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. ..

..

2007

2
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
7
10

3
3.1 . .
3.2 ? -
3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11
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29
34
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37
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44
44
53
62

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67
67
72
72
75
76
77
77
78
83
85
86

4
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 . . . . . . . .
4.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2 . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.5 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

106
106
108
110
114
116

121

7
7.1 . . . . . . . .
7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3
7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7 . . . . . . . . .
7.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

123
123
125
126
128
130
131
134
134

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89
89
96
101
102
103

137

, , (), , ,
, , . , ,
(1879-1955) 1915 , .
. , , . , ,
, . ,
.
. ,
,
, . ,
,
.
.
,
1-2 .
. ,
,
. . , , ,
. , ,
, ,
.
.. .. , , .. ,
.

2
2.1

,
, .
, , , ,
. ,
(, ,
). , ,
, .
, , (, , ,
), (,
, -), , . , , 1967

( , M 1.4M 3 1033 , R 10 15 ,
P 1 c),
()
, , , MCh 1.4M .
, . , . , , - (, ,
) .
, , .
, Jr = Ir ,
Ir MR2 ,
= 2/P .
, . ,

, .
7

Wtot 5 1038 /,
. .
, ,
,
. ,
, (P 0.033 c) ,
. ,
= /t
,
1. ,
W = Ir ,
Wtot 5 1038 /,
1000 2. D = 0.5/||
, , , AD 1054.
, , . , , , , 1974
, , .
,
.
( , , ) ,
, ,
-, . , (, , )
.
!
, ( , ,
) ,
. . , ,
8

,
, .
, , , , .
rg = 2GM/c2 ,
. , (, , ,
) .
,
( ),
.
( Pb < 10 ) ,
,
, ,
.
,
. , , , ,
.
. ,
, , , ,
. . , ,
, . ,
, , , . ,
.
, , , () ,
.

2.2

. ,
, ..
. ,
. ,
. (1643-1727) .. (1646-1716)
, .
, . ;
. , . , ,
, .
, .
, , , , . . , ,
dx x, .. dx x, dx/dt x t
x
dx

.
dt
t

(1)

, = /t
t: = d/dt.
, , .
vx
x t: vx = dx/dt. f (x, y)/x .. f (x, y) x, , y
.
, .
,
. , .
.

10

3.1

, . ,
, , g
M
M
(2)
g = G 2 n.
r
G = 6.67 108 3 1 2 , n
, ,
. , F = mg, m,

Mm
(3)
F = G 2 n,
r
, ,
M. , F,
q, F = qE, E
. F = ma, ,

a = g.
(4)
- g , ,
.
g (2)
GM
g =
(5)
r
( ). , . ,
m
E=

mv 2
+ mg .
2

(6)

g(r) = gr (r)
g (r)
g(r) =
11

dg
.
dr

(7)

, . ,
.
1. (4) , . ( , )
m, (3),
m, F = ma. , ,
.
2. a = g (4)
. , a, , F
(3), ,
. , d2 r(t)/dt2
r(t) = vt + r0 . ,
( ) .
3. ( ), (
). (2), (3),
, .
4.
g (2), g (5).
g g (.
(7)),

g (r).

3.2

? -

(.. ) , , , .

12

, . (1571-1630),
. , XX ,
.
, ,
, .
,
(
). ,
,
, ,
.. (1831-1879), . , , ,
, .. (1853-1928),
, .
, XX - . ,
, . , , - .
, - ,
, ,
.
,
. (, ,
), a = g.
g, a
.
, , ( , , , )
. , , , g (r), , ,
.
( ) A, Ax , Ay , Az , .. A
x, y, z, , . , . , ,

13

z (. . 1),

x = x cos + y sin ;

y = x sin + y cos ;

z = z,

(8)

Ax , Ay , Az Ax , Ay , Az

Ax = Ax cos + Ay sin ;

Ay = Ax sin + Ay cos ;

Az = Az .

(9)

, A, , . , (9) , A. , . ,

|A| = A2 ,
A2 = A2x + A2y + A2z ,
(10)
.

(11)

(A B) = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz .

,
(A B) = |A| |B| cos ,
(12)
, .
V
x,
x = x V t;

y = y;

z = z,

(13)

(
). , t = t (13) .
(1564-1642).
, ..
, V
x. dt dr
dt V dx/c2
dt = q
;
1 V 2 /c2

dx V dt
dx = q
;
1 V 2 /c2
14

dy = dy;

dz = dz.

(14)

Ay

A y

A x

j
Ax

. 1:
(8) (14), ,
. , ,
(8)
dx + tg dy
;
dx = q
1 + tg2

dy tg dx
dy = q
:
1 + tg2

dz = dz,

(15)

, V 2 /c2
tg2 . .
, (10),
.. . -,
, ,
(ds)2 = c2 (dt)2 + (dr)2 .

(16)

ds - . - . (1864-1909).
, , . ,
, . , ,
E 2 c2 p2 = m2 c4 ,
mc2
E=q
1 v 2 /c2
15

(17)

mv
p= q
1 v 2 /c2

(18)

. , ,
dt dr. ,
: ( )
()
-, .
,
, t r:

E =

E V px

1V

2 /c2

px

px V E/c2

1V

2 /c2

py = py ,

pz = pz .

(19)

, -
. , ,
, . , .
- , , .
-, , (), () .
, ,
, .
, ,
, . ,
. ,
,
. . , , ,
, .
ds2 = c2 dt2 + dr2 . ,
t1 r1 t2 r2 . , (
- )
(s)2 = c2 (t)2 + (r)2 = 0.
16

(20)

t = t2 t1 r = r2 r1 . , , ,
.
, .
,
I1 = B2 E2 I2 = (E B) (, ).
,
E B, ,
I1 = I2 = 0,
. , .
,
I1 = I2 = 0 (, , E 6= 0, B 6= 0),
.

. ,
g = GM/r (5) (, ,
gr = GM/r 2 ) . ( - , r),

!
1 d
2 dg
r
= 4Gm ,
(21)
r 2 dr
dr
g = gr
1 d  2 
r g = 4Gm .
r 2 dr

(22)

m . , , (22)
g
dg
+ 2 = 0.
dr
r

(23)

, C/r2 , C . C, .. M, (23) .
P
(22) , =
gS g
,
, 4G
= 4GM
17

(24)

( S ; , S , ).
, ;
. -
r.
4r 2 g = |g|, , g .
, (2).
. ,
, , .
, , ,
, , ,
. , , ,
(24), .
, , .
, .
,
(,
). , - , ,
,
.
, , ,
, . ( ,
) . , , ,
, .. ,
. :
v
(25)
F = eE + e B,
c
, p t,
18

F = p/t,
. ,
.
, (25),
, ,
.
, , , -. . , , , x-
g, x
px
= mg,
t

(26)

, V x,

px + V E/c2
= mg,
(27)
t + V x /c2

px
= mg.
t

(28)

, - . , XX
, ,
.
, , .
.
, , , , (, )
. (
) () ,
. , ,
.

19

3.3

, , , , , . , ,
. , , .
. , ,
1.
(),
2.
( ).
, , (.. ,
), , ..
.
, , Ekin
v m .
,
q
Ekin = mc2 / 1 v 2 /c2
(17).
, Ekin = mv 2 /2,
mvx2
Ekin =
.
(29)
2
: ?
, , (, ) ,
. ,
(29), v m. , ,
(29) .
, , (29) , m2 . ,
, m2 v 2 .
20

, , . (, !)
M . ,
mvx2 m2 vx2
+
.
(30)
Ekin =
2
M

, m M . ,
, (30)
m .
, ,
. , ,
.
,
vx3 . C . ,
mvx2 mvx3
Ekin =
+
.
(31)
2
C
, x 180 , ..
vx vx . , , ,
v3.
, , vx4 /C 2 ,
(29). C (, , ) ,
. (17) ,

mvx2 3 mvx4
+
+ ...,
(32)
Ekin = mc2 +
2
8 c2
q

, C = 8/3 c, c .
,
. ,
vx2 v 2 = vx2 + vy2 + vz2 , , ,
. ,
. ,
,

21

,
Ekin =

mxx vx2 mxy vx vy mxz vx vz myx vx vy myy vy2


+
+
+
+
2
2
2
2
2
(33)
+

myz vy vz mxz vx vz myz vy vz


+
+
+
2
2
2

mzz vz2
2

, , ,
: mxx , mxy , mxz , myx , myy , myz , mzx , mzy mzz .
(33) , vx vy vy vx ,
vx vz vz vx , vy vz vz vy , mxy = myx , mxz = mzx myz = mzx .
,
,

mxx

< m >=
mxy
mxz

mxy
myy
myz

mxz

myz
.
mzz

(34)

mxx = myy =
mzz = m mxy = mxz = myx = myz = mzx = mzy = 0,

< m >= 0
0

0
m
0

0
.
m

(35)

, (33) . , , (34)
, (32). , . ,
, . (
), ( , )
.
, 1 .
, () (34) . , ,
, , .
1

,
.

