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Successfully Specify Three-Phase Separators

Hereis a stepwise procedure for


designing

liquid/Iiquid/vapor separutors.

t is often necessaryto separate two immiscible liquids, the light and heavy phases,and a vapor. A typical example in petroleum refining is the separationofwater, and a hydrocarbon liquid and vapor. Little has been published on three-phase (liquid/liquid/vapor) separarion, with most information available only in corporate design files. This article attempts to alleviate this situation by covering the basicsofthree-phase separator design. The authors provide a Step-by-Step procedure and worked out examples. Further, the examples offer guidanceon making assumptions for the calculations.

section calm to promote the separation. There are different variations of horizontal three-phasevapor-liquid separators. The liquid separation section is usually a variationof a deviceto provide interface level control, which may include a boot or a weir. A boot typically is specified when the volume of heavy liquid is not substantial(< l5-207o of total liquid by weight), while a weir is used when the volume is substantial. Thesehorizontal separatorsare illustrated in Figure 2. The bucket-and-weir type design is used when interface level control may be difficult, such as with heavy oils or when large amounts of an emulsionor a paraffin are present(1).

Selecting three.phare separatore


As with two-phase designs, threephaseunits can be either vertical or horizontal, althoughthey typically are horizontal (seeFigures l and2). The vertical orientation.Figure 1, is only used if there is a large amount of vapor to be separatedfrom a small amount of the light and heavy liquid (< l0-207o by weight). Unfortunately, there are no simple rules for separator selection. Sometimes,both configurationsshould be evaluatedto decide which is more economical. Further, the available plot space(footprint) may be a factor. The design of three-phaseseparators is similar to their two-phase counterparts, except that the liquid section differs. For the vertical type, a baffle commonly keeps the liquid separation

$tokos'lawappliee
Separatinga vapor from a light liquid (two-phaseseparation)has been covered in a previous article (2) and will not be discussedhere. However, all necessary information for performing this part of the calculation is provided here. The following discussioncoversthe separation of light and heavy liquids. The flow of rising light droplets in the heavy liquid phase or settling heavy dropletsin the light liquid phaseis con- , sidered laminar and is soverned bv Stokes'law:

Wayne D.Monnery andWilliam Y.Svrcek, University of Calgary

v T -

rt -

- pr) 1,488g,fi(p,
18F

(l)

where 1,488convertsviscosityof the

pRoGREss . SEpTEMBER CHEMTcAL ENGTNEERTNG rgga . 29

MULTIPHASE FLOW

i
I

I
t

= =
! E

For horizontal separators with a is more diffigiven diameter,the heights of the light cult (requires and heavy liquids are assumedso that more time) to setthe cross-sectionalarea can be calcutle the droplets lated. With the vapor disengagement out of the continWire mesh area set by guidelines, the lengths uous phase with required by holdup requirements and the greater visvapor/liquid separationare calculated. cosity, since U. is + D Feed Then, with the assumedheights of the lower. Practically nozzle 1 -i n . light and heavy liquids and calculated speaking, U, is vent M a x i m u m values of settling velocities, the set* typically limited liquid tling times are calculated. in calculations H"l s"rg" I level The actual residence times for the to 10 in./min light and heavy liquids are subsemaximum. Baffle quently calculated and comparedwith sepFor vefiical -* Holdup A ^.[the required settling times. as in the arators,the diameLishtliq. Lioht r' vertical case. If the residence times ter required for tiq"uiO +r'-\ Baffleto provide are not greater than the required setvapor disengagenozzle l H ' c a l m i n gz o n ei s times, then either the diameter tling recommended is calculated ment lnterface should be increased or. for a given as in our previous SectionA-A heavyliquid Hrl diameter, the length should be article (2). In siz(liquid separation is conincreased the ing a separator, trolling). In the subsequentdesign heightsof the light I procedures, the laner approach is and heavy liquids Heavy used, along with the procedures disand are assumed, liquidnozzle cussed in our previous paper for the settling velocivapor/liquid separationr2). ties and settling I Figure l.Vertical three-phase separalors are used with high The following desi-rn procedures times are then vapor loadings and heuristics are a result of a review calculated. of literature sources and accepted The residencetimes of the light and continuous phasefrom lb/(ft)(s) to cP. guidelines. design industrial heavy liquids are determinednext. For Simplifying Eq. 1 and converting Horizontal design proceduresare prethe liquids to separate,the residence the units of the terminal settling sented for the four separator types time of the light liquid must be greater velocity to in./min from fUs results in: shown in Figure l. The horizontal for the heavy than the time required design procedures incorporate optidroplets to settle out of the light liquid 2.0615l xl}-s|f,QH-pL) mizing the diameter and length by rr phase; and the residence time of the , r=T minimizing the approximate weight heavy liquid must be greater than the of the shell and heads.To add a degree time required for the light liquid of conservatismto the design,the vol(2) droplets to rise out of the heavy liquid = ume available in the headsis ignored. phase. Ifthese conditionsarenot satiswhereDo is in microns(1 micron 6 liquid fied, then x 10 feet) andU7,in./min. 3.28084 separationis conEq.2 maybe rewrittenas: trolling and the vessel diameter kt(Pu - Pr) rt (3) must be increased. u r=---T Holdup time for liquids must be where addedto residence ... xl\-sfi . 121 ks=2.0615t oi iausti, time. The height 89 or causiic of the vertical Values of ft, are given for some sys0is3' 89 Furfural 89 0.i63 Water ketone Methylethyl three-phase sepatems in Table 1. 0.163 8g Water sec-Butyl alcohol rator is calculated From Eqs. 1-3, it can be seenthat 89 0.163 ketone Water isobutyl Methyl in the same manthe settling velocity of a droplet is 0.163 89 Water alcohol Nonyl ner as for-the twoinverselyproportional to the viscosiphasecase. ty of the continuousphase.Hence, it
Vapor nozzle

il

_T
J

30 .

