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LAN WAN
 , WAN
 WAN
 WAN
 WAN
 WAN

 WAN

page 410

12. WAN

411

12


WAN

,
(wide
area network  WAN) .
,
.
,
, .

.

WAN
WAN ,
, 
(localarea network  LAN). 
,

, .
WAN 
, WAN. 
, WAN ,
( )
. WAN 
, , . 
.
, (. 12.1), ,
, (Customer Premises Equipment  CPE)
.
CPE 
, (Central Office  CO),
. 
.

page 411

III. CCNA 4: WAN

412

, , 

. . 12.2 WAN.

. 12.1. CPE
C

(SS7 )

TDM
(56/64/ T1/E1)
E

X.25/
Frame Relay

. 12.2. WAN

, 
, , . 
, 
(data circuitterminating equipment, data communications
equipment  DCE). , DCE, 
(data terminal equipment  DTE). . 12.3 
DCE DTE. DCE
DTE WAN. DTE/
DCE X.25/Frame Relay 
( [HighSpeed Serial Inter
face  HSSI] V.35), , 
, . 12.4.

page 412

12. WAN

DTE

S
DCE

Modem
CSU/DSU
TA/NT1

DCE

S
DTE

413

S
S
DTE

DCE

. 12.3. DTE/DCE
EIA/TIA232
V.35
X.21
HSSI

CSU/DSU

DTE


WAN

DCE


WAN

. 12.4. WAN

WAN, WAN, 
, (/), (/,
1000 /), (/, 1000 /)
(/, 1000 /). , , 
, 1 
2 /, 1  1,5 /
. 1 / 1000 /, 
(kB, kilobyte) 1024 . 
K, 
( 2) K. /
, 
. . 12.1
WAN .
12.1. WAN

56

DS0

56 /

64

DS0

64 /

T1

DS1

1,544 /

E1

ZM

2,048 /

J1

Y1

2,048 /

page 413

III. CCNA 4: WAN

414

. 12.1

E3

M3

34,064 /

T3

DS3

44,736 /

OC1

SONET

51,840 /

OC3

SONET

155,520 /

OC9

SONET

466,560 /

OC12

SONET

622,08 /

OC18

SONET

933,12 /

OC24

SONET

1244,16 /

OC36

SONET

1866,24 /

OC48

SONET

2488,32 /

OC96

SONET

4976,640 /

OC192

SONET

9953,280 /

WAN
, WAN LAN,
, .
LAN, 
, .
, ,
, LAN, WAN,
. 12.5. WAN
. 
, ,
. 
, , 
, 
.

. 
, (Channel Service Unit  CSU)
(Data [or digital] Service Unit  DSU).
( CSU/DSU), . 12.6. 
CSU/DSU .
, ,
, (. 12.7). 
.
(
), . 
.
.
.

page 414

12. WAN

415

. 12.5. WAN LAN,


CSU/DSU

CSU/DSU

. 12.6. CSU/DSU WAN



EIA/TIA232

EIA/TIA232

. 12.7. WAN


(Integrated Services Digital Network  ISDN) , 
ISDN, ISDN. , 

page 415

416

III. CCNA 4: WAN


LAN WAN.
ISDN;
ISDN (terminal adapter  TA).
,
, LAN.
(ISDN) 
.

WAN
WAN, , 
OSI, .
WAN 
, , . 
WAN .
, 
, 
. ,
WAN, , DTE, 
,
, DCE. . 12.2
, . 21.8 .
12.2. WAN

EIA*/TIA* 232

64 /
25 D . RS232.
ITUT v.24

EIA/TIA 449 EIA530

( 2 /) EIA/TIA 232, 36


D .
. RS422 RS423

EIA/TIA 612/613

(High Speed Serial


Interface  HSSI),
52 / 50 D

V.35

ITU* .
V.35 ,
DSU, T1

X.21

ITUT* .
15 D.

*EIA = Electronic Industries Association


*TIA = Telecommunications Industry Association
*ITU = International Telecommunication Union
*ITUT = International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector

page 416

12. WAN

417

, 
. 
, ISDN, Frame Relay
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode  ATM),
 
(HighLevel Data Link Control  HDLC), 
ISO, , . 12.9.

