . Hollnderei, 356 . Ilischken, 357 . Imten; 358 . Sobroft.

345

. 2. .

346

. 3. . 84 .

. 4. . XI .

347

. 5. . 102 .

. 6. . 370 372 .

348

. 7. . 370 .

349

. 8. . 211 -.

. 9. . 43Sd .

350

. 10. . 163 .

. 11. . 30 31 .

351

. 12. . 57k .

. 13. . 43 .

. 14. . 82Sd . Grebieten.

352

. 15. . 1 (1992 .) -.

. 16. . 177 .

353

. 17. . 260 .
13 , , .

. 18. . 260 .

354

. 19. . 35k .

. 20. . 64/1943 51/1943; . 51/1943 .

355

. 21. . 1 .

356

. 22. . 4 .

357

. 23.
(Strobjehnen; ), 1798 .

7.

IIIVII .
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,

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1928]. ,
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,
,
.




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,

[, 1990].
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2- 3 VII .,

,
VI. [, , 1996,
. 8995, 146].


,
. ,

,
.
, ,

(. 1). 3
I .
.
,

,
(.2),
,
.



,

[
, , 1996, . 145].
VII.

,

[, 1953, . 6492,
94; , , 1996, . 56, 57;
, 2000, . 134136; , 2003].

.


,
.

7

VII .
,
, , ,
1, .

,

. ,
,
.

,
, , , ,
, ,
,
2 [, 1996, .374, 394, 402;
. 23: 13; 59: 1, 2; 87: 9; , 1996, . 161,
162; . 100: 1, 3; 101: 1, 7; 102: 46; ,
, 1998; , 1986, . 25, 26; . XIV;
, 1999].



- -, ,
-, . [,
1906; 1907; , 1988; 1990, . 2226, 58; .
13; 1719; 56; IIIVI; 1999, . 150, 158, 271, 272; .
61: 2; 62; 67; 69; . XXIX; , ,
1995, . 128, 131, 132; . 22].

[.,
:, 1972].



.
in
situ
,

.

,


.
,
1

.
[
, 2004, . 236]
[, 2001] , , ,
,

.
.
2


.

359
( -,
), ,
.
,
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, ,



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(. 35).

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,

VII .
,
(. 3: 24; 4; 5: 4, 5).

,
, , ,
, ,
[ ii , 1995, . . 44; ,
1990, . 7; 1999, . 28; 1419; ,
, 1998, . 5].

, , ..
,

(. 4: 1;
[, , 1996, . 57]).


, , in situ
-,
. (. 5: 13).

.. ,
[, 1997, . 1; 1998,
.1; 2000, . 96, 97, 103, 104; . 14; 15; 2002,
.38, 40, 41, 44; . 10; 11].
..
. ,

,
,
.


VII .

360

,
[, 1999; 1999; 2000; 2001].
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,
.
[i, 2003, . 218220; . . 217, 221].


,
,

.
. , ,
,
,
.
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, [i, 2003, .
.211, 221];

- [i, 2003, . .207],

;

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(
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Eastern Europe in the middle


of the 1st millennium AD
Summary

Eastern Europe in the middle of the 1-st millennium AD


Introduction
(I.O. Gavritukhin, A.M. Oblomsky)
The authors of this monograph set for themselves as
an object the investigation of changes in archaeological
situation, to clear up the character and rhythm of cultural
transformations in the archaeological entities of Eastern
Europe within the wide region from the forest-steppe
to the Baltic zone in the period of mass population
movements in the 4th 6th cc. AD.
Investigations were carried out in several regions,
so that the obtained materials allow suggesting different
models of population groups interaction. For each
region we planned, first, to present basic indications of
the cultures of the 3rd 4th cc.; second, to demonstrate
what cultures developed in the 5th 6th cc. and in what
these were different from the preceding ones; third, to
reveal the main indications of changes in archaeological
structures; fourth, to establish chronology of these
changes. As a result, we have made an attempt to answer
the questions: what were the reasons and shapes of
cultural transformations; did any uniform rhythms act in
formation of new East European cultures, and was their
emergence related to migrations of population?
The above determines the structure of this book.
Chapter I by I.O. Gavritukhin and A.M. Oblomsky
is devoted to the forest-steppe region of the Dnieper
left bank. The problem consists in reconstruction of the
character, rhythms and mechanisms of migrations of
population groups, on the one hand, and the forms of
cultural continuity, on the other hand. Special attention
is paid to the questions related to the chronology of
Chernyakhov culture.
Chapter 2 by A.M. Oblomsky is based on the
materials from the Upper Don basin. Of principal
importance here is the problem of singling out cultural
groups, their cultural characteristics and interaction.
Chapter 3 by I.V. Belotserkovskaya, I.R. Akhmedov
and O.S. Rumyantseva contains the analysis of materials
from the Middle Oka region. The investigation follows
the sequence of categories of finds: military equipment,
womans attire, pottery and beads. Comparison of the
results of analysis of various categories of material
gives grounds to suggest a picture of local traditions
development, helps to shape an idea on the significance
of innovations, their character and rhythms.
Chapter 4 by N.V. Lopatin and A.G. Furasyev deals
with the spacious region in the north of Byelorussia and

the North-West of Russia. The authors use the method


based on the analysis of pottery styles and sets of vessel
shapes. The separate group of sites of the Roman period
singled out in the Upper Dnieper and the Dvina basins
suggests a new picture of interrelations of cultural groups
in the Great Migration period from the forest zone of the
Dnieper basin to the Pskov region and the Upper Volga.
Chapter 5 by I.V. Islanova is based on the materials
from three relatively limited cultural and geographical
regions in the Upper Volga basin. Investigation of the
collections of finds allow for the first time to outline a
series of cultural groups, trace their origins, models of
interaction and the relations to the processes developing
in the adjacent territories.
Chapter 6 by V.I. Kulakov is based on the materials
from ancient Sambia and Natangia. The author
proceeds from ideas on close connections between
ethnic processes and social development. Presented
observations suggest alternative view on other
investigators conclusions.
Chapter 7 by V.E. Rodinkova is devoted to the origin of
one of the variants of the Early Slavic womans attire. The
investigation has been carried out in diachronic aspect.
Chapter 1. Forest-steppe region
of the Dnieper left bank
1.1. Introduction
(I.O. Gavritukhin, A.M. Oblomsky)
In the late 4th 5th cc. AD in the forest-steppe region
of the Dnieper left bank sites of terminal Chernyakhov
and Kiev cultures are known. Cultures of steppe circle
are also present, as well as early sites of Penkovka
and Kolochin cultures, inhumation burials, a series of
separate finds of foreign origin, hoards and princely
burials (Figs. 1; 2; 20).
1.2. Terminal stage
of Chernyakhov Culture
(I.O. Gavritukhin)
In the section the chronological indicators used
for singling out late sites of Chernyakhov culture are
considered in relation to the finds from the forest-steppe
region of the Dnieper left bank. As for the Hun time,
of special significance are: glass vessels decorated
with blue glass bosses related to the Near Eastern or
Danubian centres and their replicas made of clay (Fig.

Summary
3); some variants of two-layer polished goblets (Fig. 4:
16, 1920); a series of vessels with polished medallions,
evidently, of Iranian origin (Fig. 5: 57); goblets with
profiled stand (Fig. 6: 3, 1112) and with densely placed
polished hexagons or big contiguous ovals (Fig. 8);
late variants of double-plate brooches (Figs. 9: 19,
11, 15; 10: 1, 6, 910, probably, 2, 7); brooches with
rhomboid bow (Fig. 11: 1-20); big brooches (Fig. 12:
1213); buckles with long pins and with pins covering
the frames whole height; those with evenly broadened
rounded frame and with big pin of triangular section;
buckles with pin supplied with a hook (Figs. 12: 47,
16, 25, 51, probably, 1922, 59; 13: 2; 14: 6); combs of
type III according to S. Thomas (single-layer ones and
those with side slots) (Fig. 12: 29, 59) and some other
finds. The results are shown in Table 1. In the table the
site list is published and the indications of the Hun time
known from them.
As a result, the conclusion is put forward that in the
early Hun epoch within a significant part of the foreststeppe region on the Dnieper left bank the Chernyakhov
population still lived practically in all principal areas
with dense concentration of the sites attributed to the
end of the Late Roman period (cf. Figs. 2 and 20).
Certain specifics in morphology of finds produce
an impression that the Chernyakhov tribes on the
Dnieper left bank were isolated from the other groups
of barbarian population, which contributed to working
out local types of ornaments and specific set of imports.
Main groups of the Chernyakhov population abandoned
the Dnieper left bank not in the beginning of the Hun
time, but somewhat later. Now it is difficult to say when
the migration started in the course of the concentration
of forces undertaken by Radagaisius (before 406), or
during Attilas mobilization (since the 430-s), or in the
course of the events not mentioned in written sources.
1.3. Kiev culture and main trajectories of
migrations in the Hun time
(A.M. Oblomsky)
The Hun time at the sites of Kiev culture is evidenced
by circular buckles (Figs. 15: 23; 17: 26), buckle pin
from construction 1 at the Shostka-Lokotki settlement,
comb from Ulyanovka 1 (Fig. 15: 24), big brooch (Fig.
16: 21), iron brooches with spade-like bows (Fig. 17: 21),
fragment of mirror with a loop on its reverse side (Fig.
15: 18) and bracelet with broadening ends found together
with it (Fig. 15: 22), gilded plate pendant with strap-end
stamped on it typical of the Hun circle and of later date
(Fig. 16: 20), sherds of a++mphora of type E according to
D.B. Shelov. At settlements Peschanoe and Sencha trefoil
tanged iron arrowheads related to the Hun cultural circle
were found (Fig. 17: 27). Table 1 shows the site list and
the list of finds indicators of the Hun time.
The migrations that took place on the Dnieper left
bank area during the Hun period may be presented as
a series of trajectories (cf. Figs. 2 and 20). Trajectory
1 marks movements of the Chernyakhov population
directed mostly westward (see above). Another

411
population flow moved in the opposite direction to the
Upper Don basin (see Chapter 2).
Trajectory 2: the Middle Dnieper region the Desna
basin. During the Hun times in the Desna basin migrants
from the south, appeard most probably, came from the
Middle Dnieper region where the bearers of Kiev culture
underwent strong Chernyakhov influence. To these
groups such settlements belong as Aleksandrovka 1,
Verkhnestrizhenskoe 2, Roishche (see finds in Fig. 16). They
functioned mainly in the Hun period, though Aleksandrovka
1 had probably emerged somewhat earlier. Evidently, this
group of migrants transferred the Chernyakhov influence to
the inhabitants of the Desna basin.
Trajectory 3: from the Desna basin or the adjacent
Seim region eastward and southward. On the terminal
stage of Chernyakhov culture in the northern part of the
forest-steppe on the Dnieper left bank appeared the sites
attributed to the Desna variant of Kiev culture, which
evidences the start of movement from the Desna or the
Middle Seim basins to the south and to the east. The
easternmost open dwelling sites of this cultural circle are
known in the Upper Seim basin and on the Upper Psel
reaches, while the southernmost settlement Sencha is
situated on the Middle Sula River (see materials in Fig.17).
Chronological indicators from these and the earlier sites
date the discussed process back to the Hun time.
Trajectory 4: movement of the population attributed
to the Seim-Donets variant to the Don basin. Special
investigation has shown that the pottery of the Kiev
tradition belonging to the Upper Don population of the
Hun time (represented by the sites of the Chertovitskoe
Zamyatino type) is related by its origin to the heritage
of the Seim-Donets variant of the Kiev culture (see
Chapter 2).
Trajectory 5: the sites with the tradition of the
steppe cultural circle. In the southern part of the
Chernyakhov area a series of burials and some finds
associated with the Sarmatian tradition are known
(Kantemirovka, Orlik, Vorontsovka) (Fig. 19: 1170).
These materials fall within the chronological range from
the late 4th to the first part of the 5th cc. (Table 1). Near
the Vorskla River estuary (the Perevolochnaya village)
fragments of Hun cauldron have been found.
A series of finds of later date (burial near Likhachevka
Fig. 19: 7181; finds from Konstantinovgrad Fig. 22:
11-13; anthropomorphic figurine from Moshchenka
Fig. 22: 8; the association from the Babichi kurgan
on the Middle Dnieper drawn by A.A.Sinitsyn) show
recurrent penetration of nomads into the forest-steppe
zone in the second part of the 5th the first part of the
6th cc. This process lasted afterwards as well.
1.4.1.5. Formation of Kolochin and Penkovka
cultures, coeval inhumation burials of settled
population and of posthun pesiod separate finds
(I.O. Gavritukhin, A.M. Oblomsky)
The earliest finds with established chronology in
Kolochin and Penkovka cultures in the Middle Dnieper
region date from the mid 5th the early 6th cc. These