1994. SEpTEMBER

pRocREss ENGTNEERTNG CHEMIcAL

3. Interface control with weir Feed inlet

l,v
Min.12in. Min.12in.

* l N ,* lL ',l^n. * * u,n.l
2. InterJace control with boot Vapor outlet 4. Bucket and weir

Heavy liquid outlet

Light liquid outlet

NI*l

Vapor outlet

Lightliquidholdu/surge

Heavy liquid outlet


| -t -t

Light liquid outlet


-t -l

I
t - L -

Heavyliquid outlet

L,
drv= Nozzle dia'

lLzlLslL4l

Note:N= 112d7,1+6in.

I Figure 2. Basic designs of horizontal three-phase separators,

Vertical design.procedur
Refer to Figure 1 for dimensions: 1. Calculate the verlical terminal vapor velocity: Pv U- = ylPt rtt2 Pv (4)

140-,\"' D""=l# | \nu, )

(6)

5. Similarly, calculate the rising velocity of the light liquid out of the heavy liquid phaseusing Stokes' law:

Calculate the K value, using one of the methods in Thble 2 and set Uu = A.l5Ur for a conservative design. 2. Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate:

If there is a mist eliminator, add 3-6 in. Io D, to accommodatea support ring and round up to the next 6-in. increment to obtain D; if there is no mist eliminator,D = Dur. 4. Calculate the setting velocity of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid using Stokes'law (the maximum is 10 in./min): kt(Pn - Pr) r tH L v ltr

kt(Pr-Pt) rr u u . JILH

(8)

6. Calculate the light and heavy liquid volumetric flow rutes, Q* and QnL: o wr. L-_

w-"LL
60pL

(9)

WV Qv=

3,600pu

(s)

0\

-Wrt n unr- 60pa

(10)

3. Calculate the vessel internal diameter,Dur:

where ft, is obtained from Table 1 or is calculated(seeEq. 3).

7. Assume Hr = I ft (minimum) and calculate the settling time for the

. sEprEMBERrggr . 31 CHEMTCALENGTNEERTNGpRocREss

MULTIPHASE

o,in{ ^ =(t.+aeal\/oo a, r, lI--T-/\----G-/


) Equation13

(0- .0rl\

- 0.6973=2.14ftJs Ur =0' 313 53.95


I EquationEl

* = : = =

Qv=

415.000lb/h

s/hx 0.69731Vff 3.600

=165.32ft'ls

lEquation E2

^ 1TVT4STFIs - r0.13 --irISHs ft r-\o= V


lEquation E3

I
2

ou -

16.5000lb/h = 5.10ft'lmin 60 minthx 53.95lbtftt l,3o0lb/h

a EquationE4

"=,{*t#d)
D"is inft. where = 3.28084 x 10{ft 1 micron Note: heavy liquid droplets to settle through factor this distance(12 is a conversion for ft to in.):

vnr=ffi
lEquation E5 g. Use Table 3 to determineAo lA. h. CalculateA= (nl4)D2. i. Calculate Ar. j. Selectthe larger value ofAr. k. Calculate the area of the baffle plate - settling area for the light liquid;A.-A-Ao. 10. Calculate the residence time of each phasebased on the volumes occupied by the light and heavY phases:

= 0.35ft'lmin

basedon the required holduP

H.=+
(eu* eo)r,

( 1s )

t ,HL_

----------=

l2H,
U,,

(11)

8. Assume Hn = | ft (minimum) and calculate the settling time for the light liquid droplets to rise through this distance:
t ,LH -

Check this r-alueu'ith that assumed in Step 9b to ensurethat the assumed value is reasonable. ft- surge is not specified, calculate the surge height basedon surgetime:

L zH , ---:
TI uLH

(1 2 )

9. If there is a baffle Plate, calculate the area: a. Calculate(P. - P). b. Assume 11* (use 9 in. as a minimum) and calculate Ht+ H^. c. Use Figure 3 to obtain G. d. CalculateAr: S e eE q . ( l 3 ) i n t h eb o x . e. Assume Wo = 4 in. f. Calculate WD/D.

s*=w
- HuAu A vHLQrt

Hs=\---TL
(I4a)

(16)

(14b)

If eLL < tu, or Iur 1 trr, \tctease the diameter and repeat the procedure from Step 7 (liquid separationis controlling). Note that An= A. 11. Calculate the height of the light liquid above the outlet (holdup

The minimum is 6 in. 12. Calculate the vessel height using the guidelines: He= 6 in. minimum. = h d. + greater of (2 ft or /1t H aio + 0.5 f0. Ho=0.5D or a minimum of: 3 6 i n . + V z d r( w i t h o u t m i s t eliminator), or 24 in. + t/zd * lwith mist eliminator):

32,

. CHEMICALENGINEERINGPRoGRESS sEprEMBERlggd

10,000
c

o_ o

24in.