EIA/TIA232

V.35

EIA/TIA232

V.35

X.21

EIA/TIA449

X.21

EIA/TIA449

EIA530

EIA613 HSS

. 12.8. WAN

Cisco HDLC, PPP, LAPB

Frame Relay IETF

X.25, Frame
Relay, ISDN

LAPD D ISDN
PPP, X.25, Frame Relay B ISDN

. 12.9.

page 417

III. CCNA 4: WAN

418



.
, 
. WAN
 2
WAN.

.
WAN . ,
HDLC.
HDLC
,
.
8 ,
01111110 7 . 
, , 
HDLC
,
. .
, 
.
WAN , 
,
1 2 . , 
, . 
, 
 ,
, , 
. ,
. 
.
, 
(frame check sequence  FCS), 
2 4 .
, 
HDLC (. 12.10). HDLC  
Cisco, ,
.
PPP

FCS

Proprietary

FCS

HDLC

. 12.10. WAN

page 418

12. WAN

419

WAN-
,
WAN. 
.


(circuit switching) 

.
.
ISDN.
, , 
. 

, . 
:


(Public Switched Telephone


Network  PSTN);
 ISDN (Basic Rate Interface  BRI);
 ISDN (Primary Rate Interface  PRI).


WAN 
, ,
, ,
.
,
, . 
, 
(packet switching) 
. , 
, ,
(delay, latency) ( [variability of
delay, jitter]) 
. , 
,
.

.
, 
(Permanent Virtual Circuits  PVC ); ,
(Switched Virtual Circuit 
SVC). , , 
, 
(connectionless).

page 419

III. CCNA 4: WAN

420

, , 
,
, (point of presence  POP).
. , 
;
(virtual circuit  VC).
, VC
,
VC. , 
:
 Frame

Relay;

 X.25;
 ATM.


, 
, ,
, WAN.
,

, 
. 
, 
.
, , 
. . 12.11 
.
,
, , 
.
, 

(TimeDivision Multiplexing  TDM). 
TDM , 
.
,

. , Internet,
Web ,
,
.
.

, .

page 420

12. WAN

421

DCE

DCE

WAN

. 12.11.


,
. , 
, ,
.
 , , ,
. 
, ,
, . , 
,
. , , 
. . 12.12 
.
,
,
, 
, 
, . 
, , , ,
, , 
.

page 421

422

III. CCNA 4: WAN

DCE

DCE
WAN

. 12.12. ,


,
. :
(connectionless) 
. , , Internet, 
. , 
,
. Frame Relay 
(datalink connection identifier  DLCI).

, .
;
,
(virtual circuit  VC).
, VC, 
; 
(switched virtual circuit  SVC).
, SVC, 
, SVC 
, . , 
,
(permanent virtual circuit  PVC).
, PVC .

WAN-

WAN,
, , ISDN,
, X.25, Frame Relay, ATM, DSL .

.

page 422

12. WAN

423


,
, 

(. 12.13).

. 12.13. WAN,


PSTN , . 

.

,
. 
, , .

PSTN
, 33 /. 
56 / , .

, ( ,
, ) .

. 
,
.

.
, .
, , 
. 
, , 

.

page 423

III. CCNA 4: WAN

424

ISDN
PSTN 

(time
division multiplexed  TDM). 
, 
.
(Integrated Services Digital Network 
ISDN) TDM. 
64 / (B) 
( D) 
.
ISDN (Basic Rate Interface  BRI),
, B D
16 /. 
(Primary Rate Interface  PRI) ISDN.
PRI 23 B D,
1,544 / ( 
). ,
PRI ISDN 30  D, 
2,048 / (
). D
64 / . 12.14. , PRI 
T1. 
PRI E1.
2B

64 /
64 /

BRI

144 /

16 /
23 B (T1)
30B (E1)
D

PRI

64 / T1 1.544 /

E1 2.048 /
64 /
(
)

. 12.14. ISDN

D BRI ,
B.
, , ,
X.25 9,6 /.
WAN BRI ISDN . 
BRI ( ),
B 64 / , 
. . 12.15 WAN,
ISDN. , 
B, 128 /. 

page 424

12. WAN

425

,
.
ISDN

. 
, ISDN .
ISDN 
.