22

, , ,
, ,
mxx , myy mzz , , ,
. ,
.
, . ,
, , ,
!
mxx
mxy
,
(36)
< m >=
myx
myy
, : mxx = myy ,
mxy = myx = 0.
, ,
, ,
2 2, . :
mx x = mxx cos2 + mxy sin cos + myx sin cos + myy sin2 ,
mx y = mxx sin cos + mxy cos2 myx sin2 + myy sin cos ,

my x = mxx sin cos mxy sin2 + myx cos2 + myy sin cos ,
my y = mxx sin2 mxy sin cos myx sin cos + myy cos2 .

(37)

, , ,
,
. , mxx = myy = m, mxy = myx = 0

mx x = m,
mx y = 0,
my x = 0,
my y = m.
, ,
90 , .. cos = 0, sin = 1. ,
mx x = myy ,
mx y = myx ,

my x = mxy ,
my y = mxx .
23

, 90 ""
, . , . , mxx = myy = m,
mxy = myx = 0 ( , ).
.
1. (, -)
, .
2. ( M,
c), .
3. ( v c) .
4. () ().

3.4
3.4.1

() -, < m >, < >, etc.,


. , ,
.
.
, ,
. ,
(dr)2
. x, y, z (. 2)
(dr)2 = (dx)2 + (dy)2 + (dz)2 .

(38)

r, , z (. 2)
(dr)2 = (dr)2 + r 2 (d)2 + (dz)2 .

(39)

, r, , (. 2)
(dr)2 = (dr)2 + r 2 (d)2 + r 2 sin2 (d)2 .
24

(40)

, , , ..
. ,
,

0
1
0

0
r2
0

< g >D =
0
0

< g >cyl = 0
0

< g >sph = 0
0

(41)

(42)

0
r2
0

r 2 sin2

(43)

.
, , p, q, h,
, -

gpp
gpq
gph

,
g
g
g
(44)
< g >=
pq
qq
qh

gph
gqh
ghh

(dr)2 = gpp (dp)2 + 2gpq (dp)(dq) + gqq (dq)2 + ghh (dh)2

(45)

+2gpq (dp)(dq) + 2gph (dp)(dh) + 2gqh (dq)(dh).


, (. . 3),
x = x y;

y = y;

z = z,

(46)


(dr)2 = (dx + dy )2 + (dy )2 + (dz )2 = (dx )2 + 2(dy )(dx ) + 2(dy )2 + (dz )2 ,

(47)

< g >= 1
0

1
2
0
25

0
.
1

(48)

dr

dr

dz

dz
y

dy

dr
j rdj

dx

dr
rdq
j

rsinqdj

dr

. 2: dr (), () ()

x x

. 3:
26

.
, .. ds2 (ds)2 .
< g >,
, , .

.
, , , ,
F = k r j = E. , r j
F E. , , ,
(49)

jx = xx Ex + xy Ey + xz Ez ,
jy = yx Ex + yy Ey + yz Ez ,
jz = zx Ez + zy Ey + zz Ez .

,
. , ,

< >=
0
0

0
0
0

(50)

j = 0 E,
. < >

< >= 1
0

1
0
0

0
,
0

(51)

x
y, (.. ,
). z, ,
(50), . ,
z .
, < >,
< k > . , , , ,
27

. .
, (8) (9) z
x = Txx x + Txy y + Txz z,
y = Tyx x + Tyy y + Tyz z,

(52)

z = Tzx x + Tzy y + Tzz z,

Ax = Txx Ax + Txy Ay + Txz Az ,


Ay = Tyx Ax + Tyy Ay + Tyz Az ,

(53)

Az = Tzx Ax + Tzy Ay + Tzz Az ,


cos

< T >=
sin
0

sin
cos
0

0
.
1

(54)

, .
,
:
.
, ,
.
1.
< A >2 = (Axx )2 + 2(Axy )2 + 2(Axz )2 + (Ayy )2 + 2(Ayz )2 + (Azz )2 ,

(55)

2. .. (- Spur)
Sp < A >= Axx + Ayy + Azz .

(56)

(55) (56) , (37).


, , . . ,
Sp 3 (41)(43).
, .
28

3.4.2

.
3 3. ,
- , , 4 4,
(
). .
, < g >. , ds

ds2 = gtt dt2 + gxx dx2 + gyy dy 2 + gzz dz 2 ,

(57)

ds2 = gtt dt2 + grr dr 2 + g d2 + g d2 ,

(58)

0
< g >Minkovsky,D =

0
0

(59)

0
1
0
0

0
< g >Minkovsky,sph =

0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
0
r2
0

0
,
0

0
,

2
2
r sin

(60)

.
, -. (58)
dr 2 = gxx dx2 + gyy dy 2 + gzz dz 2 , -
. , - (59) .
.
, (14), ds2 ,
4 4
cdt = tt cdt + tx dx,

dx

= xt cdt + xx dx,

(61)
(62)

dy = yy dy,

(63)

dz = zz dz,

(64)

29

...

< >=

1
1V 2 /c2
V /c

1V 2 /c2

V /c

1V 2 /c2
12 2
1V /c

0
0

1
0

(65)

0
1

c t,
.
, , ,
( !)
, , ,
. .
, , , , .
() ,
() , .. -
.
.
, , , , ()
.

( , /3 ),
S ( , /3
/).
,
.

P (..
, / 1/3 ),
.
, . 4, x-
, x, (, ,
x).
3 3 = 9 .
, < t >,
, /c /c 1/3 .
30

y
x

. 4: x-

, .
q

1. p = Ev/c2 E = mc2 / 1 v 2 /c2 q

p = mv/ 1 v 2 /c2 ,
1/c ; t ct,
, ,

2. < > < k >, < t > , , ,


.
, p = Ev/c2, P = v/c2
P S = v, , .
, 44, -
( -)
< T >=

S
,
<t>

(66)

, , S < t >,
. , , .
, -
. ,
31

, , . , < t > .
, , . , txx x-
, x, txy x- , y, .. ,
, , .
,
, .
P , ,
(P = /),
(P = /).
.
, ,
v x. , ,

q
2
part = m c , m , = 1/ 1 v 2 /c2 -.
S = m c2 (v/c), ..
( 1/c ,
, -, ).
, . ,
S v. ,
-
part

(v/c)part
< T >part =

(v/c)part
(v 2 /c2 )part
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
.
0

(67)

,
part

(vx /c)part
< T >part =

(vy /c)part
(vz /c)part

(vx /c)part
(vx2 /c2 )part
(vx vy /c2 )part
(vx vz /c2 )part

(vy /c)part
(vx vy /c2 )part
(vy2 /c2 )part
(vy vz /c2 )part


m c2

0
< T >part =

0
0

32

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
,
0

(vz /c)part

(vx vz /c2 )part


.
(vy vz /c2 )part

2 2
(vz /c )part

(68)

(69)

,
x. -

em
em
0
0

em
em
0
0

.
< T >em =
(70)
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

em = (E 2 + B 2 )/8 (. ). , - m c2
(E 2 + B 2 )/8 v c. , ,
P ,

0
0
0

0
P
0
0

.
< T >gas =
(71)
0
P
0
0

0
0
0
P
- ,
. , T 1011 K, ,
- (71) (69).
, -
(
), ( ). -. ,
(.. )
- , .
, ,
, (
, , !) , ,
. , < T >
, , . , ,
- .

33

. 5: , , .

3.5
3.5.1

, , , ..
, ?
. . .
,
, ..
(1777-1855) . (1826-1866), .. (1792-1856), .. (1829-1900) . - (1853-1925).
. < g > , , , .

, , .. .
, .
,
, , (. . 5).

34

, , , < g > 2 2, ..
.
, , . , ,
,
. , , . ,
, .
, . , , ,
, , ,
. , ..
.
: , , . , ,
. ,
. , .
, . ,
, . 5. , , ( )
, 2 .
, , ,
.
, k , R1 R2 , , (, ,
) ,
k=

1
.
R1 R2

(72)

, ,
, .
. , . 6,
2

, .