F c

9,000

-o
G

8,000

r.i

High liquid levelaboveinterface /= 4.0184a8 . = _ J . 9 t 6 4tt = -i.801705 = :l 1.i5348 pr- pu,lblft3 t. \, to H/D+ = HID = \/.\r = 0.00153756 ' = 16.787101 = 1.299201 : - i.2.923932 . = 1.1.353518 '= 11.844824 - = -36.999376 : = 10.529572 : = 9.892851 :.luivalent expressions, suchasH',/D I Figure 3. G is found from the downconterallowableflow.

the time lbr the light liquid to rise out of the heavy liquid phase: trH=(12)(1.0) ll.lJ=6.9min 9. Calculate

2. Calculate t h e r a p o r '\ r r l u r r - t r i " iili ti-:,r-r' :'1:ri- i1f-;1: r _ r _ i l , ) < r l n t l l l _ i l ) S flow rate,seeEq. El in the bor. 3. Calculate the vessel inner diamlL.it' . . \ : > . r 1 .H eter,seeEq. E3 in the box. 't. = I ) i n . .H r + H n = 2 4 = Hn+ H, + HR n, = 10.5fi. + O^ * Ufii Use 1J in. L'.:rg Fr,rLrr -e 1. G = 9 . 8 0 0g p h / f t z . .a - jr 4.Calculat e c : e t t l i n \g lh e l o c i l r, r l {. = _ c a l i i t ' r r 6m 0 i n i h )( 5 . 1 0 - o.-1-i the heavyliquid out of the iight liqLrid r ii' 9..\00gph/iir = 0.25 ft2 ..\...ll ti ll It' a mist eliminatorpad is used, p h a s e .U s i n g T a b l e l , f t s = 0 . 1 6 3 = J jp.. -,-riional heightis addedas shownin l 1 0 . 5= Then: \ \ . , D= - 1 l r 1x ) 0.0317 : - - l r eI . Um = 0.163(62.11 53.95)/0.630 = 2 .1 1 i n . / m i n Example 1 5. Calculate the settling velocitl of Sizea verticalseparator with a baf'the light liquid out of the heavyliquicl ': :lltc and wire-mesh mist eliminaphase: -1 5 3 . 9 5 ) / 0 . 7 6 1 : i,.r separatethe mixture given in Ura= 0.163(62.1 = . -,rleJ. The operating pressure is 165 l.l4 tn.lmin '..,:, rrild it is necessary to have a 6. Calculatethe light and hearr Jr'(rcarbon liquid holduptime of 25 Iiquid volumetric flow rates. see Eq. :: and a surgetime of only 5 min. E4 and E5 in the box. 1oa,r= Ar+A, ft3ls 1. Calculatethe vertical terminal 7. Assume H r = 1 f t a n dc a l c u l a t e - .iitr'. Using Table 2, calculateK the tirne fbr the heavy liquid to sertle Q, r, -v u : . 60 - 'i the York Demister e q r r r t i o n s . out of the light liquid phase: Tt:2 ,fF; . . . E q . E 1 i n t h eb o x . 4u, t n , . =( 1 2 )( 1 . 0 ) l 2 . l 1 = 5 . 7m i n , : n JL ' 1= 0 . 7 5x 2 . 1 4= 2 . 0 5f t l s . 8. AssumeHn = 1 fi and calculate

^=#6

. SEPTEMBER CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS 1994.

33

MULTIPHASE FLOW

. Using Table 3, AD/A = 0.0095: 1= (nl4)(10.5 ft)2 = 86.59 ftz (86.59ft2)= g.g21r2 A, = (0.0095) . Use A, = 0.82 ft2. A, = 86.59- 0.82 = 85.11 ft2 10. Calculate the residencetime of eachphase: 0r. = (1.0 fI) (85.77 112115.10 ft3lmin = 16.8min lnr = (1.0 f0 (86.59 ftz)10.35 ft3lmin = 241.4 min 11. Calculate the height of the light liquid above the outlet, based on holdup: tlo = (5.10 ft3imin) (25 min)/85.77 ftz = 1.5 ft /1s = (5.10 + 0.35)(ft3/min)(5 min)i86.59 ft2 = 0.31 ft Use I/r = 0.5 ft. 12. Calculate d, according to Table 5: )"= Qrl(Qr + Q) = (5.10 + x 60) = + 0.35+ 165.32 0.35Y(5.10 0.0006 Use Eq. E6 (see box) to calculate pu = pLX+ pll - l.) = (54.55) (0.0006) + (0.6913) (l - 0.0006) = 0.730 Qu = 165.32+ (5.10 + 0.35)/60= 165.4I ft3/s Use Eq. E7 (seebox) to calculated* dN > 2l in.; use dt = 24 in. Calculate Ho'. Ho = 0.5 (10.5)= 5.25ft or Ho = 24 + 2412= 36 in. = 3.0 ft (minimum) Use 11, = 5.5 ft. From Figure 1, I1t = I ft and s = 0.5 ft. Calculate Ilur: Hsw='/,(2.0 f0 + 2 ft = 3 ft Set 11, = 0.5 ft. Final dimensions: D = 10.5 ft, HH= I.0 ft^ HL = 1.0 ft, Hn= 1.5 fr, Ho = 0.5 ft. HB.,= 3.0 ft, andHo = 5.5 ft. Add 1.5ft for the mist eliminator. Hr= l4'0 ft HID=14.0i10.5=1.3 Add 2 ft to H, (Hp = 2.0 ft, Ho = 7.0 f0 so that HlD = 1.52 (HlD shouldbe in the rangeof 1.5 to 6.0). Pr