TA

TA

. 12.15. WAN, ISDN

ISDN B 
, .. 64 / , .
PRI ISDN 
B,

. 
.


, , 
2,5 /.

WAN , , ,
.  
.
.

.  
, , Frame Relay. 
, , , 
.
. ,
, .

page 425

III. CCNA 4: WAN

426


. CSU/DSU .
WAN,
. 12.16, . 
, 
. WAN ,
.
, ,

. , 
, .

CSU/DSU

CSU/DSU

. 12.16. WAN


 LAN . 
.
, 

.

X.25

, 
. 
, X.25.
X.25 
, 
. . 12.17 WAN X.25.
.
, 
. SVC . 
, , .
.

page 426

12. WAN

427

X.25
. X.25 
,
PVC.

SVC

CSU/DSU

CSU/DSU
PVC

CSU/DSU

. 12.17. WAN X.25

X.25 , 
,
.
.
. X.25 
, 48 /.
, , 
.

Frame Relay

Frame Relay (Frame
Relay  FR). X.25,
4 /,
(. 12.18).
Frame Relay X.25 .
, Frame Relay 
.
(frame).

page 427

III. CCNA 4: WAN

428

CSU/DSU

PVC

CSU/DSU

. 12.18. WAN Frame Relay

Frame Relay 
. . ,

, .
Frame Relay PVC,
SVC.
. SVC B 
D ISDN. Frame Relay 

(committed information rate  CIR)
PVC, .
Frame Relay ,
,
. Frame Relay 
LAN . LAN 
, VC, 
Frame Relay 

LAN.

ATM
Frame Relay 

, ,
, .
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode  ATM). ATM
155 /. . 12.19, ATM 
, X.25 Frame Relay,
ATM 
. , 
, .

page 428

12. WAN

PVC

CSU/DSU

429

CSU/DSU

. 12.19. WAN, ATM

(Asynchronous Transfer Mode  ATM) 


, , 
() . ATM
, . ATM 53 .
5 ATM, 48
. ATM
53 , 
.
.
53 ATM, 48
5 , ,
Frame Relay X.25.
, , 
ATM .
ATM
20% , Frame Relay.
ATM PVC, SVC, WAN
PVC. 
, ATM
.

DSL

.
.
. 12.20 DSL.

DSL
ATM

Enet

DSL

DSL

. 12.20. DSL

page 429

430

III. CCNA 4: WAN

(Digital Subscriber Line  DSL)



(local exchange). 
DSL , 

(Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexor 
DSLAM), . 
DSLAM 
. , 
ATM, Internet DSL.
DSL .
, DSL,
DSL. 
. DSL 
(asymmetric  ADSL) (symmetric  SDSL). 
DSL ;
.
DSL xDSL.

( ), .
.
DSL 
; , 
T1 E1.
, 
. 
5,5 (3,5 ). DSL
, , 
, DSL
. ,
;
Internet, IP
Internet . 
.



.
, 
, . . 12.21
.

page 430

12. WAN

431

. 12.21.


, ,
.
6,5 T1.

, ,
. , 2
BRI ISDN, 
2 . ,
, , ,
. 
.
Internet. 
.
(alwayson) ,

.
3040 /
6 . 500 , 56 /.

page 431

432

III. CCNA 4: WAN



. , 
. 12.22.
1 : 2

QAM

MAC

QPSK/GAM

. 12.22. :

DSL, , 
Internet (Internet service provider  ISP), 

TCP/IP, Telnet. ,
, ,
Ethernet. , 
,
, . 
.

Internet, , 
. 
 .


(Virtual Private Network  VPN) VPN,
.



WAN ,
IP (Internet Protocol  IP) Web.

. WAN ,
, 

page 432

12. WAN

433

, Internet.
.

WAN
. WAN 
, . ,
WAN , WAN
. 
, WAN
.
WAN , 
LAN.
LAN . , 
, LAN .
WAN 
. 
(.. , )
WAN.
WAN . 
.
, ,
, WAN,
, 
.
WAN 
. 
. , 
, 
.
, ,

.