35

R2

R1=R2

R1

. 6: () () .
, .
,

. 7: ,
3/2, (
) 4
, ( , , , ).
,
, .
.
, , . ,
. ,
.
, , . , ,
? , ,
, ?
36

, . , .
.
L0 /R 2
.
. , , . 7, 3/2, (
) , . 7, .
, , . ,
, . ,
, L0 /R
.
3.5.2

( , ) . , L0 /R,
.
(, , ) , .
, ,
.
, .

, .
, , .. ,
.
, ,
(. . 8).
, . , , . ,
37

. 8: .
( ) . 180,

? ,
, , ,
, , .
, , A .
, ,
.
, A , A, A .
, . , AOA
,
, AOA > , , . ,
, 30 .
3.5.3

, , .
. , A, B C.
.
1. , .
2. a1 a2 , b1 b2 , c1 c2 ,
38

A B C , .
3.
(a1 a2 ), etc.
q
|a1 | = (a1 a1 ), etc.
4. cos = (a1 a2 )/(|a1 ||a2 |), etc. .
,
, < g >. ,
1 .
.
l2 = g11 (x1 , x2 )x21 + 2g12 (x1 , x2 )x1 x2 + g22 (x1 , x2 )x22 ,

(73)

l x1 x2 .
P
, l = l (
),
. ,
a1 a2 , (p, q) (p1 , q1 ) (p2 , q2 )
(a1 a2 ) = g11 p1 p2 + g12 (p1 q2 + p2 q1 ) + g22 q1 q2 .

(74)

,
(a1 a1 ) = g11 p21 + 2g12 p1 q1 + g22 q22 ,

(75)

(46).
, . ,
. r, .

!
1
0
< g >polar =
,
(76)
0
r2

dl2 = dr 2 + r 2 d2 .

(77)

, < g >.
, (77), . , R
39

r1
Q

Rc

. 9: Rc
O, (r = 0),
(r, ). (
!),
= const ( = 0), (77), l = r.
, , , ,
l (r, ) r.
,
(r, ), R = r.
, r = 0. (77),
l = r.
(78)
0 2,
P
L0 = l
L0 = 2R.
(79)
, L0 /R = 2 .
Rc .
, . 9, R

R = Rc ,
(80)

r1 = Rc sin .
40

(81)

L0/R
/
2p

pRc

. 10: L0 R
, . ,
(80) (81),
dl2 = dr 2 + r12 d2
dl2 = dr 2 + Rc2 sin2 (r/Rc )d2 .
(82)
,
< g >sph =

1
0

0
.
2
2
Rc sin (r/Rc )

(83)

: (
(76)) r , ( (83))
: 0 < R < Rc .
. , ,
. , , R Rc
(83) (76). , sin x x. , r
(!)
Rc
R
L0
.
= 2
sin
R
R
Rc


(84)

. 10, R,
R = Rc . ,
R Rc .
41

, , (83) (76), . . , . ,
( ),
. (, ,
x1 x2 ), ,
, .
, g11 = 1 g12 = 0. ,
,
< g > , .
.
.
3.5.4

, , < g >, k = 1/R1 R2 (72).


XIX .. . ..
2
(g = g11 g22 g12
)
2 g12
2 g11 2 g22
1
2

k=
2g
x1 x2
x22
x21

!
"

1
g11
+ 2 g22
4g
x2

!2

g22
g22 g11
+ g11
2g12
x1 x2
x1
!

!2

!#

g12 g22
g22
g12 g11
g11
1
2
+ g11
2
(85)

2 g22
4g
x1
x2
x1
x2
x1
x2
!
!#
"
g12 g22 g11
g12 g11
g12 g22
+ 2
2
.
+ 2

4g x2 x1
x2
x1
x1
x2
, (85)
.
, k
. x1 x2 ,
. , k = 0 k = Rc2 .
. ,
x1 = x, x2 = y ( x y),
k = 0 . x1 = r, x2 = (grr = 1,

42

g = r 2 , gr = gr = 0) g = r 2
1 2 g
grr
k=
+ 2
2
2g r
4g

g
r

!2

(86)

(85) . g g , k = 0.
, (72), , ,
1
(87)
k = 2.
Rc
g = g = Rc2 sin2 (r/Rc ), ,
(86) (72).
, , ( )
. , r1 . dl2 ,
, dl2 = r12 d2 . r1 dl2 = dr12 / cos2 . ,
dl2 =

dr12
+ r12 d2 .
2
2
1 r1 /Rc

(88)


< g >sph =

(1 r12 /Rc2 )1
0

0
r12

(89)

,
1 2 g
grr
k=
+ 2
2
2g r1
4g

g
r1

!2

g grr g
,
4g 2 r1 r1

(90)

k = Rc2 . ,
( ) 3 .
, ,
. ,
. , , ,
( ) . ,
3

r1 , , , g = r12 ,
(90) .

43

, . () ,
. ,
() ,
. ,
L0 /R , R R = const
,
. . 6.
, . 10, L0 /R . ,
L0 /R R, .. d2 (L0 /R)/dR2 . (85) (86) .
L0 /R 2, ,
S. , , ,
= kS,

(91)

k , S Rc2 . , k 2 .
,
k. ,
(3 14 ), . , ,
(85) , ..
. , ,
, .

.

3.6
3.6.1

, ,
. ,
44

, .
, ( , ,
),
. , , ,
, , .
, , . , .
c 300000 /,
. g ( , , )
c2 . ,
, g = g /c2 . M R
GM
.
(92)
c2 R
g 1 .
, M, ..
, ,
.. (1749-1827) 1795
q
. , v2 = 2GM/R
c,
g =

2GM
.
(93)
c2
, (93) . , !
, , . ,
. ,
rg =

45

, .
, , g . ,
M 2 1033 3 , rg /R 105 . , ( M 6 1027 )
0.6 , g 108 . ,
g .
, , .
(93), G,
, c
. , ,
g
g = c

"

g
g
1 + 2 + A1 2
c
c


2

+ ... ,

(94)

A1 .
, , , mc2
, , ..
. , , A1
.
.
g .
,
, .
, , ,

,
-. , . , (
) e ,
.
, , . ,
, , , . , ,
46

. , , , ;
, , .. 4 4.
, ,
. , ,
ds2 (58), gtt (..
dr2 = 0) ds2 dt :
ds2 = g00 c2 dt2 .

(95)

(96)

g00 = gtt > 0. ds2


, ,
. ,
d =

g00 dt.

g00 < 1, , g00 = 1.


, . , , , ,
, , . , , ,
, .
,
. , , , .
, .
, E =
h, h . , E ,
, .. ,
E ,
E =

47

g00 E.

(97)

. 11:
,
,
E = E + mg ,

(98)

m = E/c2 . .
, h,
E . , (97)
(98), , g00

2g
(99)
g00 1 + 2 .
c
, , (94),
.

. , . ,
. 11. , , , .
, . ,
, , ,
, (. . 12).
( ).
? ,
48

. 12: , 1 2
.
g? , .
.
4 .
g, x1 x2 .
r1 r2 ,
- (r1 , t1 ) (r2 , t1 + t).
.
, t ct.
.
, r1
v, , , r1 ,
t r2 .
v0 ( V0 ) ,
t. ,
, t = 2V0 /g. , ,

g(t)2
.
(100)
zmax =
8
, . 13, , , . , ,
4

.. , .: , 1981.

49

z
ct

zmax

x1

cdt

x2

. 13: , 1 2
.
, ,
. ( ct zmax ct x2 x1 ), ,
Rc =

c2
.
g

(101)

. ,
, ,
. , ,
. ,
.
, , 4 4.
. , ,
, , , .. , , - . ,
, . ,
, .. , , - .
dl, ..
50

. 14: . ,

, ds (16). ,
r1 r2 .
, .
, .
s,
- 1 2

. q
(s)2 , (16)
, . , |dr/dt| c,
(s)2 < 0.
-. . , (s)2 > 0 (
-)
, , .
(s)2 = 0. ,
< g >.
. ,
,
, . (1601-1665) XVII
. , 51

. , ,
. ,
, , . 14, .
, , ,
.
, , ...
(1698-1759), . (1707-1783) .. (1736-1813) . ,
, .
. , , ,
.
, , ,
. . ,
, g (4) ( , ,
, ). . (18481919)
, .
, ()
() ,
. ,
, ,
. , , , , 5 109 , ,
,
. 1961-1964 .
3 1011 , 1971 .. ..
1012 .
.
, , ,

52

( , ),
, , . ,
, , . ,
, , , . ,
, ,

, .
,
, ( ,
),
,
, ,
.
.
, .
, , ,
. , (
- < T >part (67)) ( -
< T >em (70)), - . ?..
3.6.2

. , , ,
-; , , < g >. , - (r1 , t1 ) (r2 , t2 ).
- , ..
. , ( !) ,
,
53

.
, . , , . ,
- , , ,
. -
,
.
(. ). , (85) k, , ,
.
, , ,
. , , , , - .
- < T >. ?
.
, , ,
.
.. << R >>, , , (
) -. ,
, .
, . , . 15,
(
5 ) .
A S. A A, ,
, (!) 5

, ,
.