gasknock-out drum F Fuel shutdown fuelgaslinebetween NLt andhighlevel ZO ft.ilug in theincoming drum G.Flare Knock-out 20to 30minto Hll (optionall: factors Multiply bythefollowing Personnel Experienced Trained Inexperienced Factor 1.0 1.2 1.5 Instrumentation WellInstrumented Instrumented Standard Poorlv Instrumented Factor 1.0 1.2 1.5

p,=##
l EquationE6

= 54.55 rbtft3 x 53.es . +ffi x62.It

=r.rrr, )'''
I EquationE7

Horizontaldesign procedure: no boot or weir


1. Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate, Qu, using Eq. 5.

34 .

1994. SEpTEMBER

pRocREss ENGTNEERTNG CHEMTCAL

2. Calculate the light and heavy liquid volumetric flow rates, Q' and using Eqs. 9 and 10. O711, 3. Calculate the vertical terminal velocity, Ur, using Eq. 4. (selecta K r alue from Table 2) and set Uu = 0.75Ur. 4. Select holdup and surge times t-romTable 6 and calculate the holdup and surgevolumes,V, atd Vr, (unless surgeis otherwisespecified,suchas a >lus volume): Vo= To Q, Vs=TsQr

Qrr=

I A ', - A ,A1 u , l\ L \ ' .

1 ?| q r

Q,,

17.If gHL< tLHor 0,-, < t", then increase the vessellength (liquid separationcontrols): velocity: Uw= Qr/Av
()L\

'=

-"{

trrQ*

tntQ,

e*'(h-Av-o*)

(18) (19)

12. Calculatethe minimum length required for vaporiliquid separation: Lum= UvlQ

(2s)

5. Obtain an UD from Table 7 and initially calculate the diameter accordingto:

(20)

Calculate the total cross-sectional


ilea:

A _ TED' 4

(2r)

6. Set the vapor space height, 11, , rhe larger of 0.2D or 2 ft; I ft if :.-,ereis no mist eliminator. Using 1 ,/D in Table 3, obtainAr/A, andcal--llate Au. 7. Set the heightsof the heavy and ;ht liquids, Hrrand Hr, 8. Find (AnL+ AL)lAr, using (I1", - fl -tlD inTable 3,andcalculateA* 9. Calculatethe minimum length to -- -,rmmodate the liquid holdup/surge:

13. If L 1 Lr,,,r, then set L = Lr,* (here, vapor/liquid separation controls). This simply results in some extra holdup and residence time. If I 11 Lr,*, then increase Hu and recalculate Au, and repeat, starting from Step 9. If L > L*n, the design is acceptable for vapor/liquid separation. If L )) Lr,,.,(liquid holdup controls). I can onlr,be reducedand l.rrr. increasedif H,, is reduced. F1, ma1' only be reducedif it is _ureater than the minimum specifiedin Step 6. (With reduced 11* recalculateAu and repeat the procedure from Step9.) Note: For this and other calculations, "much greater than" (>>) and "much less than" (<<) mean a variance of greater than 20Vo. 14. Calculate the settling velocities of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid phaseand the light liquid out of the heavyliquid phase,U". and U.o, using Eqs. 7 and 8 (find ft, from Thble 1). 15. Calculatethe settling times of the heavy liquid out of the light phase and the light liquid out of the heavy phase: tur= 12 (D - Hv- HH)IUHL (26) tro= 12 HHL/ULH

(30) 18. Calculate UD.If UD << 1.5, decrease D (unlessit is alreadyat its minimum), and if UD >> 6.0 then increase D; repeatfrom Step 5. 19. Calculate the thickness of the shell and headsaccording to Table 8. 20. Calculate surface area of the shell and headsaccordingto Table 8. 21.Calculate t h e a p p r o x i m a tv ee s sel weight accordingto Table 8. 22. Increaseor decreasethe vessel diameter by 6-in. increments and repeat the calculations :until the UD ratio ran-ees from 1.5-6.0. 23. Using the optimum vesselsize (minimum wei-eht). calculatethe normal and high liquid levels: Hau= D - H, Anrr= (Am+ Arr) + Vo/L

( 31 )
(32)

Obtain 11r.. using Table 3 with the value of A*ro/Ar.