, . ,
LAN ,
( ),
100 /  , LAN.
WAN;
. 
, 
, ,
WAN
. WAN , 
, ,

, . 
, ,
.

page 433

434

III. CCNA 4: WAN

WAN , 
;
LAN. 
, LAN,
WAN .
LAN 
.
(Quality Of Service  QoS) ,
.
WAN WAN
, 

, . , 
300% 5
WAN.
WAN
. WAN 

. , , , 
, , 
QoS
. . 12.3 WAN,
.
12.3. WAN
WAN


 (PointtoPoint Protocol  PPP),
(hubandspokes)


ISDN
(Integrated Services Digital Network  ISDN)
.
,

Frame Relay

Frame Relay ,

.

WAN 
LAN , 
WAN
OSI: , , . 12.23.


.

page 434

12. WAN

435

3
2

CSU/DSU

WAN

3
CSU/DSU

. 12.23. WAN 1, 2 3

WAN
, .

( .. ) . 
WAN , WAN

. , , WAN
, :


;
 ;
 .

 , .


, 
,
.
 , 
, (, Internet).
 ,
,
.
 
, , ,
, /
Internet.

page 435

436

III. CCNA 4: WAN

intranet extranet
.
 
.


, 
Internet LAN
. ,

.
. 

.

. LAN 
,
. WAN
, , , 
.
Internet, ,
. 

. ,
, intranet, , ,
IP, , 
.


,
QoS. QoS
, 
. 


.
, , 
, . 
:
,
, 
. WAN , 
.
, 
. 
,

page 436

12. WAN

437

 .

. 
WAN , 
WAN ,
.
. 
. 
. ,
, , 
, 
, .

, . 12.4.
12.4. WAN

3356 /

ISDN

64128 /

X.25

48 /

Frame Relay

4 /

ATM

155 /

, ,
, ISDN X.25, WAN, 
(
ISDN 
). , ISDN 
/ (small/home offices  SOHO) , 
. ISDN 

.
, 
, .

(nearest pointof
presence  POP) . 
X.25, Frame Relay ATM.

page 437

438

III. CCNA 4: WAN

, , , ,
. 
.
ATM, Frame Relay X.25 
.
, 
, 
, . 

.

. 
, , 
.
ATM ,

,
, . ATM 53 :
48 5 . 
. Frame Relay 
; QoS
.
WAN ,
. 
ISDN, Frame Re
lay . 
Frame Relay, ATM .


.
, ,
OSI, ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
, 

.
. 
, 
. , 

. ,
, . 
, 
.
.

page 438

12. WAN

439



: . 
, , 

,  
. () , 
. 
, .
.
 .

, ,
, 
,
. 
.
 .
, .
 .
, 
.
.
 . , ,
,
; 
.
 . 
,
, , 
.
 . 
.


:
, 
;
 , 
;
 , 
.


. 12.24 
.

page 439

III. CCNA 4: WAN

440

. 12.24.

, , ,

10000 .
,
, WAN. , 
900 .
,
 900 
900 .
, 
LAN ,
, , WAN.
, 
3050, .
, . 12.25;
, , 
. , 
, 
. 12.26 12.27.

. ,
, WAN.
, 
, .

page 440

12. WAN

441

. 12.25.

. 12.26. , ( 1)

. 12.27. ,
( 2)

page 441

442

III. CCNA 4: WAN

,
, 
, . , 
 , 
, , 
.
, 
. 

(dialup), , ISDN, 
Frame Relay. Frame Relay  
. 
Frame Relay ATM, 
ATM .


, 3 
OSI. : 
, ,
.


. 

,
WAN. 
; .
(, T1/T3, Frame Relay, SMDS) 
.
 .
LAN WAN.
Fast
Ethernet. 
.
 . LAN 
, Ethernet Token Ring,
.
, .
5.

.
.
. , 

.
.
.

page 442

12. WAN

443



, . 12.28. 
,
, .
WAN. WAN 
, 
. 
. 
.
D
C

. 12.28.




. 
. WAN
, :


;
 ;
 
;
 LAN (Virtual LAN  VLAN));
 ;
 .

.
, , 
. , 
, 
. ,
( ) 
.

.

page 443

III. CCNA 4: WAN

444

. 12.29.

,
. 
, .

,
4 , . 12.30.
,
.
:


;
;
 MAC;
 .


WAN

. 12.30.