412
are: brooch from Khodosovka, buckle from Velikaya
Andrusovka (Fig. 21: 28, 51) and others. On the left
bank in the context of Kolochin culture among the
earliest finds there are: arrowhead and brooch of the
Pilviny type from Kolodezny Bugor (the second part
of the 5th the early 6th cc.) (Fig. 21: 29, 30). Not
before the second part of the 5th c. date finds from the
settlements Kartamyshevo2 and Posudichi of Kolochin
culture (Fig.21: 2526). Kolochin culture (some pottery
shapes see in Fig. 21: 124) was based on the traditions
of the Desna variant of Kiev culture (see selected pottery
shapes in Fig. 15). Division of the Kolochin territory
into the southern and eastern parts emerged as a result
of settlement of the late Kieve tribes of the Desna
Middle Seim origin within the forest-steppe (see above,
trajectory 3; Fig. 20: II).
Base for Penkovka culture (see selected pieces
of hand-made pottery in Fig. 21: 3149) constituted
traditions of the Kiev forest-steppe population, either
strongly influenced by Chernyakhov culture, or directly
entering the Chernyakhov ethnic and political entity
(see selected finds in Fig. 18). The culture included also
migrants from the north, from the area of the Desna
variant of Kiev culture.
At some Kolochin and Penkovka sites both wheelmade pottery and a series of finds of the Chernaykhov
origin have been recorded. This means that Kolochin
and Penkovka cultures emerged during the period
when these objects were still in use. Most probably, the
cultures formed in the second quarter mid 5th c.
Besides Kolochin and Penkovka cultures on the
Dnieper left bank separate inhumation burials and a
series of finds are known, their context being comparable
with the discussed cultures.
The repertoire of finds from the association from
Volobuevka (Fig. 22: 2427) corresponds to the East
German tradition in womans costume of the second
part of the 5th c., which evidences relations established
between the population of the Dnieper left bank and
the North-Eastern Pontic zone. The Pontic relations are
evidenced by brooches from Tokari, Moshchenka and
Gaidary (Fig. 22: 14, 16, 17) (not association finds).
Late variants of such brooches are unknown from the
area situated northward from the steppe. This may be
probably explained by the change in ethnic and cultural
situation in the steppe that occurred in the last decades
of the 5th c. and caused a break in relations between the
Pontic and forest-steppe regions.
Westerly relations of the inhabitants of the Dnieper
left bank are reflected by the following finds: mountplate from Aleksandrovsky (Fig. 22: 18), its counterparts
being known from Central European phase D2/D3; the
terminal of brooch bow from Lazukovka (Fig. 22: 9)
designed in the Danube regional style of the second
part of the 5th c.; a brooch fragment (?) from the Belsk
Eastern hillfort (Fig. 22: 10). Brooches from Lyubovka
and Bolshaya Danilovka (Fig. 22: 5, 6) are remakes
of the Byzantine prototypes dating from the second
part of the 5th the first part of the 6th cc. Rings with

9
polyhedral terminals in the considered region originate
from inhumation burial in Sumy-Sad (Fig. 22: 22),
while in the Middle Dnieper region they are known from
inhumation burial near Selishche and association of
unclear character in Chulakovka. Most probably, these
artefacts in the Middle Dnieper region are related to the
context of the mid 5th second part of the 6th cc.
Some metal details of womans attire are very
specific, which suggests local jewellers production,
though strongly dependant on imported specimens.
1.6. Elite associations of the 5th century
(I.O. Gavritukhin)
The period of general instability on the Dnieper left
bank is represented by the associations referring to the
culture of social elite. These may be divided into two
chronological groups. The early chronological stage (the
late 4th the first decades of the 5th cc.) is represented
by the Nezhin hoard. Its content and location should be
associated rather with the traditions of the Chernyakhov
population (Fig. 25: 4). Most likely, the moment when
the hoard was deposited corresponds to the outflow
of the Chernyakhov population, that is, to the end of
Chernyakhov culture proper.
The late chronological group of elite character
(Figs.23: 114; 25: 13) includes the Porshino burial,
the first and the second associations from Bolshoy
Kamenets (evidently, belonging to a minor cemetery),
coin treasure from Rublevka. They mirror the events
of Attilas epoch (434453), even thouth the treasure
and the burial could have been deposited somewhat
later. Most probably, the group of associations
under discussion was related to the period when the
detachments of the Huns allies returned after the
wars they led on the Danube to the territories they had
sojourned in after the events at Nedao and other defeats
of the third quarter of the 5th c. The culture of these
insignificant groups practically had not left any traces in
the history of the Dnieper left bank population.
1.7. Concerning the reconstruction
of historical processes
(I.O. Gavritukhin, A.M. Oblomsky)
In this section general conclusions on the
historical processes reconstructed proceeding from the
archaeological data are suggested.
Chapter 2.
The forest-steppe territory of the Don basin
(A.M. Oblomsky)
2.1. Introduction
In the forest-steppe territory of the Don River basin
in the 3rd 5th cc. AD three cultural and chronological
types of archaeological sites have been singled out:
the sites of the Kashirka Sedelki type, those of the
Chertovitskoe Zamyatino type, and inhumation burials
of the type known from the Zhivotinnoe cemetery. To
the first type 46 dwelling sites may be attributed (Fig.

Summary
1), to the second 19 settlements (Fig. 17). By 2005
totally 28 burials of the Zhivotinnoe cultural circle have
been registered (Fig. 17).
2.2. Sites of the Kashirka Sedelki type
All the settlements attributed to this type are not
fortified. No cemeteries have been discovered so far.
The majority of the open dwelling sites represent
ordinary agricultural settlements, while the Pisarevo
settlement was a production centre. At the site there were
excavated the remains of structures related to iron-making;
accumulation of production waste suggests bronzecasting and bone-carving crafts, as well as ironworking.
Practically all sites had been destroyed by fire.
Hand-made pottery clearly dominates. The rate
of wheel-made pottery ranges from 1.5 to 14%. The
majority of vessels are of the Chernyakhov origin (Figs.
2: 6; 7: 1,7,8,11; 8: 10,11; 9: 1-4). Vessels associated
with other traditions are rare (Figs. 7: 2,4,6,9; 8: 9).
The antiquities of the Kashirka Sedelki type fall
within the chronological range from the emergence of
Chernyakhov culture in the second third of the 3rd c. to
the early middle 4th c.
2.3. Sites of the Chertovitskoe Zamyatino type
The major part of the settlements do not have any
defensive structures, though some of them are situated
within the territory of fortified sites of earlier age, so the
population may have used the old ramparts.
Almost all dwelling sites functioned as ordinary
agricultural settlements, their inhabitants were involved
into animal-breeding; farming was probably also
practiced, as well as fishing and home-crafts, such
as weaving. Of unique character is the microregion
in the locality Ostraya Luka of the Don River: some
settlements functioned as craft centres there. Thus, at
Zamyatino two investigated workshops specialised in
bone-carving (comb-making); development of other
crafts have been proved by the traces of bronze-casting
and blacksmiths production, including making and
repairing mail-shirts. At open dwelling site Ksizovo-19
pottery kiln was excavated.
Hand-made pottery dominates at the sites of the mid
1st mill. AD. The share of wheel-made vessels, as a
rule, does not exceed 1.5%. At the north-western sites of
the discussed area wheel-made pottery is of local origin
(Figs. 18, 19), but at the south-eastern ones such vessels
were the Chernyakhov imports (Fig. 42: 4, 10).
The sites of the Chertovitskoe Zamyatino type date
back to the 5th c. as a whole, the last quarter of the 4th
and the early 6th cc. are not excluded.
2.4. Inhumation burials
of the mid 1st millennium AD
The majority of inhumations were investigated at two
cemeteries Ksizovo-17 (23 burials) and Zhivotinnoe
(3 burials). Two more burials have been discovered at
the settlements of the Chertovitskoe Zamyatino type
(Ksizovo-19 and Mukhino-2).

413
The burials are divided into two types. The first
type comprises 25 burials with the dead deposited
their heads pointing NW (11 cases) or SE (13 cases).
The graves mostly contained individual burials, only
two graves contained double burials (Figs. 22: 2; 26:
). The skeletons were deposited in supine position.
Some burials were performed in very shallow pits in
humus layer, the rest are also not deep: their bottoms
were reached at a depth from 0.07 to 0.45 m down from
the subsoil level. The burial rite included such elements
as animal bones, chalk, the traces of organic matters
on the grave bottoms, charcoals dispersed over the
burial, lumps of ochre, decayed timber. In several cases
artificial deformation of skulls was registered.
At the Ksizovo-17cemetery there was investigated a
burial with horse sacrifice (Fig. 22: 4). At the same site
a ritual U-shaped ditch was discovered.
The majority of skeletons were dismembered after
depositing in the grave (Fig. 26: ). As a rule, burials
of the first type did not contain grave goods, or their
set was extremely poor (Figs. 23; 24; 26: 14). The
burial investigated at Mukhino-2 was a rich one; it was
furnished with objects made of gold, silver, amber and
glass (Fig. 27: 315).
In burials of the second type the dead were oriented
NE, sometimes with deviation to N. There are only three
such burials. Two male individuals were accompanied
by weapons (Fig. 25); the third burial contained female
skeleton accompanied by brooch, comb, mirror, beltbuckle and beads. The burials in question were deposited
in deep pits (0.71 m down from the subsoil level and
around 2 m from the ground surface). The skeletons did
not show signs of dismemberment.
The inhumation burials of the Upper Don region
date back to the 5th the early 6th cc.
2.5. Comparison of materials from the sites
of the Kashirka Sedelki
and the Chertovitskoe Zamyatino types
Topography and spatial structure of settlements
Sites of the Late Roman period and those of the
mid 1st mill. AD are similar (Fig. 28) are similar, as
far as their area is concerned, which depends on similar
principles of settlements spatial structure: each dwelling
site consisted of several family plots. Distribution of the
areas occupied by the Upper Don sites is most close to
the Chernyakhov model.
The sites of the Kashirka Sedelki type, on the one
hand, and those of the Chertovitskoe Zamyatino type,
on the other hand, are situated in radically different
landscape conditions. During the Late Roman period in
the Upper Don basin settlement system covered mainly
relatively small rivers, springs and ravines. In the Hun
time the majority of dwelling sites were associated with
the valleys of the Don and Voronezh rivers the biggest
ones in the region. As a rule, the settlements occupy
dominating points in the landscape.
The dwellings of the Kashirka Sedelki type
represented ground houses with pis walls, both