Horizontaldesign procedure: heavy liquid boot


1. Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate, Q, using Eq. 5. 2. Calcrilate the light and heavy liquid volumetric flow rates, Q* and Q n r , p e rE q s . 9 a n d 1 0 . 3. Calculate the vertical terminal velocity, Ur, using Eq. 4 (the K value comes from Table 2) and set Uu = 0.15 Ur. 4. Select holdup and surge times from Table 6 and calculate the holdup and surge volumes, V, and Vr, from Eqs. 18 and 19 (unlesssurgeis other-

L _

r _

V, +V,
tr-Au_ (our*,4rr)
(22)

(21)

10. Calculate the liquid dropout -:a:


I = H,./L't | [. Q3)

16. Calculate the residencetimes of the light and heavy liquids: 0ur= AorLlQu,

(28)

Ca]culate the actual vapor

pRocREss. SEpTEMBER CHEMTcAL ENGTNEERTNG rgs+ . 35

?= :.:: :-= :-: -. ::

MULTIPHASE FLOW

,,,:
wise specified,such as slug volume). 5. Obtain UD from Table 7 and initially set the diameter according to:

/ l?\
s

I lt
14 F 7 E F F

Then calculate the total cross-sectional area,A, using Eq. 21. 6. Set the Yapor spaceheight, F1* to the larger of 0.2D or 2 ft (l ft if there is no mist eliminator). Using HutD in Table 3, obtainAv/Ar and calculate Au. 7. Set the light liquid heights in the vessel and boot, HrN and Hrrt. 8. Calculate the cross-sectional area of the light liquid above the bottom of the vessel,Ar., using Hrtt/D in Table 3. 9. Calculatethe minimum length to accommodatethe liquid holdup/surge:

Heads Dished

Approximate

'=(t+

"-

V., +V" o n
Ar-Au-ArN

(34)
the heavy liquid out of the light liquid phase: tm= 12 (Hrrn + D - H)IUHL Q5) 16. Calculate the residencetime of the light liquid: 19. Calculate the thickness of the shell and headsaccording to Table 8. 20. Calculate the surface area of the shell and headsaccording to Table 8. 21. Calculate the aPProximate weight of the shell and heads according to Table 8. the vessel 22.Increaseor decrease diameter by 6-in. increments and repeat the calculations until 1,/D rangesfrom 1.5-6.0. 23. With the optimum vessel size (minimum weight), calculate the normal and high liquid levels: Hnu= D - Hu Attrr= Arru + VrlL

\ :

10. Calculate the liquid droPout time, $, using Eq. 23. 1L. Calculate the actual vaPor velocity, Uuo,using Eq.24. 12. Calculate the minimum length required for liquid/vaporseparation. Lrr*, usingBq.25. 13. If L 1 Lr,*, then set L = Lr,* (vapor/liquid separation controls). This simply results in some extra holdup and residence time. If I 11Lr,*, then increaseH, and recalculateAr, thenrepeatfrom Step9.If L> Lr,*, the design is accePtable for vapor/liquid separation.If L >> LMrN, liquid holdup controls. I can only be reduced atd L*,* increased if I1u is reduced.Humay only be reducedif it is greater than the minimum specified in Step 6. With reduced Hu, recalailate A, and repeat from Step 9. 14. Calculate the settling velocity of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid phase, U"., using Eq. 7 (obtain ks from Table 1). 15. Calculate the settling time of

ou=

(,q,,e,)r eu

(36)

Note: This volume of light liquid ignores the light liquid volume in the boot. I7. If 1LL < to, then increase the convessellength (liquid separation trols):

(38)
(39)

(37)
Determine H*rrusingTable 3 from A*r/Ar. 24. Design the heavy liquid boot: Set the height of the heavY liquid, Hur; calculate the rising velocity of the light liquid out of the heavy liquid phase,Uru, using Eq. 8 (find ft, from

18. CalculateUD.If UD << 1.5 D (unlessit is already at then decrease a minimum) and if UD >> 6.0 then increaseD; rcpeatfrom SteP5.

36 .

. 1994 SEpTEMBER

PRocREss ENGINEERING cHEMICAL

Table 1); set U, - 0.15 ULHicalculate the heavy liquid boot diameter:

Then calculate the settling time of the light liquid out of the heavy liquid phase: ttr= l2Hu1/Us1

the light liquid comparlment using Eq. 44 or read it from Table 9. Htu= 0.5D + 1

tru= l2Hrx/Uro

(4e)

(4r)

(44)

Calculate the residencetime of the heavyliquid:

A -ndH* "ut 4en


If eHr < tru, then diameter.

(42) the boot

where D is in feet andHrrrin inches (round up to nearest in.). If D < 4.0 ft, then Hrm= 9 in. Using HoytD in Table 3, CalculateArrr. 8. Calculate the weir heisht: Hw=D-Hv

14. Calculate minimum I, to facilitate liquid-liquid separation as the larser of:

L1 =maxl:ff
\ nur

( t,,o-, trrQrr\ , A,, I

(50)

(4s)

Round to the nearest % ft. 15. Find l,: L= Lt+ Lz

Horizontaldesign prooedure: weir


1. Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate, Qu, using Eq. 5. 2. Calculate the light and heavl' liquid volumetric flow rates, Qu and per Eqs.9 and 10. Q11y.as 3. Calculate the vertical terminal vapor velocity, Ur, using Eq. 4 (find K tiom Table 2) and set Uv = 0.l5Ur. 4. Select holdup and surge times tiom Table 6, and calculatethe holdup and surge volumes, V, and V., from Eqs. 18 and 19 (unlesssurgeis otherir ise specified, suchas a slug volume). 5. Obtain UD from Table 7 and initially calculate the diameter accordingto:

If Hw< 2 ft, increase D, and repeat the calculations from Step 6. 9. Calculate the minimum length of the light liquid compartment to accommodate holdup/surge, 1,. in Figure 2 :

( s 1)

Vn+V, Ar- Ar.- AuL

(-+6)

