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Hyperboreus Vol.15 (2009) Fasc.

. II*
,
, ,
, ,
.1
,2 -
( gnwstikj). ,
,
, ,
,
,3 , , *

. I .: Hyperboreus 14 (2008): 1, 91117.


.: A. Mhat, Vraie et fausse gnose daprs Clment dAlexandrie,
in: Rediscovery of Gnosticism. Proceedings of the Intern. Conf. on Gnosticism at
Yale New Haven, Connecticut I (Leiden 1980) 432: Il a tir des crits hrtiques
des dogmes, auquels il a oppos la gnose ecclsiastique elle-mme condense en
dogmes; , :
1. : / : ,
.
2. /
.
3. / ,
.
4. : (gnwstiko, , klekto), (yuciko) (liko, , sarkiko) / :
, . .
5. , (=
) / .
6. /
, . . (ibid., 428429).
2 kklhsiastik gnsij (Strom. VII. 103. 6); . : Iren. Adv. haer.
IV. 33. 8:
(Gnsij lhqj, tn postlwn didac ka t
rcaon tj kklhsaj ssthma kat pantj to ksmou).
3 , , ,
(moion toj nqrpoij),
1

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. .

102

,4 ,5
6 ,
(tn yucn <> kaqarn),
(p to genntou qeo) (dnamin) ,
, (toj kosmopoioj), .
, , ,
(moouj) , (dunatwtrouj)
, (diaforwtrouj) , (Adv. haer. I. 25. 12; . ibid., I. 13. 6 ); . . I
. 37.
4 , , ,
, (zhten tn qen ka j on
te ginskein piceiren: Strom. II. 47. 4). , : (firmam et veram de Deo scientiam: Adv. haer. II. 28. 1),
,
(alterum Deum), , (ibid., II.
28. 2). , ,
(in infinitum minor Deo) , ,
(omnium experientiam et cogitationem: ibid., II. 25. 3),
( )
(nia d ka ej gnsin lluqe tn metran: ibid., II. 28. 3), (
1Ko 13. 9: ) (perfecti) , , , . ., (altitudines Dei
exquisisse; . t bqh to qeo 1 2. 10)
(universaliter universam cepisse eorum quae sunt agnitionem: ibid., II. 28. 9).
5 : ( )
(na mn autn ktzei ka dhmiourge: Strom. VII. 13. 3), ,
,
, (pol d mllon megqei
pasn maqsewn ka lhqev diafrousa gnsij calepwtth ktsasqai
ka n poll kamtJ perignetai: ibid., VI. 96. 4); <>
(stin gr <> gnsij telewsj tij nqrpou j nqrpou: ibid., VII. 55. 1), . . (pistesai d qemlioj gnsewj: ibid.,
VII. 55. 5; . pstij gnwstik: ibid., VI. 76. 4),
(k pstewj ka fbou prokyaj
ej gnsin nqrwpoj: Ecl. proph. 19. 1). , , . -
: W. Vlker, Der wahre Gnostiker
nach Clemens Alexandrinus, TU 57 (Berlin 1952).
6 II . (kaqolik kklhsa: Ad Smyrn. 8. 2; . ), -

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. II

103

, . , , (Strom. III. 44. 3):


o gr lgon yiln enai tn gnsn famen, ll tina pistmhn qean ka fj keno t n t yuc ggenmenon k
tj kat tj ntolj pakoj t pnta katdhla poion t
[te] n gensei atn te tn nqrwpon autn te ginskein
paraskeuzon ka to qeo pbolon kaqstasqai didskon.
, , ,
, ,

.7
:
() , (. Adv. haer. I. 10. 1),
, (n lJ t ksmJ),
, (j na okon okosa),
() ( ), ; (sumfnwj) , ,
(Adv. haer. I. 10. 2). , ( , kklhsiastiko; ., : Cels. VI. 27 Comm. Joh. XIII. 44,
) , (lhqinj cristianismj, Cels. II. 27; , , ,
). , , ( progenestth ka lhqestth kklhsa),
(Clem. Strom. VII. 107. 2).

:


(.: . . , (Prolegomena) [.
2007] 203 .). .: . . , (. 1991) 3448; ,
.
(. 1997) 254285; , , 238257.
7 , , (., ,

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. .