414
of large (6080 sq. m) and small (less than 30 sq.
m, mostly around 15 sq. m) size. For household
purposes constructions with sunken bottoms were
used. Constructions at the settlements of the Kashirka
Sedelki type have their counterparts at the sites of
Chernyakhov culture on the left bank of the Dnieper,
and, to a lesser extent, at the settlements of Kiev culture
in the Chernyakhov frontier.
As for the sites of the Chertovitskoe Zamyatino
type, ground houses are also known, but the majority of
dwellings represent structures with sunken bottoms. The
most part of them are similar to those typical of Kiev
culture of the forest-steppe zone.
Hand-made pottery and spindle-whorls
Hand-made pottery of the sites of the Kashirka Sedelki
type comprises two sets. The first one may be termed as the
Kiev one, since the shapes of pots and bowls it includes
are similar to those known from the sites of Kiev culture
and the Kiev tradition survived in Chernyakhov culture
of the forest-steppe region of the Dnieper basin. Vessels
with rough surface see: Figs. 2: 13; 4: 17, 1115; 5: 13,
69; 8: 18; 9: 58, 12, 14, 15; 10: 38, 13; vessels with
burnished surface see: Figs. 4: 10; 10: 11, 12).
The pottery attributed to the second set is related by
its origin to the late Scythian sites of the Lower Dnieper
basin, the antiquities known from the Olbian chore and
the southern Chernyakhov sites (Figs. 3: 2, 3, 57; 6:
13; 9: 10).
Hand-made pottery of the sites dating from the Hun
period is divided into two groups: kitchen ware with
rough surface and table ware with burnished and slightly
burnished surface.
Coarse hand-made pottery of the mid 1st mill. AD
also comprises two sets of vessels. To the first set we
attribute the vessels having their counterparts at the
forest-steppe sites of Kiev culture (Figs. 31: 16; 32:
18; 37: 14, 7, 8, 1018; 40: 1, 4, 610; 41: 14, 8, 9;
42: 13, 59; 43: 16).
The comparative analysis shows that the pottery
of the Kiev origin known from the settlements of the
Kashirka Sedelki type was related to the traditions of
the Middle Dnieper basin and, to a certain extent, the
territory on the Dnieper left bank, while pottery of the
Chertovitskoe Zamyatino type showed relations to the
eastern part of the area on the Dnieper left bank and the
Seversky Donets basin.
The second set of the kitchen ware known from the
sites of the Chertovitskoe Zamyatino type includes
kitchen pots of the shapes unknown from the sites of
Kiev culture (Figs. 33: 18; 34: 15; 37: 5, 9; 38: 1
6; 40: 2, 3; 41: 5, 7). At the sites of the Ostraya Luka
of the Don River the share of the second pottery set
ranges from 13 to 24%. Some of these shapes have the
Chernyakhov prototypes, the other ones at the sites of
late Dyakovo and Moshchiny cultures and the culture
of Ryazan-Oka cemeteries.
The share of table pottery at the sites of the
Chertovitskoe Zamyatino type ranges from 4 to 12%
(Figs. 35; 36: 19; 39: 15).

9
Shapes of the table vessels are genetically related
to the archaeological cultures of the Oka circle,
Chernyakhov, Przeworsk and Wielbark cultures. Some
shapes have their counterparts in the burials of the
Tanais necropolis dating from the Hun period.
As for implements, only spindle-whorls show distinct
ethnic and cultural specifics. The sets of spindle-whorls
of the Late Roman and the Hun times are different.
Thus, the sites of the Kashirka Sedelki type, on
the one hand, and the antiquities of the Chertovitskoe
Zamyatino type, on the other hand, are different by all
basic parameters of archaeological culture. In the 4th c.
AD the Upper Don area saw change of population.
2.6. Concerning the reconstruction
of historical processes
Not after the late 3rd c. the late Scythian dwelling
sites and the Sarmatian cemeteries ceased to function in
the region in question. Around the mid second part of
the 3rd c. in the forest-steppe territory of the Don basin
the antiquities of the Kashirka Sedelki circle appeared.
This process was related to the migrations related to the
process of territorial expansion of Chernyakhov culture.
Two ethno-cultural groups had appedred in the Don
basin: one of the Kiev, another of the Lower Dnieper
late Scythian origin.
All settlements of the Kashirka Sedelki type had
been destroyed by fire. It is highly probable that this
occurred during one of the rides undertaken by the Goth
king Ermanarich in easterly direction mentioned by
Jordanes.
The majority of population in the Upper Don region
during the Hun period were newcomers. At the dwelling
sites of the Chertovitskoe Zamyatino type dominated
migrants from the Seim-Donets variant of Kiev culture.
Another substantial ethnic component was represented
by the descendants of the migrants from the Upper Oka
area. Less distinct are the traces left by the culture of the
Chernyakhov culture, late Classical culture of the Pontic
littoral and the steppe nomads.
The Upper Don enclave of the mid 1st mill. AD
was centred on the Ostraya Luka locality on the Don
River. Most evidently, this cluster of settlements formed
a subsistence base for one of the military detachments
of the Hun empire and for some nomadic horde after its
downfall.
Some details of the burial rite displayed by the
inhumation burials of the first type (first of all by
the late Sarmatian ones) have their analogies in the
materials from the Crimea, the Caucasus and the Tanais
necropolis. For the burials of the second type analogies
may be pointed to in the Middle Danube region, where
they are interpreted as the early German burials.
In the late 4th 5th cc. in the forest-steppe region
of the Don basin existed an early state structure of
multiethnic character marked by numerous elements
of military life-style, craft workshops, etc. Families
of nomads, semi-nomads and settled population lived
within the same dwelling sites on the Upper Don.

415

Summary
We cannot exclude that the whole population of the
Chertovitskoe Zamyatino group had been settled on
the Don deliberately to satisfy some requirements of the
Hun power.
Chapter 3. Ryazan-Oka culture
3.1. Introduction
(I.R. Akhmedov, I.V. Belotserkovskaya)
The sites attributed to the Oka Finns are situated on
the Middle Oka River, Ryazan region, and partly on its
tributaries (the Pronya, Pra, Koksha, Tsna rivers; see
map in Fig. 1). The sites are represented by cemeteries
and settlements, both fortified and non-fortified. At
present the source database for the culture of the
Ryazan-Oka cemeteries comprises information on over
three thousand burials.
The investigation of the Ryazan-Oka culture under
includes the following problems:
1. Establishment of the cultures chronological
scope. Specialists suggest different chronology from
the 6th to the 7th cc. AD, from the 2nd to the 7th cc.
AD, and from the 1st c. BC to the 4th c. AD.
The most reliably grounded chronology had been
suggested by P.P. Efimenko. He had worked out the
periodization accepted by the majority of the researchers
of the middle and the second part of the XX c. According
to P.P. Efimenko, the Ryazan-Oka culture had emerged
in the 1st c. AD.
A new stage in investigation of the chronology of
the Ryazan-Oka culture was started in the 80-s of the
XX c. by the works by V.N. Shitov, I.R. Akhmedov
and I.V.Belotserkovskaya. Four chronological groups
of finds have been singled out. Thesy are as follows:
group A the second part of the 1st the end of the 1st/
beginning of the 2nd cc. AD; group B the 2nd the
first part of the 3rd cc.; group C1 the second part of
the 3rd the early 4th cc.; group C2 the 4th c. as a
whole.
2. Ethno-cultural attribution of the population.
This problem is closely related to the question of the
cultures genesis. P.P. Efimenko regarded the RyazanOka population as the migrants who assimilated
the aboriginal tribes of Gorodets culture. The later
publications proceeded from the thesis on the continuity
between the Early Iron Age Gorodets culture and that
of the Volga and the Ryazan-Oka Finns in the early
Middle Ages. I.R. Akhmedov and I.V. Belotserkovskaya
consider it incorrect to single out the Koshibeevo sites
as a separate culture. They suppose the bearers of the
Andreevka Piseraly cultural traditions to have been
a base for the formation of the Ryazan-Oka culture.
Similar views were put forward by V.I. Vikhlyaev.
3. The problem of directions of ethno-cultural
contacts. One of the most important features of the
Middle Oka tribes material culture in the second
part of the 3rd 5th cc. consists in numerous finds of
alien origin. These imports originated both from the
territories occupied by the bearers of Moshchiny and

late Dyakovo cultures and from the areas of Wielbark,


Chernyakhov, Kiev and late Sarmatian cultures, as well
as from the late Classical sites of the Pontic region. The
finds of the Danubian and the Baltic provenance are
combined with a series of belt fittings of alien origin.
A standard set of military equipment appeared, most
impressively represented by the burials containing two
swords. The elite burials, both of male and female
individuals, evidence the process of involvement of the
Ryazan-Oka region into the events related to the Great
Migration epoch.
Grave goods from male and female burials are
considered separately.
One of the characteristic features of the burial rite
practiced by the Ryazan-Oka population consisted in
depositing in male burial association the sets of artefacts
of sacrificial character, including typically womans
objects. Of interest are such phenomena as depositing
family burials in one construction, the rows and
clusters of burials interpreted as the clan and family
areas within the cemetery. These specifics provide
unique opportunities for synchronization of male and
female burial associations.
3.2. Grave goods in male burials
(I.R. Akhmedov)
The objects related to the military culture (weapons,
brooches and belt-fittings, horse-harness details and
riders equipment) are the integral parts of the military
fashion of distinctly international character. The process
of development of the military culture among the
Ryazan-Oka Finns has been divided into three stages:
1AB dates from the 2nd to the first part of the 3rd cc.;
2ABC from the second part of the 3rd to the third
quarter of the 4th cc.; 3ABC from the last quarter of
the 4th to the 5th cc.
Period 1B. (Table 1, Schemes 1, 2.).
The military culture of the Roman time was formed
in the Middle Oka region on the base of the antiquities
of the Koshibeevo stage, singled out in the Oka Finns
culture.
Period 1A of male burials is closely related by
its appearance to the burials associated with the sites
of the Andreevka Piseraly circle, generally dating
from the 1st the early 2nd cc. AD. The next period
1B is characterized both by further development of the
cultural elements of the earlier stage and introduction
of new types of belt-fittings, carpenter tools and horsebits with rings. Among new types of belt-fittings there
are big belt-buckles with segment-shaped frames and
big plate settings (Koshibeevo, burials 80, 86, 87, A.A.
Spitsyns excavations; burials 61, 85, V.N. Glazovs
excavations). Similar finds were discovered in the early
associations of the Korablino cemetery (promontory 2,
burials 36, 40, 46, 68, 81, 87) (Figs. 2, 1; 3, 3). In the
late burials of this stage small sword-knot and footwear
buckles with faceted frames and pins appear.
The belt-fittings from the burials of the discussed
stage link the Oka materials with those of the Sarmatian

416
culture of the mid 2nd first part of the 3rd cc. (group
1 according to V.Yu. Malashev). Burials of the late
stage of group 1B of the Ryazan-Oka cemeteries are
typified both by further development of the Koshibeevo
shapes and the growing share of the steppe and North
Caucasian features. Evidently, the process of settling the
right side of the Oka River within the modern Ryazan
region was accompanied by maintained relationships
with the adjacent territories, for instance, the Sarmatian
and the late Scythian groups on the upper reaches of the
Don River. During the discussed period the Oka Finns
spread over the whole Middle Oka, despite separate
groups had penetrated there as early as the second part
of the 1st early 2nd cc.
Periods 2-.
The leading categories of grave goods of the mid
3rd early 4th cc. found in burial associations of the
Ryazan-Oka cemeteries are big iron circular fastenings
made of rod round in section (usually located on the
chest of the dead), leaf-shaped spearheads, shaft-hole
and socketed axes. New types of spearheads are of
characteristic shape, their blade broadening towards
the socket. The following artefacts may be considered
chronological indicators of the discussed periods.
Single-plate bow-shaped brooches (the Korablino
cemetery, promontory 2, burial 50) (scheme 2, 20). They
are similar to brooches of variant 4, type I according
to A.S. Skripkin, the latter are typical of the Sarmatian
antiquities of the Southern Urals of the mid second
part of the 3rd c.
Belt-buckles with oval and segment-shaped frames
have got slightly faceted or rounded frames of rhombic
section and slightly faceted pins, sometimes bent
downwards. The buckles are supplied with plate oval
settings. These buckles are characteristic of the complex
attributed to the first period of Chernyakhov culture
according to I.A. Bazhan and O.A. Gei.
A unique find in the territory in question is hinged
belt-buckle of type 17, group D from the Korablino
cemetery, promontory 2, burial 42, and belt-buckle of
type1, group J, according to R. Madyda-Legutkos
classification.
Small single-plate brooches with bent bow of general
Central European types originate from the Korablino
cemetery, promontory 2, burial 65 (Fig. 6: 1). Their
close analogies from Hungary, Check Republic and
Poland date back to the 3rd early 4th cc.
Bronze double-plate faceted brooches of medium
size with straight or slightly tapering bow are known
from cemeteries Zareche, burials 116, 85; Shatrishchi,
burials 97, 122 (excavations by T.A. Kravchenko)
(Fig.9: 1). Such brooches correspond to the objects of
series , variants 1, 3, according to E.L. Gorokhovskys
classification. They are spread in Chernyakhov culture
during the last third of the 3rd first third o the 4th cc.
I.A.Bazhan and O.A. Gei suggest a wider chronological
range 270/280 310/320 AD.
A specific category of belt decorations is
represented by rounded bronze umbo-like mounts with