Round to the nearest 7: ft. The minimum for Lr= d, + 12 in. 10. Set the interface at the height H,*12, obtaining the heights of the heavy and light liquids, Hrrand Hrr. 11. For the liquid settling compartment,calculatethe cross-sectional area of the heavy liquid, using Hr/D in Table 3 and calculate the cross-sectional areaof the light liquid from:

(43)

Arr=Ar- A,- A*

(4',7)

t. { ft
I u

Then calculatethe total cross-sectiona r e aA . . . u s i n gE q . 2 l . "l 6. Set the vapor spaceheight.Hu. ro the larger of 0.2D or 2 ft (1 ft if lhere is no mist eliminator). Using H../D in Table 3, obtainAu/A, and cal;ulateAu. 7. Calculatethe low liouid level

12. Calculate the settling velocity of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid phase,Uur, andthe light liquid out of the heavy liquid phase, U"r, using Eqs 7 and 8 (find ft, from Table 1). 13. Calculate the settling times of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid phase and the light liquid out of the heavy liquid phase: (48) tur= l2Hr1/U*

16. Calculate the liquid dropout time, Q, using Eq. 23. 17. Calculate the actual vapor velocity. U,,.,. using Eq.24. 18. Calculatethe minimum length required for vapor/fliquid separation, 1.,rr,.. using Eq. 25. 19. lf L ( Zr'.r- then set L = L*r (vapor/liquid separation controls). This simply results in some extra holdup and residence time. If L << Lr,*, then increase Hr, recalatlate A, and repeat the calculations from Step 6. If L > L*,r, the design is acceptable for vapor/liquid separation. If Z >> .Lrr, (liquid separation and holdup control), Z can only be reduced and Lr,* increased if Hv is reduced. //u may only be reduced if it is greater than the minimum specifledin Step 9. With reduced Hr, recalculate A, and repeat from Step 9. 20. Calculate UD.If UD << 1.5, then decrease D (unlessit is already at a minimum) and repeat from Step 6. If UD >> 6.0, then increase D and repeat from Step 5. 21. Calculatethe thicknessof the shell and headsaccording to Table 8. 22. Calculate the surface area of the shell and headsaccordins to Table 8.

pRoGREss . SEpTEMBER CHEMTCAL ENGTNEERTNG 1994. 37

MULTIPHASE FLOW

23. Calculate the approximate vessel weight according to Table 8. 24. Increase or decreasethe diameter by 6-in. incrementsand repeatthe calculations untiT UD ranges from 1.5-6.0. 25. With the optimum vessel size (minimum weight), calculate normal and high liquid levels: Hnu=D-H, Atrrr= Arrr+ V,1L, Obtain Hr' ANLL|Ar. (52) (53) 60 min for reflnery service,or 10-15 min for chemical-plant service. For feed drums, 0o. = amine regenerator 10-15 min. 5. Obtain UD from Table 7 and initially setthe diameteraccordingto:

there is no mist eliminator). Using Hr/D inTable 3, obtainAu/Arand calculateAu. 7. Calculatel,:

(o, +o-,e-,1 ,e,, -,'.''.]


f L l -

155)

Ar-4,

using Table 3 with

Horizontaldesign procedure: bucket and weir


1. Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate, Qu, using Eq. 5. 2. Calculate the light and heavy liquid volumetric flow rates, Q, and Qnr,perEqs.9 and 10. 3. Calculate the vertical terminal vapor velocity, Ur, using Eq. 4 (flnd K from Table 2) and set Uv= 0.75 Ur. 4. Select residencetimes for light and heavy liquids, 0r, and 0o.. For sour water stripper feed drums, 0o. =

,=(

+(e,,0,,re,,,O,,(s4)
0J0n(r1r)

Then calculatethe total cross-section. . u s i n gE q . 2 1. a l a r e aA 6. Set the vapor spaceheight, 11u, to the larger of 0.2D or 2 ft. (1 ft if

8. Calculate the liquid dropout time, Q, usingEq. 23. 9. Calculatethe actualvapor velocusingEq.24. Uuo, 10. Calculate the minimum length required for vapor/liquid separation, L*,r, using Eq. 25 . ll.If Ll 1 Lr,*, then set Lt = Luru (vapor/liquid separation controls). This simply results in some extra holdup and residencetime. lf Lt << LM,N,th.enincreaseIlr,. recalculateAu and repeat the calculations from Step 1. If Lt ) Lr,*, the design is acceptseparation. ablefor vapor/liquid 12. Calculatethe light liquid layer thicknessbased on the heavy liquid settlins out:

g,, =

235'ooolblh =343.5'7ft3/s 3.600s/hx 0.190lb/ff

Ur = 0' 175
I Equation811

I EquationE8

o,,=

45'ooorblh -=18.52ft'lmin 60min/hx 40.5lb/ft'


7'5oolb/h =2.y2ft'lmin 60 min/hx62.0lblfr'
tutQrt -

I Equation E9

I EquationE12

7 r . 8 0 " ' ' = 11'15 l1'0ft ft' use -, ,-- ( 4 r 2 xt.7 \0.6ru xr/i)

o-, =

4=ffi=14.54ft
- Equation813

I Equation810

A,,

2.0 min x2.02ft3hn1n=0.45ft

s.%ft

I Equation814

trrQo - 2.0 min x 18.52ft3lmin =2.41 ft


ALL

rs.02ff

I Equation E15

ff ls = 4.83ftls Q u = 343.51 rr ure= T 7r.08 te


I Equation816

38 .