LAN LAN WAN WAN.
,
.

page 444

12. WAN

445

. 
(
, ).


LAN. , , 
 
, Frame Relay, ISDN .


WAN
WAN ,

3 . 
 
3, 
, ,
, . 12.31.

WAN

. 12.31.  ,

A B,
1 B.
, . 12.32 ,
1 2,
.

page 445

III. CCNA 4: WAN

446

WAN, ,
. 12.33, 
, ,
WAN.


,
, WAN.
. 12.34, 1,
, ,
, 1 2. 
1.

, . 12.35, 
1 2 1
. . 12.36
, , 
, WAN
. ,
.

WAN

7
2

C
2

D
3

E
4

A
B
1
A

. 12.32. ,

page 446

12. WAN

447

WAN

A
B
1
A

C
D
2

E
F
3

B A

C A

G
H
4
H

. 12.33. WAN,

WAN

A
B
1

C
2

D
3

E
4

. 12.34.

page 447

III. CCNA 4: WAN

448

WAN

7
2

C
2

D
3

E
4

A
B
1

. 12.35.

WAN

A
B
1

C
2

D
3

E
4

. 12.36.

page 448

12. WAN

449

WAN
, 
, LAN.
,

LAN .
LAN Internet
. 
,
WAN.

WAN,
WAN
, .

WAN
WAN .

, .
WAN 
. , 
WAN,
, .
, , 

. WAN ,

.
,
.
WAN,
, . 
WAN ,
, .

.
. 
, WAN. 
.

. 
, , . 
, 
.

page 449

450

III. CCNA 4: WAN

, ,
,
,
.
WAN 
, 
,
.
WAN 
, .
, 

WAN. 
.
WAN .
, 
WAN.



.
, .
 
(Information Systems  IS) .
,

,
, , . WAN
 
. WAN

.
WAN 
.


 
, , , 

.
 , 
 
,
(, 
).
 

, 
. 
WAN, 
, .

page 450

12. WAN

451

WAN , 
, WAN
. .


.
 (, SNA).
 .
 (, ).
 .
 .
 .
 .

. 
, , ,
. 
, WAN 
.
:


( );
 ;
 ;
 , ;
 ;
 ;
 ;
 ;
 .

, 
WAN, 
, 
, 
.
WAN
, , 
. 
: . 
 .
. 

.

page 451

III. CCNA 4: WAN

452


;
. WAN , , 
, .


WAN
.
, 
.
, .
.
, 
. , 
.




. ,
, ,
.
 , ,
.
. ,
(,
).
 , 
, 
. ,
, 100% .
, , 
, . 
. ,

.
.
, ,
. 
.


. 
. 
,
, ,
. ,
.

page 452

12. WAN

453

, .
, ,
.

IS  .

. 

( ) .

, 
.
 . , 
, , , 2

.
, .
, 

.
, 
.



.
.
, .

, . 
, 
.


,
. 
? , Internet? 
? 
? ( , ?)
. ,
, .
.
, . 

.
. 


page 453

454

III. CCNA 4: WAN

, , , 
.
. 

.


. 

.
 . 

.
 . ,
(, ), 
. , 

.
 . 

.
,

, .

.
, 
, ,

.
, ,

, 
.
, .
, .


.
, 
, .
 , . , 
3, () 2,
()
; 
, .
 .
.

page 454

12. WAN

455


, /.

. 
, , 
, 
. 
. , Microsoft Office
, ,
.

Microsoft Office.




. . 

. 

.



. ,
.
LAN 
, ,
. 12.37. LAN
. ,
:
. ,
, , , 
.
LAN
,
. ,
.
, , , , . 
, ,
,
WAN.

page 455

456

III. CCNA 4: WAN

. 12.37. 

, 
, ,
. 12.38. LAN 
,

. 
, 
.

. 12.38. WAN

 
, .. N (N  1)
.
N(N  1)/2. , 50 49 
1225 . 
.
. 
, 

page 456

12. WAN

457

 (. 12.39), 
.

.
.

. 12.39. WAN 


WAN 

, ,
. 
, , ISDN, DSL
, . 

(Point Of Presence  POP) 
, X.25, Frame Relay ATM.

, , , 
.
.
ATM, Frame Relay X.25
. 
, 

.