9
cord trimming around the edge. They appear in the
associations of the late 3rd early 4th cc. In later period
they occur in womans attire.
The boundary separating the two periods is marked
by a series of burials containing the following finds:
faceted clamp for attachment of sword sheath from
Korablino, promontory 2, burial 79 (Fig. 6: 4). A series
of objects of western workmanship were discovered
in the Koshibeevo cemetery, burial 57, V.N. Glazovs
excavations: belt-fittings with stamped ornamentation,
neck-ring with wire-winding and beads threaded on,
two spurs close to group G according to E. Ginalski
(Fig. 10: 14, 7, 1012). Their counterparts are known
from Slovakia, Bohemia, Eastern Germany, the West
Baltic region, Eastern Prussia and Poland. To the same
circle of antiquities belt-tips from the settlement of
Pribrezhny are attributed. The period under discussion is
characterized both by the objects of western provenance
and a series of local shapes: the double-plate middle-size
faceted brooches of Chernyakhov type; the bracelets
decorated by granulation imitation of the Upper Oka and
the Moskva basin types; the neck-rings and bracelets
with rectangular section and geometric ornament, and
the belt-buckles of Azelino types, characteristic of the
Kama basin (Figs. 7: 910; 8, 5; 10: 3, 5; 9: ). The
diversity of types of the grave goods discovered in the
male burials attributed to period 2AB of the Ryazan-Oka
cemeteries is related to the numerous cultural influence
registered in that time.
Period 2C.
Funerary gifts in the warriors burials of the late
stage of the Roman time look more standard.
Neck-rings constitute basic elements in the set of
grave goods characteristic of male burials. The following
shapes should be mentioned: neck-rings round in section
with wire-winding on the ends and rhomboid fastening
plate; thin twisted ones round in section with broadening
ends; interwoven of three wires round in section with
triple loops on the ends typical of Moshchiny culture
(Figs. 12, 2, 7; 13, 2; 14, 5).
Both imported (for instance, the early variant of
Bgelknopfibeln) and local brooches are used, the
latter being represented by plate ones with ring-and-dot
ornament (Figs. 11 , 2; 12,4).
Belt-fitting sets are of standard structure. Among
belt-buckles there are items similar to those of Keller
A shapes, steppe shapes with massive faceted frame
and those of the Chernyakhov type (Figs. 13, 1215;
15, 16). Their counterparts have been attested among
the belt-fittings of the late Sarmatian sites, group III,
dated by V.Yu. Malashev to the first part of the 4th c.
The Chernyakhov analogies of the Ryazan-Oka finds are
related to phase III early phase IV according to E.L.
Gorokhovsky and date from the second third second
part of the 4th c. I.A. Bazhan and O.A. Gei suggest the
3rd period of Chernyakhov culture (310/320 350/355
AD) as the chronological scope for these buckles.
Belt-buckles of already known types are sporadically
met with; these are the items of the Azelino and

Summary
Mazunino appearance, those with B-shape frame from
the Korablino cemetery, promontory 1, burial 75 known
also in the Kama region during the first part of the 4th c.
Belt-mounts decorated with facets and triangular slots
also have their counterparts in the Kama basin (Fig. 15,
1215).
Footwear buckles of small size are often found in
pairs (Fig. 15, 17-19).
Among the weapons the key role is played by the
spearheads of rhomboid cross-section with broadened
base and big double-barbed javelin-heads. New shapes
of socketed axes appear those with short socket and
broad triangular edge; new shapes of shaft-hole axes are
those with extended shaft-hole. The scabbards supplied
with bronze plate sheaths also represent innovations
(Figs. 11, 13; 13, 23, 27).
The horse-harness details known from burial
associations are represented basically by iron bits and
ring snaffle-bits, while the chamfrein sets are related to
the Sarmatian set of horse equipment dating from the
first quarter of the 4th c. The local version of horseharness sometimes includes the details of womans
attire: rectangular grooved and bottle-shaped pendants
(Korablino, promontory 1, burials 72, 75) (Figs. 13,
22; 15, 3839). In this period lashes with metal details
appear, their prototypes being known both from the
steppe sites of the North Caucasus piedmonts and the
South Urals, and the Sarmatian materials from Hungary
dating back to the second part of the 3rd c.
Thus, the discussed period may be divided into two
stages, the early one preliminary denoted as 2C, while
the late one is transitional to stage 3A. The period as a
whole should be regarded as the time when the classic
culture of the Oka Finns was formed. But the period
of its final formation falls into the post-Hun time. The
discussed processes were intensively influenced by
Chernyakhov and the late Sarmatian cultures; certain
elements of interaction with the tribes of Moshchiny
and late Dyakovo cultures are also traced.
Periods 3A-C. (Table 2, Scheme 3).
The early burial associations are typified by big
brooches of series II, sub-group 1, variant 4 according to
A.K. Ambroz; T-shaped spring ones of type 2 according
to Ambroz; double-plate brooches of sub-group 1 similar
in size to those of the Villa Fontana series (Scheme 3, 1).
We should mention also twisted neck-rings (Scheme3,
11), local imitations of western belt-buckles of Keller
A type with oval settings (Scheme 3, 5), composite sets
of belt-fittings of geometric style, scabbards in the
sheaths decorated with metal settings (Figs. 19: 8; 20:
8), as well as swords of the Sarmatian origin, close to
those of Biborskis type X, or Khazanovs type 3. The
latter are known from Chernyakhov culture, mostly
from burials of phase D1 (Scheme 3, 6, 23; Fig. 19, 8)
and the Dobrodzien group of Przeworsk culture.
During period 3A bead-pendants are introduced
into the sword equipment (Fig. 17: 13), together with
mans neck-rings made of silver rod with double-loop
fastening, wire-winding on the ends and beads threaded

417
on (Scheme 3, 18; Fig. 17: 3). The local variants of beltbuckles are represented by those with thin segment-like
frame, straight pin (sometimes with a zoomorphic image)
and rectangular setting. They entail the belts performed
in the second geometric style. The latter combine plate
belt-tips with round umbo-like belt-mounts (Figs. 17:
45; 19: 4), as well as rectangular plates decorated
with pearls (the imitations of the Roman stamped and
incrusted belt-mounts) and rhomboid plates (Fig. 20:
10, 11, 19, 20). The wooden bowls supplied with bronze
plate casements on the rim are innovations (Fig. 18:
16; 7, 15). On the late stage of the discussed period
double-plate brooches are registered similar to those of
the Villa Fontana series, belt-fittings decorated in the
Untersiebenbrunn style (Figs. 8: 34; 18: 6
11, 13, 16, 17). At the same time the early variants of the
Ryazan cross-shaped brooches appear (Fig. 2: 1617).
Local shapes of belt-fittings appear. These include
the local derivatives of type Keller A: belt-buckles
with thin frames of oval or rhomboid section, often
with zoomorphic images placed on the pins and with
rectangular settings; long trapeze-like belt-tips;
rectangular and umbo-like belt-mounts (Fig. 2, 8,
12, 14, 15, 19, 24, 26). A characteristic feature of the
belt-fittings in question is presence of two belt-tips.
Sometimes small belt-buckles with massive rounded
frame and smoothly bent pin are met with (Fig. 22).
The terminal stage of this period is marked by grave
goods from the Kurman cemetery, burial 28, comprising
the objects performed in the Untersiebenbrunn
style, the early variant of cross-shaped brooch, the
neck-ring or early shape with beads threaded on, and
the earliest bracelet ever known with anthropomorphic
ends, which is characteristic of the next period already
(Scheme 3: 21; 23, 5, 17).
New types of artefacts are as follows: bracelets
round in section with thickening ends, among them
imported items made of silver with golden plating on
the ends; long battle axes with composite sheaths; neckrings made of thick wire with tied ends; classic shapes
of the Ryazan-Oka cross-shaped brooches.
The most characteristic belt-mounds of period 3B
are those of rectangular shape with concave long sides
that are in use till the late 5th c. (Scheme 3: 34).
Typical bracelets spread from this period till
the late 5th c. are represented by the local series of
bracelets with round section and flattened ends cut
off, ornamented with lengthwise rows of rectangular
incisions. Sometimes on the bracelets ends facets and
triangular slots are placed, as a result, the ends acquire
highly stylized zoomorphic outlines (Scheme 3: 36).
At the turn of periods 3A and 3B cremation burial
rite appears. Cremation associations are mostly male
burials of military character, which is evidently related
to the influence exerted by the steppe nomads of the
Hun background. Biritual burials are also known: in
some cases male cremation burial is accompanied by
a secondary burial of the upper part of female body
with neck and breast ornaments (the Nikitino cemetery,

418
burials 23/24), or, on the contrary, male inhumation
burial is entailed by charred bones of a part of female
skeleton.
A characteristic feature of this period is a series
of innovations, such as belt-fittings of the Danubian
appearance; objects with incrusted decoration; horse
equipment of the Pontic style; separate horse-harness
sets of Central European origin; single- and doubleedged short swords.
New symbols of power are the cross-shaped diadems
decorated with bird-like images. Their counterparts are
known among the German antiquities in the Danubian
region and Northern Europe. Their presence in the highrank burials of the Ryazan-Oka culture, as well as local
versions of the discussed objects, together with their
wide territorial scope extended from the Middle Oka
region to the Lower Kama River, compulsory evidence
that these are not merely separate imports from alien
cultural milieu. Such innovations could have been
brought by representatives of certain groups of non-local
origin, known from Central Russia on the upper reaches
of the Don River and in the western part of the VolgaOka interfluve. The question on the role the mentioned
groups played, the mechanisms of their interaction
with the Oka Finns remains debatable. Nonetheless, at
present we may suppose that separate members of the
alien groups were incorporated into the Ryazan-Oka
milieu.
The set of grave goods from male burials of elite
character imitates the repertoire of royal regalia known
from the -Tournay circle of the second part
of the 5th c. in Central and Western Europe. In the
Ryazan-Oka region both the leaders burials and those
with prestigious funerary gifts of military character are
known. The latter contain neck-rings, pairs of blade
weapons, belt-fittings, richly decorated horse equipment,
but no cross-shaped brooches (Borok, burials 110,296;
Zarechye IV, burials 55, 71a, 158; Undrikh, burial 8,
1999). Undoubtedly, these burials belonged to the most
militarized section of the society, probably, to military
leaders or prominent warriors.
A series of the local belt-fittings supplied with birdlike decorations has been revealed. It is related by its
origin to the Roman prototypes and develops parallel
to similar styles of belt-fittings in Western Europe (the
Nydam style, belt-fittings of the Apahida Tournay
circle), which confirms the supposition on the indirect
contacts between the Ryazan-Oka tribes and the
migrants from the West.
A series of finds point to another direction of
contacts in the military culture maintained via the
Upper Oka and the Middle Dnieper regions. The objects
of the military equipment from cemeteries Luzhki and
Kazhaki and settlements Lukovnya, Supruty, Serensk,
Demidovka, Bliznaki and others, confirm this thesis.
Such finds should be also mentioned, as belt-buckles
of the Polibino type (the Nikitino cemetery,
burials 18, 117), a series of local grooved belt-buckles,
as well as those decorated with incrustation and incised