1994. SEPTEMBER

PROGRESS ENGINEERING CHEMICAL

w,D,
tlni
proprengli

Nomenclbture

lne

"' :, = ;il;:: :T:1",,-*lllllJli, ==,1'l l: = :-i;iliill,1l11;1",, "'*ftJil],."',0,'o '7\ = 0,"0,",, "'"'.'" il,,l,l,1l;; l,'.;l:l
0 S = volumetric f i o w . f l r / so r l t r / m i n - vessem l llerialstress v a l u e .p s i I i g h ra n d h e a v yl i q u i d r

^-

liquid abor.e vessel bor-

ASu = 5psqif. gravity differenceberween

:#, ?:light

TC

TH

tut

of Western degrees in

= ressel diemeler. n "r'llu'

ttu

3' =llJli';,il r,. or microns


n t . .f r D , = r3prlr'Jisengageme d ia = t e f f i c i e n c yd . imension;::]o.oLoint -' 6 H = c f a \ i t a r i o n ac l o n s t a n tJ , 2 . 1 7f r , / s r = baffle liquid toad.gph/fr)

1s TH TS

= *' " iiii,r; i:i::';i'J' =;5.,ff::;l


o u t o l l i g h t I i q u i d 'm i n

rprels oul

0.00128e'(AsG)Dpr r-i6,

Y:,
vHL

= \ u r g et r m r .m i n . = a l l o r l a b l eb o r i z o r r n lv c l o c i t l . f r l s dropleis oLro r f l i g h r l i q u i d .i n . t m i n

= settlinq r e l o c i t vu f h e r v r l i o u i d

V,'

,.hereD" is in microns. 13. Calculate the differenc- rl :rsht betweenthe light and he;:,,., quid weirs: : i o. r _\H=H --\r r l l - X l Pu l 1 - 1D . e s i g nt h e l i g h t l i q u i d b u c k e r : ': the top of light liquid u eir'= D , ilssume t h e b o t t o n rr s a t 0 . 1 l 5 D l . . r t t i e a h o l d u p / s u r g e( t 1 , p r c a l l r . ' . -i min.); assume HLL is 6 in. , rrl the weir height andLLL is 6 in. i e the bottom of the bucket. . r,c Table 3 with HrrrlD and D. calculate Au' and Arr.r. -ulateL,:

= heighr. ft H.. = liquid level above baffle, in. or ft HB,. = liquid height from abor.ebaffle to H;, H. Hi: -. H,,; H,,H,.. H,,,u HP. Hs
g

u,., = r i s i n g v e l o c i t )o f l i g h r l i q u i d d r o p l e r s
Un Up f L o u t o f h e a v yl i q u i d ,i n . i m i n = mixture velocity, tVs = boot velocitr'.in.lmin = l c f r n i l r Jilg l 6 . i 1 _ 1 r i.. ' .c r i n . / r r i n = \ i - L p i \rre l . r c i t r .f L l :

leed nozzle.ft = disengagement height. fi = htrldupheisht. fi = t e i , s h tl r . . = l i ; . : : i : : : : : = : : : , z z : : .: ' ii li

a,

= ---

.-.-:.:.

:'

- - - :-- - : - - - . . ' - _ - . = :::::::::-::::, ::= heiSi:t:i,'::r iiir: fle. 11


= irrroe heiohr ri

= = = =

::-::

ailrdenaa time. min

::'.:::,i:. liquid ifaction l\:.:::\. !-P :::.:::.lbr'ft] :, :: j irLrloui time- s

nv H,,,

= totai vertical separaror height.ii = vapor disengagement areaheighi. ir = weir height. ft = h e i g h ld r f l e r e n c e b e l i i e e nl i g h i u n J heavy iiquid weirs. in. = Stokesl ' a u .t e r m i n a lr e l o c i r r c o n l

)lr'-:li. l';L ;JL: L, L; LLL 1/ .\ lI


r -:. I li.','i,l l-. ^l I - , ; i

lro + r,)9,,
(Ar,'r_ Arr,')

fts

(58)
K
L

srant. r P r i t l b / f rr r i n . / m i n )c = t e r m i n a lr e l o c i t yc o n s L a n f l. r,is = vessellengrh.ft = v a p o r , 4 i q u is de p a r a r i o m n irrrrnum

:.::: l;;iri,l ;evei i:i:i .;;iriti : , , . r , r q l i i i e re l

\ssume 1., is the largerof D/l2 l in. t 6 , Design the heavy liquid comrnt: Set the top of the heavy liq. - i r ' = D - H v - A 1 1 ;a s s u m e a (typically, 5-15 min); :r \Lrr_se : HLL is about 6 in. below the :r,ght and LLL is about 6 in. .h- bottomof the vessel. Using : v,trh Hrrr/D and Hr,,y/D, ca7i . ...andAr_r...
l : .