. 
,
.
,
, 
.

page 457

458

III. CCNA 4: WAN

ATM ,
,
()
. 
.
Frame Relay, 
QoS, 
.
WAN ,
.

ISDN, Frame Relay . Frame Relay, ATM
; 
WAN ATM .

WAN-
WAN Internet.
, 
. 
, , In
ternet .
Internet , , ,
LAN, 
. 
Internet (ISP)
Internet.
, Internet Internet,
, . 
, WAN 
Internet, 
. 

, , WAN ,
Internet.
LAN Internet,
WAN . ,
, Internet
WAN ;
Internet. LAN
, WAN
.
, ,
. , 

. Internet , 
, ...

.

page 458

12. WAN

459

.


.
 WAN
LAN.
 , WAN,

.
 WAN , ,
, WAN
, 
.
 WAN 
LAN , WAN
OSI.
 WAN ,
WAN.
 WAN , 
, .
 WAN
ISDN, Frame Relay, ATM .
 WAN 
.
 WAN Internet
.
 
,
ISDN, DSL .
 , ISDN DSL, 
,
.
 ISDN 
.
DSL
.
 ;
DSL 
ISDN.
, , 
(eLab Activities), (Videos) 
(PhotoZooms), .

page 459

460

III. CCNA 4: WAN

(Asynchronous Transfer Mode  ATM).


, , ,
, (53 ). 
,
. ATM 
, E3, SONET T3.
(circuit switching). ,

.
.
(packet switching). ,
,
.
(switched virtual circuits  SVCs). 
.
SVC . 
ATM .
DSU , 
. CSU CSU/DSU.
(channel service unit  CSU). 
, 
. DSU
)CSU/DSU).
(digital service unit  DSU). ,
, 
DTE , T1 E1.
(timedivision multiplexing  TDM).
, 

,  (time
slot). , 
, .
(customer premises equipment  CPE). 
, , ,
, 
.
(data terminal equipment  DTE). 
 , 
, . DTE
DCE 
, DCE. DTE 
, , .
(permanent virtual circuits  PVCs). ,
. PVC

page 460

12. WAN

461

, 
, 
. ATM .
(data circuitterminating equipment,
data communications equipment  DCE). 
, .
DCE ,
, 
DCE DTE. 
DCE ( ).
(central office  CO).
, 
, 
.


1.
?
A. (Email)
B.
C.
D.
2. , ISDN,
?
A. BRI ISDN B D
B. D, 16 /,

C. BRI ISDN B D 

D. BRI ISDN 2,533 /
3. ____________,

WAN .
A. 
B. 
C.
D.
4. X.25 ?
A.
B.
C. EDI
D.

page 461

462

III. CCNA 4: WAN

5. Frame Relay
?
A. Frame Relay
B.
C. Frame Relay
D. Frame Relay ATM
6. ATM 
?
A. ,
B. ATM , Frame
Relay.
C. , 

D. ATM 35
7. , ,
, :
A. DTE
B. DCE
C. CPE
D.
8. , , :
A. DTE
B. DCE
C. CPE
D.
9. , DCE, :
A. DTE
B. DCE
C. CPE
D.
10. _________ _________
A. CSU DSU
B. DTE DCE
C. T1 E1
D.
11. WAN _________
A. DCE
B. DTE
C.
D. NIC
12. ?

page 462

12. WAN

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

page 463

463

A. (Public Switched Telephone


Network  PSTN)
B. ISDN (ISDN Basic Rate Interface  BRI)
C. ISDN (ISDN Primary Rate Interface  PRI)
D. SONET

:
A. (Permanent virtual circuits  PVCs)
B. (Switched virtual circuits  SVC)
C. (Permanent virtual service  PVS)
D. (Switched virtual service  SVS)
,
:
A. (Permanent virtual circuits  PVCs)
B. (Switched virtual circuits  SVC)
C. (Permanent virtual service  PVS)
D. (Switched virtual service  SVS)
ISDN?
A.
B.
C.
D.
DCE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
OSI PPP?
A.
B.
C.
D.
OSI Frame Relay?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 4
D. 3
BRI ISDN :
A. 2 B 2 D
B. 2 B 1 D
C. 23 B 1 D
D. 30 B 1 D