54

A
dA
dS

. 15: A ( ).
, A
S
< r > 4 4,
A =< r > AS.

(102)

(102) . , < r >, S.


, , . , , .
, . , .
,
, , .. 4 4.
, < r >
xy, xz, xt, yz ..
4 4 4 4 = 256 . , xy yx .. , xx ..
A, , . , 14
. 2 2 2 2
R1212 , .. R1212 ,
55

. R1212
R1212 = k.

(103)

, , 4 4,
.
, 4 4,
. < R >,
6 . , ,
< g >, k (85). ,
, , . ,
< g >, 2
k.
, .. -. , ,
, - . .
, , , ,
. (1878-1936),
. . ,
( !) ,
.
, ,
.
, < T >, < R > < g > , . ,

< R >=< T > .
6

Sp.

56

(104)

, (2 ) (/3 ) , , . , , c
G, . , G/c4 ,
< R >= (G/c4 ) < T >,

(105)

. , ,
.
< g >,
. , ,
, 44
R = Sp < R >, .
1 R < g >, 1
.
. ,
.
, , .
E = ma2 , . ,
E = mb2 . . E = mc2 7 . ,
, , .
, .
, , . ,
, , ,
. , . ! ,
,
.
7

: E = ma2 + mb2 = m(a2 + b2 ) = mc2 .

57

, ,
1915 ,
8G
1
< R > R < g >= 4 < T > .
2
c

(106)

,
. 1/2 (106) .
8, , g 1 (21)
, . , , 8G/c4
, c G.
, , , . ,
(. (69)). Ttt = m c2 .
,
< g >, gtt .
gtt (99),
"

1 d 2d
2g
r
1+ 2
2
r dr
dr
c


#

8G
(m c2 ).
c4

(107)

, c (
) 2
(21).
, ,
4 4,
. ,
< g >, , ,
() , < g >.
, , ,
,
< g > . ,
.
,
, -.
58

. ,
, - .
, . ,
(106) .
< R >. ,
, Rtt (1/2)Rgtt ,
, ,
< R > (1/2)R < g >.
, -
. .
, < T >, , . ,
,
. , , -, .
, . , ,
,
.
, ,
(, ;
). ,
(106). ,
, .
, -. ,
.
, , . , , 1915
. , , . ,
, , XX
. . (1875-1922),
. (1883-1923), . (1868-1957).
- .

59

. (1862-1943).
1915 , ,
. ,
, , , .
1915 ,
. , ,
,.. , (106)
.
, , . ,
. ,

. ,
, 8 . ,
, .
, , (106),
. ,
, , ,
. , (106) < g >,
. , ,
.
, 2 , .
L = 1/2 ,
. ,
8

, ,
. , . ,

60

, .
, 1054 1055 2 . , (1023
) (1025 ), (106), ,
. .
< g > .
, . , XX , , ..
.
< g > (106), , . , 1922 (1888-1925)
, (106) - (71) , . 1929 (1889-1953),
, , . , , ,
, ,
< g >. , ,
(106).
. .

. . , A
B, , ,
A = B.
, A = KB 2 (K ) ..,
A = B. A B ,
A = sin B, A = tgB .., A = B A B,
A B 1.
, ,
, . , (106), , , .. ,
, .
( , -

61

),
, .
, .
.

3.7

.
,
, - . ,
,
, 1919 .
. .
.
. . ,
, ,

dr 2
+ r 2 (d2 + sin2 d2 ),
(108)
ds2 = c2 d 2 +
1 r 2 /Rc2

, Rc ( ) .. , . ( = 0
, = 1 = 1 ). , , ,
.
(1 r 2 /Rc2 )1 , (88). rr
( )
R c2
c2
8G
+
3
= 2 ,
2
2
Rc
Rc
c
c
R
4G
= 2 ( + 3P ) .
Rc
3c
3

(109)
(110)

, , -,
(71). ,
62

Rc = const. -
1
8G
< R > R < g >= 4 < T > + < g >,
2
c

(111)

, ,
c2
8G
R c2
+
3
= 2 + c2 ,
2
2
Rc
Rc
c
c
c2 4G
R
=

( + 3P ) .
Rc
3
3c2

(112)
(113)

, Rc . ( )
-, . , , .
.
,
< M > = diag(1, 1, 1, 1) (59), ..

< g > = < M > + < h >,

(114)

< h > 1, .. < h > .



1 2
2
<
h
>

< h > = 0.
r2
c2 t2

(115)

, (115) ,
.
(
-), .
, .
,
, A t (. . 16), , t r/c.
, , .
, , , (.
63

t-r/c
t
A(r,t)

. 16: . , A t, ,
t r/c
)
32 G4 M12 M22 (M1 + M2 )
f (e).
5
c5 a5
M1 M2 , a , a
Wg =

73 2 37 4
e +
e (1 e2 )7/2
f (e) = 1 +
24
96


(116)

(117)

e. ,
f (0) = 1. ,
.
,
. .
(1873-1916).
(106) < T >= 0, .. ,


ds2 = 1

2GM 2 2
2GM
c
dt
+
1

c2 r
c2 r


1

dr 2 + r 2 d2 + r 2 sin2 d2 .

(118)

r = rg = 2GM/c2 . . ,
. ,
- ,
r = rg . (118)
(, , ) . , r = rg
R.
r , ,
64

rg
.
r = 1+
4

(119)


1 rg /4
ds =
1 + rg /4
2

!2

rg
c dt + 1 +
4
2

!4

(d2 + 2 d2 + 2 sin2 d2 ).

(120)

, , .
.
, , , . (,
) .
, .

65

66

4.1

, , . .. ,
. ,
g =

GM
,
c2 R

(121)

.. . ,
, , rg . ,
, g 2 106 , g 7 1010 .
,
.
, .
, , g . ,

rg2
rg
rg
ds = 1 + 2 + . . . c2 dt2 + 1 + + . . . (d2 + 2 d2 + 2 sin2 d2 ), (122)




rg
rg rg2
2 2
+ . . . c dt + 1 + + . . . dr 2 + r 2 d2 + r 2 sin2 d2 .
ds = 1 +
r
2
r
r
(123)

2

= = = 1.

(124)

, . , ,
g00 = 1 2GM/c2 r. 6= 1
g = GM/r.
67

g ( g = GM/r 2), M. ,
, .
, ,
. g 1
(118)
2GM
2GM 2 2
c dt + 1 + 2
dr 2 + r 2 d2 + r 2 sin2 d2 .
ds = 1 2
cr
cr
2

g 1

(125)

1 G2 M 2
GM
g = c2 g00 c2

.
(126)
r
2 c2 r 2
,
, ,
. , (125), ,
c, dr cdt, grr .
grr 2GM/c2 r, g00 . ,
g00 grr .

, F = mg
, v.
.
, F = ma, m,



v
(127)
F=m g+ H ,
c
(25). e m , , B
H,
.
, (127) , , , ,
. ,
. ,
.
68


div E = 4e ,
(128)
1 B
= 0,
(129)
rot E +
c t
div B = 0,
(130)
4
1 E
=
j.
(131)
rot B
c t
c
e , j = e v
. .
, .
, . , , . . ,
, ,
. , .
-.
,
div g = 4Gm ,
(132)
1 H
rot g +
= 0,
(133)
c t
div H = 0,
(134)
16
1 g
=
Gm v.
(135)
rot H
c t
c
.
, -.
g H, . ,
( ).
, g , H B.
g ,
H . , (132), tt
, (23). ,

rot g =
69

1 H
,
c t

(136)

. 17: H ,
z v
rot H =

1 g
,
c t

(137)

,
, c.
. , ( z)
g=

2G
g er ,
r

(138)

g (/) , r z, er
, z.
v (. . 17), g
H, , (135),
-
H=

8Gv
g e .
r c

(139)

,
,
v 2 /c2 . , , ..
70

B
FH

FA
-

FA

FH

. 18: B H. r FA , FA = ev B/c
.