L*,*

;'':liilr,r-Hj
I _

',:a.tI

(r, + rr)9,,
lAorr- Arrr)

(5e)

- L L l . i t eL . , :

17. Calculate L = L, + Lr+ L. + L^. 18. Calculate UD.If UD << 1.5.

then decre aseD trndlepeatfi'onl Step 5 Ii UD >> 6.0. then increase D and repeat fi'om Step-5. 19. Calculatethe thickness of the shel1 and headsaccording to Table8. 20. Calculate tl're surf'acearea of

pRocnEss. sEpTEMBER cHEMTCAL ENGTNEERTNG 1994. 39

MULTIPHASE FLOW

w h e r eP : = d e s i gp nr e s s u r ae n dD = d r u m dia,

shell and headsaccordingto Table 8. 21. Calculate the approximate vessel weight according to Table 8. 22. Increase or decreasethe diameter by 6-in. incrementsand repeatthe calculations until UD ranges from t.5-6.0.

Example2
Design a three-phasehorizontal separatorwith a weir to separatethe mixture in Table 10. The operating pressure and temperature are 25 psig and 100, respectively, and it is necessary to have a liquid holdup and surge time of 15 min. 1. SeeEq. E8, box, p. 38 2. SeeEqs.E9 and E10, box, p. 38 3. K = 0.175 (the Gas Processors Suppliers'Associationvalue in Table 2 was divided by 2 since there is no mist eliminator). S e eE q . E 1 1 ,b o x , p . 3 8 Uv=0.75x2.55= 1.91 ftls 4. Holdup + surgeas specified= 15 min. Vu+ V, = (15 min) (18.52ft3lmin) = 211.80 ft3 Assume 10 min holdup, 5 min surge. 5. Assume UD = l.l . SeeEq. El2, box, p. 38 Ar=n/4 (11.0f|'z = 95.03ft2 6. Since the mass rate of vaoor is

about827o of theloading,setF1y to be much greaterthan the minimum. Assume Hv = 0.70D= (0.70)(1 1.0f0 = 7.70 ft. Using Table 3, Av/Ar = Av= 71.08 0.148, ft2 07 ) =I2.5in., 7 , H r r r =( 0 . 5 ) ( 1 1 . + use13in. Hrr/D = 13/(11.0 x 12)= 0.098 = 0.051 UsingTable3, ALLrj/Ar (0.051X95.03 Aur= fP) = 4.95112 - 1.10= 3.30ft 8. H, = 11.0 9. See Eq.El3, box,p. 38 Usel,r = 15.0 ft. = 1.65 10.HHL- Hrr= 3.3012 ft = 0.150 ll. HH//D= 1.65111.0 FromTable3, AH/A, = 0.094 Aur= (0.094X95.03 ft2)= 8.93ft2 - 71.08 - 8.93 = 15.02 Au=95.03 ftl 12.FromTable1, ks= 0.333 - 40.5)/0.24 = Uur= (0.333)(62.0 29.83 in./min Use 10in./min(maximum) - 40.5)10.682 = Uro= (0.333)(62.0 10.50 in./min Use 10in./min(maximum) 13, tHL = Q2 in./ft)(1.65ft)ilo in./min= 1.98min, use2.0mins tr, = tnr = 2.0 min 14. SeeEqs.E14 and E15. box, p .3 8 Uselr = 3.0ft. = 18.0 1 5 .L = 3 . 0+ 1 5 . 0 ft '7.10 16.0 = ftll.gI ftls = 4.03s 17.See Eq.El6, box.p. 38

1_ "-2xl7M
I Equation 817

55xI32

*l|rc= 0.307in.

! f8 11 ? ? - - * r , 1 = = , = 0 . - -x = . .8l= 'rH 60 . 4 9i5 n. - 0 . 1x 5 5 2x 17.50 x0 0.85


I EquationE18

18. LurN = (4.83 ftls)(4.03 s ) = 19.5fr 19. Since L 1 Lr,*, set -L = 19.5 ft (setZ, = 16.0ft, lr = 3.5 ft) 20. UD = 19.5/11.0= L78 21. Assume dished heads per Table11. AssumeE = 0.85 Use SA-516 70 carbon steel, design temperature= 650o S = 17,500psi; from Ref. (3). Corrosionallowance= Vrsin. P=25+30=55psig SeeEq. E17, box on this page. Use r, - 7s in. SeeEq. E18, box on this page. Use /" = Vz in; use t = Vzin. 2 2 . A s = ? I ( 1 1 . 0f 0 ( 1 9 . 5 f 0 = 673.81ftz = 101.88 Au= (0.842)(11.0fO'z ft2 23. SeeEq. E19, box on this page. 24. In this example, calculations were performed for only one diameter. However, nearly the minimum UD corcespondedto a diameter of 11.0 fU therefore. the next diameter should be smaller, resulting in a laryer UD. Also, calculationsshould be performed using a diameter of I 1 . 5f t . 25. For the light liquid compartment: Hnrr= Hw= 3'3 ft - 3 ft, 4 in' =.1 AxLr=4.85 + 185.20116 06 . 4 3 f P = 0.713 A*t/Ar= 16.43/95.03 = 0.229 Using Table 3, HNLrt/D = Htrrr= (0.229)(11.0) 2.52 ft - 2 ft, 6 in. HLLL= 13 in' Comment: Due to the small amount of heavy liquid and large amount of vapor, a better design would have used a boot. A vertical vessel should be comoared. as

we11.

I EquationE19

t = ff'ltff#(on.at
sEpTEMBER 1994.

rt2 +2x r0r.88 n')= ' 7.s20tb

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40 .

pRocnEss CHEMTCAL ENGTNEERTNG