104

, , IIIII .
( , , ,
), ,
(, , ), ,
) II . ,
) ( , - ), , ,
) ,8
.9
`O gnwstikj). ,
pstij, fboj, gkrteia, pomon, lpj, gph,
, , gnsij ( .: A. Guillaumont, Le gnostique chez Clment dAlexandrie et chez vagre le Pontique, in: ALEXANDRINA. Mlanges
offerts au P. Claude Mondsert [Paris 1987] 195201), .
8 ., , ,
, ,
, (telewn teleiteroi <> kai gnwstikn gnwstikteroi: Adv. haer. I. 11. 5), ,
(gnwstiktatoj = scientissimus et perfectissimus . : ibid., I. 13. 1). . : N. Brox,
Gnwstiko als hresiologischer Terminus, ZNW 57 (1966) 108: Es ist leicht
denkbar, da gnwstiko als Name einer Einzelsekte von anderen Gruppen und
Schulen entlehnt wurde, zwar nicht im Sinne eines Sektennamens, aber als Selbstcharakterisierung ihrer Lehre wie ihrer persnlichen Qualifikation; . . I
. 59.
9 , , , , , , (:
) (Cristiano kalontai: 1Apol. 26. 4); .
: ()
(smn <> x pntwn nqrpwn mej Cristiano mnoi: Hippol. Ref. V. 9.
22); Clem. Strom. III. 3. 4 ,
(podumenoi t noma to Cristo), : ,
, , ,
- , () (ka gr ka nn mwnmwj o nqrwpoi psaj tj arseij, Manicaouj t fhmi ka Markiwnistj, Gnwstikoj te ka llouj, Cristianoj kalosi ka mwj ksth

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. II

105

, . . - ,10 .11
12 gnwstikj , ,
.13 , ,
aresij, kaper llwj legomnh, katadcetai toto...; . Pan. 30. 1. 3);
, , . Epiph. Pan. 27. 3. 4.
,
. , (speraverat episcopatum Valentinus)
(Adv. Val. 4. 1); . (.
600 .) , (otoj d Balentnoj
pskopoj ggonen Agptou: De rec. haer. 17 B; PG 86); , ('Arcontiko), ( IV .) (kaqVrqh p to presbuterou) , (tn tn Gnwstikn metin aresin: Pan. 40. 1. 5).
10 -ianj ( . -ianus),
, , , (les partisans dun personnage: P. Chantraine, La formation des noms en
grec ancien, Socit de linguistique de Paris. Collection linguistique 38 [Paris
1933] 197; im Plural <>, um eine Gruppe von Parteianhngern zu bezeichnen: E. Peterson, Christianus, in: id., Frhkirche, Judentum und Gnosis [Rom
1959] 6970) ( cristiano),
(. . I . 5 57).
11 , , : , (Si enim haeretici sunt, christiani esse
non possunt: Praesc. 37. 2); . (. 310 .): ,
() , , , , - ,
(Christiani esse desierunt); , , (Div. inst. IV. 30. 10), . .
12 Terminus ante quem ( 177 180 .; . . I . 9294),
, 154165 .
(. . I . 9798),
20 . , , ,
- (. . 78).
13 . B. Layton, Prolegomena to the Study of Ancient Gnosticism, in: The
Social World of the First Christians. Essays in Honor of W. A. Meeks. Ed. by L. M.
White and O. L. Yarbrough (Minneapolis 1995) 338: The specific reason why the
creator of this hairesis chose the name Gnostike (Knowledge-Supplying) is not
clear.

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. .

106

( ),14 ,
, . , -ikj, , , yucikj pneumatikj (
), .15
14 ,
, .
, , , (. . I . 47) (paideqh <> par t
patr tn gkklion paidean ka t Pltwnoj: Strom. III. 5. 3);
, , , (cum imaginibus mundi philosophorum, vidilicet cum imagine Pythagorae et
Platonis et Aristotelis et reliquorum: Adv. haer. I. 25. 6); . Epiph. Pan. 31. 2. 3
, (n 'Alexandrev d pepaidesqai tn tn `Ellnwn paidean), , Platonicus fuerat (Praesc. 7. 3); ,
(Esti mn on Oalentnou aresij Puqagorikn cousa ka
Platwnikn tn pqesin: Ref. VI. 21. 1); ,
, , ,
(lwj gr t mn atoj par to Pltwnoj elhptai: Plot. Enn. II. 9. 6 [10
11]), . .
( ) ( ,
[588 B 589 B], ,
: Nag Hammadi Codices VI. 5),
.
,
,
: I think, then, in general,
that any influence which may have been exerted by any kind of Greek philosophy
on Gnosticism was not genuine but extraneous and for the most part superficial.
We are dealing with the use of Greek ideas, often distorted or strangely developed,
in a context which is not their own, to commend a different way of faith and
feeling, not with a genuine growth of any variety of Gnosticism out of philosophy,
whatever some ancient heresiologists may have thought (A. H. Armstrong, Gnosis and Greek Philosophy, in: Gnosis. Festschrift fr Hans Jonas. Hg. von B. Aland
et al. [Gttingen 1978] 101).
15
-ikj, filsofoj, aresij . .
(Platonikj,
'Aristotelikj), - ('Akadhmikj, Stwikj)
() (: 'Aporhtiko ka Skeptiko ka Zhthtiko: D. L. IX. 69; . skeptik aresij Iren.

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. II

107

, , 1
2. 1416, , , :
(14) yucikj d nqrwpoj o dcetai t to pnematoj to qeo
<> ka o dnatai gnnai, ti pneumatikj nakrnetai. (15)
d pneumatikj nakrnei [t] pnta <> (16) tj gr gnw
non kurou, j sumbibsei atn; mej d non Cristo comen.