9
triangular hollows, horse-harness of the North European
appearance, spur, brooch of the Prague type, spearheads
of types2 and 7 according to V. Kazakyavichus.
The mentioned finds well correspond by their
character to the clear indications of military tension
in the Moskva and Oka rivers basins, especially the
finds of numerous arrowheads at the Kuntsevo hillfort,
shield umbo at Lukovnya fortified site, the horizon of
burials containing the skeletons of male and female
individuals killed with arrows and javelins from the
Korablino cemetery (burials 16, 96, and others, I.V.
Belotserkovskaya excavations).
The said above allows to state that the process of
formation of military culture in the Ryazan-Oka milieu
in the Hun and the post-Hun time was directly related
to the development of military life-style in Europe
during the existence of Attilas power and the period
of formation of barbarian kingdoms that followed the
downfall of the Hun power.
3.3. Grave goods from female burials
(I.V. Belotserkovskaya)
The current section was aimed at systematic analysis
of the mass finds from female burials of the Ryazan-Oka
cemeteries and revealing trends in development of the
integral elements of womans costume. Materials from
the early Koshibeevo stage of the cultures development
are too few and state of their preservation is too poor to
consider these finds in the present work.
The source base comprises 134 burial associations
determined mostly as female ones and originating
from 9 cemeteries that represent different territorial
variants of the culture under discussion. The recently
investigated Korablino and Zarechye cemeteries are
basic sites. Elements of traditional womans costume,
including headdress details, neck, breast, hand and
waistband ornaments, as well as fastenings have
been systematically analysed and processed with
application of the method of seriation. As a result,
seriation table of frequency of indications occurrence
(Table 1) and table of indications occurrence in the
most representative burial associations (Table 2). The
first table shows 5 groups of indications subsequently
replacing one another; the second one shows 5 groups
of most representative burial associations. The singled
out groups mirror subsequent stages of development of
the Oka Finns culture (periods 1, 2a, 2b, 3 and 4). In
Fig. 7 mass elements of womans costume are shown
by the suggested periods, Fig. 8 shows rare elements;
numbers of finds in Figs. 7 and 8 correspond to those
in tables 1 and 2. Chronological range of each period
is suggested preliminarily basing either on imports or
artefacts of local production, but made after imported
prototypes (Fig. 9).
Period 1 begins at the first part of the 3rd c., its
end and the beginning of period 2a date back to the
second part the end of the same century. Period 2b
mostly coincides with periods 3-D1 of European
chronological system, that is 330-400/310. Accordingly,

Summary
the chronological range of period 2a is established as
the late 3rd the first third or the first part (?) of the 4th
c. Period 3 dates back to the 5th c. as a whole, maybe
except its first decades, while the end of the period can
reach the very beginning of the 6th c. Period 4 falls
within the 6th the mid 7th cc.
The traditional womans costume in the Volga Finns
culture was initially of syncretic character. During
periods 1 and 2b the Volga Finns tribes worked out the
womans apparel combining cultural traditions of the
Volga Finns (the Andreevka and the Piseraly kurgans
and Pichke-Sorche fortified settlement Figs. 7: 1, 2,
4; 8: 1, 2, 7); the Moshchiny elements (Figs. 7: 2, 10,
11; 8: 14); those related to the Moskva River region of
Dyakovo culture (Figs. 7: 59; 8: 4, 1013, 16), to the
Kama River basin (Figs. 7: 49; 8: 7, 15; 9: 18, 19), and
the late Sarmatian features (Figs. 8: 5; 9: 4, 2029, 35,
36, 38). Another direction of cultural relations in period
2a is marked by the complex of bent and military
brooches and belt-buckles of the Chernyakhov type
(Fig. 9: 12, 15, 16, 3034). In this period formation of
the most significant part of the womans attire typical of
the Volga Finns was completed. It comprised a specific
headdress, which later had got more elaborate forms.
It included a cap, a veil or a kerchief, a headband,
temporal pendants, braid-pendants, a frontal band, an
occipital tassel and a back paddle.
Period 2b is marked by the appearance of neckrings with a receptacle that became a classic element
of the discussed culture. Such ornaments as three-point
lunulae, cross-shaped brooches and neck-rings with
double loop were widely spread (Fig. 7: 21, 62, 33, 35,
36). Evidently, neck-rings with receptacles developed
from the West Baltic neck-rings of the Cheikov type,
three-point lunulae derived from general European
shapes, while for the cross-shaped brooches prototypes
among T-shape brooches of Chernyakhov culture may
be pointed to. Relatively homogeneous complex of
ornaments and costume details comprised plate axeshape and rectangular pendants, buckle-shape pendants,
three-point lunulae (Fig. 8: 2830), as well as bent
brooches (Fig.9: 37). This combination is typical of
Chernyakhov culture. Probably, these objects were
brought to the Middle Oka by their bearers.
Adoption of a series of alien cultural elements of
south-western origin by the local apparel was determined
by the events related to the Great Migration.
Period 3 together with the preceding one is marked
by the rise of influence exerted by alien cultures over the
Oka aboriginal population. It can be seen from adoption
of a series of belt-buckles of imported production
(Fig. 9: 43, 53) by mans costume, including those of
Central European production. Local replicas of these are
sometimes present in the set of womans occipital tassels
(Figs. 7: 25; 9: 48). In the burials determined as female
ones there are registered bracelets of the Crimean and
North Caucasian shapes (Figs. 3: 18, 19; 8: 41, 45); some
temporal pendants and breast ornaments (Fig. 8: 32, 48)
also have their prototypes in the southern regions.

419
By the 5th c. two processes had unfolded. On the
one hand, wide-scale changes in ornaments types
and costume details occurred, on the other hand,
their repertoire and number increased substantially.
Womans attire is now characterized by new types
of temporal pendants, headbands, neck-rings, breast
plaques, bracelets, as well as braid pendants, occipital
tassels, bead necklaces and metal pendants, sleevebands, appliqu decorations of headdress and garments
with metal plates, sewing garment collars and frock
hems with trapeze-shape plaques (Fig. 7, 8: period 3).
The tradition of wearing by women numerous neck
ornaments together with widely spread metal garment
applications could have been determined by the influence
of the Mediterranean fashion. Changes in the general
appearance of womans costume in periods 2b and 3
were evidently determined by the events of the 5th c.
By that time symbolism of certain integral parts of
womans apparel had been established. Thus, breast
plaques with opening were deposited in married
womens burials only. These are also represented in
mens burials among funerary gifts as a symbol of their
family status. Braid-pendants were endowed with the
same meaning.
The changes in the appearance of womans
attire mirrored shifts in ideology of the Ryazan-Oka
population, the same concerns a series of innovations
in mans burial rite, including such new phenomenon as
elite burials.
The womans apparel formed by the 6th c. remained
traditional, as far as its basic parts are concerned, but
the number and repertoire of its integral elements had
essentially decreased and their appearance in the 6th
the first part of the 7th cc. underwent substantial changes
(Fig. 7, period 4). On the late stage of culture trends in
its inner development became most distinct.
The suggested analysis demonstrates that
development of initially inhomogeneous culture of the
Oka Finns generally followed evolutionary pattern,
and only in the late 4th 5th cc. underwent active
influence of alien cultures. This influence was strong
enough to cause changes in traditional beliefs of the
Oka population mirrored by the changes in the most
conservative cultural element womans attire.
3.4. Beads of dominant types
(O.S. Rumyantseva)
Investigations of beads from the standpoint of
their chronology, glass composition and dynamics of
spreading their mass types was based on the materials
obtained from the cemeteries of the Middle Oka region:
Korablino, Zarechye 4, Nikitino and Koshibeevo.
Beads made of red opaque glass and those with golden
foil were studied. The source base consists of 22828
beads, 18281 items made of red opaque glass and 4547
items with golden foil. Typology of beads is based on
the technology of their production and morphology
(Figs. 13). Chronological analysis was conducted with
application of the seriation method (Table 1; 3). A number

420
of groups have been singled out, their chronology was
established proceeding from the frequency of occurrence
of glass objects with metal finds in burials (Figs. 46).
As a result, taking into account the morphological and
technological indications and the data of glass recipes
four stages in beads supply to the territory of the Middle
Oka region have been singled out.
The first stage dates from the turn of the 1st and 2nd
to the turn of the 2nd and 3rd cc. AD. It is represented
by the antiquities from the Koshibeevo cemetery, the
early horizon (group K 1) (Fig. 4). It is typified by the
presence of big glass beads with golden foil (Fig. 3. I:
45), produced in the Eastern Mediterranean judging
from their chemical composition (subtypes Na-Ca
and Na-Ca(Mg). Objects of this type are practically
unknown from other sites of the culture of the RyazanOka cemeteries.
The second stage falls within the range since the turn
of the 2nd and 3rd to the late 4th early 5th cc. (groups
K 3, Ia-b) (Figs. 4; 6). For the Koshibeevo cemetery the
second part of the 2nd cc. (group K 2) is also possible
(Fig. 4). This stage is characterized by wide spread of red
opaque glass beads produced of drawn rods (Figs. 2.II:
1, 34, 78) and drawn tubes (Figs. 2. I: 15; 1217), as
well as multipartial beads with golden foil (Fig.3. I: 1
3). Chemical composition of the beads with golden foil
points to their East Mediterranean origin. Composition
of red beads of opaque glass is heterogeneous (subtypes
Na-Ca(Mg); Na(K)-Ca(Mg), which means that both
ashy and sodium glass recipes were represented among
the beads of the same shape. Taking into account the
data of morphological and technological analysis it is
possible to suppose their provincial Roman origin.
The set of beads under discussion had disappeared in
the late 4th early 5th cc., which coincides with the
Hun invasion and destruction of traditional economic
relations in the forest and forest-steppe zones.
The third stage dates back from the late 4th early
5th cc. to the turn f the 5th and the 6th cc. (Fig. 6). It is
characterized by the spread of beads made of opaque
red glass (Fig. 2. II: 34, 78) produced from single
twist of drawn rods (Fig. 2. III: 12) and small beads cut
from drawn tubes (Fig. 2. I. 1820) (group II). The glass
used for producing these beads was obtained from ash
of the saline-soil plants typical of the arid zone of the
Near East (subtypes Na(K)-Ca(Mg), Na(K)-Ca,Mg)).
The beads in question first appeared in the Middle Oka
region when the Huns first invaded the Transcaucasus.
For a long time these beads coexisted with the objects
produced in twisting technique (groups II/III, III). The
latter are related to the fourth stage (from the turn of the
5th and the 6th to the first part of the 7th cc.) (groups III,
IV; Fig. 2. IV. 19; Fig. 6). Though the beads are rather
standard, their chemical composition is inhomogeneous:
various subtypes of glass are registered, such as Na(K)Ca, Na(K)-Ca(Mg), Na(K)-Ca,Mg, Na-Ca(Mg). In the
recipes cobalt has been accounted for, which is typical
of the Mediterranean sodium glass. Specific features
of glass recipes in groups III and IV combined with

9
technology of their production and geographical scope
give grounds to relate their production with workshops
which functioned somewhere in European Byzantium
using imported raw materials. Probably, they originate
from the Danubian region.
3.5. Pottery vessels from the Central group of
cemeteries
(O.S. Rumyantseva)
The studies of the Middle Oka pottery were based
on 133 whole vessel shapes recovered from cemeteries
Zarechye 4, Nikitino, Shatrishchi and Undrikh.
Territorially the enumerated sites enter the central
cluster of the Ryazan-Oka cemeteries. All vessels are
hand-made, dominating shapes are pots (124 items),
burnished bowls are few (9 items). Classification of
the mass categories of pottery was based on such
morphological indications as qualitative characteristics
and proportions. Within the dominating category (pots)
groups IIII have been singled out. They are represented
by 13 series. To establish chronology of pottery shapes
the method of seriation was used (Fig. 10). As a result,
four groups of association containing vessels () have
been singled out (Fig.12). Their chronology was based
on the occurrence of vessels in associations with metal
objects. Chronology of the latter has been worked out by
I.V.Belotserkovskaya and I.R. Akhmedov (see Chapter
3, sections 2 and 3) (Fig. 12).
-1 is represented mainly by pots of group I (series
1, 2, 4, 5) and several vessels of group II (series 7) (Fig. 4:
510). The group dates back to the first part of the 3rd the
third quarter of the 4th cc. AD, that is, the pre-Hun period.
-2 comprises basically vessels of group II, series7
(Fig. 4: 510). One vessel attributed to series 6 is also
present (Fig. 4: 3). Pots of group I are very few. This
dates from the last third of the 4th to the early 5th cc.,
i.e. the early Hun time.
The majority of -3 is also represented by pots of
series 7; but the first vessels of group III (series 11, 12)
also occur (Fig. 7:1-6). The group may be dated within a
wide chronological range of the 5th c. The major part of
the burials included into -3 is attributed to the first
part of the century, that is, to the Hun period.
-3 is formed practically of the same set of
vessels, but their proportion is different: the majority
of vessels are attributed to group III, pots of group II
(series 7, 8) are also present. -3 falls within the 5th
c., the majority of burials may be dated back to the mid
second part of the century, i.e. to the terminal Hun and
the post-Hun periods.
In the later time (the 6th 7th cc.) in the Middle Oka
cemeteries most popular shapes are those included into
group III (Figs. 6:3-6; 7).
Burnished bowls (Fig. 8: 17) are recorded in burials
of the 3rd 5th cc.
The stage of formation of the pottery complex
associated with the Middle Oka Finns two groups of vessels
(groups I and II) may be singled out. Evidently, these were
initially related to different cultural components.