, . ,
, ,
, , , , .
, H, , g.
M
Jr = 2/5MR2 ez
GM
n,
r2
2G Jr 3n(Jr n)
,
H =
c
r3
g =

(140)
(141)

.. .
, . , ... (1819-1868).
,
. , .
, ; , , , .

. . 18, FA = ev B/c, , B , ,
71

9 , ,

L =

eB
.
2me c

(142)

, , , FH = mv H/c ,
, . (, ,
), .
(142) e m. ,

g =

H
.
2c

(143)

H (141) c1 , : g c2 .
, , . , ,
,
. , , H, ..
, . , ,
. ,
I1 = B2 E2 , ,
, - . ,
.

4.2
4.2.1

, . , ,
9

72

1: .
v; / = v/c

B
40 B

M
R
v (obs)
(M )
(R )
(/)
1.05 0.03 0.0074 0.0006 89.0 1.6
0.48 0.02 0.0124 0.0005 23.9 1.3

v (th)
(/)
90 8
24 1

h, , .
g (97) , R
GM

= 2 .

cR

(144)

R1 , R2 ,




GM 1
1
.
(145)
= 2

c
R1 R2
.
, H = R2 R1 10 / 1015 (
v; / = v/c).
. .
1960 -. , -, , ,
.
22.5 , -
= 2.2 1019 c1 . , v = 7.5 105 /.
/
(obs)
= 1.05 0.10.
(th)

(146)


0.02 %.
. ,
R L
T (L = 4R2 T 4 ), M . . 1
73

. 19: K ,

, (144).
, .
, .
,
.
, ,
,
.
, , , ,
, - . K (.. ), 6.4 . , , ,
. , , ,
, . , , . 19.
,
.
74

, , " ".
- ,
, .
.
, , ,
. , , , 47 .
, , . ,
, , , , , 53 (
), 6 ,
( ).
4.2.2


. , (, , ), .
, . , -, ,
.. (1776-1833) XIX . ,
=

2GM
,
c2 Rmin

(147)

Rmin .
Rmin = R 0.8 .
, , , c, g00 , grr . ,
g00 grr .
. ,
c,
2GM
,
(148)
= (1 + ) 2
c Rmin
.. , .
75

.. (1882-1944), 1919
, . ,

1. ,
2. 2GM/c2 R ,
0.874 ,
3. 4GM/c2 R , ..
1.749 ,
. , , 1.980.30 1.610.30 . ,
15% . ,
, , .

1
(1 + ) = 1.001 0.003.
2
4.2.3

(149)

, ( 43
) , XX .
, g = GM/r ( g r 2 ,
).
, , ,
, ,
.
,
M,
= 2(2 + 2 )

GM
,
e2 )

c2 a(1

(150)

a , e .
. 2.

1
(2 + 2 ) = 1.003 0.005.
(151)
3
76

2:

(th)
43.03
8.63
3.84
1.0
10.3

(obs)
(2 + 2 )/3
43.11 0.45 1.003 0.005
8.4 4.8
0.97 0.55
5.0 1.2
1.3 0.3
1.3 0.4
1.3 0.4
9.8 0.8
0.95 0.08

,
.
. , . 2, . ,
.

4.3
4.3.1


,
. ,
, . . , ,
( ), ,
,
. , , , ,
, .
, l, r ,
2GM
(152)
ctS = (1 + ) 2 l.
cr
,
2GM
rE + rp + R
tS = (1 + ) 3 ln
,
(153)
c
rE + rp R
77

. 20: .
, -

rE rp , R
. c3 , (152) , c2 , ,
c , ,
.
, t 15 240 .
1
(1 + ) = 1.01 0.02.
(154)
2
. 20.
4.3.2

, . , , -,
-. , , - .
78

. 21: K1 (t) 1913+16,


. Pb ,
e f (M) (. )
J07373039 .
(
),
, ,
. ,
. ,
.
, , , , .
, , ,
,
. , , .
( 1913+16 ),
.
, ,
, .. ,

79

K1 (t), . 21,
, .
Pb e, , a1 sin i, a1
, , i
(, ).
, .. ( . )
f (M) =

M23 sin3 i
.
(M1 + M2 )2

(155)

, . .
, (150),

 

Pb 5/3 G 2/3
= 3
(M1 + M2 )2/3 (1 e2 )1 .
(156)
3
2
c
,
,
. , ,
. ,
10%
MCh 1.4M . , ,
. ,
0.1M
(2 3)M .
, (. ). p


Pb 1/3 G2/3 M2 (M1 + 2M2 )
.
(157)
p = e
2
c2 (M1 + M2 )4/3
, , .
, (153),
h

tS = 2rS ln 1 e cos E s[sin (cos E e) + (1 e2 )1/2 cos sin E] .

(158)

E ,
(. ). , rS
80

3: ,

J07373039A
J07373039B
J11416545

P
Pb
() ()
0.0227 0.102
2.7735
0.3930 0.198

(/)
0.088
16.88

J1518+4904

0.0409

8.634

0.249

0.011

B1534+12

0.0379

0.421

0.274

1.756

J17562251

0.0285

0.319

0.18

2.585

J1906+0746

0.1441

0.166

0.085

7.57

B1913+16

0.0590

0.323

0.617

4.227

B2127+11C

0.0305

0.335

0.681

4.462

B2303+46

1.0664

12.34

0.658

0.010

0.172

Pb
(1012 )
1.25(1)

M
(M )
1.3381(7)
1.2489(7)
1.30(2)
0.98(2)
1.56
1.05
0.152(3) 1.335(2)
1.344(2)
1.40(3)
1.18(3)
1.31(5)
1.31(5)
2.425(1) 1.4414(2)
1.3867(2)
1.349(40)
1.363(40)
1.30
1.34

s
GM2
,
c3
s = sin i,

rS =

(159)
(160)

rS .
. 3, , c . ,
, 10 . ,
25 , 1913 + 16,
10

, ,
.

81

90 . ,
(!) .
, Pb ,
,
. , , , ( 1/c5 )
( 1/c2 ). , ,
. M1 , M2 a = a1 + a2 (116) ,
Pb
192
P b =
5

Pb
2

5/3

73 2 37 4
G5/3 M1 M2
1+
e +
e (1 e2 )7/2 .
1/3
(M1 + M2 )
24
96


(161)

, 1913 + 16
,
(obs)
Pb
= 1.0013 0.0021.
(th)
P

(162)

, . . 1993
. , ,
(200 . ) ,
. , .
-;
. J07373039,
, rS s, , ,
s(obs)
= 0.9999 0.0005,
s(th)
(obs)
Pb
= 1.003 0.012.
(th)
P

(163)
(164)


-.
82

, 1534 + 12,
. ,
, . s

s(obs)
= 1.010 0.008,
s(th)

(165)


(obs)
Pb
= 0.87 0.09.
(166)
(th)
P
b

,
. ,
, , , .
( ), ,
.
, , . ,
, (
). , , , , ,
, , .
4.3.3

(, ), XX ,
. ,
(148). 1924 ..
(1852-1934). 1936 .
, .
, (.. ) .
1937

83

q2

q1
D2

D1

. 22: -
. (1898-1974). , .
1979 , (. .
4).
(148), HE , , , , , . 1 2 (.
. 22), HE = 1 , ,

#1/2
"
D2
4GM
.
(167)
HE =
c2 D1 (D1 + D2 )
D1 D2 . -.
,
.
, , . , . , , , ,
.
(167) .
, D1 D2 ,
, . , ,
. , (

),
.
;
84

4:

.
0957 + 561
2
1115 + 080
4
2016 + 112
3
2237 + 0305
4
0142 + 100
2
3C324
3
1413 + 117
4
1414 + 0534
4

.
6.1
2.3
3.8
1.8
2.2
2.0
1.1
3.1

zl
0.36
0.29
1.01
0.04
0.49
0.84
1.40
1.

zQSO
1.41
1.72
3.27
1.41
2.72
1.21
2.55
2.63

./
.
.
.
.
./
./
./

1979
1980
1984
1985
1987
1987
1988
1989

.
4.3.4

, . , , ,
. 106 .
, , , ,
. 1970 .. ,

. . ,
, .
, . ,
, . (1940-2007). , , .
,
5 .
, . ,
, , , XX
, . . , , . , , .
85

. 23:
. , 1993 . 2005
.
. 23
. . ,
, , , .
, . 20 50 .
,
. , , .
.
, . 23.
4.3.5

, ,
. , , . ,
86

, . ,
, , , . (141) (143),

g =

1 + GJr
,
2 r 3 c2

(168)

Jr , r .
0.041 .
, , .. , . ,
,
, .

geo =

1 + 2 GMv
,
2
r 2 c2

(169)

v . , ,
6.6
.
, . , . 2004 Gravity Probe B,
. 16 ,
.
, ,
, . , , ,
. , (169), . ,
, , .
,
. , ,
.
87

88

5
5.1

, .
,
. ,
( , )
, , .. ..
, , .
,
. , M, Jr
Q (, , ).
, -
- , .

