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53 shows a non-syrnetricalsignal due to a non-

linear amplification stagein the modulation circuits of
an AM transmitter. The curvature of the top and bottom
portions of the trapezoid are due to the non-linear
amplification. An extreme caseof non-linear amplifica-

Fig. i2-Trapezoidal pattern showing signs of phase


for these connections.When a signal is applied to the

transmitter, the waveformshown in Fig. 51 results.If a
phase shift like that shown in Fig. 52 is evident, the
scope'shorizontal input is not connectedto the modula- Fig. |4-TYapezoidal pattern showing seuere mse of
tion line. Examine the transmitter schematicdiagram to non-linear modulation.
make sure there are no inductors or capacitorsbetween
the modulation line and scope connection that may tion is shown in Fig. 54 . The next waveforms in Fig.
causesuch a phase-shift. 55 show the three signals used to produce the
waveform in Fig. 54 . Fig. A showsthe modulation sig-
If the transmitter output is unmodulated,a vertical line nal being applied to the collectorsof the RF transistors.
should be present on the scope.Applying modulation Fig. B shows the resulting RF output. The audio input
forms the trapezoid. The formulas for determining signal is shown in Fig. C.
modulation using the trapezoidal method of waveform
analysis are the same as for standard modulation. The
amplitude of the unmodulated carrier (the vertical line
just mentioned) is used as the reference.The maximum
and minimum points of the trapezoid are then used for
determining positive and negativemodulation.

Fig. ii-Signals used to produce waueform in Fig-

ure 54.

If the transmitter is showing signs of negative over-

modulation, the waveform shown in Fig. 56 results.
The "tail" at the left of the waveform is a result of the
clipped portion of the modulation envelope.
Ftg. |?-Tfapezoidal pattern showing slight amount
of non-linear modulation.