Summary
Closest analogies of the pots of group I are present
in the late Scythian antiquities of the Upper Don: the
Ishutino fortified settlement and the Vyazovo cemetery
(Figs. 16: 68; 17). Whole series of the vessels identical
to those from the Middle Oka region are known from
these sites. Their counterparts are also reported from the
late Zarubintsy antiquities and the sites of late Dyakovo
culture (Figs. 1315).
It is more complicated a task to reveal prototypes of
the vessels included into group II. Some scholars put
forward an idea concerning their local origin related
to the materials of Gorodets culture. Nonetheless,
no analogies have been revealed either among the
reconstructed pottery shapes of Gorodets culture, or
in the antiquities from the adjacent territories, the
Dyakovo and late Zarubintsy ones in particular. At
the sites of the mentioned above cultures the discussed
pottery shapes are represented by single potsherds only
(Fig. 18: 37). Thus, the question concerning their
origin remains debatable.
Investigators traditionally associate burnished bowls
with the presence of the Dyakovo and Moshchiny
cultural components in the Middle Oka region.
The period of most substantial changes in the
pottery complex of the Middle Oka inhabitants
falls within the mid 5th c. By that time vessels of
group I fell out of use in the region. No genetic links
between these vessels and later shapes can be traced.
The appearance and spread of vessels of group III
in the Middle Oka region coincides with the coming
of alien population groups to the forest zone. These
events had caused instability in the region, marked,
in particular, by disappearance of Moshchiny culture
and transformations in the material culture of the
Oka and the Volga basins.
It must be pointed out that for some late shapes of
the vessels prototypes may be found in the Moshchino
antiquities widely spread in the discussed period in the
forest zone (Fig. 18: 9).
3.6. Concerning reconstruction
of historical processes
(I.R. Akhmedov, I.V. Belotserkovskaya)
Having studied basic categories of the grave goods
originating from the Ryazan-Oka cemeteries, it is
possible to suggest a chronology and periodization of
the culture under investigation. As to the male burials,
9 periods have been singled out. They cover the
chronological range from the late 1st the turn of the
1st and the 2nd cc. to the 6th 7th cc.; whilst the female
burial associations are divided into 6 periods (from the
3rd to the 6th the first part 7th cc.). The inflow of
imported glass beads to the Middle Oka region has been
divided into 5 periods from the late 2nd to the first
part of the 7th cc. (Table 1).
The detailed analysis has confirmed already
formulated view concerning the continuity between
the Koshibeevo antiquities and those typical of the
classic Ryazan-Oka culture. The current study has also

421
confirmed the thesis on settling the Ryazan-Oka tribes
in the Oka basin in the 3rd c.
On the initial stage of the Ryasan-Oka culture of
key significance was development of the Andreevka
Koshibeevo traditions. During the 3rd c. a substantial
inflow of the elements of alien origin is registered. Their
integration had resulted in essential transformation of
local culture. Of special significance are the following
phenomena: the western imports known from early
Chernyakhov culture and the Baltic zone, as well as the
objects of Pontic origin in male burials (belt-fittings and
weapons); the objects of the Moshchiny types and those
typical of the Moskva River basin; formation of specific
elements of womans attire; domination of the pottery
influenced by the late Zarubintsy traditions. These
features indicate the strong specifics of the RyazanOka Finns, when compared to the other foci of the early
Mordovian culture, such as the groups known on the
rivers Tesha, Pyana and Sura.
In the first part of the 4th c. a series of the
Chernyakhov imports are registered, as well as
associations of finds of western origin. Similar
associations are known also among the burial sites on
the Upper Sura River attributed to the Mordva tribes.
These finds have their counterparts mostly in the
Przeworsk antiquities and the Western Baltic cultures.
The registered phenomena are possibly related
to two events Ermanarics subjugation of the forest
tribes, among which Jordanes narration mentions the
Mordens and the Merens tribes, when describing the
military campaign against the Heruli, the Veneti and the
Estii. Since that time onward it is possible to suppose
the Ryazan-Oka population to have entered the sphere
of political influence of the Chernyakhov tribal unit.
Maintenance of relationships with the Pontic and North
Caucasian territories is also traced.
The burials of warriors furnished with doubleedged swords supplied with bead pendants, wooden
bowls, and scabbards are typical of the Hun epoch.
Generally, the martial spirit of the culture is mirrored by
the weapons and armament complex spread in the late
4th early 5th cc. from the South Urals to the Danube
basin. The remaining categories of grave goods also
undergo transformations: earlier types of necklaces are
replaced by new sets of liver-red beads manufactured
according to the Near Eastern recipe, principal shapes
of womans headdress elements are finally worked out;
the neck-rings with receptacles appear that later became
classic type of ornaments, together with lunulae and
cross-shaped brooches; the vessels attributed to the first
pottery tradition fall out of use.
The inflow of the objects of alien origin to the
Middle Oka region in the discussed period evidently
may be determined as an indirect mode of obtaining
imports. New burial practices, such as cremations and
biritual burials entailed by introduction of new pottery
types (hand-made bowls with burnished surface and
zigzag-like profile), also point to the contacts with nonaboriginal population groups. Population of the Upper

422
Don region (the Chertovitskoe Zamyatino cultural
circle), the Upper Oka and the Moskva River basin
could have played the role of mediators in this process.
The importance of the Don waterway in the period
under discussion can be seen from a series of finds and
some pottery shapes close to the Oka ones originating
from the Zamyatino-type sites, as well as the set
of womans ornaments from the Tanais hillfort and
necropolis.
The period of the mid the third quarter of the 5th
c. is characterized by further development of the social
structure. The cultural elements of the Pontic and North
Caucasian provenance were still in use, nevertheless, a
whole series of features typical of the Middle Danubian
basin and the Baltic zone occur. In separate cases the
burials yielding such finds belonged to the individuals
killed in armed conflicts, which evidences non-peaceful
character of the contacts. New features of the burial
rite may be pointed out cremation of the dead in the
oaken coffins made of a single log just in burial pits, and
strictly observed northern orientation of the dead.
As to the womans attire, metal details are totally
replaced by new types, beads are delivered from
different sources, costume as a whole becomes rather
standard, with clearly determined symbolic meaning of
its elements.
From the 5th c. onward the second pottery tradition
spreads, whilst the middle and the second part of this
century see the maximal diversity of vessels shapes.
The inflow of the cultural elements related to the
Moshchiny culture and the Moskva River basin stops
by the early 5th c., but in the Moskva River basin and
the Upper Oka groups significant number of finds of
western origin are still registered.
During this period separate mass emissions of the
materials of the Ryazan-Oka provenance are directed
upstream the Moskva River as far as the Upper Volga
basin, and in easterly direction downstream the Oka
River to the Volga basin within the territory of the
modern Mari Republic. Some new population groups
penetrate there (the Mladshee Akhmylovo site). In this
period the process of formation of the early Mari people
began in the territories situated westward from the
Vetluga and the Volga interfluve.
In this context it is important to remind the above
suggested localization of the Merens mentioned by Jordanes
in the territory to the South-East from the area occupied by
the Merya tribes, as we know of them from the medieval
chronicles, that is, on the right side of the Oka River, which
is confirmed by the archaeological materials.
Chapter 4. The North-West of the Russia and the
North of the Belorussian region
(N.V. Lopatin, A.G. Furasyev)
The authors consider archaeological indications of
the transition from the Roman time to the early Middle
Ages within the territory of the Upper Dnieper and the
Dvina rivers basins. In the Roman time, starting from

9
the second part of the 3rd c. AD in the territory under
discussion the antiquities of the Zaozerye Uzmen
circle (ZU) were spread. These antiquities entered
Kiev culture (or cultural and historical entity) and
replaced local Dnieper-Dvina culture of the Early Iron
Age, which, evidently, played the role of a cultural
substratum.
In ZU cultural circle dominating type of sites are
open settlements, ground cemeteries and fortified
settlements are rather few. Proceeding from frequency
of occurrence of hand-made pottery types (Fig. 1)
among the antiquities attributed to the second stage
of ZU circle the following cultural and chronological
groups have been singled out (Fig. 6): the Zaozerye type
(Fig. 3), the Uzmen type (Fig. 4), the Desna variant of
Kiev culture (Fig. 5). In the first and second groups two
variants of Kiev culture were mixed together; in the
Zaozerye type elements of the Upper Dnieper variant
(the Abidnya type) dominated over the elements of the
Desna variant, in the Uzmen type the situation was
opposite. Of the Zaozerye type combed pottery was
especially characteristic (Fig. 3), which relates it with
the Abidnya type.
From the mid 5th c. onward on the base of the
ZU antiquities a series of the early medieval cultures
were formed: Tushemlya, Bantserovshchina, the Pskov
long kurgans. Within the framework of these cultures
a number of cultural and chronological groups (Fig.
7) have been singled out with application of the same
typological scheme (Fig. 1): the Zhabino type (Fig. 8),
the Dorokhi type (Fig. 9), the Zherebyatino type (Fig.
10), the Syezzhee type (Fig. 11: 16), the Udomlya type
(Fig.11: 711), the Bantserovshchina type (Fig. 12), the
Kiseli type (Fig. 13: 11). The complex of uppermost
layer of Tushemlya stands apart (Fig. 13: 1216). In
some regions, such as the Dvina and Lovat rivers
basins (sites Dorokhi, Zhabino) and the Pskov-Chud
region (site Zherebyatino) certain difference in burial
(Figs. 8; 10: 18) and settlement (Figs. 9; 10: 925)
pottery sets is registered. Development of pottery shapes
from the 3rd to the 7th cc. is shown in Figs. 14 and 15.
The complex of finds related to the ZU circle consisted
of two parts, strongly different in their vulnerability to
transformations. To the first part (Fig. 2: 2, 5) objects
of non-utilitarian function are attributed; these mirror
short-term trends in fashion depending on cultural
impetuses and therefore radically changing during the
transition from the Roman time to the early Middle Ages
(the same situation is known from the Dnieper region
as a whole). The second part comprises utensils and
objects of everyday use, practically not susceptible to
fashion changes (Fig. 2: 3, 4, 913). These objects were
inherited by the cultures dating from the third quarter of
the 1st mill. AD.
Thus, at the turn from the Roman time to the early
Middle Ages in the Upper Dnieper and Dvina basins
the aboriginal cultural groups entering the Zaozerye
Uzmen circle underwent evolutionary transformation.
The period of the 5th 6th cc. may be considered