(Jr = 0). (118) < T > = 0
ds2 = 2 c2 dt2 + 2 dr 2 + r 2 d2 + r 2 sin2 d2 ,

(170)

2GM
.
(171)
c2 r
, (170) , r = rg .
, , ,
r = rg . ,
, . , , .
, , - R r = rg
grr .
, ,
rg = 2GM/c2 , . , . 24.
r, . , l r r +r, .. ,
2 = 1

89

r/rg

dr
dl

. 24:
, ,

, r. (170), ds2 dt = 0, d = 0 d = 0,

r
(172)
l = .

, l , r
. rg
. , t, r
= /2 (.. ) , ds2 = r 2 d2 , .. l = r.
c r = rg L0 = 2rg . ,
, rg , ,
2rg . rg .
,
= t,

(173)

t ,
. , , " ": ,
. ,
, r. , ,
, s - , , . l/ ,
, r = rg , c. ,
Vc = r/t. , (170) d = 0 d = 0,
, ds2 = 0 , dr/dt = 2 c,
Vc = 2 c.
90

(174)

ct

rg

. 25: ,

, r = rg Vc = 0. , , r = rg ,
r < rg . . , , ,
. ,
, - c.
(174),
, .
2GM
dr
c,
= 1 2
dt
c r


(175)

r rg
r r0 + rg ln
r0 rg

= ct.

(176)

r0 t = 0,
.
. ,
, ,
.
r r0 = ct,
(177)
.. ( r) ( t) ( c) , 45 .
91

,
. ,
, .
,
,
. , , (176), , ,
r0 rg r,
r0 rg
!
r rg
rg
.
(178)
t ln
c
r0 rg

, , , . , ,
, .
.
, , ,
.
, .
,
. , , ,
0 r0 ,



2GM 1/2
0 .
(179)
= 1 2
c r0
, ,
. 6.4 ,
.
(178) . ,
, (, , ), , . , , , ,
. . -,
.
-, (, , ) ,
.

, .
92


(180)

r0 = 3rg .

,
. , ,

E = mc2 = const.

(181)

- , , , .
v c
GM
(182)
1 2
cr

1 v2
,
(183)
1+
2 c2

mv 2 GMm
2

,
(184)
E mc +
2
r
mc2 .
- 2 (1 v 2 /c2 ) = 1
2 =

vr2 2 v2 2
+ 2 + 1,
c2
c

(185)


vr2 2
=
c2

!2

v2 2
.
c2

(186)

( ) e = E/mc2 .
, vr , , r, .. vr = lr / .
dr/dt (174)
dr
= 2 vr .
dt

(187)

, ,

L = rv = const.
(188)
93

Ueff
E >Emax

mc <E < Emax

E < mc

3rg

. 26: Ueff (r) E


L. E < mc2 , .. e < 1 , mc2 < E < Emax ,
, .. mv 2 /2GMm/r > 0
. , E > Emax
, .
(193)
,
(e )2

vr2
= (e )2 V (r),
c2

2GM
V (r) = 1 2
c r


(189)

L2
1+ 2 2 .
cr
!

(190)

, (189)
m
2

dr
dt

Ueff (r) =

!2

+ Ueff (r) = E mc2 ,

(191)

i
mc2 4 h 2
(e
)

V
(r)
+ E mc2
2(e )2

(192)

. v c Ueff (r)
GMm mL2
Ueff (r) =
+ 2 2,
(193)
r
cr
.
.
(dr/dt)2 ,
E E mc2 > Ueff (. . 26). ,
94

E < mc2 ,
rmin < r < rmax . , ,
. , vr = 0 Ueff (r).
( . 26)
r. Ueff (r) r 0 ,
r
E L.
Ueff r , r = 3rg . ,
.

q
(194)
e = 8/9.
, , ,
e = 1

8/9 5.7%.

(195)

, ,
. ,
, .
mc2 < E < Emax (L), Emax (L) L,
, .. () mv 2 /2 GMm/r > 0
. , E > Emax (L) , . . ,
, (
) 11 . .
( ), r 0.
, , . E (, , L )
. ,
11

.
, , .

95

, . ,
, , ,
.

5.2

Jr , , , . ,
< g > .
(, ,
< T > = 0 )
ds2 = 2 c2 dt2 + grr dr 2 + g d2 + g (d dt)2 .

(196)

ddt.
(196) . 1963 .
.
,
,
1
,
(197)
=


= r 2 + a2 2GMr/c2 ,

(198)

21 = r 2 + a2 cos2 ,
2

2 2

(199)
2

= (r + a ) a sin .

(200)


a=

Jr
.
Mc

(201)

(..
, ). ,
21
grr = ,

g =

21 ,

2
= 2 sin2 .
1

(202)

,
=

2aGMr
.
2 c
96

(203)

, . ,
Jr . ,
= 0, .. = 0,
s
G2 M 2
GM
a2 .
(204)
rg = 2 +
c
c4
, .
a = GM/c2 .
, . .
(85), (196)
dt = 0, dr = 0
k=

(rg2 + a2 )(rg2 3a2 cos2 )


,
rg2 + a2 cos2

(205)

,
1/rg2 . , a/M > 3/2
. , ,
-.
, r0 ,
. r0
, .
q
GM
r0 = 2 3 + Z2 (3 Z1 )(3 + Z1 + 2Z2 ) ,
c


(206)

Z1

a2 c4
= 1+ 1 2 2
GM

Z2 =

a2 c4
3 2 2 + Z12
GM

!1/3

!1/2

ac2
1+
GM

!1/3

ac2
+ 1
GM

!1/3

(207)
(208)

, a = GM/c2 r0 = GM/c2 9GM/c2


.
r0 = 6GM/c2 = 3rg . , a = GM/c2 ( )
97

. . ,
. . 24 ,
, rg .
, ,
, .
,
q

(209)
e = 1/3.
, , ,
e = 1

1/3 42%.

(210)

, ,
, . ,
e =

25/27,

(211)

4%.
, , .
. , ,
, , . (203)

rg3
(212)
= H 3 ,
r
H = (rg )
c3
a
(213)
H =
2GMrg
. , , d/dt = , . -.
, .
.
, ( )
, , . . ,
98

. 27: . ,
, , . ,
( ) , , .. .
,
, . , ,
, .. , r = const,
= const, = const,
, . ,
rg < r < re ,
GM
re = 2 +
c

G2 M 2
a2 cos2 .
c4

(214)

rg < r < re ,
r = re (. . 27).
, , r = const, = const, = const. ds2
ds2 = (c2 2 g 2 )dt2 .

(215)


ds2 =

S
(r 2 + a2 cos2 2GMr/c2 )c2 dt2 ,
2 21

(216)


S = r 4 + a2 r 2 (3 cos2 1) + a4 cos2 (2 cos2 1) 2GMra2 sin2 /c2
99

(217)

r > rg . r, ds2 = 0,

r 2 + a2 cos2 2GMr/c2 = 0,

(218)

(214). , rg < r < re


ds2 . , , - ds2 < 0.
,
.
, () E < 0, .. , 100%.
, E

E = mc2 ( + g v /c2 ).

(219)

,
. , , , v < 0 ( ,
0) E . , ,
(.. |v | c)

E = 0 c = g , ,
(215), (214).
.
, , , . ,
12 . ,
,
. , ,
, E . ,
. .
(. . 27).
, , ( ) Ein .
12

(.. , ) .