, , . .
, (gignskein) ,
(gnwstikj), . . ,
.16 , , , 17 , , , ,18 , .19
. ,
, *gnwstikismj20 ( , Adv. haer. I. 11. 1 [. . I . 98] gnwstik aresij),

.
16 gignskein, gnsij ( ), , , gph; ., : 1 8. 12.
17 1 2. 1415 + 1 15. 48 (coikj)
: Iren. Adv. haer. I. 8. 3 (. . I
. 37). .:
E. H. Pagels, The Gnostic Paul. Gnostic Exegesis of the Pauline Letters (Philadelphia 1975).
18 . . I . 32 , 1 2. 13
14 st t to pnematoj rrhta mustria, mej (. . ) smen
mnoi: Ref. V. 8. 27.
19 , ,
, , (o
qaumasitatoi gnwstiko, feureta kainj tcnhj grammatikj: V. 8. 1)
?
20 -ismj
-zein, *gnwstikzein (.
. 23), ,

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. .

108

, cristianismj21 oudaismj22),
, ; () gnsij. (Henry More, 16141687), Antidote against Idolatry (1664 .)
(the old abhorred) Gnosticism. 23
- ,
24 , man in der
;
, , platwnzein ( , : Orig. Cels. IV. 83)
platwnismj; XVI . , ( -, ), nicht etwa wertfrei
die Philosophie des Platons, sondern es meint ein unerlaubtes, unangemessenes
Hinneigen zu Platon (das einem Christen nicht erlaubt ist) (H. Drrie, Was ist
sptantiker Platonismus? berlegungen zur Grenzziehung zwischen Platonismus und Christentum, Theologische Rundschau 36 [1971]: 4, 288). -
. : F. Dornseiff, Der
-ismus (1919), in: id., Kleine Schriften II: Sprache und Sprechender. Hrsg. von
J. Werner (Leipzig 1964) 318329.
21 cristianismj ( )
: mqomen kat Cristianismn zn (Ad Magn. X. 1), kat Cristianismn zn
cristianzein, (Cels. III. 80).
22 oudaismj 2 2. 21 ( II . . .),
.
23 .: Oxford English Dictionary VI (Oxford 21989) 616; .:
Layton (. 13) 348349, ; , gnosticize (*gnwstikzw)
to adopt or expound gnostic views.
(K. Rudolph, Gnosis and Gnosticism the Problems of their Definition and
their Relation to the Writing of the New Testament, in: id., Gnosis und sptantike
Religionsgeschichte. Gesammelte Aufstze, NHMS 42 [Leiden 1996] 43): Most of
these -isms, including Gnosticism, have arisen since around 1750.
24 (, Gnostizismus
Gnosis)
Von dem Worte Gnosis und Gnostikus (J. L. von Mosheim,
Versuch einer unpartheiischen und grndlichen Ketzergeschichte [Helmstedt 1746;
neu hg. u. eingeleitet von D. Fleischer, Waltrop (Reken) 1995] 117119);
Gnosis , die irrigen Lehrer der ersten Kirche,
die <> sich selbst die Gnostiker genennet (ibid., 117; . . I . 59). -

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109

Antike eine solche bergreifende Gruppenbildung nicht kannte,25 , II . , ,


,
1966 .,

() . ..26
. .

The paper collects and analyses main evidence on the use of the word gnwstikj in
the 2nd4th century philosophy, both pagan (Celsus, Plotinus, Porphyrius) and
Christian heresiological (Irenaeus, Clemens, Hippolytus, Tertullianus, Epiphanius). Originally, Plato uses gnwstikj as an adjective (Polit. 258 E; gnwstik
pistmh). In the second half of the 2nd century, followers of one of the early
Christian opposition movements use the word as a self-epithet (e. g. Adv. haer. I. 11.
5: gnwstikn gnwstikteroi). Later the gnwstikj is substantivated, most likely
under the influence of the Pauline Epistles (e. g. 1Cor 2. 1416). Starting from
Irenaeus, the word refers to any Christian dualist heretic.

: Is Gnosticism a Christian heresy? (J. E. Mnard, Normative SelfDefinition in Gnosticism, in: Jewish and Christian Self-Definition. I: The
Shaping of Christianity in the Second and Third Centuries. Ed. by E. P. Sanders
[Philadelphia 1980] 134) Is Gnosticism a Religion? (B. A. Pearson, Gnosticism as a Religion, in: id., Gnosticism and Christianity in Roman and Coptic
Egypt [New York London 2004] 201; . : It is legitimate
to talk about Gnosticism as a religion analogous to Judaism or Christianity, ibid., 213) .
25 J. Holzhausen, Gnostizismus, Gnosis, Gnostiker. Ein Beitrag zur antiken
Terminologie, JAC 44 (2001) 74. ,
(, , -),
, ,
.
26

In order to avoid an undifferentiated use of the terms gnosis and Gnosticism, it seems to be advisable to identify <> Gnosticism <> with a certain
group of systems of the Second Century A.D. (Le origini dello Gnosticismo.
Colloquio di Messina 1318 aprile 1966. Ed. U. Bianchi [Leiden 1967] XXVI).

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