Summary
crucial moment only for the territory beyond the
borders of the Zaozerye Uzmen cultural circle and
situated northward from it, in that period covered by the
expansion of the culture of the Pskov long kurgans.
Chapter 5. The Upper Volga and the Valdai regions
(I.V. Islanova)
The considered territory is situated between the
North-West and North-East of the forest zone of Eastern
Europe and is divided into three major regions Valdai,
the Tver and the Rzhev regions of the Volga basin.
Their relief and soil conditions are different.
Investigators usually attribute the antiquities dating
from the second quarter of the 1st mill. BC to the mid
1st mill. AD to late Dyakovo culture. Starting from
the late 1st mill. BC (or only from the second quarter
of the 1st mill. AD) penetration of ethnic elements of
the Baltic origin to the territory inhabited by the FinnoUgrian tribes began; the early Slavic elements are
identified from the mid 1st mill. AD. Problems related
to chronology and continuity of separate stages of
Dyakovo culture remain debatable, the same concerns
identification of the motherlands of migration flows.
The present work is aimed at reconstruction of
general picture of the cultural processes in the Upper
Volga region and Valdai during the first part the
third quarter of the 1st mill. AD. The territory under
consideration remains insufficiently studied. The
majority of sites were investigated in the 60-s 80s of XX c., but the materials mostly have not been
published.
When differentiating antiquities, basic indicator
is mass pottery related only to the cultural circle the
studied antiquities are included in. Other archaeological
finds can only serve as cultural and chronological
markers. Establishing chronology of investigated sites
is the most complicated problem.
The materials obtained from the Varvarina Gora
hillfort are of greatest important for singling out type
of sites associated with the antiquities of the Dyakovo
type in the Valdai region (Fig. 1). Dominating pottery
shapes are pots with distinct profile and smooth surface
with ornamented rim edge (Fig. 2: 16). The majority of
finds (Fig. 3: 1, 9, 11, 14) fall within the chronological
range from the 2nd 3rd to the 5th cc. AD. To the
sites of the Varvarina Gora type a series of sites may
be preliminary attributed: the Bologovskoe, Yakhnovo,
Yuryevskaya Gorka and, possibly, Lovnitsy fortified
settlements and open sites Kurovo (layer 2) (Fig. 4),
Ryad (layer 3), Garusovo (layer 2).
The settlements of the Varvarina Gora type
(presumably on the terminal stage of their functioning)
coexisted with sites of different cultural attribution,
best represented by the Troitsa 1 open dwelling site.
Materials obtained from the site include potsherds with
burnished and smoothed surface related to the vessels of
the Moshchiny cultural circle (Fig. 5: 15). No vessels
with ornamented rim edge have been recorded. The

423
settlement functioned within the chronological span of
approximately the 4th 5th cc. AD. To the sites of the
Troitsa type open dwelling sites Yashchiny 1, Karzovo
1, Ovsishche1 (Figs. 6; 7: 15) may be preliminarily
attributed.
Most probably, the antiquities of the Troitsa type
belonged to the population different from the inhabitants
of Varvarina Gora and similar sites. The cultural
impetuses that contributed to the formation of the sites
of the Varvarina Gora and the Troitsa types, were not
coeval, equally different were the routes new population
groups moved to the region in question. Supposedly the
expansion of the bearers of new pottery tradition could
have started both from the Tver region of the Volga
basin or from the Moshchiny cultural circle via this
region.
In the Udomlya Lake region during the third quarter
of the 1st mill. AD the antiquities of the Udomlya type
were spread. In the microregions with sand soils the
sites of the Varvarina Gora type were replaced by those
associated with the culture of the Pskov long kurgans.
The sites attributed to the discussed cultures (Figs.8
13) are situated in different environmental and soil
conditions. Their pottery sets and burials rites (presence
or absence of kurgan burials) are also different. The
sites of the Udomlya type and the Pskov long kurgans
developed a different way: the regions occupied by the
Pskov long kurgans were abandoned in the late 1st
early 2nd mill. AD, while in the lands once occupied by
the sites of the Udomlya type the culture of sopka-type
burial mounds was widely spread. The latters material
culture shows continuity with the antiquities of the
earlier period.
Terminus post quem for the culture of the Pskov long
kurgans (the 5th c. AD) is determined by B-shaped relief
buckles from kurgan burials of the Mlevsky Bor, Puiga
1 and Grinino 1 cemeteries (Fig. 12: 7, 8, 9). Terminus
post quem for the Udomlya-type sites is established as
the 5th 6th cc. according to the buckles with relief
broadening pins and stepped pins (Fig. 13: 1, 7). The
repertoire of finds typical of the Pskov long kurgans and
the Udomlya-type sites give grounds to suppose their
existence mostly in the 6th 7th, and, probably, in the
8th cc. AD.
Formation of new sites was caused by the appearance
of the Slavic population in the region and cultural
contacts with aboriginal people.
Significant cultural changes are supposed to take
place in the Tver region of the Volga basin from the
2nd c. BC to the 1st 2nd cc. AD, which can be traced
from the expansion of the pottery with ornamentation in
the upper part of the body and on the rim edge (Fig. 15).
Net-impressed pottery falls out of use. In the 2nd 5th
cc. AD pottery shapes with smooth profile developed
into those with distinct profile. Another group of
pottery characteristic of the Tver region includes flatbottom vessels decorated with small pits (Fig. 15: 6
9). Settlements yielding these two groups of pottery
represent the middle stage of Dyakovo culture in the

424
Tver region. Burial sites are not known. The repertoire
of finds includes ornaments, iron knives with bent back,
loom-weights of the Dyakovo type (Fig. 16: 18).
There exists the opinion that new traditions which
arose from the Upper Dnieper basin, though the Upper
Oka region cannot be excluded. The chronological
span of the middle stage of Dyakovo culture may be
preliminarily determined from the late 1st mill. BC
the early 1st mill. AD to the 3rd c. AD.
Next cultural transformation in the Tver region
of the Volga basin is indicated mostly by mass spread
of the pottery of the Moshchiny circle (Figs. 6; 17:
110). The pottery in question dominates in the upper
layers of fortified settlements Otmichi, Orlov Gorodok,
Sannikovo, Pekunovo, Annikovo. Morphologically this
pottery is close to the ware from the Troitsa settlement
and differs from burnished vessels of late Dyakovo
settlements in the Moskva River basin and the sites of
the Varvarina Gora type.
Probably, the cultural impetus related to the
appearance of new population is marked by a series of
finds with enamel decoration (Fig. 19: 4, 5) and plate
hooked iron-steels (Fig. 19: 13). In the 5th 6th cc.
some contacts with the regions situated eastward (in the
Middle Oka basin) took place, which is clear from the
finds of cross-shaped brooches of so-called RyazanOka type (Fig. 19: 68).
Besides the considered above pottery sets at late
Dyakovo settlements two more pottery groups are
registered that may be related to the antiquities of the
Kiev circle (Figs. 17: 11, 12; 20: 16). These potsherds
point to another cultural impetus dating from the second
or the third quarter of the 1st mill. AD.
Antiquities of the Rzhev region of the Volga basin
in the 1st mill. AD are represented by separate finds
(Figs.22: 5, 6, 8; 26; 3). Cultural interaction in the
mid the third quarter of the 1st mill. AD is manifested
by pottery sets known from settlements. The Upper
Volga pottery set is singled out preliminarily (Figs.
2225). Its characteristic features are vessels with rib
in the upper third of the vessels height, vessels having
their prototypes in the pottery of the Moshchiny
cultural circle, and vessels with relief bosses and
groove. This pottery set could have been formed partly
on the base of the materials related to the Zaozerye
Uzmen cultural circle. The aboriginal shapes
marked by inherited traditions of the Moshchiny circle
are also present. Generally, in the discussed set of
pottery participate the same cultural components that
characterize the set of casting moulds known from
hillfort Osechen and open dwelling site Podol 3 (the
late 4th the first part of the 5th cc. the 7th 8th cc.)
(Fig. 26: 1, 2, 4).
Thus, within the considered territory a series of
cultural impetuses have been registered originating
from the adjacent regions the Upper Dnieper and the
Dvina basins. Substantial transformation of the material
culture occurred approximately in the late 1st mill.
BC the early 1st mill. AD; in this period the whole

9
territory under discussion entered the zone of pottery
with decorated rim edge. Another cultural impetus dates
not after the 4th c. AD and is related to the expansion of
the pottery of the Moshchiny circle.
The period of the mid the third quarter of the 1st
mill. AD in the Valdai region is marked by significant
cultural transformations related to the appearance of the
early Slavic population. The Slavic groups established
contacts with local tribes. As a result, new groups of
sites appeared, such as the Pskov long kurgans and the
sites of the Udomlya type. The new impetuses reach
as far as the Tver region of the Volga basin, while the
Rzhev region of the Volga basin culturally represent a
contact zone.
Chapter 6. Sambia and Natangia
(V.I. Kulakov)
The problem of transition from the period of the
Roman influence to the early Middle Ages is of key
significance, when investigating the history of the Baltic
zone and in particular the Amber shore which was the
north-eastern frontier of Barbaricum. The geographical
scope of the region under discussion is limited to the
lower reaches of the Neman River in the north-east and
the Vistula delta in the south-west.
The settlement archaeology of the Western
Balts reflects the beginning of the process of tribal
differentiation in the interfluve of the Paslenka and
Neman rivers as early as the 1st c. AD; by the 5th the
early 6th cc. this process had been completed. Since that
time until the crusaders expansion to the Baltic zone
the investigated territory was the scene of development
of separate West Baltic tribes, though united by their
common origin and linguistic attribution.
According to the data of burial sites, from phase 2/
1 Sambia and the adjacent regions were practically
entirely abandoned by the autochthonous West Baltic
population: the people moved eastward under the
pressure of the newcomers known from the Classical
written sources under the general name of the Venedi.
One cannot exclude the presence of the bearers of
Wielbark culture associated with the East Germans in
this milieu, as well as the people of Danubian origin
the Celts Romanized descendants. Rather continuous
settlement of the survived West Baltic tribal groups (the
Estii Balts) is registered on the Upper Pregolya River
only.
New mass penetration of the Estii Balts to
the Amber shore was the result of the West Baltic
Reconquista dating back to the mid 5th c. The start
of deformation of tribal relations in their society
chronologically coincided and, evidently, caused
formation of the early Prussians culture. This process
was maintained by the active relations between the
Estii and the Vidivarii the tribes formed from the
representatives of early German and other tribes.
When the veterans of the Hun wars had shown up in
the region, it was a decisive factor in redistribution of

Summary
power in favour of the military-style organization in the
western frontier of the Baltic zone. These events mark
the beginning of the medieval Prussian culture proper
on the Amber shore.
The material culture of the medieval Prussians is of
clearly military (druzhina-type) character. Since the turn
of the 7th and the 8th cc. power had been really seized
by priests, who reaped the victory of the Prussians over
the Mazurs. The natural process of social development
in the Prussian lands had been broken, similar to what
occurred later in the western and eastern Slavic areas.
Separation of military leaders from real power was in
particular caused by insufficient number of the armed
detachments of the Sembi and unstable character of the
Prussian farming. Only stable agriculture would have
guaranteed regular rent the fundamental condition for
formation of state structure.
Chapter 7. The system of Early Medieval womans
attire of the Middle Dnieper region
(retospective analysis)
(V.E. Rodinkova)
The chapter investigates the structure of the early
medieval womans apparel in the Dnieper basin and
discusses the probability of its independent local
formation. The work is based on the set of womans
ornaments and costume details from group I of the
cultural circle known as the Antes antiquities most
comprehensively represented in the hoards of the
Martynovka type. The group is related to Kolochin and
Penkovka cultures. The geographic scope of the objects
in question comprises the Middle Dnieper basin and the
forest-steppe area on the Dnieper left bank (Fig.1). It
partly covers the Kolochin and Penkovka areas (Fig.
2, I, II). The chronological range of the artefacts of the
Martynovka circle is established from the late 6th
the turn of the 6th and the 7th cc. to the mid third
quarter of the 7th c.
A series of graphic reconstructions (Figs. 35)
demonstrates the development of scientific positions
concerning the model of the womans costume complex
in the Middle Dnieper tribal unit.
The ceremonial apparel set worn by women of the
Dnieper region in the 7th c. included mainly brass
or silver objects. These comprised head adornments
(headbands, temporal rings), neck ornaments (double
palmate or anthropo-zoomorphic brooches, sometimes
with a wide-plate brooch added, complex jingling
necklaces composed of flat, or, more rarely, threedemensional pendants, both fixed on chains or on cords
threaded through multipartial beads). Hand decorations
included bracelets and finger-rings. This set comprised
also glass and stone beads, small ornaments made of
lead-tin alloys and sewn on the textile, and, probably,
waist-band fittings and footwear sets (small buckles,
strap-tips) (Fig. 6).
The period of the second part of the 5th 6th cc.
in the territory in question is represented by a series