100

, ,
, .
, , . , . ,
, , , , .
Eout , , Ein .
, ,
.
, ,

.
. , . ,
, , , ,
, . ,

.

5.3

. , ,
. , ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
. ,
.
, -, ,
. , 6.4 ,
, ,
, g c2 .
101

,
. , , , , (
).
5.3.1

, , . 10M ,
. ,
. 3M ;
, .
,
3M . , (3 30)M .
.
, ,
. . ,
, ,
. , ,
, ..
f (M) =

MX3 sin3 i
.
(MX + Mv )2

(220)

sin i < 1, MX + Mv > MX ,


.
i Mv (, , ).
, , 3M ,
.
, ,
, . ,
.
. , 102

5:

Pb
(.)
Cyg X-1
5.5
LMC X-3
1.7
LMC X-1
4.2
A0 620-00
0.3
GS 2023+338
6.5
GS 2000+25
0.3
GRO J0422+32
0.2
GRO J1655-40
2.6
H 1705-250
0.5
4U 1543-47
1.1
GRS 1009-45
0.3
SAX J1819.3-2525
2.8
XTE J1118+480
0.175
GRS 1915+105
33.5

f (M)
(M )
0.24 0.01
2.3 0.3
0.14 0.05
2.91 0.08
6.08 0.06
4.97 0.10
1.13 0.09
2.73 0.09
4.86 0.13
0.22 0.02
3.17 0.12
2.74 0.12
6.1 0.3
9.5 3.0

MX
(M )
16 5
92
73
10 5
12 2
10 4
10 5
6.3 0.5
61
51
4.1 0.5
9.6 1.1
6.8 0.9
14 4

Mv
(M )
33 9
62
22 4
0.6 0.1
0.7 0.1
0.5 0.1
0.4 0.1
2.4 0.4
0.4 0.1
2.5 1.0
0.6 0.1
6.5 1.0
0.3 0.2
1.2 0.2

,
, .. , . ,
.
, , , . , ,
. ,
, , . ,
3M , , , -,
.
5.3.2

, . -

103

, , .
( 106 109 M ),
. , , .
, .

M
a 2
Ir 2
1063
,
(221)
Etot =
2
109 M
M
.
,
, .
.
. ,
.
, ,
, . ,

, (). ,
, , , . ,
104 . , , ( ) ,

. ,
-
- , , , ( , ..).
,
.
!

104

, , ,
. , ,
, ,
.
, , .
2 106M . ,
, 1 (31018
). ,
. , ,
, , , 2 106 M , 0.003
. , 0.003 , .
( ,
, ), .
, (106 109 )M .
. ,
.
.
, . ,
, ,
. (, , )
6.4 . , ,

1 (r0 ) 0.06 ,
, . 19. ,
.

105

5.4
5.4.1

, (), .. , , (. . 28). , ,
. , ,
. , -,
, .
, (. 28)
, ,
(- QSO ). , ,
. ,
. v, c, - = 1/(1 v 2 /c2 )1/2
.
, .
. ,
, 1045 /,
.
,
() ( ,
, ), .
, 107 .
,
.
,
.
, ,
(. 28). -

106

, .
. . 1037 /,
.
,
, .
, , . . , , ,
(. 28). 60%
,
.
600 /. ,
, (, )
, . , ,
. ,
( 3 10 ,
1031 1036 /)
.
.
-,
,
, , . ,
(afterglow), , . ,
, 109 ,
, ,
1054 /. . ,
1 , 1051 /,
, .
, - ,

107

. 28: , (), () ()
, ( 1/ 100 300).
,
,
, .
, . , ,
.
5.4.2

, ,
, . .
, .
, (
, , ). ,
.
,
. , 108

. ,
, , , (.. )
. ( ,
) . ,
. ,
,
.
. ,
. , . ,
. , , -. ,
, .
, , , .
, . ,
. ,
.
, g = GM/R
c2 . , R
rg . , 3 ,
.
, ,
.
. ,
. , .
,

109

. ,
. , -,
.
- , . , , ,
, , , - . , ,
,
, .
- , ..
-. , 105 ,
- .
, , ,
. , H rg c. ,
,
. , ,
. : Erot Mc2 . ,
.
, , ,
, . / , ,
, .
5.4.3

, , , , (. . 29).
.
1. (,
).
110

. 29: . ,

2. ( ).
, U,
. , , , v B,
E = v B/c. U ER

R
U
RB,
(222)
c
, R , B
. I, ,
(.. ) ,
. , .
, , . FA = J B/c,
, .
, . . 29,
.
, .
111

. 30: ( ). , ,
. , FA JS , .
,
, E = v B/c .
,
. , ,
, .
, (.
. 30). ,
, .
FA = J B/c, ,
. ,
S = (c/4)E B. , E,
B . . 30,
. ,

.

112

RL
.

. 31:
I,
. e , E (v/c)B, e E/L (. (128)), L E.
v L. e B/c.

e =

( B)
.
2c

(223)

e c, R02 ,
R0 , I,
I R02 e c.

(224)

W W = IU.
R0 ,
..

c
(225)
RL = .

, , ,
. .
113

. , , , .. . ,
. 31, . , ,
, , ,
. , , , , ,
.
.
R0 (R/c)1/2 R,
( , ,
, ),

W (R/c)4 B02 R2 c.

(226)

( B 1012 ,
R 10 , R/c 102 104 )
W = Ir 1031 1038 /.
, . ,
.
. ,
. , , ..
.
, , "",
, ,
, .
. ,
,
, .
5.4.4

, ,
, ,

114

. , ,
1. , ,
2. , U,
3. I,
.
,
, , .
, . -, ,
( ). , , , , .
( rL = mcv/eB,
), rL ,
.
, , , , ,
, .
-, ..
. , , , , , ,
. ,

. , ,
, .
, , , .. .
. 32 , q,
. , q , ,
. ,

, d = ql
115

. 32: q,
. -, .
, ,
, . , ,
,
l . ,
, . ,
.
, .
. , -.
.
5.4.5

, . , ,
. , R0 rg , ,
,
, . 116

, .
, W = IU

WBZ (rg /c)2 B 2 rg2 c,


(227)
1977 . . . ,
( B 104 , rg 1014 , rg /c 1), W 1045 /.
, ,
, ,
.
, -
,
. ,
,
. , 1982 . .
, .
, ,
(. . 33). ,
JH , ,
. , , , (227)
.
, -. ,
, , . , ,
, (, , ) . ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
, -. ,
, , 117

. 33: (
). -
( ). , . JH ,
. ( S).
. , .

118

E
E= -V

B/c
E

. 34: , .
.
(. . 33). ,
, , . , , , ,
. , , , , , , ,
. ,
.
, ,
, .. , , , . ,
- (
), .. . , ,
, , ,
- . , , ,

E = v B/c,

(228)

v .
, . , . 34,
. , ,
, ,
119

. , , " "
.
, , , (, , ),
, . , , , .
, - . , .
, , ,
, ,
. ,
, .
, , . , ,

.
, , , ,
,
.

120

, , , , . , ,
- . , ,
.
. , , ,
.
(, , , ) ,
. , ,
,
, .
? ? ,
rg /r, .. rg2 /r 2 c4 .
,
, . , ,
. ,
c5 . ,
.
106 . (
). , , -
,
13 . ,
, ,
1915 .
13


, 1010 .

121

122

, (.. ) .
, .
, , . , , . ,
.

7.1

, (, -) , .
. (9)
,
Ax = Ax cos + Ay sin ,
Ay = Ax sin + Ay cos .

(229)

, .

Ax = f1 ()Ax + f2 ()Ay ,

(230)

Ay = f3 ()Ax + f4 ()Ay ,

(231)

. ,
, ,
1. A (..
A2x + A2y = A2x + A2y ),
2. z
s ( ).
. (229),
A2x + A2y = [f12 () + f32 ()]A2x + 2[f1 ()f2 () + f3 ()f4 ()]Ax Ay + [f22 () + f42 ()]A2y
= A2x + A2y .

(232)
123

, (232) A.
, f1 (), f2 (), f3 () f4 ()
f12 () + f32 () = 1,
f1 ()f2 () + f3 ()f4 () = 0,
f22 ()

f42 ()

= 1,

(233)
(234)

. ,

1 f12 (),

f2 () =

f3 () = 1 f12 (),

(235)
(236)

f4 () = f1 ().

,
z f1 (),
f ().
() .
.
Ax = f1 ( )Ax + f2 ( )Ay ,

(237)

Ay = f3 ( )Ax + f4 ( )Ay .