425
of occasional finds (Fig. 7, 111). These objects do
not form single sets and cannot be reliably identified
as elements of womans costume. The structure of the
attire reconstructed with the help of the objects known
from several inhumation burials of the same time (Figs.
2, IV; 7, 1223) is similar to what we know about the
Martynovka apparel. It consisted of double brooches,
sometimes attributed to different types, bracelets, and, in
one case, in a necklace of multipartial and usual beads.
In the Late Roman and the early Hun epochs the
territory of the Middle Dnieper basin and the foreststeppe area on the Dnieper left bank was occupied by
sites of Kiev and Chernyakhov cultures (Fig. 8, I, II).
Womans costume of the Chernyakhov population both
could have comprised one or two (rarely more) brooches
of different types or any. Often it included belt-buckles.
Beads were very popular: these were combined in
necklaces, sometimes in bracelets, or sewn on the cloth
(Figs. 912). Pendants made of metal, antler, shells, as
a rule served as amulets and were worn on the breast
or attached to the waist-band (Fig. 11; 12, 13). Head
ornaments, neck-rings, metal bracelets and jingling plate
necklaces are not typical of the discussed artefact set. In
the Chernyakhov and the Martynovka models of apparel
there were certain features in common: frequently used
double brooches, breast pendants, beads, the tradition of
sewing ornaments on the cloths.
The decorations and fittings of the costume of the
Chernyakhov cultural circle had generally ousted in the
forest-steppe area of the Dnieper region objects of socalled enamel style characteristic of the late Zarubintsy
and early Kiev tribes. The attire related to the La Tne
enameled ornaments may be reconstructed proceeding
from the materials originating from a series of hoards
and cremation burials (Figs. 8, III, IV; 14; 15). It
consisted basically of metal elements: plates interpreted
as headbands; neck-rings, necklaces consisting of
multipartial beads and pendants; several types of
brooches (in some associations these were present in
pairs), bracelets and finger-rings. Complex decorations,
probably, worn on the breast, comprised chains, cast
chain links, cast and forged pendants of various types,
both flat and made in the round. Beads also entered this
set of ornaments (Fig. 13, 13, 1518).
The structural elements that constituted group I
of the womans ornaments entering the cultural circle
known as the Antes antiquities and the circle of East
European barbaric enamels are practically identical.
Nevertheless, they are separated by a significant
chronological gap, which does not allow to suppose a
direct genetic links between the discussed models. It
may be supposed that the structure of womans apparel
was adopted by the inhabitants of the Dnieper basin
from the tribes of the South-Eastern Baltic zone, where
it survived after the ornaments decorated in the La
Tne enamel style proper had disappeared and where
it continued to function as late as the early 2nd mill.
(Fig. 16).

426
Conclusions
(I.O. Gavritukhin, A.M. Oblomsky)
Having considered the indications of the terminal
stage of Chernyakhov culture on the Dnieper left bank
(Chapter 1) we may state that in the principal zones of
sites dense concentration population continued to live
after the downfall of Ermanarics power. Certain data
point to the isolated character of these groups. The
terminal stage of Chernyakhov culture in different parts
of the discussed region could have followed different
patterns.
Appearance of the Huns in the Dnieper region had
caused migrations of the local tribes. The bearers of Kiev
culture marked by the Chernyakhov cultural influence
moved from the south to the Lower Desna basin. In
the southern part of the forest-steppe and in the steppe
zone in the early Hun period the burials attributed to the
late Sarmatian cultural circle are known. In the same
period the tribes of the Desna variant of Kiev culture
occurred in the Seim basin and farther to the south-east,
to the territory occupied by Chernyakhov culture. At
the same time a part of the Seim-Donets population and
related Chernyakhov groups moved to the Don basin,
where they formed a significant part of the population
identified with the Chertovitskoe Zamyatino group.
Presence of the Huns on the southern frontier of the
forest-steppe on the Dnieper left bank is confirmed by
the find of a cauldron in Perevolochnaya.
One cannot exclude that the above processes are
partly described by Jordanes in the narrations concerning
the wars between the Goths, the Antes and the Huns.
The processes in question had resulted in formation
of two related early Slavic cultures on the Dnieper left
bank named after sites Kolochin and Penkovka. They
developed from different groups of the Kiev population
in the second quarter mid 5th c. AD. The Chernyakhov
cultural heritage is also responsible for their relations
with the cultures of the East German circle (mirrored by
the brooches of the Tokari and Moshchenka series and
others). Physical presence of the Germans is evidenced
by the burial from Volobuevka, while finds from
Likhachevka point to the presence of nomads.
The associations containing prestigious objects may
be divided into two chronological stages. To the early
stage dating from the late 4th the first decades of the
5th cc. the Nezhin treasure is attributed; to the late one
dated back to the epoch of Attila (434-453 or somewhat
later) the burial from Porshino, the 1st and the 2nd
associations from Bolshoy Kamenets and the Rublevka
hoard. We cannot exclude that somewhere on the Upper
Psel River in the mid 5th c. there was located the centre
of an early state-like formation.
No direct prototypes for the antiquities of the Upper
Don region of the mid 1st mill. AD can be pointed to
in the local culture of the Late Roman period (Chapter
2). In the Hun period a separate cultural group of the
Chertovitskoe Zamyatino type emerged here. Its
population consisted of the Slavs, the Finno-Ugrians or

the Baltic groups and the newcomers from the areas


entering Ermanarics power and, probably, from Central
Europe, together with the migrants from the North
Pontic zone and steppe. The centre of this structure was
disposed in the locality of Ostraya Luka on the Don
River near the town of Zadonsk, Lipetsk region. A chain
of settlements was investigated in the area, a part of
them clearly being craft centres.
The Upper Don enclave had come into being in the
last decades of the 4th c. or at the turn of the 4th and the
5th cc. and developed at least till the third quarter of the
5th c. and maybe even till the 6th c. Probably, this group
was one of the centres of the Hun unity in the east with
the population forcibly resettled in the region.
The culture of the Finno-Ugrian tribes occupying the
Oka basin in the Ryazan region by the Late Roman period
had been already formed (Chapter 3). Nonetheless, in
the mid 1st mill. AD a series of innovations can be seen
in the complex of prestigious culture, pottery shapes and
sets. Glass beads are procured from new centres, their
set is marked by new features. New types of burial rites
are introduced (cremations and biritual burials). The
discussed innovations came to the Middle Oka basin
from different foci: from the area of Moshchiny and
late Dyakovo archaeological entities, as well as from
the Kama River basin. A series of elements related to
the military culture have their counterparts in Central
European, steppe and North Caucasian antiquities.
Generally, two rises of innovations are registered in the
Hun epoch the late 4th early 5th cc. and the mid 5th
c.; they are clearly mirrored in the specifics of military
equipment. It cannot be excluded that these changes
were related not only to the spread of a new epoch
style, but also to penetration of some newcomers to
the Oka basin from other territories, including Central
Europe. Anyway, migrant groups were relatively soon
assimilated by the local population of Finnish origin.
Generally, the Ryazan-Oka culture follows evolutionary
pattern of development.
Chapter 4 discusses formation of the antiquities of
the Zaozerye Uzmen circle entering Kiev cultural
and historical entity. The sites under discussion were
formed starting from the second part of the 3rd c. AD
as a result of movement of the Early Slavic groups
from the south and south-east to the Upper Dnieper and
the Desna basins. The 5th c. sees new events in these
lands. They are related to the spread of new elements
of prestigious culture and kurgan burial rite. The
innovations could have been caused by the penetration
of small groups identified with the bearers of the East
Lithuanian kurgans to the Upper Dnieper and the Dvina
basins. Still, basic cultural elements of the groups of
the third quarter of the 1st mill. AD of the Tushemlya
and Bantserovshchina type show continuity with the
traditions of the Zaozerye Uzmen cultural circle.
At present only a preliminary panorama of ethnic
changes in the Valdai and the Upper Volga regions may
be presented (Chapter 5). In the late 1st mill. BC early
1st mill. AD a new situation emerged in relation with the

Summary
spread of the middle Tushemlya pottery type. In Valdai
the changes are marked by the emergence of settlements
of the Varvarina Gora type that existed here until the
appearance of the culture of long kurgans. The Tver
region of the Volga basin entered the zone of formation
of late Dyakovo culture.
Not after the 4th c. AD in Valdai came into being
settlements of the Troitsa type with the pottery related
to the Moshchiny cultural circle. The Slavic population
appeared here not before the second part of the 5th c.,
as a result formation of the early medieval antiquities
of the Udomlya type and spreading of the culture of the
Pskov long kurgans took place. Late Dyakovo sites
existed here as late as the third quarter of the 1st mill.
AD.
In the mid third quarter of the 1st mill. AD in the
Rzhev region of the Volga basin there existed a contact
zone with combined cultural elements both of the
Valdai and the Upper Volga regions.
In the Sambian Peninsula both the Baltic and the
German population groups lived in the Roman period,
the latter had moved from the Polish Baltic littoral
and Jutland (Chapter 6). By the turn of the 4th and the
5th cc. AD the German population groups had left the
south-eastern area of the Baltic zone. The mid 5th c.
represents a borderline separating the terminal stage
of the antiquities marked by the Roman influence and
the early stage of the Prussian culture. The change of
archaeological entities is mirrored by wide spread of
some types of brooches and belt buckles, as well as
innovations in the burial rite.
The changes in population structure are reflected also
by social relations. The west-Baltic society of the early
Middle Ages differs from the earlier social structure by
its social and ethnic homogeneity. The only exception
is represented by princely burials from the Varnikam
cemetery of the early 6th c.
The changes observed in the womans attire of the
early medieval period in the Dnieper forest-steppe
region did not follow evolutionary pattern (Chapter 7).
The apparel of the Martynovka type (the 7th c.) was
quite a new phenomenon; only its separate elements

427
may be compared with the sets of ornaments dating from
the 5th and the 6th cc. The latter, in their turn, were both
of entirely alien origin or indirectly inherited from the
Chernyakhov traditions. The closest structural parallels
to the Martynovka attire represent the ornamental pieces
with enamel decoration known from the East European
cultural circle, though this style had reached its peak in
the second part of the 2nd the 3rd cc. Only separate
pieces may evidence that the discussed tradition had
survived till the early Hun time.
Mass migrations of the population in the Dnieper
forest-steppe, the Upper Don basin and the South-East
Baltic zone are interrelated with the events that took
place in Central, Southern and Western Europe. The
abandoned territories were immediately occupied by
the neighbours, which led to formation of new cultural
groups.
On the Middle Oka and the Upper Dnieper and in
the adjacent areas on the Dvina River development
of the cultures known there from the Late Roman
period continued, i.e. no radical changes of population
occurred. Nonetheless, in these territories newcomers
appeared as well. The Dnieper forest zone itself became
a source of wide-scale migrations. In the mid 1st mill.
AD the process of spreading of Slavic tribes started
from this spacious region in southerly direction to the
forest-steppe on the Dnieper left bank, other population
flows went northward and eastward as far as the Pskov
region and the Volga basin. Another migration pot
may be located in the Oka basin. Groups from this area
reached the Don basin in the South-East and the Upper
Volga in the North-West. In the South-Eastern Baltic
region another centre of active population movements
is registered.
The most significant source of migrations that
strongly influenced many European peoples was
represented by the waves of the Turk units from the east.
The centres of the Hun epoch that comprised both allied
and subordinate population existed not only in Ostraya
Luka on the Don River, but probably also in Tanais, in
the Bosporus and on the Lower and Middle Danube as
far as Southern Poland.
Translated by L.I. Avilova

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2. (.. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.4. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.5. . . . . . 79
2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
3. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
3.1. (.. , .. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
3.2. (.. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
3.3. (.. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
3.4. (.. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
3.5. (.. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
3.6. (.. , .. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

430

4. - (.. , .. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
4.2. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
4.3. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
4.5. I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
4.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
5. (.. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
5.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
5.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
5.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
6. (.. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
7. ( )
(.. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
(.. , .. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428

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117036, , . . , 19.
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