(238)

, , , Ax
Ax = [f ()f ( )
q

1 f 2 () 1 f 2 ( )]Ax

(239)

+[ 1 f 2 ()f ( ) + f () 1 f 2 ( )]Ay

( Ay ).
s .

f (s ) = f ()f ()

1 f 2 (s ) =

1 f 2 () 1 f 2 ( ),
q

1 f 2 ()f ( ) + f () 1 f 2 ( ).

(240)
(241)


f () = cos ,
s = + ,
124

(242)
(243)

(240) (241)
cos( + ) = cos() cos( ) sin() sin( ),

sin( + ) = sin() cos( ) + cos() sin( ).

(244)
(245)

, ,
.

7.2

,
. , ( , )
, ;
. , ,
. , ,
,
,
.
, div B = 0, B,

Bx By Bz
+
+
= 0.
(246)
x
y
z
, ,
, . , . , x1 ,
x2 x3
!
!
!

g
g
g
1
1
1
(247)

B1 +
B2 +
B3 = 0,
g x1
g11
g x2
g22
g x3
g33
B1 , B2 B3 B , g = g11 g22 g33
< g >14 . (247) .
14

( ) ,
, .

125

, < g >
. , , 3 3
Sp < A >=

A11 A22 A33


+
+
,
g11
g22
g33

(248)

, , 44. ,
,
Sp < g >= d,
(249)
d . , 3 3

< A >2 =

A212
A222
A213
A223
A233
A211
+
2
+
+
2
+
2
+
2
2
2
g11
g11 g22
g22
g11 g33
g22 g33
g33

(250)

, < g >
.

7.3

,
em =

E2 + B2
.
8

(251)

, . ,
e (= /). , ,

E = 4e ,

(252)

.
h. , ,
, V = Sh,
E = em Sh, em . ,
, ,
. A = F h, F = QE

1
(253)
F = e SE.
2
126

E
+

E
E

. 35: (), (), ().


, ,

1/2 , , 4e
. A E,
em =

E2
.
8

(254)

, , , ,
.
(. . 35).
,
E = 4e . ,
.
E = em Sh . ,
(254).
. , ,

. , (132)(135), .
(. . 35).
g = 4Gm , m .

h,
g2
.
(255)
g =
8G
127

dr=cdt
r

. 36: c.
t 4r 2 em ct, , r

7.4

,
. ,
(226). ,
, , . .
( R, B0 ), . ,
, ..
r r 3
 3
R
.
(256)
B(r) B0
r
, (256)
r c/, t = r/c
. ,
, (. . 16),
r t, t r/c.
r c/, .
.. r c/.
, |E| = |B| (I1 = 0),
128

log B
r

-3

r -1

log r

log (c/W)

. 37: B r
(I2 = 0). em B 2 /8, B . ,
, t 4r 2 em ct, , . 36, r.
, W (/)
Wmd 4r 2 em c.

(257)

, .
, .
, r,
. ,
r 2 ,
r 1
A
B(r) ,
(258)
r
A . , r c/ (256) (258)
(. . 37). ,
A B0

2 R3
.
c2

(259)

(257) (258),
Wmd

B02 4 R6
.
c3

129

(260)

, (260) , (226),
, . ,
, .

7.5

, ,
(260) ,
(116) .

( ) g r.
,
M, a (. . 38). 2 a = GM/(2a)2 ,

2 =

GM
.
4a3

(261)

r c/
y.
g = GM/l2 , l ,
gy = h

GMa sin t
(r

a cos t)2

a2

i3/2

sin t

+h

GMa sin t
(r +

a cos t)2

a2

i3/2 .

(262)

sin t

, r a
GMa2 sin(2t)
.
gy = 3
r4

(263)

, (263). , , ,
, g 2,
, t = 0. , ,
: g r 4 . , , , .
.
, , . r c/
130

M
F2

F1
.

. 38: g .
, F1 F2 , y,
Wg 4r 2 g c. g (255)
g 2, ,
g(r)

Ag
,
r

(264)

Ag . , r c/ (263) (264)
(. . 39). ,
Ag

GMa2 3
.
c3

(265)

(255) (264), (261)


,
G4 M 5
(266)
Wg 5 5 ,
ca
.

7.6

,
, ( )
K1 (t) ( /c).
V c 0 ,
,
0
=
,
(267)
1 Vk /c

Vk . (267)
, Vk 6= 0 ,
. ,

131

log g
r -4

-1

log r

log (c/W)

. 39: gy
r

(c-V||)dt

cdt

V||dt
Vdt

. 40:
. 40, t, t Vk t/c,
(267).
,
, . (267)
P
!

Vk
.
P = P 1
c

(268)

,
K1
K1
P = P
cos (cos E + e)
sin sin E .
c
c


132

(269)

, ,
K1 =

(2G)1/3 M2 sin i
1/3

Pb (M1 + M2 )2/3 (1 e2 )1/2

(270)

(i
). E t, K1 (t) = (P/P )c
e. , E ..
, . E c
, ,
r cos = a(cos E e),

r sin = a 1 e2 sin E,

(271)
(272)

r = a(1e cos E), r , a .


, ( Pb , e),
K1
f (M) =

M23 sin3 i
.
(M1 + M2 )2

(273)

, f (M) .
K1 .
, a1 a2
. M1 ,
a1 ,
M1 V12
GM1 M2
=
.
a1
(a1 + a2 )2

(274)

, a1 + a2 . , ,
(275)

a1 M1 = a2 M2 .
,
Pb =

2a1
.
V1

(276)

,
, K1A = V1 sin i
K1A =

(2G)1/3 M2 sin i
1/3

Pb (M1 + M2 )2/3

(270).
133

(277)

7.7

, , . ,
.. , v, ,

=

0 1 V 2 /c2
1 Vk /c

(278)

, c2 .
,
Vk
V2
GM2
P = P 1
,
+ 2+ 2
c
2c
c r12
!

(279)


P = P



eA
K1
K1
cos + 2 (cos E + e)
sin sin E .
c
c
c


A=

(2G)2/3 M2 (M1 + 2M2 )


2/3

Pb (M1 + M2 )4/3 (1 e2 )

(280)

(281)

eP A/c2 p (157).
(280) , ,
, , e . ( ). ,
A , . ,
eA/c2
(280) K1 , , ,
.

7.8

(150) ,
m x x0 .

m
2

dx
dt

!2

k
+ (x x0 )2 = E,
2
134

(282)

k
(x x0 )2
(283)
2
k .

x = x0 + A0 sin(t),
(284)
U(x) =

dx
= A0 cos(t).
(285)
dt
(282) , ,
sin2 (t) cos2 (t) (282)
:
kA20
mA20 2
=
,
(286)
2
2
2 = k/m. , k
U, x = x0 : k = U (x0 ). ,

U (x0 )
2 =
.
(287)
m
,
x = x0 .
, (287) (150)
. Ueff (r) (288)
rg
mc2
Ueff (r) = 2 1
2(e )
r


2 "

rg
(e )2 1
r


L2
1+ 2 2
c r

!#

+ E mc2 .

(288)

, , rg /r0 .
rc , dUeff /dr = 0,
rc = r0

r0 =

3 rg
,
1
2 r0


(289)

2L2
L2
=
c2 rg
GM

(290)

. ,
,
U (rc ) =

mL2
rg
.
1
+
4
(e )2 r0
r0


135

(291)

r rg /r0 1
1 rg
L
.
r = 2 1 +
e r0
2 r0


(292)

,
L = rv (188). ,
v = rd/d ,
. , = d/dt
=

rg
L
.
1+2
2

e r0
r0


(293)

= e , rg /r.
, r .
, .
, (P = 2/ )
(Pr = 2/r ) .
, = t,
t = 2/r 2/ . ,
= 2

r
3GM
= 2 2 ,
r
c r0

(150).

136

(294)

1. , :
(a) ds2 = c2 dt2 + dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 ,
(b) x V1
V2 V3 .
2.
x2 + y 2 z 2 = R2 .

(295)

3.
L0 /R 2 = kS.

(296)

4. r = rg r = 2rg .
5. ,
GM
(297)
g =
r rg
(.. -) ,
, r0 = 3rg ,
2/3 (294).
6. E (271)(272), ,
e2
.
rt = a 1 +
2
!

(298)

7.
M1 M2 . ,
.
8. , r = re
(214), , 2 c2 = 2 g .
9. . 24.
10. . 20?
137